Article

Effects of different cooking methods on the vitamin C content of selected vegetables

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Abstract

Purpose Vegetables are rich in vitamin C, but most of them are commonly cooked before being consumed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three common cooking methods (i.e. steaming, microwaving, and boiling) on the vitamin C content of broccoli, spinach, and lettuce. Design/methodology/approach 100 g of homogeneous pieces of broccoli, spinach, and lettuce was separately processed for 5 minutes by steaming, microwaving, and boiling. A simple UV analytical method was employed to determine the vitamin C content of the vegetables. Findings Loss of vitamin C in broccoli, spinach, and lettuce during steaming was 14.3, 11.1, and 8.6 per cent, respectively, while the loss of vitamin C during boiling was 54.6, 50.5, and 40.4 per cent, respectively. During microwaving, loss of vitamin C in broccoli, spinach, and lettuce was 28.1, 25.5, and 21.2 per cent, respectively. Practical implications This study shows that any raw vegetable contains the highest content of vitamin C compared to that of cooked one. Eating raw vegetables is the best way to obtain vitamin C. Cooking methods (i.e. steaming, microwaving, and boiling) have huge impacts on the vitamin C content of vegetables. Steaming is the best cooking method for retaining the vitamin C content in vegetables. Originality/value This study evaluates for the first study the effects of three common cooking methods (i.e. steaming, microwaving, and boiling) on the vitamin C content of broccoli, spinach, and lettuce.

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... Whilst ascorbic acid is known to interfere with this assay [61], based on analyses conducted by others [61][62][63][64][65][66][67], the contributions of ascorbic acid to the GAE results are estimated to be 0.3% and 4% for grape skin and red cabbage extracts, respectively. These minimal contributions of ascorbic acid to the GAE results reflected the naturally low ascorbic acid content of grape skin [62], and the effects of microwave cooking [66] and ultrasonication [67] which reduced the ascorbic acid content of red cabbage during plant processing. Accordingly, the GAE results presented herein are considered accurate indicators of the total phenolic content of the two plant extracts. ...
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... In another study, blood lycophene levels increased 80% more when people consumed tomatoes fried in olive oil rather than without (Fielding et al., 2005). On the other hand, frying has been shown to significantly reduce the amount of Ascorbic acid in broccoli and red cabbage (Chuli, 2013 Cooking food improves digestion and increases absorption of many nutrients (Carmody and Wrangham, 2009). For example, protein in cooked eggs is 180% more digestible than in raw eggs (Evenepoel et al., 1998). ...
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... But it is different for vegetable ingredients, because mainly vitamins, phenols, and antioxidants has been changed during cooking. Taking vitamins as an example, for most vegetables, the main rule is that the cooking method using water or steam as a heating medium is more conducive to the retention of vitamins than the cooking method of oil frying (Yuan et al., 2009;Zeng, 2013). Different cooking methods have a great influence on the colour of various ingredients. ...
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With the rapid development of national economic level, people’s living standards have been greatly improved, leading to people’s higher attention to their daily diet. However, there are still a great number of people who have not realized the importance of healthy diet, which could result in many health problems such as under-nutrition or over-nutrition. The cooking process has a significant impact on food nutrition, thus a fast, convenient and healthy new cooking process has a great potential to be developed and applied in our daily life.
... This finding is in contrast with Ikanone and Oyekan (2014) who reported that boiled Irish potato and sweet potato lost more vitamin C than the fried samples. Meanwhile, previous studies showed that the steaming cooking method retained more vitamin C in potato tubers (Bembem and Sadana, 2013), and broccoli, spinach and lettuce (Zeng, 2013) compared to the boiling method. This probably due to vitamin C is a heatsensitive water-soluble nutrient as reported by Igwemmar et al. (2013). ...
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Vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand were analyzed for their vitamin C, tannin and total phytate (inositol penta- (IP5) and hexasphosphate (IP6)) contents. Three conventional household cooking methods, namely blanching, boiling and stir-frying, were used to evaluate the effects of cooking. IP5 and IP6 content were determined using ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography. Vitamin C and tannin content were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Vitamin C content for raw and cooked vegetables ranged from 0.5–83.6 to 0.2–70.8 mg/100 g, respectively. Stir-fried pagwanpa (Melientha suavis Pierre.), pagwanban (Sauropus andogynus (L) Merr.) and cowslip creeper flower (Telosma minor Craib) were excellent sources of vitamin C (64.4–70.8 mg/100 g). High tannin content was found in lead tree (“Yod-kratin”, Acacia farnesiana Willd.; 1353 and 679 mg/100 g tannic acid equivalent for raw and blanched sample, respectively), while neem tree (Azdirachta indica A. Juss) contained high phytate (52 and 38 mg/100 g for raw and blanched sample, respectively). Blanching, stir-frying and boiling caused a decrease in the total vitamin C, with losses from 14% to 95%, the greatest loss being found in boiled bitter cucumber (Monordica charantia Linn.) (95%), whereas retention of total phytate and tannin was around 58–79% for phytate and 44–93% for tannin. Although conventional boiling method was an effective method to reduce tannin and phytate content in vegetables, it also reduced the content of vitamin C.
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Purpose Lebanese meals rich in vitamin C are taken for granted to contain this vitamin without consideration of its losses during the cooking and storing processes. This paper aims to examine the impact of different cooking pots, refrigeration and conventional reheating or via microwaving (MWR) on vitamin C depletion. Design/methodology/approach Two samples of three meals rich in vitamin C (AB: Aadas Bhamoud made of lentils and Swiss chard; CS: cauliflower stew; ML: Meloukhieh made of Jew's mallow) were analyzed in triplicates when they were raw, cooked in double based stainless steel (DBSS) or pressure cookers (PCs), refrigerated at 4 ○ C for 48 h, and when reheated in an open pot or in a microwave reaching 70 ○ C. The titration with 2,6‐dichlorophenolindophenol method was used for vitamin C analysis. Findings Relative vitamin C losses throughout the processing stages were 37.64, 65.43 and 79.00 percent for ML, CS and AB, respectively. DBSS tended to deplete vitamin C less than PC. AB lost 34.4 and 49.2 percent vitamin C with DBSS and PC, respectively; CS lost 52.3 and 57.5 percent with DBSS and PC, respectively; and ML lost 16.3 and 27.4 percent with DBSS and PC, respectively. Vitamin C loss at refrigeration was significant for both cooking pots used for the meals AB and ML but not for CS. Reheating resulted in further significant losses across meals and reheating methods. Practical implications The study highlights the importance of avoiding unnecessary cooking practices to minimize vitamin C depletion and more accurately estimating its daily intake. Originality/value The study presents for the first time the quantification of vitamin C losses in Lebanese meals subjected to different processing types and stages.
Article
A UV method for the analysis of ascorbic acid with methanol as solvent to prepare a sample has been developed and applied. The effect of copper(II) concentrations on the oxidation of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution has been studied in detail, and the regularities of ascorbic acid oxidation in methanol, USP phosphate buffer (pH 2.50) and de-ionized water have been found. Upon experiments ascorbic acid has been found to dissolve in methanol, and its solubility in it has been measured to be 81.0mg/ml at room temperature (22 degrees C). The ascorbic acid bulk material from a manufacturer has been assayed to be 89.34% with this method, in good agreement with the assay value (89.58%) from the titration method. The ascorbic acid granule and tablet content uniformity also has been tested using this method. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and reliable, and can be adopted for the routine determination of ascorbic acid in its granule and tablet formulations.
Article
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three common cooking practices (i.e., boiling, steaming, and frying) on phytochemical contents (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, glucosinolates, and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant capacities (TAC), as measured by three different analytical assays [Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] and physicochemical parameters of three vegetables (carrots, courgettes, and broccoli). Water-cooking treatments better preserved the antioxidant compounds, particularly carotenoids, in all vegetables analyzed and ascorbic acid in carrots and courgettes. Steamed vegetables maintained a better texture quality than boiled ones, whereas boiled vegetables showed limited discoloration. Fried vegetables showed the lowest degree of softening, even though antioxidant compounds were less retained. An overall increase of TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP values was observed in all cooked vegetables, probably because of matrix softening and increased extractability of compounds, which could be partially converted into more antioxidant chemical species. Our findings defy the notion that processed vegetables offer lower nutritional quality and also suggest that for each vegetable a cooking method would be preferred to preserve the nutritional and physicochemical qualities.
Nutrition Optimization for Health and Longevity
  • H Zeng