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EFFECTS OF ORGANIC MANURES, CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND BIOFERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RAINFED POTATO IN THE EASTERN HIMALAYAS

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  • ICAR RC for NEH Region,Umiam,Meghalaya

Abstract and Figures

The experiment was conducted to study the influence of application of different proportions of farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and vermicompost (VC) in combination with inorganic fertilizers along with seed treatment with biofertilizers on growth and productivity of rainfed potato. The experiment was conducted in split-plot design with eight nutrient management treatments in main plots and three biofertilizers (Azotobactor, PSB and Azotobactor + PSB) treatments in subplots. Shoot number, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), dry mater accumulation, dry mater partitioning, tuber yield The results showed that fertility treatments increased tuber yield by 32–90% in 2005, 29–79% in 2006 and 32–80% in 2007 over control plots. The best treatment combination was with application of 50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and 50% RDN through PM along with combination of Azotobactor + PSB. The best treatment tuber yield were recorded 229.19, 238.12 and 240.07 q ha−1 in the year 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively.
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EFFECTS OF ORGANIC MANURES,
CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND
BIOFERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND
PRODUCTIVITY OF RAINFED POTATO IN
THE EASTERN HIMALAYAS
Manoj Kumar a , L. K. Baishya a , D. C. Ghosh b , M. Ghosh b , V. K.
Gupta a & Med Ram Verma c
a Central Potato Research Station (Indian Council of Agricultural
Research), Shillong, India
b Department of Agronomy, Soil Science, Agriculture. Engineering,
Plant Physiology and Animal Science, Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute
of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati, India
c Division of Livestock Economics, Statistics & Information
Technology, IVRI, Izatnagar, India
Accepted author version posted online: 13 Feb 2013.
To cite this article: Manoj Kumar , L. K. Baishya , D. C. Ghosh , M. Ghosh , V. K. Gupta & Med Ram
Verma (2013): EFFECTS OF ORGANIC MANURES, CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND BIOFERTILIZERS ON
GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RAINFED POTATO IN THE EASTERN HIMALAYAS, Journal of Plant
Nutrition, 36:7, 1065-1082
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Journal of Plant Nutrition, 36:1065–1082, 2013
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Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 0190-4167 print / 1532-4087 online
DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2013.770021
EFFECTS OF ORGANIC MANURES, CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS
AND BIOFERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY
OF RAINFED POTATO IN THE EASTERN HIMALAYAS
Manoj Kumar,1L. K. Baishya,1D. C. Ghosh,2M. Ghosh,2V. K. Gupta,1
and Med Ram Verma3
1Central Potato Research Station (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Shillong, India
2Department of Agronomy, Soil Science, Agriculture. Engineering, Plant Physiology and
Animal Science, Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati, India
3Division of Livestock Economics, Statistics & Information Technology, IVRI, Izatnagar,
India
2The experiment was conducted to study the influence of application of different proportions of
farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and vermicompost (VC) in combination with inor-
ganic fertilizers along with seed treatment with biofertilizers on growth and productivity of rainfed
potato. The experiment was conducted in split-plot design with eight nutrient management treat-
ments in main plots and three biofertilizers (Azotobactor, PSB and Azotobactor +PSB) treatments
in subplots. Shoot number, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), dry mater accumulation, dry mater
partitioning, tuber yield The results showed that fertility treatments increased tuber yield by 32–90%
in 2005, 29–79% in 2006 and 32–80% in 2007 over control plots. The best treatment combina-
tion was with application of 50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and 50% RDN through
PM along with combination of Azotobactor +PSB. The best treatment tuber yield were recorded
229.19, 238.12 and 240.07 q ha1in the year 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively.
Keywords: organic fertilizers, manures, potato
INTRODUCTION
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the major world food crops. The
contribution of potato in world food basket is only after rice, wheat and
maize. Potato gives an exceptionally high yield and also produces more edi-
ble energy and protein per unit area and time than many other crops. Potato
is an economical food and it provides a source of low cost energy to the hu-
man diet. It is the rich source of starch, vitamin C and B and minerals. It
Received 13 December 2010; accepted 2 August 2012.
Address correspondence to Manoj Kumar, Division of Agronomy; ICAR Research Complex for NEH
Region, Umiam-793103, Meghalaya, India. E-mail: mkumar cprs@yahoo.co.in
1065
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1066 M. Kumar et al.
contains 20.6% carbohydrates, 2.1% protein, 0.3% fat, 1.1% crude fiber and
0.9% ash. It also contains good amounts of essential amino acids like leucine,
tryptophane and isolucine (Paul Khurana and Naik, 2003). The impor-
tant potato growing countries are Russian Federation, Poland, USA, China,
India, Germany and Spain. In India, potato is cultivated in about 1.34 million
hectares with a total production of about 24.7 million tonnes (Mondal and
Sarkar, 2005). It is cultivated on a large scale in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal,
Bihar and Punjab. The North Eastern hill region of India covers 9% area of
the country with 4% of its population. In this region potato productivity is
very low (8.64 t ha1) except Tripura (17.3 t ha1) due to use of unscientific
production technology (Burman et al., 2007). Organic manures particularly
farm yard manure (FYM) and poultry manures (PM) have traditionally been
used by potato farmers of this region. Higher food production needs higher
amount of plant nutrients. Use of inorganic fertilizers has increased consid-
erably to meet the higher nutrient requirements of the present day improved
varieties. This creates imbalance in nutrient supply leading to decline in soil
fertility, crop productivity and sustainability. Use of organic matter to meet
the nutrient requirement of crops would be an inevitable practice in years to
come, particularly for resource poor farmers. Furthermore, ecological and
environment concerns over the increased and indiscriminate use of inor-
ganic fertilizers have made research on use of organic materials as a source
of nutrients very necessary (Upadhyaya et al., 2003). A number of diverse
organic sources are available for use in agriculture. Organic manures like
FYM, PM and vermicompost (VC) can play important role in potato pro-
ductivity. These sources can reduce the mining of soil nutrient and improve
soil organic matter, humus and overall soil productivity (Jenssen, 1993). Soil
organic matter acts as “cement” for water holding clay and soil particles
together, this contributing to the crumb structure of the soil providing resis-
tant against soil erosion, binds micronutrient metal ions in the soil to check
leaching out of surface soils. Organic constituents in the humic substances
also act as plant growth stimulants (Jenssen, 1993; Palm et al., 1993). The
soil in NE region in acidic in nature and low in available nitrogen (N), low
to very low in phosphorus (P) and medium in potassium (K). Most of P gets
fixed as Fe or Al phosphate in the soil. Application of P-solublizing bacteria
would help in increasing the efficiency of available P in the soil by converting
unavailable P into available form. Similarly, N fixing biofertilizers like Azo-
tobactor take the potential to meet a successful availability of N requirement
of potato (Giller and Cadisch, 1995). Biofertilizers are easy to apply, low-cost
in nature and eco-friendly. A judicious combination of organic manures,
inorganic fertilizers and biofertilizers might be helpful in obtaining high
potato productivity and good soil health for sustainability. Therefore, an in-
tegrated nutrient management (INM) in which organic manures, inorganic
fertilizers and biofertilizers are used simultaneously has been suggested as
the most effective method to maintain a healthy and sustainable soil system
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1067
while increasing crop productivity (Giller and Cadisch, 1995; Mondal and
Chettri, 1998). There is evidence from field research that high and sustain-
able yields are possible with integrated use of manures, inorganic fertilizers
and biofertilizers (Giller and Cadisch, 1995; Singh et al., 1999). Thus, there
is a lot of potential for use of organic manures and biofertilizers in the fertil-
izer schedule of potato to reduce total dependence on chemical fertilizers.
However, no such study was made in the Eastern Himalayas. Keeping the
idea in view and realizing the importance of the problem the present study
was undertaken to investigate the effect of integrated use of organic ma-
nures, inorganic fertilizers and biofertilizers on growth and productivity of
rainfed potato in Eastern Himalayas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A field experiment was conducted during the summer season (March to
July) of 2005 to 2007 at Central Potato Research Station (ICAR), Shillong,
Meghalaya, India (2602N latitude, and 8904E longitude and 900 m above
mean sea level). The soil at the experimental site was sandy loam with pH 5.3,
1.23% organic carbon, 178.5 kg available N ha1, 13.35 kg available P ha1,
and 195.1 kg available K ha1. The experiment was laid out in split-plot de-
sign with three replicates and conducted under rainfed condition. The main
plots (6.0 m wide and 11.0 m long) were treated with eight nutrient manage-
ment treatments [F1 =Control, F2 =100% recommended dose of Nitrogen
(RDN) through farm yard manure (FYM), F3 =100% RDN through poultry
manure (PM), F4 =100% RDN through vermicompost (VC), F5 =50%
RDF (RDN PK) through FYM +50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF)
through chemical (inorganic) fertilizers, F6 =50% RDN through PM +
50% RDF through chemical fertilizers, F7 =50% RDN through VC +50%
RDF through chemical fertilizers and F8 =100% RDF (120 kg N, 120 kg
P2O5 and 60 kg K2O/ha) through chemical fertilizers]. Three biofertilizer
treatments [Azotobactor, phosphate-solublizing bacteria (PSB), and Azoto-
bactor +PSB] were assigned to the subplots (3.0 m wide and 6.0 m long).
Well-decomposed farm yard manure (0.53% N, 0.29% P and 0.61% K) at 23
tha
1, poultry manure (1.52% N, 0.82% P and 0.87% K) at 8.0 t ha1and
vermicompost (1.20% N, 0.65% P and 0.80% K) at 10.0 t ha1collected from
a nearby farm was applied into the plots as per treatments and incorporated
by plowing ten days before final land preparation. FYM 23.0 t/ha, PM 8.0 t
ha1andVC10.0tha
1were used to supply 100% RDN (120 kg N ha1)
and FYM 11.5 t ha1,PM4.0tha
1and VC 5.0 t ha1were used for sup-
plying 50% RDN through organic manures. Half dose of nitrogen and full
dose of phosphorous and potassium were applied as per treatment as basal
dose before planting. The remaining half dose of nitrogen was applied at
earthing up.
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1068 M. Kumar et al.
Three solutions of biofertilizers (only Azotobactor,only PSB and com-
bination of Azotobactor +PSB) were prepared by dissolving half a kg each
of Azotobactor and PSB biofertilizers and combination of 250 g of each
biofertilizer in 40 liters of water separately. Jaggery slurry was prepared by
boiling 2 kg jaggery per liter of water. After cooling, one liter of jaggery
slurry was added to each solution of biofertilizer. Then potato seed tubers
were dipped in the biofertilizer solution for 30 minutes as per treatment
and dried in shade. The treated tubers were planted at 20 cm apart in
the furrows of 60 cm distance and covered immediately after planting. The
earthing up was done at 35 days after planting to provide loose soils around
the plants for better development of tubers at the stolon tips. Weeding was
also done during earthing up with the help of a small spade. Other than
late blight there were no major incidences of insect pests. Two sprayings
of dithane M-45 and one spraying of redomile were sprayed for control-
ling of late blight of potato. All the plants from net plot area (7.2 m2)
were harvested manually at maturity in bright sunny day. All the tubers were
dried and graded in shade and their weight and number were recorded as
grades A (50 g and above), B (30–50 g) and C (less than 30 g). The tu-
ber yield of different plots were estimated and converted into tonnes per
hectare. Plants samples were selected randomly to determine height of the
plants at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 DAP, number of branches per plant at 45
DAP and yield components at maturity. Three plants were harvested from
the earmarked area outside the net plot at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 DAP and
brought to the laboratory. The plants were separated into tubers, green
leaves and haulm and their dry weights were recorded after drying in a hot
airovenat75
C till constant weights were obtained to estimate leaf area
index, dry matter accumulation, dry matter partitioning, haulm growth rate
and tuber growth rate. All the data were statistically analyzed by standard
analysis of variance technique for a split plot design as suggested by Gomez
and Gomez (1984). Wherever treatment differences were found significant
based on results of F-test, critical differences were calculated at 5% level of
probability.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Plant Emergence
The plant emergence showed that emergence of potato plants did not
vary significantly among the different nutrient management practices and
biofertilizers used during all the three years under the study (Table 1). The
results indicated that nutrient management and biofertilizer did not have
much effect on emergence of potato plants. This was mainly due to the
fact that potato tubers had enough food to nourish the young sprouts for
emergence. Further, the effect of applied nutrients would only be estimated
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1069
TABL E 1 Effect of nutrient management and biofertilizers on sprouting of tubers and number
of shoots/plant
Sprouting percentage Number of branches plant1
Nutrient management 2005 2006 2007 2005 2006 2007
Control (no manures and
fertilizers)
93.391.791.71 3.30 3.01 3.27
100% RDNthrough FYM 93.592.194.52 3.98 3.86 4.14
100% RDN through
poultry manure
95.991.894.40 4.15 4.03 4.30
100% RDN through
vermicompost
95.292.595.50 4.12 3.91 4.22
50% RD through fertilizers
+50% RDN through
FYM
94.691.794.04 4.20 4.08 4.25
50% RD through fertilizers
+50% RDN through
poultry manure
94.491.494.65 4.43 4.30 4.50
50% RD through fertilizers
+50% RDN through
vermicompost
95.792.495.74 4.22 4.10 4.33
100% RD through
fertilizers
94.990.695
.75 4.05 4.00 4.23
SEm.(±)1.22 1.04 1.66 0.18 0.22 0.15
CD (0.05) NS NS NS 0.51 0.61 0.42
Biofertilizers
Azotobactor 94.391.67 94.22 3.94 3.80 4.10
Phosphate-solubilizing
bacteria (PSB)
94.891.67 94.54 4.01 3.84 4.12
Azotobactor +PSB 95.092.28 94.86 4.22 4.08 4.25
SEm.(±)0.45 0.39 0.41 0.12 0.15 0.11
C D (0.05) NS NS NS NS NS NS
CV(%) 5.85.05.312.114.810.9
RDN (recommend dose of N) =120 kg N ha1; RD (recommend dose) =120 kg N ha1, 120 kg
P2O5ha1and60kgK
2Oha
1, respectively; fertilizers =chemical fertilizers.
after their absorption through well established root system that came later
on.
Number of Branches per Plant
Number of branches per plant increased significantly over control due
to the nutrient management practices followed during three years (2005,
2006, and 2007). The highest number of main shoots per plant was found
in the treatments receiving 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers +50%
RDN through poultry manure (PM) but it was at par with all other nutrient
management practices except control during all the three years (Table 1).
The control plots recorded the lowest number of shoots per plant during all
the years. Use of biofertilizers did not exert any effect on shoot production in
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1070 M. Kumar et al.
potato plant. The interaction effect of nutrient management and biofertilizer
also failed to affect the branch per plant.
Plant Height
Application of 100% NPK through inorganic fertilizers recorded the
tallest plants throughout the growth stages (30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 DAP)
in 2005 (Figure 1a) and it was closely followed by the crop receiving 50%
RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and remaining 50% RDN through PM.
Both the treatments recorded significantly greater plant height over all other
nutrient management practices at all the growth stages during this year. But
FIGURE 1 Nutrient management and biofertilizers on plant height (cm) in A) 2005 and B) 2006.
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1071
in 2006, the tallest plants were recorded in plots having integrated use of
50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and remaining 50% RDN through
PM and was closely followed by the crop receiving combined use of 50% RDN
through inorganic fertilizers and remaining 50% RDN through FYM or VC;
but was significantly superior to all other nutrient management practices at
all the growth stages during 2006 (Figure 1b). Use of only organic sources
(100% RDN) of nutrients (FYM, VC and PM) recorded much less plant
height than those obtained with integrated use of 50% RDNPK through
inorganic and 50% RDN through organic sources at all the growth stages
during both the years. The crop of the control plots produced the dwarf
most plants which were significantly inferior to other treatments. The results
indicated that potato crop required high amount of nutrients for its proper
growth and 100% replacement of nutrients through organic sources was
unable to supply plant nutrients adequately keeping space with the require-
ment during its growth period. It might be due to slow mineralization rate of
organic matter under low temperature prevailing in Meghalaya hill region
at initial growth stages and high N requirement during the tuber bulking
period. Among the biofertilizers, maximum plant height was observed with
combination of Azotobactor +PSB and it was significantly superior to single
use of Azotobactor, but at par with those obtained with the application of
only phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) at all the growth stages during
both the years. This might be due to fact that combined application of both
biofertilizers enhanced the rate of mineralization of plant nutrients in soil
and thus helped in better nutrition of the crop that reflected in increasing
plant height (Mondal et al., 2005; Sarkar et al. 2007). The interaction effect
of nutrient management and biofertilizers on height of the potato plants
was found not significant at any of the growth stages during both the years
under study.
Leaf Area Index (LAI)
Integrated use of 50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and remain-
ing 50% RDN through PM recorded high values of LAI and was closely
followed by 50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers +50% RDN through
FYM or VC or100% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers at all the growth
stages of both the years (Figure 2). These treatments out-performed all
other fertility treatments in producing LAI of the crop. Use of only organic
manures (100% RDN) produced intermediate values of LAI which were
significantly higher over control (without any nutrient application). The re-
sults indicated that nutrient supply through only organic sources was not
adequate for a quick growing high fertilizer responsive crop like potato. The
high value of LAI throughout the growing period of potato was also noticed
by Nandekar et al. (2006) and Mondal et al. (2007) due to high level of bal-
anced nutrient application through both organic and chemical sources. Use
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1072 M. Kumar et al.
FIGURE 2 Nutrient management and biofertilizers on LAI in A) 2005 and B) 2006.
of biofertilizers also showed significant effect on increasing LAI of potato.
Combined application of Azotobactor +PSB produced maximum values
of LAI at all the growth stages during both the years and was significantly
greater than those of the crop receiving only Azotobactor treatment; but was
comparable to PSB treatment at all the growth stages during both the years
(Figure 2). Similar positive response of combined application of Azotobac-
tor and PSB on LAI was also noticed by Ghosh et al. (2000) and Nandekar
et al. (2006). Interaction effect of nutrient management and biofertilizer
on LAI was found significant at 60 DAP and 75 DAP during both the years.
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1073
Combined use of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers +50% RDN
through organic sources (FYM, VC or PM) in addition to seed treatment
with both biofertilizers (Azotobactor and PSB) out-performed other treat-
ment combinations in producing LAI at 60 DAP and 75 DAP during both
the years. Among them use of 50% NPK through chemical fertilizers +50%
RDN through poultry manure (PM) and seed treatment with both biofertil-
izers (Azotobactor and PSB) recorded the highest LAI during 60–75 DAP
(3.45–3.88 in 2005 and 3.47–3.91 in 2006) which was significantly superior to
that of others. The results clearly showed that organic manuring was essential
for enhancing the benefit of biofertilizer application.
Total Dry Matter Accumulation
Total dry weight (g plant1) increased steadily till 90 days after plant-
ing during both the years (Table 2). Application of 50% RDNPK through
inorganic fertilizers and 50% N through PM recorded maximum total dry
matter yield per plant which was significantly superior than other fertility
treatments at all the growth stages during both the years Combined use of
50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers +50% RDN through VC or FYM
also recorded significantly higher dry matter yield over those of the other
fertility treatments most of the growth stages during both the years except
at 45 and 60 DAP during 2005 (Table 2) when it recorded total dry matter
yield comparable to that of the crop having 100% RDNPK through chemical
fertilizers. Integrated use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers was
found to be essential for increasing dry matter accumulation in potato. Com-
bined application of Azotobactor and PSB recorded the highest dry matter
yield per plant at all the growth stages which was significantly greater than
those of the crop having only Azotobactor or PSB during both the years.
Performance of PSB was relatively better in comparison to Azotobactor in
improving dry matter yield of potato. The results are in conformity with the
findings of Kumar et al. (2001) and Indiresh et al. (2003). Interaction effect
of nutrient management and biofertilizers on total dry matter accumulation
in potato was found not significant during both the years.
Dry Matter Partitioning (%)
Dry matter partitioned into tubers increased steadily till 90 DAP during
2006 and till 75 DAP. The dry matter partitioning tended to decrease due to
use of inorganic fertilizers either at recommended dose or half of the rec-
ommended dose and remaining half dose through VC or PM as compare to
FYM at all the growth stages during both 2005 (Figure 3A) and 2006 (Figure
3B). Supply of 100% plant nutrients through organic sources recorded rel-
atively higher percent of dry matter partitioning into tubers than those with
inorganic fertilizers at most of the growth stages under the study. The crop
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1074 M. Kumar et al.
TABL E 2 Effect of nutrient management and biofertilizers on total dry weight at different stages
Total dry weight (g/plant) at different stages
2005 2006
Nutrient
management 45 DAP 60 DAP 75 DAP 90 DAP 45 DAP 60 DAP 75 DAP 90 DAP
Control (no
manures and
fertilizers)
5.5 8.35 10.27 12.46 5.49 6.85 10.26 11.87
100% RDN
through FYM
18.21 22.86 44.22 48.17 14.64 24.37 44.84 47.60
100% RDN through
poultry manure
22.25 29.52 51.94 57.98 18.53 29.98 51.94 56.80
100% RDN through
vermicompost
20.39 26.06 48.71 53.56 17.45 27.25 48.79 51.71
50% RD through
fertilizers +50%
RDN through
FYM
26.15 30.38 59.11 64.28 26.49 31.47 57.64 59.98
50% RD through
fertilizers +50%
RDN through
poultry manure
30.58 36.33 64.9 72.05 32.21 39.89 67.20 70.12
50% RD through
fertilizers +50%
RDN through
vermicompost
28.32 33.45 61.56 67.02 30.28 35.48 62.55 65.45
100% RD through
fertilizers
27.22 32.84 57.62 62.15 27.80 33.84 55.63 60.48
SEm(±) 0.71 0.83 0.94 0.86 0.60 0.65 0.73 0.69
C D (0.05) 2.12 2.45 2.85 2.61 1.81 1.96 2.14 2.62
Biofertilizer
Azotobactor 20.76 25.25 46.74 51.67 19.88 26.31 47.07 50.21
Phosphate-
solubilizing
bacteria (PSB)
22.17 27.42 49.88 54.82 21.27 28.69 49.78 53.02
Azotobactor +PSB 24.14 29.84 52.75 57.64 23.68 30.95 52.69 55.78
SEm(±) 0.42 0.47 0.55 0.48 0.35 0.39 0.44 0.45
C D (0.05) 1.22 1.30 1.61 1.39 1.05 1.17 1.28 1.31
C V (%) 10.4 9.8 6.7 5.1 9.1 7.0 6.1 5.7
RDN (recommend dose of N) =120 kg N ha1; RD (recommend dose) =120 kg N ha1, 120 kg
P2O5ha1, and 60 kg K2Oha
1, respectively; fertilizers =chemical fertilizers.
of the control plots recorded the lowest percent of dry matter partitioning
into tubers at all the growth stages during both the years. This was mainly
due to inadequate nutrition of the crop in control plots that showed very
poor performance. The results indicated the need of organic manuring for
improving dry matter partitioning into the potato tubers. Use of biofertilizer
did not show significant effect on increasing dry matter partitioning into
tubers at any of the growth stages during both the years. Interaction effect
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1075
FIGURE 3 Nutrient management and biofertilizers on dry matter partisioning (%) into tuber in A)
2005 and B) 2006.
of nutrient management and biofertilizers on dry matter partitioning was
also found to be not significant at all the growth stages during both the
years.
Yield Components
Number and Weight of Tubers per Plant
Number and weight of tubers per plant varied significantly among the
different nutrient management practices during all the three years of study.
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1076 M. Kumar et al.
Integrated use of 50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and 50% RDN
through organic sources (FYM, VC and PM) recorded significantly higher
number and weight of tubers per plant as compare to those at all other fer-
tility treatments except 100% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers during
all the three years (Table 3). Application of 100% RDN through organic
manures (FYM, PM and VC) came next in influencing the tuber bulking in
potato. Accordingly these treatments recorded significantly higher number
and weight of tubers per plant as compare to that of the control plots which
produced the lowest number and weight of tubers per plant during all the
years. The results emphasized the need of integrated use of 50% RDNPK
through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through organic sources (FYM,
TABL E 3 Effect of nutrient management and biofertilizers on yield components of potato
Number of
tubers/plant
Weight of tubers/plant
(g)
Avg. tuber weight
(g/tuber)
Nutrient management 2005 2006 2007 2005 2006 2007 2005 2006 2007
Control (No manures
and fertilizers)
7.17.47.3 165.9 157.4 156.71 23.37 21.27 21.47
100% RDNthrough
FYM
7.07.27.4 210.1 221.7 221.10 30.01 30.79 29.88
100% RDN through
poultry manure
7.37.57.6 225.5 233.9 239.77 30.84 31.19 31.05
100% RDN through
vermicompost
7.47.67.7 220.5 228.8 226.97 29.80 30.11 29.98
50% RD through
fertilizers +50%
RDN through FYM
8.38.28.0 274.2 285.5 288.06 33.04 34.82 36.01
50% RD through
fertilizers +50%
RDN through
poultry manure
8.88.68.5 289.0 298.7 296.93 32.89 34.73 34.93
50% RD through
fertilizers +50%
RDN through
vermicompost
8.48.58
.1 282.9 290.3 291.40 33.68 34.15 35.98
100% RD through
fertilizers
7.57.67.2 275.2 281.8 285.37 36.69 37.08 39.63
SEm(±)0.26 0.23 0.24 5.14 6.93 7.50 0.69 0.58 0.62
C D (0.05) 0.76 0.68 0.71 15.5 20.9 22.32.04 1.77 1.83
Biofertilizer
Azotobactor 7.67.67.2 175.6 240.5 240.09 23.11 31.64 33.33
Phosphate solubilizing
bacteria (PSB)
7.78.07.5 184.9 249.8 250.80 24.01 31.23 33.42
Azotobactor +PSB 7.87.97.6 189.8 258.9 261.44 24.33 32.77 34.44
SEm(±)0.15 0.18 0.16 3.18 3.10 3.73 0.41 0.35 0.34
C D (0.05) NS NS NS 9.1 9.0 10.41.20 1.02 1.00
CV(%) 6.86.57.06.47.8 8.36.25.15.5
RDN (recommend dose of N) =120 kg N ha1; RD (recommend dose) =120 kg N ha1, 120 kg
P2O5ha1, and 60 kg K2Oha
1, respectively; fertilizers =chemical fertilizers.
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1077
PM or VC) for enhancing tuber formation and tuber bulking in potato.
Favorable effect of integrated nutrient management through both chemical
fertilizers and organic manures on increasing tuber production and tuber
weight per plant was also noticed by Sood (2007) and Kumar et al. (2008).
Application of biofertilizer did not exert any effect on tuber formation but
it played an active role on influencing tuber bulking in potato during all the
three years under the study (Table 3). Combined application of Azotobactor
and PSB recorded the higher tuber weight per plant which was significantly
greater than those of the crop receiving only Azotobactor or PSB during
all the years. Seed treatment with PSB also showed superiority in increasing
tuber weight per plant over that of the crop having only Azotobactor treat-
ment. The results corroborate the findings of Singh (2002) and Nandekar
et al. (2006). Interaction effect of nutrient management and biofertilizer
on number and weight of tubers per plant was found not significant during
all the three years. Average tuber weight nutrient management practices
exerted significant effect on average weight per tuber during all the three
years of study. The highest average weight per tuber was obtained from the
crop receiving 100% N through PM and was closely followed by combined
use of 50% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and 50% RDN through
organic manures (FYM, PM or VC) and 100% RDNPK through inorganic
fertilizers. All these treatments recorded significantly higher average weight
per tuber than those obtained at other fertility treatments during all the
three years (Table 3). Control plots produced the lowest weight of tuber.
Use of biofertilizer exerted significant effect on influencing tuber bulking
in potato during all the three years under the study. Combined application
with Azotobactor +PSB recorded the higher average tuber weight which was
significantly greater than those of the crop having only Azotobactor or PSB
during all the years. Seed treatment with either Azotobactor or PSB did not
exert much beneficial effect on average tuber weight. Interaction effect of
nutrient management and biofertilizer on average weight of tuber was found
not significant during all the three years. The results are in agreement with
the findings Malik and Ghosh (2002) and Chadha et al. (2006).
Crop Productivity
Nutrient management exerted significant effect on grade wise tuber
yield of potato. The crop produced higher quantity of ‘B’ grade tubers than
those of grade ‘A’ and ‘C’ during all the three years of study. Integrated
use of 50% RDNPK (60 kg N, 60 kg P2O5and 30 kg K2Oha
1) through
chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through organic sources (FYM, PM, or
VC) or application of 100% RDNPK (120 kg N, 120 kg P2O5and60kgK
2O
ha1) through chemical fertilizers recorded higher tuber yield of all grades
(grade A, B and C) than those of the crop at other fertility treatments during
all the three years (Table 4). The highest tuber yield of different grades was
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TABL E 4 Effect of nutrient management and biofertilizers on grade-wise tuber yield (q ha1)ofpotato
Grade-wise tuber yield (q ha1)
2005 2006 2007
Nutrient management Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade A Grade B Grade C
Control (no manures and fertilizers) 16.98 54.85 34.16 16.05 49.83 30.55 15.99 49.37 31.01
100% RDNthrough FYM 38.24 84.56 33.68 40.61 90.37 31.52 43.08 92.64 30.97
100% RDN through poultry manure 40.62 88.97 35.04 45.85 94.98 29.64 46.20 95.17 29.46
100% RDN through vermicompost 39.42 87.17 34.34 42.81 92.43 31.19 44.04 93.73 30.99
50% RD through fertilizers +50% RDN through FYM 64.63 107.31 41.75 67.58 116.85 34.07 67.90 117.28 34.00
50% RD through fertilizers +50% RDN through poultry manure 66.27 112.83 42.66 70.75 121.61 36.14 72.40 123.88 35.46
50% RD through fertilizers +50% RDN through vermicompost 65.34 110.65 44.15 68.79 118.63 35.23 68.66 119.13 34.32
100% RD through fertilizers 65.87 108.30 42.24 69.48 120.25 34.08 70.33 121.75 33.70
SEm(±)0.97 1.93 0.82 1.12 2.01 0.78 1.82 2.73 0.85
C D (0.05) 2.94 5.81 2.45 3.36 6.07 2.35 5.09 7.65 2.54
Biofertilizer
Azotobactor 47.49 92.42 36.95 50.48 98.08 30.75 51.31 99.20 30.42
Phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) 48.68 93.30 38.47 52.05 99.20 31.69 53.16 101.03 32.40
Azotobactor +PSB 52.84 97.27 41.10 55.75 104.45 35.96 56.26 104.63 34.63
SEm(±)0.71 0.85 0.69 0.65 1.05 0.62 1.01 1.18 0.74
C D (0.05) 2.15 2.53 2.06 1.94 3.12 1.79 3.01 3.52 2.08
CV(%) 6.55.97.07.76.38.510.47.59.3
RDN (recommend dose of N) =120 kg N ha1; RD (recommend dose) =120 kg N ha1, 120 kg P2O5ha1, and 60 kg K2Oha
1, respectively; fertilizers =
chemical fertilizers.
1078
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1079
obtained with the application of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers
and 50% N through PM, but it was at par with those of the crop having
50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through FYM, VC
or 100% RDNPK through only chemical fertilizers. Combined use of 50%
RDNPK through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through organic sources
(FYM, PM, or VC) or 100% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers increased
tuber yield by 90.4, 43.5 and 16.8% of ‘A’ ‘B’ and ‘C’ grades respectively
over other treatments. Application of 100% RDN (120 kg N ha1) through
organic manures also enhanced the tuber yield of grade ‘A’ and ‘B’ over
that of the control plots during the years under study. But these treatments
produced ‘C’ grade tubers comparable to that of the control plots. The
results emphasized the need of integrated use of 50% RDNPK through
chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through organic sources (FYM, PM or
VC) for producing high yield of different grades tubers under Meghalaya hill
region. It further showed that supply of 100% nutrients through only organic
manures failed to produce high tuber yield under this situation. This might
be due to slow mineralization of plant nutrients under low temperature
condition prevailing in this region (Singh et al., 2007).Use of biofertilizer
showed significant effect on influencing yield of different grades tubers.
Seed treatment with both biofertilizers (Azotobactor and PSB) recorded
the highest tuber yield of different grades which was significantly greater
than those of the crop having either only Azotobactor or PSB treatment
during all the years under the study (Table 4). Seed treatment with PSB
tended to show some superiority over Azotobactor treatment in increasing
different grades tuber production during all the three years. Interaction
effect of nutrient management and biofertilizers was found not significant
in increasing different grades tuber production during all the three years.
Total tuber yield followed a trend similar to that of grade wise tuber
yield. Combined application of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers
and 50% N through organic sources (FYM, PM or VC) or 100% RDNPK
through chemical fertilizers recorded higher tuber yield which was signifi-
cantly greater than those of the crop at all other fertility treatments during
all the three years (Table 5). The highest tuber yield was obtained with the
use of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through PM,
but it was statistically on par with those obtained from the crop having 50%
NPK through inorganic fertilizers and 50% RDN through FYM or VC or
100% RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers during all the three years. Use
of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through organic
sources or 100% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers increased tuber yield
by 48.3, 50.0 and 49.1% in 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively over those of
the other treatments. Application of 100% RDN (120 kg N ha1) through
organic manures also enhanced the tuber yield over that of the control
plots. Higher LAI functioning over the tuber bulking period of the crop at
combined application of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers and 50%
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1080 M. Kumar et al.
TABL E 5 Effect of nutrient management and biofertilizers on total tuber yield
Total tuber yield (q ha1)
Nutrient management 2005 2006 2007 Pooled
Control (no manures and
fertilizers)
105.99 96.43 96.37 99.60
100% RDNthrough FYM 156.48 162.50 166.69 161.89
100% RDN through
poultry manure
164.63 170.47 170.83 168.64
100% RDN through
vermicompost
160.93 166.43 168.76 165.37
50% RD through fertilizers
+50% RDN through
FYM
213.69 218.50 219.18 217.12
50% RD through fertilizers
+50% RDN through
poultry manure
221.76 228.50 231.74 227.33
50% RD through fertilizers
+50% RDN through
vermicompost
220.14 222.65 222.11 221.63
100% RD through
fertilizers
216.41 223.81 225.78 222.00
SEm(±)5.34 5.38 5.23 4.22
C D (0.05) 16.05 16.15 15.63 12.65
Biofertilizer
Azotobactor 176.86 179.31 180.93 179.03
Phosphate-solubilizing
bacteria (PSB)
180.45 182.94 186.59 183.33
Azotobactor +PSB 191.21 196.16 195.52 194.30
SEm(±)2.68 2.92 2.96 1.98
C D (0.05) 8.03 8.76 8.85 5.92
CV(%) 7.78.18.3
RDN (recommend dose of N) =120 kg N ha1; RD (recommend dose) =120 kg N ha1, 120 kg
P2O5ha1and60kgK
2Oha
1, respectively; fertilizers =chemical fertilizers.
RDN through organic sources (FYM, PM or VC) or 100% RDNPK through
chemical fertilizers resulted in increased tuber dry matter production due to
higher tuber growth rate which ultimately increased tuber yield over those
of the other treatments during all the years. It emphasizes the need of inte-
grated use of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers and 50% N through
organic sources (FYM, PM or VC) for producing high tuber yield. It further
shows that supply of 100% RDN through only organic manures was not much
helpful in producing high tuber yield under this situation. Slow mineraliza-
tion of plant nutrients from organic matter under low temperature condition
prevailing in the north eastern hill region might be responsible for its inabil-
ity to produce high tuber yields due to inadequate crop nutrition. Biofer-
tilizer also exerted significant effect on increasing tuber yield of potato.
Seed treatment with both biofertilizers (Azotobactor and PSB) recorded
significantly higher tuber yield than those of the crop treated with only
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Effect of Fertilizers on Rainfed Potato 1081
Azotobactor or PSB during all the years. Seed treatment with PSB showed
some superiority over Azotobactor treatment in increasing tuber yield of
potato.
Interaction effect of fertility management and biofertilizer on tuber yield
of potato was found significant during all the years. The crop receiving 50%
NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through organic manures
(PM, FYM or VC) along with both biofertilizers (Azotobactor and PSB)
treatment recorded significantly higher tuber yield than all other treatment
combinations except 100% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers along with
both biofertilizers treatment during the all of the three years. Among the
above treatment combinations use of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertil-
izers and 50% RDN through poultry manure (PM) along with both biofer-
tilizers (Azotobactor and PSB) treatment recorded the highest tuber yield
which was significantly superior to all other treatment combinations during
all the three years. It recorded 12.2, 10.3 and 9.6% higher tuber yield in
2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively than what obtained with single biofertilizer
treatment along with integrated use of 50% RDNPK through chemical fer-
tilizers and 50% RDN through poultry manure. The greater effect of use of
both biofertilizers treatment (Azotobactor and PSB) along with integrated
use of 50% RDNPK through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through
poultry manure might be due to higher N fixation through Azotobactor in
addition to enhanced rate of P mineralization from organic matter by PSB
resulting in higher growth of the crop as reflected by increased LAI and
dry matter accumulation through haulm and tubers throughout the growth
period that ultimately led to higher tuber productivity (Nandekar et al.,
2006; Kumar et al., 2001). The biofertilizer treatments without manures and
fertilizers showed very poor performance on tuber productivity of potato
under the study. The results showed that biofertilizer required organic ma-
nuring for its early establishment necessary for exerting beneficial effect
on tuber productivity. The results corroborate the findings of Kumar et al.
(2001).
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors thank the Director, Central Potato Research Institute,
Shimla (H.P.) and Head, Central Potato Research Station, Shillong, Megha-
laya for providing the field and laboratory facilities for undertaking this
investigation.
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A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of year 2019-20 on potato with variety Kufri Ashoka to test the RDN levels (0, 100, 125%) with two organic manures (poultry manure and goat manure) at Research farm of Tirhut college of Agriculture Dholi, Muzaffarpur Bihar. The treatment combination were i.e. T1-control, T2-100% RDN through fertilizer, T3-125% RDN through fertilizer, T4-100% RDN through poultry manure, T5-100% RDN through goat manure, T6-50% RDN though fertilizer + 50% RDN through poultry manure, T7-50% RDN though fertilizer + 50% RDN through goat manure, T8-75% RDN through fertilizer + 25% RDN though poultry manure, T9-75% RDN through fertilizer + 25% RDN through goat manure, T10-100% RDN through fertilizer + 25% RDN through poultry manure, T11-100% RDN through fertilizer + 25% RDN through goat manure. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The experimental site was sandy loam in texture, calcareous and slight alkaline in reaction (pH 8.31), low in organic carbon (0.40%), available N (212.55kg/ha), P2O5 (19.35kg/ha) and K2O (118.12kg/ha), respectively. All growth and yield parameter like per cent emergence, plant height, Number of shoots per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry matter accumulation, and bulking rate of tubers, yield attributes and yield were significantly influenced by the levels of RDN along with combination of poultry manure and goat manure. Among all treatments treatment T10-100% RDN through fertilizer + 25% RDN through poultry manure recorded higher per cent emergence (96.19), plant height (48.11cm), number of shoots per plant (6.29), number of leaves per plant (57.49), dry matter accumulation (70.68 g/plant), bulking rate of tubers (9.10g/plant/day), and tuber yield (274.75q/ha), total uptake of N (106.41kg/ha), P (24.51kg/ha) and K (122.88kg/ha) by crop and available N (223.86kg/ha), P2O5 (27.81kg/ha) and K2O (135.14kg/ha) in soil after harvest of the crop which was statistically at par with treatments, T3 (267.83q/ha) and T11 (272.48q/ha) and these three treatments were found to be superior over rest of the treatment. In case of economic study, significantly higher B: C (3.30) was found under treatment T10-100% RDN through fertilizer + 25% RDN through poultry manure and was at par with treatments T3-125% RDN through fertilizer and T11-100% RDN through fertilizer + 25% through goat manure.
... (2019) indicated that adopting organic and bio-fertilizers rom a known source of nutrient as compensate of mineral fertilizers partial or total gave high productivity. Kumar et al. (2013) found that fertilizing of potato plant with 50% NPK fertilizers and 50% organic manures along with biofertilizers treatment recorded significantly higher tuber yield than all other treatments except 100% NPK chemical fertilizers along with biofertilizers treatment during three years. In contrast, Rajiv (2019) pointed out that adding recommended NPK fertilizer is essential for getting the highest potato yield and also organic fertilizers of different sources are the suitable alternative of chemical fertilizer with no significant decrease in yield. ...
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Abstract: The study was conducted during Autumn season of 2018 with three replications according to randomized completely block design (RCBD) with split-plot design by three fertilizing factors: NPK (0%, 50% and 100%), sheep manure add(0 and 4 Mg.ha-1) and licorice extract spraying (0, 2 and 4 g.L-1) to get acquainted their role in Potato growth and yield. Despite 50% reduction in NPK in treatment (50%NPK+ 4 Mg.ha-1 sheep manure + 4 g.L-1 licorice extract) the results showed excelled in plant height (55.95 cm), leaf area (21.77 dm2.plant-1), tuber weight (135.65 g.tuber-1) and tuber yield (782.4g.plant-1) compared with the treatment 100% NPK fertilizer alone. However, the treatment (100%NPK+ 4 Mg.ha-1 sheep manure + 4 g.L-1 licorice extract) gave the highest values of plant height (58.52 cm) leaf area(23.65 dm2.plant-1) and chlorophyll content (48.01 SPAD), tuber number (6.129) and tuber yield (832.0 g.plant-1) whereas the lowest values were in without fertilizer treatment (0%NPK+ 0 Mg.ha-1 sheep manure + 0 g.L-1 licorice extract).
... Namun, penggunaan pupuk kimia yang berlebihan membawa dampak negatif terhadap ekosistem pertanian. Pemakaiannya yang terus meningkat dari waktu ke waktu telah menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan suplai nutrisi, penurunan kesuburan tanah dan pencemaran lingkungan (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007; Kumar et al., 2013). Di samping itu, peningkatan input pupuk kimia yang mahal juga berarti menambah biaya produksi yang tidak sedikit (Simarmata, 2011). ...
... Thus, a group of scientists examined the effect of different rates of farmyard, poultry manure, and vermicompost applied together with inorganic fertilizers on the growth and productivity of rainfed potato. Their results showed higher tuber yields when poultry manure was combined with inorganic fertilizers (Kumar et al., 2013). ...
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The goal of the research is to determine the effect of pretreated poultry manure and irrigation on the yield and quality of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in fields located on the southern steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Field experiments were repeated every three years. During vegetation, potato leaves and tubers were studied at the full blossom, leaves’ decay, and potato harvest. The results showed that applying pretreated poultry manure at the rate of 120 t/ha favored higher tuber weight both on the rainfed and irrigated plots (from 0.23 to 0.82 kg/plant and from 0.24 to 1.02 kg/plant, respectively). On the rainfed and irrigated plots where poultry mature was not applied (control fields) the tubers’ weight ranged from 0.08 to 0.31 kg/plant and from 0.16 to 0.50 kg/plant, respectively. Upon application of 40 t/ha of manure, under irrigation, the highest marketable value of tubers was 78%. On the rainfed plots the same value was 72% when applying poultry manure at a dose of 120 t/ha. Soil moisture monitoring showed that the potatoes did not get adequate water during the growing season. When the soil moisture on irrigated plots was 70% less than its minimum water capacity, potato plantings were watered.
... Biofertilizer contains living microbes that colonize and promote plant growth by enhancing nutrient availability to the host plant [51]. The application of microbial biofertilizers to seeds or soils promotes the growth and yields of vegetable crops, such as bottlegourd [52], brinjal [53], broccoli [54], cabbage [55], carrot [56], chili [57], cucumber [58], lettuce [59], potato [60], onion [61], pumpkin [62], radish [63], and tomato [64]. The application of Bacillus strains improved growth under greenhouse/field conditions of several vegetable crops, such as broccoli, cucumber, lettuce, pepper, and tomato [65][66][67]. ...
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Vegetable cultivation is a promising economic activity, and vegetable consumption is important for human health due to the high nutritional content of vegetables. Vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and several phytochemical compounds. However, the production of vegetables is insufficient to meet the demand of the ever-increasing population. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) facilitate the growth and production of vegetable crops by acquiring nutrients, producing phytohormones, and protecting them from various detrimental effects. In this review, we highlight well-developed and cutting-edge findings focusing on the role of a PGPR-based bioinoculant formulation in enhancing vegetable crop production. We also discuss the role of PGPR in promoting vegetable crop growth and resisting the adverse effects arising from various abiotic (drought, salinity, heat, heavy metals) and biotic (fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and insect pests) stresses.
... [1,2] It is the world's fourth most important food crop after wheat, rice, and maize because of its great yield potential and high nutritive value. [3,4] Flowering behavior in potatoes shows a wide range of genetic variability [5] and is influenced by several factors such as genotype, temperature, photoperiod, inflorescence position, plant/stem density, competition between flower and tuber, precipitation, date of planting, and nutrient level [6][7][8] Increased flower production has been reported as a result of an increased number of inflorescence, [9] an increase in number of flower buds, [10,11] and reduced flower abortion. [10][11][12] It has been reported that the most important components in flower production are the stem production and flower primordial development and they are both highly dependent on the genotype and its interaction with temperature and photoperiod. ...
Article
The goal of this research is to determine the effect of poultry manure and irrigation on the yield and quality of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in fields located on the southern steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Before the poultry manure was added, it was treated with a microbiological fertilizer to suppress pathogenic microflora. Potato tubers were pretreated with an insectofungicide to avoid infestation. During vegetation, potato leaves and tubers were studied at the stage of the full blossom, leaves’ decay and potato harvest. The results showed tuber yields with the application of pretreated poultry manure to be 120 t/ha, both on the rainfed and irrigated plots (from 0.23 to 0.82 kg/plant and from 0.24 to 1.02 kg/plant, respectively). On the rainfed and irrigated plots where poultry manure was not applied (control fields), the tubers’ weight ranged from 0.08 to 0.31 kg/plant and from 0.16 to 0.5 kg/plant, respectively. Along with this, poultry manure utilization also affected the starch content of potatoes—it ranged from 12.9% (for irrigated plots with 80 t/ha poultry manure applied) to 19.2% (for rainfed plots without fertilizers). Laboratory analyses revealed that the nitrate content increased from 171.80 to 232.98 mg/kg on rainfed plots (depending on the introduced amount of poultry manure) and by 7.91%–15.19% on irrigated plots. Upon application of 40 t/ha of manure, under irrigation, the highest marketable value of tubers was 78%. On the rainfed plots, the same value was 72% when applying poultry manure at a dose of 120 t/ha.
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Localized agri-food systems (LAFS) are of particular interest in terms of the need to address the complex problems encompassed by the overall framework of local and territorial development in rural areas. In this regard, generation of capabilities by local companies within the sector and academia represent an option in terms of innovation, productivity and competitiveness. The objective of this research was to carry out an exploratory case study on LAFS, the local company and the generation of endogenous capabilities (technological and organizational). The case chosen was Biofábrica Siglo XXI, a producer of agricultural input products (biofertilizers and compost) needed to optimize agricultural productivity within LAFS. The main conclusions reflect a positive relationship between the local firm, endogenous capabilities and LAFS where such innovations can be used.
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A field experiment was conducted during autumn seasons of 2011 and 2012 at Central Potato Research Station , Shillong, to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on production of seed tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from true potato seed. There were 6 treatments of integrated nutrient management, viz. 100% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF 120 kg N +52.8 kg P + 50 kg K/ha), 75% RDF and 25% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through farmyard manure (FYM), 50% RDF and 50% RDN through FYM, 25% RDF and 75% RDN through FYM, 100% RDN through FYM and control (without application of fertilizer and manure). Integrated use of synthetic fertilizers and organic manures showed the significant impact on growth and yield attributes of potato. Highest average number (984.2 × 10 3
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Strategies for the enhancement and exploitation of biological nitrogen fixation are assessed with attention to the likely timescales for realization of benefits in agriculture. Benefits arising from breeding of legumes for N2-fixation and rhizobial strain selection have less potential to increase inputs of fixed N than alleviation of environmental stresses or changes in farming systems to include more legumes. Genetic engineering may result in substantial enhancement of N2-fixation, particularly if the ability to fix N2 is transferred to other crops but these are long-term goals. Immediate dramatic enhancements in inputs from N2-fixation are possible simply by implementation of existing technical knowledge. Apart from the unfortunate political and economic barriers to the use of agricultural inputs, better communication between researchers and farmers is required to ensure proper focus of research and development of appropriate technologies. Legumes must be considered within the context of the farming systems within which they are grown and not in isolation. Proper integration of legumes requires a good understanding of the role of the legume within the system and a better understanding of the relative contributions of N sources and of the fates of fixed N.
Article
A field experiment was conducted during 1991-93 to study the integrated nutrient management for high productivity and fertility building under rice (Oryza sativa L.)-based cropping system with special reference to sulphur through ammonium sulphate along with green manure in situ and farmyard manure to rice only. The results showed that maximum yield of rice (4.96 and 5.77 tonnes/ha in wet and dry season, respectively) was obtained in rainy season rice (Oryza sativa L.) - oat (Avena sativa L.) as fodder-winter season rice-cowpea (Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.) as green manure and rainy season rice-rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thumb.) as green manure winter-season rice-sorghum (Sorghum bicolar (L.) Moench) as fodder sequence where rainy and winter season rice were green manured with cowpea and rice-bean in addition to 50% of the recommended dose of NPK through urea, diammonium phosphate and muriate of potash (60, 17.6, 33.2, and 80, 26.4, 49.8 kg NPK/ha in rainy and winter season rice, respectively) + farmyard manure 10 tonnes/ha to rice only, which also gave maximum fodder or green matter yield of succeeding crop. With this fertilizer management treatment higher net return, net production value (2.92), agronomic efficacy, physiological efficiency and recovery fraction (RF) were recorded in the sequence where both rainy and winter season rice were grown after cowpea and rice bean as fodder. The uptake of nutrients (N,P,K and S) by the crops in sequence and nutrient status of soil were also improved where green manuring was done before transplanting rice with same fertilizer management treatment (50% NPK + farmyard manure 10 tonnes/ha).
Response of potato to biofertilizers at graded levels of chemical fertilizer
  • K M Indiresh
  • K R Sreekamulu
  • S Patil
  • V Venkatesh
Indiresh, K. M., K. R. Sreekamulu, S. Patil, and V. Venkatesh. 2003. Response of potato to biofertilizers at graded levels of chemical fertilizer. Journal of the Indian Potato Association 30: 79-80.