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New Evidence on Absenteeism and Presenteeism

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Abstract

This paper provides a statistical method to explore both absenteeism and presenteeism from the same data set. It allows us to elicit the link between these phenomena and then to put under light new evidence on them. We clarified the effect of several known variables (gender, age, cost of absence, etc.). Moreover, we were able to balance these effects on both absenteeism and presenteeism, which still remains uneasy when operating separate treatments.

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... The high prevalence was corroborated by chief nurses who reported a presenteeism prevalence of 82.08% among nurses. Older age and more senior tenure are factors that represent significantly higher rates of presenteeism, which was consistent with the results of Bierla et al. (32) on age and that of Martinez and Ferreira (44) on tenure. Marital status was another demographic factor closely related to presenteeism. ...
... Conscientiousness is an important psychological trait that describes individual differences in the propensity to be self-controlled, responsible to others, hardworking, orderly, and rule abiding (31). However, previous studies have shown that highly responsible workers are more likely to be presenteeists (32). It is likely that individuals with a high degree of responsibility prefer to complete jobs by themselves rather than seek help from others (33); therefore, physical discomfort does not stop them from finishing their jobs. ...
... It is likely that individuals with a high degree of responsibility prefer to complete jobs by themselves rather than seek help from others (33); therefore, physical discomfort does not stop them from finishing their jobs. In addition, highly conscientious individuals tend to think more about how their absence could have a negative effect on them as individuals and the organization (32). For example, they believe that their absence might damage their image in leaders and result in difficulties in the scheduling of shift work for managers and the organization. ...
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Presenteeism refers to the behavior of people who turn up for work despite complaints of ill health that should prompt rest and absence from work. The high incidence of presenteeism in the nurse population has been extensively investigated using self-reported methods to explore its effects on individual outcomes. However, few studies have examined nurse presenteeism using an “other's” perspective to verify self-reported information. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the prevalence, consequences, and causes of presenteeism in Chinese nurses from the perspectives of nurses and chief nurses. A sample of 481 nurses and 282 chief nurses from five hospitals in Henan Province, China, took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Sickness Presenteeism Questionnaire, Social Productivity Loss Questionnaire, and Causes of Nurse Presenteeism Questionnaire. The human capital method was used to estimate the monetary loss because of nurse presenteeism. We found that 94.25 and 82.08% of nurses experienced presenteeism in the past 6 months from the perspective of nurses and chief nurses, respectively. The annual monetary loss was estimated to be ¥4.38 billion and ¥2.88 billion based on the presenteeism reports from nurses and chief nurses, respectively. Workload, leave system, and conscientiousness are the main reasons for nurse presenteeism, and financial need is another important reason that is likely overlooked by chief nurses. This study provides a foundation for future research by presenting new knowledge about the prevalence, consequences, and causes of presenteeism in Chinese nurses. The findings emphasize the need for nursing managers and nursing departments to establish policy systems around paid sick leave, workload, and communication with managers to reduce nurse presenteeism and the subsequent socio-economic financial losses.
... Category Authors Gender Personal Aronsson et al., 2000;Robertson et al., 2012;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013Age Personal Aronsson et al., 2000Robertson et al., 2012;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013 Family burden (children) Personal Aronsson et al., 2000;Johns, 2011;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013Financial circumstances Personal Aronsson et al., 2000Aronsson and Gustafsson, 2005;Bierla et al., 2013;Palo and Pati, 2013;Miraglia and Johns, 2016 Work-family conflicts Personal Hansen and Andersen, 2008;Johns, 2011;Robertson et al., 2012;Palo and Pati, 2013;Miraglia and Johns, 2016 Type of contract (temporary vs. permanent) ...
... Category Authors Gender Personal Aronsson et al., 2000;Robertson et al., 2012;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013Age Personal Aronsson et al., 2000Robertson et al., 2012;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013 Family burden (children) Personal Aronsson et al., 2000;Johns, 2011;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013Financial circumstances Personal Aronsson et al., 2000Aronsson and Gustafsson, 2005;Bierla et al., 2013;Palo and Pati, 2013;Miraglia and Johns, 2016 Work-family conflicts Personal Hansen and Andersen, 2008;Johns, 2011;Robertson et al., 2012;Palo and Pati, 2013;Miraglia and Johns, 2016 Type of contract (temporary vs. permanent) ...
... Category Authors Gender Personal Aronsson et al., 2000;Robertson et al., 2012;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013Age Personal Aronsson et al., 2000Robertson et al., 2012;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013 Family burden (children) Personal Aronsson et al., 2000;Johns, 2011;Bierla et al., 2013;Gosselin et al., 2013Financial circumstances Personal Aronsson et al., 2000Aronsson and Gustafsson, 2005;Bierla et al., 2013;Palo and Pati, 2013;Miraglia and Johns, 2016 Work-family conflicts Personal Hansen and Andersen, 2008;Johns, 2011;Robertson et al., 2012;Palo and Pati, 2013;Miraglia and Johns, 2016 Type of contract (temporary vs. permanent) ...
Article
Presenteeism takes place when an individual chooses to go to work even when he/she is ill and when resting at home is highly recommended. At the organisational level, this phenomenon reduces productivity and business competitiveness whilst at the individual level, presenteeism may aggravate one's illness, resulting in poor customer service and the spread of the disease to colleagues and/or clients. This work analyses the determining factors of presenteeism in the European hospitality sector, which is an important industry for the economies and labour markets of many countries. By using a sample of more than 2,000 employees from this industry (obtained from the latest edition of the European Working Conditions Survey), a logistic regression model is built to explain the individual, organisational and physical/mental health factors that promote presenteeism in this industry.
... For example, Ahn and Yelowitz (2016) find that respondents from the National Health Interview Survey report approximately three absences per year on average, and Peng et al. (2016) find that respondents in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey report an average of 3.5 absences per year. Bierla et al. (2013) and Garcia-Serrano and Malo (2014) find similarly low absence rates using European data sources. ...
... Workers with access to more sick leave may be more likely to miss work, even if their illness is less severe than someone without sick leave. A worker may choose to be absent rather than engage in presenteeism when the penalty for missing work is low, but the same worker may make a different choice once he or she has exhausted sick leave or faces other penalties for missing work (Bierla et al., 2013;Halbesleben et al., 2014). Recent evidence finds that increasing the generosity of short-term sick leave increases both the incidence and the duration of short-term absences (e.g., Hagglund, 2013;Henrekson & Persson, 2004;Johansson & Palme, 2002;Pettersson-Lidbom & Skogman Thoursie, 2013). ...
Article
Recent policy proposals for early intervention argue that health and workplace supports may be more effective if they are provided soon after the onset of a disabling condition, before an individual has completely stopped working. One challenge in developing effective early intervention programs, however, is identifying workers who may benefit from this type of assistance. Chronic absence from work or presenteeism (working while sick) could signal a worker has begun transitioning out of the labor force and may benefit from early intervention. We analyze the relationship between absences, presenteeism, and work outcomes using data from the American Working Conditions Survey. We find absences and productivity losses when working while sick are quite low on average, and absenteeism and presenteeism are highly positively correlated. We find no relationship between subsequent work outcomes and either absences or presenteeism except for individuals in the extreme right tail (95th percentile) of the absence distribution, who also engage in presenteeism. Those workers with extremely high absence rates and presenteeism have an 80% higher probability of labor force exit 3 years later. Our findings suggest that workers with many absences could be a useful group to target for early interventions and accommodations.
... The explanatory pitfall is addressed by many other definitions, and some of these definitions refer to physical conditions. For instance, Bierla, Huver, & Richard (2013) frame presenteeism as being unwillingly present in the workplace due to sickness. ...
... Absenteeism is another prominent related factor. Absenteeism is when a business member chooses to leave a job temporarily due to his or her own perception that the workplace and tasks are either stressful or unfair, despite being healthy (Bierla, Huver, & Richard, 2013), or when a worker chooses to leave temporarily simply due to being ill (Bergström, Bodin, Hagberg, Aronsson, & Josephson, 2009). Therefore, absenteeism for reasons other than illness implies the presence of psycho-social factors (Johns, 2010). ...
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The aim of this study is to capture and scrutinize the nature of managers' unwell-being through an original integrative research model in order to find out how this unwell-being is structured when the four prominent unwell-being factors, namely absenteeism, job alienation, job dissatisfaction, and presenteeism are accounted for. To enable generalizations at the national level, we contacted mid-level managers of the 500 largest businesses of Turkey. A professional consulting firm used our developed questionnaires to collect data from these managers. The two-phase research process pointed out that the model was realistic; there were indeed interactions among all the mentioned unwell-being factors. Further investigations revealed that the three of these factors (presenteeism, job alienation, and absenteeism) had strong and positive connections; whereas the fourth, job dissatisfaction, could pose very weak and negative interactions with the others. We believe that the integrative approach used is the unique contribution of this study as there are theoretical and practical gaps regarding the unwell-being research that consider an aggregation of multiple factors simultaneously.
... The individual factors leading to and Laukkanen, 2009;Johns, 2010;Martinez and Ferreira, 2011;Simpson, 1998), age and educational level (Agudelo-2005). The business factors leading to presenteeism were investigated in terms of being employed regularly or contractually (Bierla et al., 2013;Martinez and Ferreira, 2011), the hierarchical level in the organization (Bierla et al., 2013;Prater and Smith, 2011;Simpson, 1998), heavy work load (Biron et al., 2006), unhealthy working conditions and ineffective leadership (Edington and Schultz, 2008), supervisory support (Lu et al., 2013) and organizational support (Arslaner and Boylu, 2017). Its negative and Tuominen, 2011). ...
... The individual factors leading to and Laukkanen, 2009;Johns, 2010;Martinez and Ferreira, 2011;Simpson, 1998), age and educational level (Agudelo-2005). The business factors leading to presenteeism were investigated in terms of being employed regularly or contractually (Bierla et al., 2013;Martinez and Ferreira, 2011), the hierarchical level in the organization (Bierla et al., 2013;Prater and Smith, 2011;Simpson, 1998), heavy work load (Biron et al., 2006), unhealthy working conditions and ineffective leadership (Edington and Schultz, 2008), supervisory support (Lu et al., 2013) and organizational support (Arslaner and Boylu, 2017). Its negative and Tuominen, 2011). ...
Article
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Evaluating the human resources most effectively is crucially significant for the achievement of the enterprises. The productivity and achievement of the nurses who play important roles especially in the quality of health services are of great importance. One of the factors affecting productivity is the disease inherent in human beings. Continuation of the work despite the illness that negatively affects the productivity of the employee is called presenteeism and is examined in terms of organizational variables. The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationships among the presenteeism, climate of fear, perceived organizational support, and vigor. Data was collected from 418 nurses by survey and analyzed through Structural Equation Model. According to the results of the analysis, it was determined that climate of fear had positive effect and perceived organizational support had negative effect on presenteeism. Nevertheless, it was also determined that presenteeism and perceived organizational support positively affected the affectedness to vigor, and climate of fear affected negatively. It is determined that the effects of organizational factors on presenteeism are important and a model is revealed based on these results.
... As estimated by French scientists, the issue of absenteeism from the workplace has become a subject of active interdisciplinary studies in the field of economics, management, human resource management, medicine, and psychology (Bierla et al., 2013). They conducted a bibliographical analysis which showed that 310 articles dedicated to absenteeism have been published in 98 specialised journals since 1970, and in 1990-1999 and 2000-2009 their number increased thrice as compared to the initial year of the study. ...
... The family situation influencing the decision whether to go to work or not depends on the number of children. Family size positively correlates with absence from work, especially for women (Bierla et al., 2013). The value of women's absence from work is higher as compared to men. ...
... Businesses trying to provide competitive advantage by holding qualified labor force face with organizational problem "presenteeism." In spite of physical or mental problems, the employee refrains from absenteeism and physically present at work is explained by presenteeism concept (Bierla, Huver and Richard, 2013;Cullen and MCLaughlin, 2006). Continuance to work despite of the sick can be seen as an organisational citizenship behavior but literature defend total opposite of this. ...
... Continuance to work despite of the sick can be seen as an organisational citizenship behavior but literature defend total opposite of this. Because employee who works despite of the sickness fails to provide adequate performance, can affect customer satisfaction negatively and cause long-term costs for the business by giving more harm to his/her health (Ferreira and Martinez 2012;Bierla, Huver and Richard, 2013). It is likely that the person who needs to be treated or rest wear down himself/herself physiologically or psychologically by continuing to work and may have turnover intention in time. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between continuance commitment, presenteeism and turnover intention. This research was conducted using descriptive model. The sample of the study consisted of 407 employees in eight different five star hotels in Antalya region between May and July 2017. Survey technique was used as data collection technique in the research. The questionnaire form consists of four parts: Demographic variables are in the first chapter, “presenteeism” scale is in the second chapter, “continuance commitment” scale is in the third chapter, “turnover intention” scale is in the fourth chapter. The data obtained from the research were subjected to statistical analysis. These analyzes are frequency distribution, reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and simple linear regression analysis. As a result of regression analysis, it was determined that the level of continuance commitment of the employees had a weak positive effect on the dimension of the presenteeism's inability to avoid distraction. In addition, it was found that the level of inability to avoid distractions had a weak positive effect on the turnover intention.
... Absenteeism literature includes studies showing a positive relationship between chronological age and absenteeism (the older the more absenteeism; Badura et al., 2014;Bierla et al., 2013). ...
... Particularly, absenteeism researchers find mixed and even contradictory results for the relationship between chronological age and absenteeism (Harrison & Martocchio, 1998;Martocchio, 1989). While some researchers (Badura et al., 2014;Bierla et al., 2013) find a positive relationship between chronological age and absenteeism, several researchers show negative relationships (Johns & Al Hajj, 2016;Kristensen 70 et al., 2006;Nielsen, 2008) or even no relationship (Hackett, 1990). Meta-analyses on this issue ...
... This is called presenteeism, and it is a new research topic within the scope of the productivity of organizations. As it is difficult to analyze and determine, it did not arouse interest like other similar concepts, and organizations did not take this concept into consideration (Bierla, 2013(Bierla, , p.1536. However, the cost of presenteeism for the organizations is quite high. ...
... Employees who are experiencing physical or mental sickness and, therefore, should not go to work, go to work because they are afraid of losing their jobs or not achieving their career goals. This situation is called presenteeism (Bierla et al., 2013). ...
... Absence from work because of illness (sickness absenteeism) and presence in spite of illness that would warrant absence from work (sickness presenteeism) have received considerable research attention (Ruhle et al., 2020). Many researchers view these phenomena as connected (e.g., Caverley et al., 2007;Bierla et al., 2013;Deery et al., 2014;Garrow, 2016) not only because of their high statistical correlation (Johns, 2010), but also because both attendance behaviors relate to the employees' health (e.g., Demerouti et al., 2009;Hansen and Andersen, 2009;Janssens et al., 2013;Skagen and Collins, 2016). Further, they have a major economic impact for organizations due to reduced productivity (Collins et al., 2005;Iverson et al., 2010;Warren et al., 2011;Vanni et al., 2017) and disruption of work processes (Gosselin et al., 2013;Strömberg et al., 2017;Miraglia and Johns, 2021). ...
Article
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Due to their impact on various stakeholder groups, research on the global phenomena of sickness presenteeism (working despite illness) and sickness absenteeism (absence due to illness) is constantly growing. Most studies focus on identifying factors associated with the attendance behaviors. In contrast, there have been few theoretical approaches to explain the individual decision-making process for or against working while ill. Moreover, their empirical verification is still pending. In the present study, we refer to expectancy theory to theoretically explain how the decision is made. To empirically test the model predictions we applied experimental vignette methodology in an online survey with working adults. The hypotheses were confirmed in that the calculated and predicted decisions significantly matched the intentionally chosen decisions. The results contribute to a better theoretical understanding of the decision-making process and provide starting points for interventions to manage attendance behavior in organizations.
... Presenteeismde çalışanların işyerine gitmesi, devamsızlığın azalması olarak algılanmaktadır; ancak bu durum sadece işyerinde fiziki varlığı ifade etmektedir (Bierla, Huver & Richard, 2013). Presenteeismde bireyin düşük performansta çalışmasının yanı sıra diğer çalışanların da bu durumdan etkilenmesi söz konusudur ki bu durumun örgütsel sonuçları da bulunmaktadır, yapılan çalışmalarda presenteizmin işletmede neden olduğu verimlilik ve dolayısıyla maliyet kaybı konusunda kesin bir fikir birliği bulunmamaktadır ve presenteizmin maliyetinin devamsızlığa göre çok daha fazla olduğu ifade edilmektedir dolayısıyla işletmeler açısından çalışanın hastayken işe gelmesi yerine, devamsızlık yapmasının daha yararlı olacağı düşünülmektedir. ...
Chapter
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Araştırma, UNWTO (2019) verilerine göre Dünya’nın en çok turist alan ilk on ülkesinin destinasyon pazarlama sürecinde resmi web sitelerini gastronomi turizmi açısından değerlendirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman inceleme tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın kapsamını dünyanın en çok turist alan ilk on ülkesinin resmi web sitelerinde yer alan gastronomi turizmine yönelik pazarlama ve tanıtım çalışmaları oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda veriler, 1 Aralık 2020 ile 10 Ocak 2021 tarihleri arasında ilgili ülkelerin İngilizce dilindeki resmi turizm web sitelerinden metin, fotoğraf ve video şeklinde toplanmıştır. Elde edilen verilere içerik analizi uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları incelenen ülkelerin tamamının gastronomiyle ilgili bir sayfası veya kategorisi bulunduğunu, bazı ülkelerin ciddi eksiklikleri olmasına rağmen genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde dünyanın en çok turist ağırlayan ilk on ülkesinin destinasyon pazarlama sürecinde resmi web sitelerinde gastronomi turizmine yönelik tanıtım ve pazarlama çalışmaları yaptıklarını göstermektedir.
... As for the presenteeism"s causes, Bierla et al. (2012), Cooper et al. (2013) and Vieira (2018) stated two types of aspects that increase Presenteeism; organizational aspects and individual aspects. The first aspect includes insufficient work resources, time pressure, long working hours and/or weeks, not being promoted, fear of being replaced, job insecurity, lack of support from the supervisor or colleagues, and the workplace environment. ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate how the Presenteeism of hotel employees interact with job stress and emotional labor. Data were collected from 20 five star hotels in the Greater Cairo region in Egypt. A total of 335 surveys were collected and analyzed. The findings revealed that employees have a moderate level of Presenteeism, job stress, and emotional labor. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between job stress and emotional labor with Presenteeism. A significant positive correlation between job stress and emotional labor was also clarified. The study may deepen the understanding of the Presenteeism concept in a hotel context, as well as aid in diminishing harmful behaviors in hotel workplaces.
... Job responsibility was studied as an antecedent of attendance behavior as well. Past research revealed that employees with a higher hierarchical level show less absenteeism (Bierla et al., 2013) whereas more cooperation (Hansen & Andersen, 2008) and feelings of team-related social obligation (Grinyer & Singleton, 2000) increase presenteeism. We assume that such findings relate to perceptions of job responsibility as an underlying factor. ...
Article
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Presenteeism is problematic since it relates to lower health and productivity. Prior research examined many work and attitudinal variables relating to presenteeism at the individual level. Here, we conceptualize presenteeism as multilevel phenomenon also shaped by the overall attendance behavior (absenteeism and presenteeism) at the work unit. We surveyed employees at a manufacturing plant on presenteeism, health-related lost productive time (HLPT) and absenteeism ( N = 911, 22 units) and collected preceding (past 12–7 and 6 months) objective absence data aggregating it at unit level. Considering the individual-level antecedents only higher physical demands predicted higher absence duration. Presenteeism related positively to physical demands, a burdensome social environment, and organizational identification and negatively to ease of replacement, and core self-evaluations. These relationships were similar for HLPT as outcome. Regarding unit-level factors, preceding unit-level absence frequency (but not duration) negatively related to presenteeism. The negative relationship between core self-evaluations and individual presenteeism decreased under a stronger presenteeism context supporting the hypothesized cross-level effect of unit-level presenteeism context strength. Moreover, individual and unit-level presenteeism correlated, as expected, more strongly with health complaints than absenteeism. Our study demonstrates the value of a contextual, multilevel approach for understanding antecedents and consequences of attendance behavior.
... Similar results were obtained in our study. In terms of age variable, many studies on generational conflicts at work found that older employees avoided absenteeism as much as possible, while younger employees did not hesitate to get sick leave reports (Bierla et al., 2013). Results supporting both findings were obtained in our study. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to determine the effects of chronic diseases and socio-demographic factors on sickness absenteeism. Three models are to established to determine the degree of influence of chronic disease and socio-demographic variables on absenteeism. Binary Logit Regression analysis is used for the analysis of the models. Micro data set of “Turkish Statistical Institute” Health Survey in 2016 is used. Coronary chronic heart disease, stroke, back diseases, neck diseases, allergy, liver failure, kidney disease and depression were determined positively affecting absenteeism. According to the results of the study, chronic diseases and socio-demographic variables are found to be effective in sickness absenteeism.
... Similar results were obtained in our study. In terms of age variable, many studies on generational conflicts at work found that older employees avoided absenteeism as much as possible, while younger employees did not hesitate to get sick leave reports (Bierla et al., 2013). Results supporting both findings were obtained in our study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the effects of chronic diseases and socio-demographic factors on sickness absenteeism. Three models are established to determine the degree of influence of chronic disease and socio-demographic variables on absenteeism. Binary Logit Regression analysis is used for the analysis of the models. The micro data set of the "Turkish Statistical Institute" Health Survey in 2016 is used. Coronary chronic heart disease, stroke, back diseases, neck diseases, allergy, liver failure, kidney disease, and depression were determined positively affecting absenteeism. According to the results of the study, chronic diseases and socio-demographic variables are found to be effective in sickness absenteeism. Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı kronik hastalıkların ve sosyo-demografik faktörlerin işe devamsızlık üzerindeki etkilerini belirlemektir. Kronik hastalığa ait verilerin ve sosyo-demografik değişkenlerin devamsızlığı etkileme derecesini tespit etmek için üç model kurulmuştur. Modellerin analizinde Binary Logit Regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Analizde kullanılan değişkenler 2016 yılına ait "TÜİK Sağlık Araştırması" mikro veri setinden elde edilmiştir. Kişide kroner kalp hastalığının varlığı, inme-felç hastalığı, bel ve boyun bölgesi problemleri, alerji ve böbrek hastalığının işe devamsızlığı arttırdığı belirlenmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre kronik hastalıkların ve sosyo-demografik değişkenlerin hastalık devamsızlığında etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir.
... Absentismus, das Verhalten von Beschäftigten, sich im Fall gesundheitlicher Einschränkungen krank zu melden anstatt im Betrieb zu arbeiten, wird vor allem aufgrund seiner monetären Auswirkungen für die Arbeitgeber seit langem intensiv untersucht (z.B. Bierla et al., 2013;Goetzel et al., 2004). Hingegen ist das Forschungsfeld Präsentismus, häufig verstanden als Erscheinen am Arbeitsplatz trotz gesundheitlicher Einschränkungen, noch rela-tiv neu. ...
Article
Presenteeism often understood as working while ill is a global phenomenon that seems to occur inde-pendently of demographic and intercultural variables in all kinds of jobs. It is associated with person-al, job-related and organizational variables and it has shown to incur negative consequences primarily for the individual, i.e. in terms of health and performance, but also for the employer, i.e. productivity and consequently financial losses. Two major and to some extend competing definitions exist that determine the way of operationalizing or measuring the phenomenon. Theory is still scarce with con-tent models dominating. A process model referring to VIE-theory offers a promising approach to explain the decision-making process between attending work in spite of illness (i.e., presenteeism) and calling in sick (i.e., absenteeism).
... Kelimenin anlamı; var olma, hazır bulunma ve görünüş olarak ifade edilmektedir (Çiftçi, 2010). Lowe (2002); çalışanların fiziksel veya ruhsal rahatsızlıklar yaşamaları halinde işe gitmemeleri gerekirken mevcut işlerini kaybetme veya kariyerlerindeki hedeflerine ulaşamama korkusu gibi sebeplerden ötürü işe gitmeleri durumunu presenteizm kavramı ile açıklamaktadır (Bierla, Huver ve Richard, 2013). 1970'li yıllarda araştırmacılar presenteizm kavramı ile "absenteeism" kavramını aynı anlamda kullanmışlardır. ...
... As for the presenteeism"s causes, Bierla et al. (2012), Cooper et al. (2013) and Vieira (2018) stated two types of aspects that increase Presenteeism; organizational aspects and individual aspects. The first aspect includes insufficient work resources, time pressure, long working hours and/or weeks, not being promoted, fear of being replaced, job insecurity, lack of support from the supervisor or colleagues, and the workplace environment. ...
... La faiblesse de cette relation peut également trouver sa source dans le fait que l'autonomie est souvent un trait spécifique des emplois où le travailleur dispose de responsabilités importantes, de supervision par exemple. Ainsi, ces dernières incitent à la présence au travail, ne serait-ce que pour des raisons d'exemplarité (Bierla et al., 2013). Des analyses menées au Finlande et en Allemagne illustrent également que la qualité de la vie au travail, des relations avec les collèges, de l'aide ou du remplacement que le travailleur peut attendre de ceux-ci, le conduit à choisir l'absence plutôt que la présence en cas de maladie (Bockerman et al, 2010 ;Leineweber et al., 2011). ...
Research
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Le présentéisme au travail. Mieux évaluer pour mieux prévenir. C e e t - Centre d ' études de l ' emploi et du travail
... Presenteeismde çalışanların işyerine gitmesi, devamsızlığın azalması olarak algılanmaktadır; ancak bu durum sadece işyerinde fiziki varlığı ifade etmektedir (Bierla, Huver & Richard, 2013). Presenteeismde bireyin düşük performansta çalışmasının yanı sıra diğer çalışanların da bu durumdan etkilenmesi söz konusudur ki bu durumun örgütsel sonuçları da bulunmaktadır, yapılan çalışmalarda presenteizmin işletmede neden olduğu verimlilik ve dolayısıyla maliyet kaybı konusunda kesin bir fikir birliği bulunmamaktadır ve presenteizmin maliyetinin devamsızlığa göre çok daha fazla olduğu ifade edilmektedir dolayısıyla işletmeler açısından çalışanın hastayken işe gelmesi yerine, devamsızlık yapmasının daha yararlı olacağı düşünülmektedir. ...
... The reason for not taking sick leave was suggested to be related to feeling overly responsible for patients and colleagues (feeling guilty about their colleagues covering their absence). So, they are motivated to go to work due to team responsibility (Bierla et al., 2013), emotional attachment and sympathy to the patients (Tveten and Morken, 2015). Sickness absence data has generally been used as a measure of health status at workplaces (Black and Frost, 2011;Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2015). ...
Article
The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is very high amongmidwives resulting in sickness absenteeism, functional limitation and staff shortages. There are several contributory risk factors having impact on the development of MSDs. This study aimed to (1) explore midwives' experiences and views about work-related MSDs and contributing risk factors, and (2) analyse working postures for musculoskeletal injury risks. A mixed method approach was used with interviews/focus group (n = 15/7) and observations (n = 22) of specific tasks (during birth and after birth) using the posture analysis observational method (Rapid Entire Body Assessment, REBA). The participants were midwives who had an active role in the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Services (NHS). It was found that MSDs were often attributed to the physical (working in awkward positions), organisational (longer shift hours, fewer staff, increased work load), psychosocial (defensive practice, higher demand) challenges of midwifery. All postures had very high to medium REBA risk levels with action categories indicating that action or further assessment is definitely necessary to reduce MSDs. This research provides a holistic approach by analysing risk factors and interactions in the work context to inform the development of risk management strategies. Midwifery working conditions have a big impact on developing musculoskeletal symptoms. Management of such symptoms will improve staff wellbeing, mother and baby safety, individuals' life trajectories and staff shortages.
... Hansen and Andersen (2008) confirmed that job insecurity can lead to an increase in the frequency of employees' presenteeism behavior owing to the fear of job loss. Further, Bierla et al. (2013) showed a significantly positive correlation between job insecurity and presenteeism behavior because employees regard presenteeism as an effective strategy to reduce job insecurity, particularly when they believe that attending work despite an illness can highlight their loyalty and commitment to the organization and their commitment to work, which can ensure their job stability by structuring FIGURE 1 | The moderated mediation model. Presenteeism behavior mediates the relationship between job insecurity and emotional exhaustion, and the second half of the mediation path is moderated by supervisor support. ...
Article
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Presenteeism refers to attending work when one is ill, which not only leads to a decline in the physical and mental health of employees but also negatively impacts organizational productivity and increases an organization's extra costs. Therefore, to explore the antecedents and outcomes of nurses' presenteeism behavior and the acting mechanism among the variables, a sample of 330 nurses from China were investigated with the Sickness Presenteeism Questionnaire, Job Insecurity Scale, Perceived Supervisor Support Scale, and Emotional Exhaustion Scale. The results indicated that (1) job insecurity had a significantly predictive effect on nurses' presenteeism behavior; (2) nurses' presenteeism partially mediated the relationship between job insecurity and emotional exhaustion; and (3) supervisor support moderated the relationship between nurses' presenteeism behavior and emotional exhaustion; i.e., the higher the level of supervisor support, the weaker the positive relationship between nurses' presenteeism behavior and emotional exhaustion. The findings provide theoretical guidance and an empirical basis for prevention and intervention strategies concerning nurses' presenteeism behavior.
... Most of the older nurses might have been afraid that frequent absenteeism behavior might cause them to lose their jobs; thus, they often chose to force themselves to work even when they were ill (Johns, 2012). In spite of that, the older employees seemed to have formed a relatively negative moral perspective of the absence of work due to their long tenure of working experience; therefore, for reasons of organizational norms, they participated in presenteeism to avoid absenteeism (Bierla et al., 2013). Furthermore, to explain the higher scores of presenteeism of the married nurses than that of the unmarried, it may be that the married ones not only bear the heavy burden of family affairs and responsibilities, such as taking care of children, but they also have higher demands for financial security to support their families (Sasmita and Sneha, 2013). ...
Article
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Background: Seventy-four percent of Chinese employees have experienced working with illness, but limited number of researchers have paid attention on this phenomenon. Most of the previous research on presenteeism has almost exclusively focused on North America and Europe and have gone to the financial emphasis. The current researches have two shortages, which are laying in the consensus on the definition and measurement of presenteeism, as well as the mechanism of presenteeism and its outcomes have set barriers for scholars to generate deeper understanding of the behavior. The aim of the present study was to explore the current situation of presenteeism among Chinese nurses and the mediating effect of health and the moderating effect of general self-efficacy between presenteeism and productivity loss. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of 340 female nurses from a 3A-graded general hospital in Henan Province, China by using the Sickness Presenteeism Questionnaire (SPQ), the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6), the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results: The results indicated that the mean of SPQ was 3.2 ± 0.7 in this sample, and there were significant differences in age and marital status in SPQ scores. Presenteeism was significantly associated with health and productivity loss, and health was significantly associated with productivity loss, and general self-efficacy was negatively associated with productivity loss. A bootstrap test showed that health fully mediated the relationship between presenteeism and productivity loss in nurses. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed the moderating role of general self-efficacy between presenteeism and productivity loss. Conclusions: Presenteeism can significantly predict productivity loss in nurses, and hospital management can improve the physical and mental health of nurses and enhance their self-efficacy level to reduce the negative impact of presenteeism on productivity loss.
... Previous research has proven that organisations with effective wellness programmes have less absenteeism and presenteeism (Johns, 2010), and that such organisations perform better (Bierla et al., 2013;Braakman-Jansen et al., 2011;Gosselin et al., 2013;Robertson et al., 2015). The findings in this research provide support to those studies. ...
Article
Domestic and family violence is a prolific social issue in Australia, and takes the life of one woman each week. The current paper explores the idea that memory research can provide a theoretical and practical base when developing avenues to help those at risk. An overview of recent research on memory for repeated stressful events (such as incidents of domestic violence) indicates that while victims of multiple incidents may not provide as accurate and detailed accounts as victims of a single incident, the former are still able to remember the general experiences. Unfortunately, forgetting details and/or providing inconsistent statements can cause issues regarding how people perceive the truthfulness of the testimonies. This is particularly concerning because there is still a widely spread misconception that women are willing to lie about domestic violence incidents. Unfortunately, research to date suggests that there are no fail proof techniques to distinguish between truthful and deceptive accounts of repeated events. However, we may be able to increase the accuracy of accounts by encouraging victims to write contemporaneous notes shortly after each incident. Immediate recall has shown to increase accuracy of memory reports for repeated events. To improve quality of these notes, iWitnessed, a mobile phone application that uses guided recall with multimedia options, can be used. By increasing the accuracy and consequently credibility of testimonies of victims of repeated crimes, memory research can facilitate prosecution of domestic violence.
... While an increase in employees' professional responsibilities can reduce absenteeism, it can promote costlier presenteeism (Gosselin, Lemyre, & Corneil, 2013). Presenteeism can also be the result of an employee's desire to express organizational loyalty (Bierla, Huver, & Richard, 2013). That is a concern for the field of organizational leadership as the well-accepted style of transformational leadership, which can be thought to cultivate organizational loyalty, has been found to potentially have an adverse effect on vulnerable employees who are likely to engage in presenteeism, as well as to increase absenteeism among healthy employees in the long run, ultimately having a potentially negative effect on the group (Nielsen & Daniels, 2016). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to (a) address the problem of declining productivity in the workplace and (b) explore the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and employee performance in knowledge work. Employee engagement was the measure of performance, and nurses were the sample of knowledge workers. This study adds to the research on physical activity and to the research on engagement as indicators and measures of employee performance, as well as provides implications for practice and recommendations for future research. In addition, this study highlights the complexity of variables that must be expanded upon and considered in the quest for a better understanding of the relationship between physical activity and employee performance, as well as factors that must be considered for a sustainable approach to worker health and wellness.
... Previous research has proven that organisations with effective wellness programmes have less absenteeism and presenteeism (Johns, 2010), and that such organisations perform better (Bierla et al., 2013;Braakman-Jansen et al., 2011;Gosselin et al., 2013;Robertson et al., 2015). The findings in this research provide support to those studies. ...
Article
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Wellbeing, performance and productivity have been subject to academic scrutiny over a number of years. The capacity of individuals to work effectively under pressure and deal with set-backs and adversity is of great interest. This study is carried out in a provincial police force in the UK and examines and reports on the efficacy of a work-based personal resilience training programme that increases this capacity. According to the World Health Organization, stress is the ‘health epidemic of the 21st century.’ Policing is both customer-facing and high on emotional labour. The underlying hypothesis is that resilience training can have a positive impact on the dimensions affecting workplace stressors. In this study a perceptual map was developed using correspondence analysis. Correspondence analysis provides a visual relationship between the essentials and attributes, in this case position (rank/grade) within the police, and whether or not the respondents had undertaken resilience training. This paper models the results of a study of 350 responses. It provides evidence that the use of resilience training programs for improving employee resilience is effective in reducing workplace stressors by identifying and addressing the sources of stress, and by educating the workforce.
... In a similar way, work attendance behaviour is a function of internal and external pressures on resources, which may co-exist in presenteeism as they do in absenteeism (Løkke Nielsen, 2008;Prater and Smith, 2011). Individuals may work while ill because they find satisfaction in completing certain tasks, thus preserving meaningfulness or demonstrating commitment to the organization (Bierla et al., 2013). Yet, at the same time they may feel pressure from colleagues or organizational practices to attend work, regardless of the stage of the illness or impact on their health. ...
Article
The substantial health and financial costs of presenteeism are well-documented. Paradoxically, presenteeism also has a positive side, which has been largely overlooked. Emerging evidence shows that presenteeism can be a choice that offers a range of positive benefits to the ‘presentee’ (an employee who works through illness). In this conceptual article, we view presenteeism as purposeful and adaptive behaviour: a dynamic process that serves the purpose of balancing health constraints and performance demands in tandem. We propose a 2×2 framework of presenteeism (therapeutic, functional, overachieving, and dysfunctional) and suggest that the success of the presenteeism adaptation process depends on the availability of internal capacities and flexible work resources. When the workplace is supportive and provides adequate resources to aid adaptation, presenteeism can be a sustainable choice for maintaining performance under impaired health. We examine the role of resources for functional presenteeism by drawing on conservation of resources theory and self-determination theory. This framework can contribute to a better understanding of presenteeism by viewing it as an adaptive process, considering presentees as heterogeneous groups, and exploring the importance of internal and work resources for balancing health and performance demands. It sketches new avenues for research and practice and the effective management of presenteeism, health, and performance.
... The following parameters can be used to classify dependencies related to employee absence from work: first, age (younger employees are absent from work more often than older employees; the duration 806 of absence of older employees is longer as compared to younger employees), secondly, gender (as for the number of days, women are absent from work more often than men) (Bierla et al., 2013;Melsom & Mastekaasa, 2018); third, type of activity (public sector employees decide against work more often than employees in the private sector) (Mastekaasa, 2020); fourth, qualification (the higher the qualification is, the lower the value of absence from work is); fifth, responsibility (as for the resolution of production tasks, employees with low responsibility are absent from work more often than those with high personal responsibility for their functional duties); sixth, job compensation (production workers working on an hourly rate are absent from work more often than office workers receiving a fixed salary); seventh, nationality (foreign employees are absent from work more often than native employees); eighth, group size (a relatively small number of employees are responsible for a bigger share of absences from work); ninth, days of the week (Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays are relatively "quite", whereas on ...
... However, highly committed employees may be inspired to work longer hours, which inevitably takes its toll on them for both of their psychological and physical health (Schwartz & McCarthy, 2007). Research has shown that organisational commitment is associated with lower absenteeism, but that it is also related to higher levels of presenteeism and may lead to 'over-commitment' consequences (Caverley et al. 2007;Bergstrom et al., 2009;Johns, 2010;Bierla et al., 2013;Graf et al., 2015). It is understandable that committed employees may come to work despite being ill and sometimes if may force themselves to work harder; in turn, this may increase presenteeism instead of further productivity. ...
Thesis
Despite the promotion of various leadership styles based on leader-follower relationship, individual competencies, competition and goals, calls have been made for a leadership approach that is embedded in the often implicit notion of responsibility. Responsible Leadership (RL) highlights two fields of study: social responsibility and stakeholder leadership to achieve mutually beneficial business goals. RL presents an attractive and important integration of research on leadership and corporate social responsibility and offers the opportunity to provide significant advances in organisational studies. While much has been studied about social responsibility, less is known about the influence of RL on employee outcomes, such as presenteeism, organisational commitment and turnover intentions. Presenteeism is defined as attending work while being ill and unable to work, at least not at full capacity. Presenteeism costed the Australian economy $A34.1 billion (2.7% of the Gross Domestic Product) for 2009-2010 (Medibank, 2011). It is well recognised in both psychological and occupational-hazard studies but needs further exploration in the context of organisational leadership. Presenteeism indicates a substantial impact on employees’ productivity and imposes a significant economic burden both on businesses and national economies. This thesis proposes a structural model and examines the direct influence of RL on employee outcomes, including presenteeism, organisational commitment and turnover intentions. It also examines the mediating roles of both organisational commitment and employee turnover intentions on the relationship between RL and presenteeism. The proposed model was tested using a heterogeneous sample of employees from various Australian industry sectors. A web-based survey was mailed to 3500 employees and 323 responses were collected to confirm 200 complete responses. A total of 123 responses were incomplete and were therefore excluded from the findings, resulting in an overall response rate of 9.2%. Participants responded to scales measuring responsible leadership, presenteeism, organisational commitment and turnover intentions. Eight hypotheses were developed to examine the thesis aims. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results of SEM provided support for eight hypotheses. The significant findings of the study were threefold. First, RL behaviours were negatively and significantly related to both presenteeism and employee turnover intentions in workplaces among Australian employees. The results suggest that when employees perceive their leaders to be responsible, there is greater likelihood that employees will exhibit lower presenteeism and turnover intentions at work. Second, RL was also positively and significantly related to organisational commitment. This result suggest that RL has a significant and positive influence on employees’ emotional attachments to their organisations (affective commitment) and the individual personal values (normative commitment) than their costs of resigning, such as losing attractive benefits or seniority (continuance commitment). Third, the results support the hypotheses that organisational commitment and employee turnover intentions partially mediate the relationship between RL and presenteeism. The results suggest that both organisational commitment and employees’ turnover intentions reduce the total influence of RL on presenteeism. The findings of this thesis provide valuable insights by corroborating and extending theory and research in several ways. First, the study is one of the first reported studies to test the direct and indirect relationship between RL and presenteeism with an Australian sample. Second, it empirically tests an underexplored assumption of RL theory by examining the influence of RL on employee outcomes including organisational commitment, employee turnover intentions and presenteeism. Third, the proposed model in this thesis is one of the first to examine how and why RL influences presenteeism by integrating two mediators, organisational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Fourth, several implications for practice can be highlighted including designing employee training programs to promote RL skills among managers, recognising presenteeism, incorporating organisational strategies to recover losses from presenteeism, and encouraging managers to enhance organisational commitment and reduce employee turnover intentions in organisations. In conclusion, limitations of the study are presented along with recommendations for future research. Creation Date
... Presenteeismde çalışanların işyerine gitmesi, devamsızlığın azalması olarak algılanmaktadır; ancak bu durum sadece işyerinde fiziki varlığı ifade etmektedir (Bierla, Huver & Richard, 2013). Presenteeismde bireyin düşük performansta çalışmasının yanı sıra diğer çalışanların da bu durumdan etkilenmesi söz konusudur ki bu durumun örgütsel sonuçları da bulunmaktadır, yapılan çalışmalarda presenteizmin işletmede neden olduğu verimlilik ve dolayısıyla maliyet kaybı konusunda kesin bir fikir birliği bulunmamaktadır ve presenteizmin maliyetinin devamsızlığa göre çok daha fazla olduğu ifade edilmektedir dolayısıyla işletmeler açısından çalışanın hastayken işe gelmesi yerine, devamsızlık yapmasının daha yararlı olacağı düşünülmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, kültürel miras turizmi amacıyla kültürel miras alanlarını ziyaret eden turistlerin memnuniyeti ve hizmet kalitesi ile alanı tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmaktır. Bu amaçla, 2019 yılı Ağustos ayında Bergama kültürel miras alanlarını ziyarete gelen toplam 400 yerli ve yabancı turiste anket tekniği uygulanarak araştırmanın verileri elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada, turist memnuniyeti ve hizmet kalitesinin, turistlerin kültürel miras alanını tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti ile arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeye yönelik hipotezler geliştirilmiştir. Geliştirilen hipotezlerin analizinde iki yönlü ki-kare bağımsızlık testinden faydalanılmıştır. Çalışmanın bulguları değerlendirildiğinde, turistlerin harcadığı masraflara ve zamana göre memnuniyetin kültürel miras alanını tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti ile ilişkisi olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Diğer bir bulgu da hizmet kalitesi ile kültürel miras alanını tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti arasında ilişkinin bulunmasıdır. Sonuç olarak, turistlerin tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti ile istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişkisi bulunan turist memnuniyetinin ve hizmet kalitesinin sağlanması, turistik destinasyon olan kültürel miras alanlarının temel amaçlar arasında olmalıdır.
... Bazı çalışmalar genç yaşlarda devamsızlığın daha fazla görülebileceğine dikkat çekmektedir. Bunun nedeni olarak genç yaşlarda çocuk bakımı gibi ağır sorumlulukların olduğu, kıdemsiz çalışanların kıdemli çalışanlara göre iş doyumunun daha az olduğu, genç ve yaşlı kuşak arasında işe ve hastalığa bakış açısında farklılıklar bulunduğu ve yaş ilerledikçe devamsızlığa daha katı bir tutum ile yaklaşıldığı gibi nedenler gösterilmektedir (Bierla, Huver, & Richard, 2013;Løkke Nielsen, 2008;Ramsey, Punnett, & Greenidge, 2008). Cinsiyete göre erkek çalışanlarda yaş ilerledikçe işe devamsızlığın azaldığı fakat kadın çalışanlarda bu durumun geçerli olmadığını tespit eden araştırmalar da bulunmaktadır Bazı çalışmalarda ise, çalışanların yaşı ilerledikçe iş çevresinden kaynaklanan stres ve genel sağlık durumlarındaki bozulmalar nedeniyle işe devamsızlıklarında artış olduğu bulunmuştur (Şahin, 2011). ...
Article
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, kronik hastalıkların ve çeşitli demografik faktörlerin hastalığa bağlı işe gidilemeyen gün sayısını (işteki devamsızlığı) etkileme derecesini tespit etmektir. 2016 "TÜİK Sağlık Araştırması" verileri ile üç model kurgulanmıştır. On üç kronik hastalığa ait verilerin ve sosyo demografik faktörlerin işe gidilemeyen gün sayısını etkileme derecesini tespit etmek için Kantil Regresyon analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kroner kalp hastalığının, inme, karaciğer yetmezliği ve depresyonun araştırma kapsamında kurulan her üç modelde devamsızlığı etkileyen kronik hastalık grupları arasında olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bunun yanında ağrının hayatı engelleme durumu arttıkça devamsızlık süresinin arttığına yönelik ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Eğitim düzeylerinin orta kantil düzeylerinde devamsızlığı azaltıcı etkisi bulunmakta iken, gelir düzeylerindeki ve yaştaki artış orta ve üst kantillerde devamsızlığı arttırdığı görülmektedir. Yürüme değişkenin ise orta düzey kantilde devamsızlığı azaltıcı etkisi bulunduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Çalışma şeklinin yarı zamanlı olmasının da devamsızlığı azalttığı belirlenmiştir (p<0,05). Çalışma sonuçlarına göre, kronik hastalıkların doğrudan maliyetler yanında hastalığa bağlı iş günü kayıplarıyla da dolaylı maliyetleri arttırdığı tespit edilmiştir. Karar vericiler özellikle işe bağlı devamsızlığı azaltmak için kroner kalp hastalığı, inme, depresyon ve karaciğer yetmezliği hastalıklarını önleme çalışmalarına öncelik vermelidir. Ağrı yönetimi her sağlık kurumunda planlanmalıdır. Son olarak yürüyüşün hastalığa bağlı devamsızlığı azalttığı desteklenmelidir. Hareketli yaşam tarzını destekleyen sağlığı geliştirme programlarına politika yapıcılar tarafından kaynak aktarılmalıdır. Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the effects of chronic diseases and socio-demographic factors on the number of non-working days (absenteeism). In the analysis, the micro data set of the "Turkish Statistical Institute" Health Survey in 2016 is used and three models were established. The Quantile Regression analysis method was used to determine the data on thirteen chronic diseases and socio-demographic factors affecting the number of non-working days. It was determined that coronary heart disease, stroke, liver failure, and depression were among the chronic disease groups affecting absenteeism in all three models established within the scope of the research. In addition, the relationship between the middle and upper quantile levels was determined to increase the duration of absenteeism as the hindering life of pain increases. While education levels have the effect of decreasing absenteeism in the middle quantile levels, the increase in income levels and age seems to increase absenteeism in the middle and upper quantiles. It is understood that the walking variable has the effect of reducing absenteeism in the mid-level quantile. It is seen that the part-time working style has a negative and significant effect on absenteeism (p<0,05). According to the results of the study, it has been determined that chronic diseases increase the indirect costs with the work-related non-working days due to the disease as well as direct costs. Decision-makers should prioritize efforts to prevent coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, and liver failure, especially to reduce sickness absenteeism. Pain management should be planned in every health institution. Finally, walking should be supported since it reduces disease-related absenteeism. Resources should be transferred to health promotion programs that support a mobile lifestyle by policy makers.
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Depression and anxiety are costly for both employees and employers, in terms of direct medical costs as well as costs stemming from lost productive time and missed days at work. Resilience training has been shown to improve workplace functioning for employees, which suggests that it is a promising avenue for reducing some of these costs. However, existing resilience trainings are often conducted in-person, suffer from low levels of engagement, and are difficult to scale to large groups of employees. In the current study, we compared change in resilience over time among employees who were assigned to and used an online resilience intervention platform (Happify), employees who were assigned to and used a scaled-down psycho-educational version of the platform, and employees who did not use their assigned platform (i.e., a no-usage comparison group). We did this separately for users high in emotional distress (clinical levels of depression and/or anxiety) and users high in workplace distress (high levels of presenteeism and/or burnout). Across both samples, employees who used the Happify platform showed significantly greater increases in resilience over eight weeks than employees in the two other groups; the latter two comparison groups did not differ significantly from each other. These findings suggest that a technology-based resilience intervention, which employs a low-touch, cost-effective, easily scalable intervention format, can successfully improve resilience among vulnerable employee groups, which may have important benefits in workplace settings.
Article
The quasi-experimental study reported in the present article is aimed at increasing the understanding of the effects of long-term contract employees participating in wellness programs. The reported study examines the effect (if any) that a wellness program has on workplace stress, absenteeism, and presenteeism for long-term contract employees participating in a wellness program. A one group pretest-posttest design was used. Convenience sampling was conducted in a hospital in the New York City Metro area. Data was collected from 19 participants. Paired sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine if there was a significant statistical difference before and after a dance aerobic exercise intervention. The instruments used to gather data were the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the World Health Organization Health Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). The results indicated a statistical difference for workplace stress, but no statistical difference for absenteeism and presenteeism.
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Outbreaks of exotic animal disease, such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) are associated with social and psychological impacts amongst farmers. Whilst claims of similar impacts for endemic diseases have been made, there is little empirical evidence to justify these assertions. This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the social and psychological impacts of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Wales. Specifically, the paper focuses on farmers subjective well-being and presenteeism—their propensity to work suboptimally when suffering mental health problems. Results from longitudinal qualitative interviews with 16 beef and dairy farmers reveal how they derive satisfaction from their work and their emotional connection to animals, whilst the weather and red tape are most likely to affect their quality of life. Data from a postal survey (n = 582) using three measures of SWB, however, finds mixed evidence that animal disease is associated with farmer well-being. For all farmers surveyed, there were no significant differences in well-being between farms with and without bTB. For those farms in areas with high bTB prevalence, two of the three measures of subjective well-being showed lower levels of well-being for farmers with a history of bTB (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the paper discusses the policy and methodological implications for future studies of farmer well-being and animal disease.
Chapter
Presenteeism is expressed as being at work physically but not mentally. It is defined as the fact that employees are physically present in the workplace but do not fully perform the expected performance for various reasons, or that employees continue to come to work despite being sick. In the literature, presenteeism is predominantly associated with health, but also it is emphasized that individual, organizational, and environmental factors are also important for this problem. In this chapter, the causes of presenteeism were examined under three headings: individual, organizational, and environmental. In the tourism industry, presenteeism can lower productivity and business competitiveness and may cause guest dissatisfaction as a result of the service that cannot be provided correctly. Improvement practices such as leave of absence with pay when employees become ill, improvements in medication and treatment aids, paid leave on sick days, and flexible working hours will ensure the reduction of presenteeism.
Article
Presenteeism, attending work while ill, has an impact on organizations' productivity and employees’ health. Despite it being widespread, this global phenomenon is understudied in the tourism and hospitality (hereafter T&H) sector. In this study, we intend to explore the motives for presenteeism by reporting on its associations with work-related and non-work-related (individual attitudes and sociodemographic indicators) factors. Data were collected online among 1394 employees in the T&H sector. All the scales used in this study are adapted from the literature. The results show that for work-related factors, presenteeism is positively related to job demand, work-related depression, anxiety, and irritation, but negatively related to decision latitude and social (supervisor and coworker) support, salary perceptions, promotion perceptions, and job satisfaction. Regarding individual attitudes, work engagement decreases presenteeism whereas organizational citizenship behavior does not affect presenteeism. The effects of demographic indicators on presenteeism are limited to gender and the number of children at home. This study is one of the few studies that examine the associations of presenteeism with work-related and non-work-related factors in T&H organizations. It highlights the relevance of the job demands-control and job demands-resources model in explaining presenteeism among T&H employees.
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Objective: to analyze the occurrence of leave of absence due to depression among workers. Method: census, descriptive-analytical study, with retrospective collection. Population composed of 2,267 workers on leave due to depression with data from the Unified Benefits Information System. The independent variables were: sex, age group, income; county, origin, number of leaves of absence and type of benefit. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used and the chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were applied. The variables that presented a value of p≤0.20 were submitted to logistic regression. Results: there was a predominance of females, age ≥50 years, from the capital, with income of one to two minimum wages, urban origin and single removal. Single leaves of absence occurred mainly due to a mild depressive episode and the benefit granted to the significant majority was social security sickness benefit. Among those who were on leave of absence more than once, the main cause was recurrent depressive disorder, a current mild episode and, in terms of benefit, social security sickness benefit. There was a statistical association between total time and absence from work. In logistic regression, it was found that the time ≥60 days, was 3.1 times longer in recurrent depressive disorder. Conclusion: there were an expressive quantitative number of absences due to depression, in which it was observed, especially, that the absence time remained long.
Article
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Presenteeism which can cause various organizational problems particularly the loss of effectivity has affected the psychological and physiological health of the employee. On the other hand, the silence process which starts with the employee’s choice of not sharing the knowledge and ideas with various reasons such as fear of losing the job, fear of not fulfillment of career goals has been causing problems in the organizational aspect. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of hotel employees' perceptions of presenteeism on organizational silence. The sample of the study consists of 272 hotel employees. In the research, a questionnaire form was used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire consists of presenteeism scale, organizational silence scales and demographic questions. Data were collected from the snowball sampling method. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 21.0 programs. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation and structural equation model were used in the analysis of the data. According to the findings of the research, the perceptions of hotel business employees' presenteeism, significantly affect the acquiescent silence, protective silence and defensive silence.
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In this chapter we discuss suggestions for future research on presenteeism. In particular, we will share some ideas about potential avenues for future work that warrant further investigation. These avenues include the indirect relationship between poor health and burnout via presenteeism, the effects of different types of presenteeism on key work and health outcomes, the utility of the revised JD-R model to explain presenteeism and the link between presenteeism and safety behaviours (i.e., poor decision-making). Expected outcomes and potential barriers for each of the suggestions will also be considered. The chapter concludes by pointing out some other suggested areas of research such as the role of social and contextual factors in the determination of presenteeism.
Article
Presenteeism often understood as working while ill is a global phenomenon that seems to occur independently of demographic and intercultural variables in all kinds of jobs. It is associated with personal, job-related and organizational variables and it has shown to incur negative consequences primarily for the individual, i.e. in terms of health and performance, but also for the employer, i.e. productivity and consequently financial losses. Two major and to some extent competing definitions exist that determine the way of operationalizing or measuring the phenomenon. Theory is still scarce with content models dominating. A process model referring to VIE-theory offers a promising approach to explain the decision-making process between attending work in spite of illness (i.e., presenteeism) and calling in sick (i.e., absenteeism).
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Background: Small and medium sized enterprises are yet uncharted territory in terms of presenteeism. In addition, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models are proposed to predict stress-related health problems, but not for sickness behaviors such as presenteeism. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationships between psychosocial risk factors, presenteeism, mental and physical health in the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study also examines the moderating effect of company size on these associations. Methods: To test the association between psychosocial risks, presenteeism, and health, only people working in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of between 2 and 199 employees were included in the sample, giving a total of 2,525 SME employees surveyed. To test the differences in exposure to psychosocial risk and presenteeism, and the moderating impact of size on the relationship between psychosocial risks, presenteeism, and health, we took the original sample (4608) of the EQCOTESSTResults:The results confirm the associations between job demands, social support and effort-reward imbalance, and presenteeism. Also, the associations between presenteeism and health problems in SMEs' context. Multi-group analyses show that the business's size does not moderate the strength of the relationships between psychosocial risks, presenteeism and healthConclusion:The current study highlights that SMEs are somehow protected from certain psychosocial constraints such as high job demands, and low social support, but are more exposed to others such as effort-reward imbalance.
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This article presents an account of a young Roma man’s lived experience of working in the agricultural sector while sick, and shines a spotlight on the impact of precarious work, low pay and eligibility, and access to sick pay, with particular emphasis on Roma, and how these factors interconnect to foster presenteeism. The repercussions of presenteeism, relayed through Piotr’s personal narrative and reflections about his work, family role, ambition and daily survival, enrich public sociology about this under explored area of migrant Roma’s working life.
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The quasi-experimental study reported in the present article is aimed at increasing the understanding of the effects of long-term contract employees participating in wellness programs. The reported study examines the effect (if any) that a wellness program has on workplace stress, absenteeism, and presenteeism for long-term contract employees participating in a wellness program. A one group pretest-posttest design was used. Convenience sampling was conducted in a hospital in the New York City Metro area. Data was collected from 19 participants. Paired sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine if there was a significant statistical difference before and after a dance aerobic exercise intervention. The instruments used to gather data were the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the World Health Organization Health Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). The results indicated a statistical difference for workplace stress, but no statistical difference for absenteeism and presenteeism.
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We develop the Barmby et al. (1993) model of absenteeism (which appeared in the Scandanavian Journal of Economics) to illustrate the potential for individu-als to engage in 'presenteeism' viz. attending work even when they are entitled to paid absence.
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Prior research is limited in explaining absenteeism at the unit level and over time. We developed and tested a model of unit-level absenteeism using five waves of data collected over six years from 115 work units in a large state agency. Unit-level job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and local unemployment were modeled as time-varying predictors of absenteeism. Shared satisfaction and commitment interacted in predicting absenteeism but were not related to the rate of change in absenteeism over time. Unit-level satisfaction and commitment were more strongly related to absenteeism when units were located in areas with plentiful job alternatives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Sickness absenteeism has been a focus of the EU Labour Force Surveys since the early 1970s. In contrast, sickness presenteeism is a newcomer. Based on surveys, this concept emerged in the empirical literature as late as the 1990s. Knowledge of the determinants of sickness presenteeism is still relatively sparse. The article examines the prevalence of sickness presenteeism in comparison with sickness absenteeism, using survey data covering 725 Finnish union members in 2008. We estimate logit models. The predictor variables capture working-time arrangements and the rules at the workplace. We include control variables such as the sector of the economy and educational attainment. Controlling for worker characteristics, we find that sickness presenteeism is much more sensitive to working-time arrangements than sickness absenteeism is. Permanent full-time work, mismatch between desired and actual working hours, shift or period work and overlong working weeks increase sickness presenteeism. We also find an interesting trade-off between sickness categories: regular overtime decreases sickness absenteeism, but increases sickness presenteeism. Two work-related sickness categories, absenteeism and presenteeism, are counterparts. However, the explanations for their prevalence point to different factors.
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The study is an empirical investigation of sickness presenteeism in relation to occupation, irreplaceability, ill health, sickness absenteeism, personal income, and slimmed down organisation. Cross sectional design. Swedish workforce. The study group comprised a stratified subsample of 3801 employed persons working at the time of the survey, interviewed by telephone in conjunction with Statistics Sweden's labour market surveys of August and September 1997. The response rate was 87 per cent. A third of the persons in the total material reported that they had gone to work two or more times during the preceding year despite the feeling that, in the light of their perceived state of health, they should have taken sick leave. The highest presenteeism is largely to be found in the care and welfare and education sectors (nursing and midwifery professionals, registered nurses, nursing home aides, compulsory school teachers and preschool/primary educationalists. All these groups work in sectors that have faced personnel cutbacks during the 1990s). The risk ratio (odds ratio (OR)) for sickness presenteeism in the group that has to re-do work remaining after a period of absence through sickness is 2.29 (95% CI 1.79, 2.93). High proportions of persons with upper back/neck pain and fatigue/slightly depressed are among those with high presenteeism (p< 0.001). Occupational groups with high sickness presenteeism show high sickness absenteeism (rho = 0. 38; p<.01) and the hypothesis on level of pay and sickness presenteeism is also supported (rho = -0.22; p<0.01). Members of occupational groups whose everyday tasks are to provide care or welfare services, or teach or instruct, have a substantially increased risk of being at work when sick. The link between difficulties in replacement or finding a stand in and sickness presenteeism is confirmed by study results. The categories with high sickness presenteeism experience symptoms more often than those without presenteeism. The most common combination is low monthly income, high sickness absenteeism and high sickness presenteeism.
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Evidence about the total cost of health, absence, short-term disability, and productivity losses was synthesized for 10 health conditions. Cost estimates from a large medical/absence database were combined with findings from several published productivity surveys. Ranges of condition prevalence and associated absenteeism and presenteeism (on-the-job-productivity) losses were used to estimate condition-related costs. Based on average impairment and prevalence estimates, the overall economic burden of illness was highest for hypertension ($392 per eligible employee per year), heart disease ($368), depression and other mental illnesses ($348), and arthritis ($327). Presenteeism costs were higher than medical costs in most cases, and represented 18% to 60% of all costs for the 10 conditions. Caution is advised when interpreting any particular source of data, and the need for standardization in future research is noted.
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Sickness presence, that is, going to work despite judging one's current state of health as such that sick leave should be taken, was investigated in relation to different work and background factors. The study group comprised a random sample of 3136 persons who responded to a questionnaire administered in conjunction with Statistics Sweden's labor market survey. Logistic regressions were used in the analyses. Fifty-three percent reported the presence of sickness (on more than one occasion during the preceding year). Having a health problem is a strong determinant of sickness presenteeism (odds ratio = 3.32). For any given health status, there are certain other factors (personally and work-related demands) that impact on the risk of sickness presence, such as difficulties in staff replacement, time pressure, insufficient resources, and poor personal financial situation. The study has identified different types of determinants of sickness presence. Under the assumption that there is a connection between high sickness presence and risk for future ill health, the results may provide assistance in the formulation of preventive measures.
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The annual cost of absenteeism from the workplace in the UK has been estimated to be over 1% of GDP. The traditional approach to a discussion of absence has been for the firm to passively accept both wages and sick pay and allow workers to choose their absence behaviour. Most empirical research has been based on this approach. However, if absence is costly why should firms pay extra-statutory sick pay? One reason may be the phenomena of presenteeism (ill workers attending work). This may adversely affect productivity. This paper shows that allowing for presenteeism has important implications for both the design of optimal wage-sick pay contracts and for the interpretation of empirical studies. Specifically, we show that firms will offer a level of sick pay greater than the statutory minimum. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.
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This study examined the relationship between sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism, organizational outcomes and employee health. In particular, we wanted to investigate to what degree employees were substituting sickness presence for sickness absence. Three hypotheses were tested to formalize this 'substitution proposition'. We surveyed a Canadian public service organization which was involved in a large scale downsizing initiative. For this study, 237 Personnel Corporation (pseudonym used) employees responded to the survey, representing a 66 per cent response rate. Survey results indicated that, while the workforce was of average health, sickness absenteeism was less than half that of the national average. The difference could be accounted for by sickness presenteeism - the average number of days employees attended work while ill or injured was greater than the number of days of sickness absence. The pattern of results supported the notion that employees were substituting presenteeism for absenteeism. The frequency and type of self-reported health problems were highly similar for presenteeism and absenteeism. Work factors (e.g. job security, supervisor support and job satisfaction) tested were significantly correlated with presenteeism. Presenteeism appears to be a stronger predictor of health than absenteeism, suggesting that efforts to improve workplace health may have a more immediate impact on presenteeism than on absenteeism. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2007.
Article
This study investigates the determinants of absenteeism in a large Danish municipality. Based on a review of the literature on absence, an integrative model is developed combining the individual, the social psychological and the economic approaches. The model is tested on data from approximately 5,000 employees in 400 departments of day-care centres.1 The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence frequency and the department deputy head's observed absence frequency. There is also a positive relationship between the employees' absence frequency and the department manager's observed absence frequency, but the effect is lower and less significant. Furthermore the study shows a positive relationship between absence frequency and being a male deputy head. The contracted number of work hours also has a positive association to absence frequency, whereas demographic characteristics such as the department's standard deviation of age showed a negative association to absenteeism.
Article
Absence studies often pay little attention to institutional settings. This study of a large hospital looks at factors affecting absence, and worker attitudes to time off. It reveals a highly committed workforce, but one with low morale, deeply distrustful of a management initiating rapid changes.
Article
Unscheduled absenteeism is a costly and disruptive phenomenon that remains problematic for organizations. It is imperative that managers understand more fully the antecedents and consequences of this complex behaviour.This study aims to shed light on the issue by analysing the absence trends in a large public sector organization undergoing modernization and downsizing.It is argued that employer assumptions about the legitimacy of individual absenteeism will guide decision making with regard to appropriate absence management strategies.This study highlights the danger of falsely attributing individual-level causes of absenteeism to what may be better understood as a group-level phenomenon. This phenomenon represents a predictable response in the context of major organizational change. This research has implications for human resource management strategies in organizations experiencing rapid change.Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
An empirical study of the determinants of absenteeism in a large Danish bank is performed. The study is based on information from approx. 7,000 employees in 500 different units. Based on a review of the absence literature a model combining the psychological and economic approaches to absence studies is constructed. The model is based on hedonic theory and uses the frequency metric when measuring absence. The results of the empirical study show that there is indeed a significant negative relationship between job satisfaction and absence. Furthermore, the study shows that demographic variables for both employees and employers play an important role for the frequency of absence. One very interesting result is that the absenteeism for employees is very clearly related to observed absence by the unit manager.
Article
In this article, we analyze the determinants of individual absenteeism focusing on the strictness of employment protection and the generosity of sickness benefits. The data come from the European Survey on Working Conditions launched in 2000. Due to its coverage (the EU-14), the data enable us to identify the relative importance of the institutional framework for explaining differences in absence behavior across nations. Our results reveal that, first, employment protection does not influence the number of absence days while sickness benefits increase absenteeism. And, second, the impact of the institutional framework is smaller than that of some individual worker characteristics.
Article
This paper discusses the results from a survey on the gendered impact of organizational change and the implications for workloads and working hours. These results suggest that restructuring leads to increased workloads and that the pressure of long working hours is associated with male-dominated organizations. Restructuring is also associated with ‘presenteeism’ (the tendency to stay at work beyond the time needed for effective performance of the job) as fear of redundancy and uncertainty over promotion opportunities lead to a need to demonstrate visible commitment. Such presenteeism was found to be gendered: it is associated with a competitive masculine culture, it is seen by women as a form of ‘male resistance’ to their presence as managers and it imposes heavy costs on women as they attempt to meet the conflicting demands of work and home. This paper suggests that organizational restructuring can produce dysfunctional outcomes such as ‘competitive presenteeism’ (whereby managers compete over who stays longest in the office) and that such outcomes have important gender implications. It concludes that gender mix is a defining feature in how well women fit into the organization and how easily they accommodate to changes in organizational structures and managerial work.
Article
In the analysis of worker absenteeism, a number of studies have sought to quantify the effect of the remuneration contract on worker behaviour. The study discussed here uses daily panel data gathered from an industrial firm to analyse these effects. It is argued that in using the firm's administrative data rather than survey data the modelling of unobserved heterogeneity is of particular importance. This paper therefore employs a flexible bivariate form for the unobserved heterogeneity in a random effects model, and particular asymmetries are found in the effects of contracted hours and sick pay costs.
Article
This paper examines the relationships of job attitudes (facets of job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and personality characteristics to absenteeism, in five manufacturing companies in Barbados, an English-speaking Caribbean country. The relationships examined are based on well-established theories from the developed world, especially the USA. In addition, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance were measured. The results show that an employee's levels of satisfaction with co-workers, activity, responsibility, and job security, as well as loyalty to the organization, are related to absenteeism. These results are similar to those found in past research in the developed world. The most important single predictor of absence was satisfaction with co-workers. Respondents were moderate on individualism, high on uncertainty avoidance, and low on power distance. The cultural scores are used to help interpret the results. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of expanding the reach of an established theory, and relative to decreasing absenteeism in Barbados.
Article
Presenteeism refers to attending work while ill. Although it is a subject of intense interest to scholars in occupational medicine, relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept. This article traces the development of interest in presenteeism, considers its various conceptualizations, and explains how presenteeism is typically measured. Organizational and occupational correlates of attending work when ill are reviewed, as are medical correlates of resulting productivity loss. It is argued that presenteeism has important implications for organizational theory and practice, and a research agenda for organizational scholars is presented. Copyright copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Organizational Behavior is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
Employment protection systems are widely believed to generate distortions in firms' hiring and firing decisions. However, much less is known about the impact of these regulations on workers' behavior. In this paper we provide evidence on the latter question using data from a large Italian bank. Our analysis is based on weekly observations for 545 men and 313 females hired as white-collar workers between January 1993 and February 1995. These workers begin to be protected against firing only after the 12th week of tenure, and we observe them for one year. We show that-particularly for men-the number of days of absence per week increases significantly once employment protection is granted at the end of probation. This suggests that the provision of employment protection causes the increase in absenteeism. Alternative explanations based on career concerns or on learning about social norms would predict a smooth relationship between absenteeism and tenure instead of the observed discrete jump. This consequence of employment protection seems to have been neglected in European policy debates so far. (JEL: J2, D2, D8, M5) Copyright (c) 2005 by the European Economic Association.
Article
Absentee data is analyzed using a worker environmental survey carried out in 1995. In a model which distinguishes between discretionary and involuntary absences individuals are assumed to maximize expected utility. This generates a probability distribution of days absent per year which is a mixture of two negative binomial distributions representing the behaviour of two unknown types of agent. This distribution is estimated separately for men and women. For each gender the number of days absent is quite small relative to what researchers have found in other countries. In the empirical model we identify different effects of the explanatory variables for workers with low rates of absenteeism and workers with high rates of absenteeism.
Article
The aim of this study was to identify who is at risk for long-term sickness absence according to occupation, gender, education, age, business sector, agency size and ownership. The study is based on a sample of 5357 employees aged 18-69, interviewed in 2000. The cohort was followed up in a national register from January 1st 2001 to June 30th 2003, to identify cases with sickness absences that exceeded 8 weeks. During follow-up 486 persons (9.1%) experienced one or more periods of absence that exceeded 8 weeks. Higher risk of long-term sickness absence was associated with gender, age, educational level, and the municipal employment sector. Kindergarten teachers and people employed in day care, health care, janitorial work, food preparation, and unskilled workers were at greatest risk. Managers, computer professionals, technicians and designers, and professionals had lower risks. The health care and social service sectors were also in the high risk category, whereas the private administration sector had a lower risk. The study identifies specific occupational target populations and documents the need to perform job-specific research and tailor interventions if the intended policy of decreasing long-term sickness absence within the Danish labour market is to be realized.
Article
The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a broad range of possible factors relating to work, personal circumstances and attitudes towards sickness absence on a person's decision to go to work despite feeling ill, a phenomenon that has been termed sickness presence (SP), or 'presenteeism', in the literature. Using data from a random sample of 12,935 members from the core Danish work force the hypotheses were tested in a cross-sectional design utilising ordered logistic regression models. The results indicate that more than 70% of the core work force goes ill to work at least once during a 12-month period. This means that SP is just as prevalent a phenomenon as sickness absence. Many of the results from earlier studies of SP were replicated and new factors were discovered: for example time pressure (having a supervisory role and/or working more than 45 h per week) and relationship with colleagues (measured by working in a small company, having non-standard hours and degree of cooperation) both increase the likelihood of SP. However, personal circumstances and attitudes, e.g. treating work as home (cf. Hochschild's thesis) and being over-committed to work, were also found to lead to higher levels of SP. Finally, we found that those with a conservative attitude to absence were most likely to turn up ill at work. Overall, work-related factors seem to be slightly more important than personal circumstances or attitudes in determining people's 'decision' to go ill at work. However, the relatively low explanatory power of these combined factors suggests that there are still many unknowns in this field of research.
Article
This paper provides new evidence on the determinants of absenteeism. The authors extend the typical labor-leisure model used to analyze the decision to skip work to include firm-level policy variables relevant to the absenteeism decision and uncertainty about the cost of absenteeism. Estimates based on data from Statistics Canada’s Workplace Employee Survey (1999–2002), with controls for observed and unobserved demographic, job, and firm characteristics (including workplace practices), indicate that work arrangements were important determinants of absence. For example, the authors find strong evidence that standard weekday work hours, work-at-home options, and reduced workweeks were associated with reduced absence, whereas shift work and compressed work weeks were associated with increased absence.
  • Dionne G.