Article

A Fad or a Phenomenon?: The Adoption of Open Innovation Practices in Large Firms

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Abstract

OVERVIEW: We surveyed 125 large firms in Europe and the United States with annual sales in excess of $250 million to examine the extent to which large firms are now practicing open innovation. Our results showed that open innovation is not a passing fad: 78 percent of the firms report practicing open innovation, none have abandoned it, and 82 percent of those practicing open innovation report that it is practiced more intensively today than three years ago. We also asked about specific practices for “outside-in” and “inside-out” open innovation. We found that customer co-creation, informal networking, and university grants were the three leading inbound practices in 2011; crowdsourcing and open innovation intermediary services were rated lowest in importance. Joint ventures, selling market-ready products, and standardization were the three leading outbound practices; donations to commons and spinoffs were least frequently used. We also found that large firms are more likely to receive freely revealed information than they are to provide such information.

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... Among the purpose and reasons are leadership and learning; access to new markets and business models (Chesbrough, Vanhaverbeke, & West, 2006;Enkel, Gassmann, & Chesbrough, 2009;Hung & Chou, 2013;Ritter & Gemünden, 2003;Spithoven, Clarysse, & Knockaert, 2011); or reducing costs, time and risk (Piller & Ihl, 2009;Simoes-Brown & Hardwood, 2011;Thomke, 2003). All these presented points require a very active role from the management team (Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014), which must establish what level of information should be obtained and made available and is directly related to the definition of the target audience, the level of collaboration expected and the ultimate purpose (Laursen & Salter, 2014;Piller & Ihl, 2009). ...
... Open collaboration outcomes and their contribution to organizational performance are better perceived when it is part of strategic decisions and there are clear metrics, including tangible and intangible factors (Cheng & Huizingh, 2014;Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014;Gaule, 2011). ...
... Company A is a Brazilian large construction company, with revenues of approximately US $130m, present in the market for over 60 years. It is known for its pioneering role in the (2003), Chesbrough & Brunswicker (2014) industry and was the first company to launch a collaborative building design through Facebook in 2011, enabling consumers to participate by sharing their ideas for the creation of a new residential building concept and design. Ideas based on sustainability (use of material, processes and construction methods based on the concept of sustainability), apartment designs, use of common spaces and the use of technologies aimed at optimizing energy, consumption and offering facilities to the residents were encouraged. ...
Article
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the business model and the strategic intent to adopt an open collaboration initiative influence the perceived quality of collaboration outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a framework to analyze the role of the strategic dimension and the operational dimension in open collaboration initiatives through multiple case studies in three companies to understand how the open collaboration initiative was deployed and how was the level of the alignment between these two dimensions. Findings – The studied cases revealed that when an open collaboration initiative starts in the strategic dimension and there is an alignment between the organizational dimension and operational dimension, the collaboration outcomes are clearer and more traceable. Research limitations/implications – The study highlights the need to consider the involvement and the internal alignment between strategic and operational dimensions when deploying an open collaboration activity if they want to achieve all the benefits. Practical implications – The presented framework can help managers to evaluate and understand how open collaboration activities are deployed within the company. Social implications – The study shows that when an open collaboration initiative is planned, its results and benefits can be extended to local communities by developing them
... Large corporations are associated with startups to foster open innovation in different ways. Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014) found evidence that open innovation is widely practiced in American and European large companies, in which some practices-such as corporate business incubation and joint venture activities-have received increased attention over time. The incubation programs are designed to examine external markets looking for innovative ideas, supporting startups in developing new technologies; thus, the established companies can make use of these technologies in their processes or launch new products and services in the market (BECKER; GASSMANN, 2006a). ...
... Conflicts can also arise when established companies and incubatees compete between themselves to secure resources and protect their customers (KIM; BAE; BRUTON, 2012). For example, Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014) found that protecting critical internal knowhow and the effectiveness of intellectual property (IP) protection are barriers that limit the collaboration between large companies and startups. Some corporations take the so-called industrial espionage very seriously, so they tend to secure key processes and resources from new ventures, even in collaborative programs. ...
... On the other hand, startups complain that large companies mistake speed with hurry, demanding unimportant tasks (like reports) in a short time frame, overloading them. The cultural difference emerged in our research as the major constraint factor steering by the incubation program, thereby supporting previous research (CHESBROUGH; BRUNSWICKER, 2014;WEIBLEN;CHESBROUGH, 2015;FERNÁNDEZ;VALLE, 2018). Recent research suggests that both actors need to learn how to deal with such differences, as the rigidity of organizations positively affects the implementation of product innovation (TEIXEIRA et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The objective of this research is to understand how startups and established companies perceive the factors that are critical to the cooperation between them in the context of corporate incubation programs. We interviewed innovation managers, analysts, and project leaders from three large companies and the entrepreneurs of the startups that interacted with these companies. The results show that established companies and startups have different perceptions regarding insufficient dedication to the program and cultural differences, although both considered these factors to constrain the collaboration. Regarding motivation and incentives and autonomy, the findings were to some extent different. Implications include the difference in the perceptions of the startups and employees of the established companies directly involved in the program and the two factors identified as critical—dedication to the program and cultural differences—due to their potential to risk the incubation program. To practitioners, this research offers empirical results that can guide decision-making to manage corporate incubation programs. KEYWORDS Open innovation; Corporate incubation; Corporate acceleration; Startups; Technology innovation
... Thus, a higher degree of openness to explore the external environment leads to new organisational routines in relation to inflows and outflows of knowledge (Ahn et al., 2018(Ahn et al., , 2020 that challenge the company's strategic orientations, its management style and even its organisational culture. Succeeding in the changes that arise in the organisation when introducing an open innovation strategy therefore appears to be a laborious task and a major challenge for top management (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Ahn et al., 2018Ahn et al., , 2020. This is further amplified by the fact that organisational rigidities due to cultural and structural aspects may exist in every innovative firm (Keupp and Gassmann, 2009). ...
... This is further amplified by the fact that organisational rigidities due to cultural and structural aspects may exist in every innovative firm (Keupp and Gassmann, 2009). Thus, as an increasingly important instrument of innovation management (Torchia and Calabrò, 2019), adopting open innovation implies the support of top management to achieve the organisational change induced by the implementation of new openness practices during the innovation process (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Ahn et al., 2018;Scaliza et al., 2022). However, while there is some work in the existing literature analysing the internal determinants of open innovation, and despite the importance and topicality of this field of research, very few studies have focused on examining the strategic role of top management in the success of organisational change and the adoption of open innovation. ...
... In this context of innovation management, implementing practices related to open innovation generates new organisational routines in relation to inflowing and outflowing knowledge (Ahn et al., 2018). Organisational change thus appears to be a major challenge for companies that wish to move towards the open innovation model (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Ahn et al., 2018). Indeed, organisational rigidities may exist in every innovative firm (Keupp and Gassmann, 2009). ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the pivotal role of top management and organizational change in explaining the degree of openness of SMEs to inbound open innovation practices. To do this, a conceptual model has been proposed and tested from a sample of 186 SMEs operating in Tunisian manufacturing industry. The examination of this model based on the Structural Equation Modeling confirms that entrepreneurial strategic vision of the top management favorably influences the degree of openness in SMEs. Moreover, the results obtained showed that organizational change associated with cultural aspects is an important determinant in the introduction of inbound openness practices, while that related to the organizational structure seems to be insignificant. Based on these findings, this research paper contributes to the enrichment of knowledge on inbound open innovation in SMEs and produces some managerial implications that can be suggested to stimulate the success of the openness approach according to the Open innovation paradigm.
... Open innovation (OI) involves leveraging residual expertise from outside the organisation to support and improve the process of internal innovation, increasing organisational competitiveness (Chesbrough and Crowther 2006a). 78% of large US and European firms have adopted some form of OI, and of this 82% have stated that they were practising OI more intensely at that time than the three years' prior (Chesbrough and Brunswicker 2015). Although OI is prominent in large organisations, in Northern Ireland (NI), small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) account for 75% of employment and 80% of these SMEs stated their intentions for future growth, highlighting the importance of innovation for these companies 96 (Federation of Small Businesses 2015). ...
... In recent years, the OI model has been steadily increasing in popularity. A recent study of large firms across the US and Europe (more than 1000 employees) found that 78% of companies reported practising some form of OI, and of these, 82% stated that they were practising it more intensely than the previous three years (Chesbrough and Brunswicker 2015). Despite this, research suggests that many SMEs do not adopt OI, choosing instead to conduct R&D internally. ...
... With that, we then considered examples where OI was applied within manufacturing businesses and SMEs. With 78% of large firms reported practising OI and many with increasing intensity (Chesbrough and Brunswicker 2015), OI is placed to become more widespread, with support from leading universities, in its development and execution. As per the response from interview respondent three, SMEs could also achieve innovation success with OI if it is managed correctly. ...
Conference Paper
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Open Innovation (OI) presents an opportunity for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) to gain a competitive advantage over their peers in their respective markets. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of adopting an open innovation model in the context of SMEs. In doing so, Loughview Timber; a small manufacturer and supplier of timber external door sets, fire rated doors, staircases, windows, based outside of Gilford in Northern Ireland, is used as a case study. They have partnered with the University of Limerick in a knowledge transfer project on product development, using open innovation as a vehicle. Using existing processes and procedures as a base, the study aims to analyse the need for open innovation within Loughview Timber; thus, analysing the effect open innovation would have on the organisation whilst providing recommendations for the company's innovation practices. Based on a review of existing literature, a questionnaire and subsequent review of Loughview Timber's internal documents and market reports, findings emerge. It is recommended that Loughview Timber continue to exploit the benefits of knowledge transfer available, in this case, in the form of InterTradeIreland's FUSION programme, while also looking for further opportunities to partner with other third level educational institutions. Further research is required across a wider range of SMEs to more accurately determine the effectiveness of open innovation on supporting SME's product development activities.
... Second, we partly reveal the values of OI to regional innovation systems, enriching the scope and meaning of OI. Previous discussions on OI are mainly about individual enterprise (Chesbrough, 2003;Spithoven et al., 2013;Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014), while social effects at the regional level are relatively neglected (Roper et al., 2013). By capturing the linkages between knowledge, innovators and technology transfer, we propose an approach to measure the degree of ROI. ...
... The inbound OI indicates that firms source knowledge and technology from the external environment, such as public knowledge search, technology license-in, cooperative R&D and technology purchase. For the outbound OI, firms contribute internal ideas to the environment and commercialize the technology via external channels, such as technology license-out, joint ventures, and strategic alliance (Spithoven et al., 2010(Spithoven et al., , 2013Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014). Innovation becomes a system engineering in the current digital economy, and a single organization cannot innovate in isolation (Dahlander and Gann, 2010). ...
... First, an intensive and effective innovation network will be shaped. As Chesbrough (2014) suggested, the main characteristic of OI in firms is the collaborative process, which becomes abundant linkages between innovators once aggregated to the regional level, constituting an intensive innovation network. In such a network, organizations have a greater opportunity to source ideas from external or promote the commercial success of their internal innovations (West and Bogers, 2014). ...
Article
This paper examines the spatial innovation spillovers in different distance ranges in China. Results indicate that innovation spillovers do not decay with distance monotonously but appear to be a concave curve. Spatial innovation spillovers are superimposed effects, including both the positive effects of knowledge diffusion and the crowding-out effects of innovation resources and market rivalry. We also confirm that the regional open innovation can positively regulate such spillovers. Regions with higher intensity of open innovation could gain more substantial benefits from innovation spillovers. These findings provide manifold policy implications for reducing the inequality of regional innovation capacity.
... There are three broad types of open innovation. Inbound (outside-in) open innovation activities normally include IP in-licensing, idea and start-up competition, and crowdsourcing, whereas spin-offs and corporate business incubation are examples of outbound (inside-out) activities [13]. Coupled open innovation exhibits the features of both inbound and outbound open innovation, as seen in several strategies, such as codevelopment, complementary partners through alliances, and joint ventures [13]. ...
... Inbound (outside-in) open innovation activities normally include IP in-licensing, idea and start-up competition, and crowdsourcing, whereas spin-offs and corporate business incubation are examples of outbound (inside-out) activities [13]. Coupled open innovation exhibits the features of both inbound and outbound open innovation, as seen in several strategies, such as codevelopment, complementary partners through alliances, and joint ventures [13]. ...
... Though inbound and outbound open innovation strategies have been highlighted in the literature [13], our findings suggest that crowdsourcing and technology exaptation are particularly significant in times of crisis, compared to other forms of open innovation. In fact, crowdsourcing with social engagement represents a nonconventional way of generating solutions that can benefit the innovation themselves, e.g., users and the society. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge and disruptive technological changes in the healthcare sector, transforming the way businesses and societies function. To respond to the global health crisis, there have been numerous innovation projects in the healthcare sector, including the fast design and manufacturing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical devices, and testing, treatment, and vaccine technologies. Many of these innovative activities happen beyond organizational boundaries with collaboration and open innovation. In this paper, we review the current literature on open innovation strategy during the pandemic and adopt the co-evolution view of business ecosystems to address the context of change. Based on a detailed exploration of the COVID-19-related technologies in the UK and global healthcare sectors, we identify the key emerging themes of open innovation in crisis. Further discussions are conducted in relation to each theme. Our results and analysis can help provide policy recommendations for the healthcare sector, businesses, and society to recover from the crisis.
... Firms' structural characteristics will undoubtedly affect their general performance, as well as their innovative performance. To control for these effects, four controls were included in the model: size [90][91][92], human capital intensity [54], and internal and external R&D expenditures [77,79,80]. This combination of characteristics and strategic options can be considered to some extent as a technological capability, as it is a key factor in the successful implementation of innovative practices. ...
... Additionally, the first tier encompasses the OI strategies, and, following the previous belief that inbound and outbound strategies present different maturities, they were included separately, allowing for a finer understanding of their particular effect on innovative performance. Regardless of the model in use, increasing firm size positively influences the importance of innovative performance among total turnover; these results are in line with previous literature [90][91][92]. Notes: ** Significant correlation at 0.01 (2-tailed); * Significant correlation at 0.05 (2-tailed); n.s. not significant. ...
Article
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Open innovation (OI) has been implemented to develop competitive advantages based on the management of innovation with external players. As such, it is expected that the generalized adoption of OI practices needs to be nurtured by governmental public policies in order to enhance OI-based ecosystems. The role of open innovation ecosystems is known by the importance of multiple synergies among players/stakeholders, which are expected to be supported by regulations and funding to consolidate firms’ innovation results. This paper analyzes the role of regulations and funding on firms’ innovation performance using the double-hurdle estimation procedure. The results show that, in the first tier, inbound knowledge flows positively affect performance, and, in the second tier, public funds further reinforce innovation performance and fiscal and security regulations. In contrast, as regulations are perceived as barriers, they fail to impact innovation performance. With this paper, we manage to shed light on the importance of public policy funds in the support of thriving OI-based ecosystems as enhancers of firms’ innovation performance.
... The goal of the Innovation Lab is to promote open innovation. Open Innovation is an approach to accelerate the speed as well as the efficiency of the innovation process [4]. Open innovation is based on collaboration of different stakeholders. ...
... It is promoted by policy makers as well as scientists [5]. However, companies are less likely to take advantage of open innovation than they potentially could [4,5,6]. Offering nine sub-labs, a wide range of tools and machines is at the users' disposal. ...
Conference Paper
This paper reports from one of several surveys accompanying the founding phase of a makerspace at University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt which was inaugurated in September 2021. The survey focused on evaluating reasons for enterprise employees to use or not use a makerspace.
... Firstly, open innovation practices are specific strategies (e.g. user engagement, consulting and co-R&D) implemented for innovation (Spithoven et al., 2013;Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014). ...
... Specifically, opening up the innovation process has been vital in all sampled cases. Therefore, following a market shock caused by the pandemic, one may propose that the success of business model innovation is contingent on the development of open innovation strategies and practices, such as collaborating with consulting firms, knowledge acquisition and user engagement (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014). Open innovation can provide unique and valuable tangible and intangible resources to accelerate the innovation process (Della Peruta et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose The economic crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic has had significant consequences on the activities of companies worldwide. This study aims to unveil how open innovation fostered business model innovation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) during the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The research adopts a qualitative approach, involving a multiple case study methodology, and focusses on six SMEs operating in various traditional sectors. Findings The findings highlight the impact of the external stimulus, COVID-19, on business model innovation and the key role of open innovation management in pursuing the business model innovation, which may also involve a digital transformation. Originality/value While some studies have examined how the pandemic has fostered business model transformation, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study analysing the pivotal role of open innovation in driving business model innovation during challenging times, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
... However, externally generated ideas can be a major resource for innovation in many business sectors, as in the case of open innovation which breaks the traditional organizational boundaries [4]. Open innovation can be categorized into inbound and outbound activities [15]. Inbound, or outside-in, practices refer to the knowledge flow into the firm. ...
... A survey of large firms in Europe and the USA suggests that open innovation is widely practiced, with customer co-creation, informal networking, and university grants being leading inbound practices, whereas most outbound practices are joint ventures, the sale of market-ready products, and standardization [15]. Empirical investigations and case studies suggest that large firms conduct open approaches to access external knowledge, form collaborations, and develop new products. ...
Article
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This paper explores how sustainability can be achieved through open innovation in the current 4th industrial revolution. Through a literature and practice review, we identify micro-and macro-dynamics of open innovation in addition to the dynamic roles of industry, government, university, and society. In particular, the industry continuously adopts open platforms to create and maintain ecosystem innovation. The government's role has changed from regulation control toward facilitation. Universities have become proactively engaged in multiple areas, from technology transfer to knowledge co-creation. Societies and customers have started to form new concepts, R&D, and commercialization, resulting in a shared economy. Based on the analysis, we propose a conceptual framework to understand open innovation micro-and macro-dynamics with a quadruple-helix model for social, environmental, economic, cultural, policy, and knowledge sustainability. Furthermore, this provides an overview of the special issue, "Sustainability of Economy, Society, and Environment in the 4th Industrial Revolution", which aims to respond to the 4th industrial revolution in terms of open innovation and cyber-physics from manufacturing to the service industry.
... When considering the impact of platform quality on platform performance (McIntyre and Srinivasan, 2017;Zhu and Iansiti, 2012), it is vital for B2B platform owners to improve the quality of platform offerings to address the two most important challenges in platform -attracting more complementors for higher network effect and identifying new opportunities for sustainable growth. OI stresses the purposive use of internal and external knowledge not only for the focal firm but also for its partners (Enkel et al., 2009;Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Ahn et al., 2018), so this interactive cooperation can create new synergy necessary for the enhancement of platform offering. In this context, OI can provide this research a useful analytical lens to explore how a B2B platform owner considers the market dynamics in orchestrating its value co-creation on the platform. ...
... Although a platform owner shares boundary resources with complementors, this may not be adequate for establishing a sustainable platform. To create a sustained competitive advantage, a platform owner must provide the necessary resources and create new pathways for value co-creation considering the market dynamics, and this offering is consistent with the essence of out-bound OI aimed at mutual benefits (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Parker and Van Alstyne, 2018;Enkel et al., 2009). The concepts of platform and out-bound OI could be misinterpreted as identical (or similar) for giving priority to knowledge sharing. ...
... OI is a new model for innovation (Chesbrough, 2003;Elmquist et al., 2009;Santoro et al., 2020) that has become widespread in several industries (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Remneland-Wikhamn and Wikhamn, 2014;Spender et al., 2017). ...
... This finding is consistent with existing research that these projects can be easily adapted, or modified, using some free and easy to use software without a deep knowledge of CAD software, companies may leverage local communities not only to produce the final component, but they may be functional in improving the project or in adapting it to some specific situations (Anderson, 2012;Rayna et al., 2015;Halbinger, 2018;Beltagui et al., 2020). All in all, the paper adds to the body of knowledge on OI, shedding light on how to create value for communities through outbound OI processes, often neglected by the literature, which mostly focused on inbound OI (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014). ...
Article
Purpose Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, also known as three-dimensional printing (3DP), is a technological breakthrough that have the potential to disrupt the traditional operations of supply chains. They open the way to a supply chains innovation that can significantly benefit hospitals and health-related organizations in dealing with crises or unexpected events in a faster and more flexible way. In this study the authors identify the boundary of this potential support. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopt a case study approach to understand the dynamics behind a well-known best practice to identify the main opportunities and the main pitfalls that AM may pose to health-related organizations wanting to leverage them. Findings The case highlights that it is possible to increase hospital flexibility using AM and that by leveraging the Internet it is possible to spread the benefits faster than what it would be normally possible using traditional supply chain processes. At the same time the case highlights that leveraging these technologies needs buy-in from all the relevant stakeholders. Originality/value The paper is one of the first, to the best of the authors' knowledge, to highlight the main opportunities and difficulties of implementing 3DP technologies in hospital supply chain management.
... Proponents of OI have long argued that the literature falls short in documenting obstacles hindering OI's successful implementation and governance (Bigliardi et al., 2020;Chesbrough and Brunswicker 2014;Kohler and Nickel 2017;West and Bogers 2017). Instead, previous studies have mainly articulated the general logic of OI, described the success of some well-known cases, and examined the benefits of engaging external actors in new product development (e.g . ...
... While OI sponsors mainly deal with the factors corresponding with the overall architecture of OI, OI coordinators are limited by the factors related to the operationalization of the OI process and its core activities and supporting technology (Durst and Ståhle 2013;Greco et al., 2015). Lastly, limitations related to the OI community are related to problem-solvers and innovation partners-the innovation community in general-participating in the OI and completing innovation activities or tasks (Chesbrough and Brunswicker 2014;Seo and Park 2022). Examples of these limitations include the lack of knowledge or counterproductive behavior of community members (Han and Yang 2020). ...
Article
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While open innovation organizations have grown in popularity, they hold a high failure rate. This paper identifies limiting factors that contribute to this high failure rate at three levels: strategy, process, and community. After validating and expanding these limits through a case study, the paper offers a framework identifying success factors for open innovation and their hierarchical relationships. We classified these success factors into six groups, design, implementation, technology, operation, community readiness, and community development, and their relationships into four groups, deployment, engagement, evaluation, and governance. This framework and the accompanying propositions offer a better theoretical understanding of open innovation models and provide practical recommendations toward their viability, survivability, scalability, and profitability. Lastly, the paper discusses possible research avenues for the further development of open innovation organizations.
... • Stakeholder management theory: stakeholder management is recognised as a relevant practice in management research (Donaldson, 1999). Many times, companies fail to successfully capitalise from the collaboration (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014) due to an unsuitable organisational structure with a fragmented process and a lack of relevant management expertise (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). Accordingly, stakeholder management issues have become even more important while managing multiple collaborations in OI projects (Donaldson and Preston, 1995). ...
... In addition, following game-theory approaches, having a long-term plan allows for predicting the intentions of partners (Parkhe et al., 1993) and avoiding unwanted spillovers and establishing sufficient measures to protect the knowledge base. In accordance with the stakeholder management theory, a long-term plan supports companies in successfully capitalizing from the collaboration (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014), also leveraging stable process and relevant management expertise (Brunswicker and Chesbrough, 2018). ...
Article
Collaboration between research and industry is fundamental for technology innovation. Most existing research in this domain has focused on the drivers or enabling factors that lead to the success of such collaboration. On the contrary, the lack of information about collaboration failures in research-industry settings still represents one of the main obstacles to studying this topic. In this paper, we argue that management scholars should deepen inquiry on unsuccessful research-industry collaborations, as these occurrences may also have major repercussions in terms of business failures. Accordingly, we take stock of research on unsuccessful collaborations in the Big Science context, a special open innovation environment characterised by unexplored cases of research-industry collaboration failures. To address the need to investigate the drivers of failure in this context, we leverage a multiple case study analysis with a retrospective approach of a polar sample type of six case studies of collaborations between CERN – the biggest fundamental research organisation in the world – and supplier companies: three collaborations that have been recognised as successful, and three that have been recognised as failures. By doing so, we aim to provide a framework highlighting the main drivers that lead to failures of collaborations in this peculiar open innovation context and to shed light on the reasons why research-industry collaborations may fail in the Big Science context.
... The number of studies discussing this issue regarding SMEs is still scarce (Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014;Dahlander & Gann, 2010;Wikhamn & Wikhamn, 2013;Greco et al., 2015). Portugal is no exception, in 2018 the country had 1,294,037 SMEs (Pordata, 2021a,b), which corresponds to 99.9% of total companies. ...
... Hypothesis 4 digital changes (Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014). Open innovation practices differ across firms and across types of corporate risk, such as finding ways to increase turnover and develop new products (Chesbrough, 2003). ...
Article
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Objective of the study: This study aims to analyze the relationship between open innovation and organizational strategy. Additionally, the mediating effect of corporate risk management on it was assessed.Methodology/approach: A quantitative study was conducted in Portugal based on a survey with 251 executive directors of SME hotels. Structural equations modeling was used in this study.Originality/relevance: While other studies have analyzed the relationship between open innovation and organizational strategy, this study deepens the knowledge of the mediating effect of corporate risk management on it.Main results: The results show that (1) open innovation improves corporate risk management and organizational strategy, (2) corporate risk influences organizational strategy, and (3) corporate risk management has a mediating effect on the relationship between open innovation and organizational strategy.Theoretical/methodological contributions: This study provides a theoretical framework for understanding the relationships between three constructs (open innovation, corporate risk management and organizational strategy) in SMEs in the hospitality sector, not yet explored by academics.Social/management contributions: This study will guide managers of SMEs in the hospitality sector in defining strategies to develop the relevant resources and contribute to the definition of effective government policies, programs and incentives to support the adherence or expansion of the open innovation model for companies in this sector.
... Since Chesbrough's seminal work in 2003, a plethora of academic literature has developed around the concept of open innovation. Various definitions have been proposed by scholars who have shown particular fondness for this new paradigm (Gassmann and Enkel, 2004;Chesbrough et al., 2006;Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014). Following Chesbrough et al. (2006, p. 1), open innovation is described as "the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand markets for the external use of innovation, respectively". ...
... For some researchers, knowledge appropriation capacity is interpreted through patents and distinctive brands. Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014), for example, point out that, among the challenges faced by managers, is the protection of strategic resources and the implementation of robust knowledge protection systems via intellectual property rights (IPRs). For others, this appropriation capacity takes another form and is less dependent on patents or formal methods. ...
Article
This research proposes to shed light on the antecedents and outcomes of coupled open innovation in the specific context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Drawing on the open innovation paradigm, knowledge-based view (KBV), and contingency theory, the paper constructs and tests a research model that investigates the effect of coupled open innovation on firm performance; the impact of knowledge management capability, knowledge appropriation capability, and environmental dynamism on coupled open innovation; and also the mediating role of collaborative open innovation practices. Using a sample of 228 SMEs operating in the Tunisian manufacturing industry, our results based on structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrate that coupled open innovation positively and significantly influences firm performance. Furthermore, our findings confirm the crucial impact of knowledge management capacity and knowledge appropriation capacity in the implementation of coupled open innovation approach. The role of environmental dynamism in the adoption of collaborative practices is also proven in the SME context. Moreover, the results of our study add to the existing literature by empirically demonstrating the potential mediating role of coupled open innovation in the relationships that link knowledge management capacity, knowledge appropriation capacity, and environmental dynamism with SME performance, respectively. In this sense, this paper goes even further in the research on open innovation, as one of the first to fill an interesting gap regarding the antecedents of coupled open innovation and its implication on performance in the specific context of SMEs. In doing so, our research, through its results, provides interesting suggestions for SME managers who implement or intend to implement coupled open innovation to improve the performance of their company.
... The innovation network effectively makes use of the innovation radiation effect between different regions. The innovation subjects at different innovation stages rationally allocate various innovation resource elements to give play to their technological advantages, make up for the lack of their innovation system, and promote the balanced development of science and technology among regions (Hastbacka, 2004;Luis, 2006;Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014). ...
Article
Regional innovation systems (RISs) characterized periodical and is suitable for analyzing the Chinese economy which has entered the new normal. However, few scholars analyze and identify the stage of RISs from the perspective of life cycle. This paper divides the life cycle of RISs into four stages: initial stage, growth stage, maturity stage, and decline stage. Based on the analysis of the characteristics in every stage of the life cycle in the RISs, this paper constructs entropy weight disturbing attribute model to identify the stage of 31 provincial innovation systems in China. The research results show that all the RISs in maturity stage belong to the eastern developed regions, and innovation achievement capacity is significant. The RISs are widely distributed which are in the growth stage. The innovation efficiency capacity, innovation growth capacity and innovation network capacity of RISs which are in growth stage are in a high level. The provinces with the innovation system in the initial stage are mainly in the backward areas of the west, and the innovation growth capacity is better than other innovation capacities. Mastering the evolutionary stage of the RISs is helpful to promote the implementation of innovation-driven development strategies.
... Despite the extensive literature on the topic, we observe three limitations. First, previous literature has focused on the engagement of start-ups in the innovation networks of incumbent firms (Chesbrough and Brunswicker 2014;Chesbrough et al. 2006;Shane 2001;Weiblen and Chesbrough 2015), neglecting to deeply analyze the effect of the adoption of open innovation in start-ups. Second, previous literature analyzing the impact of open innovation practices on the innovation performance of start-ups (Leiponen and Helfat 2010) has considered formal sources of external knowledge (such as collaborations with universities, suppliers, creative individuals, innovation communities, universities, clients, suppliers, and firms from other industries (Radicic et al. 2020;Viljamaa 2011). ...
Article
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Open innovation and innovation performance have been widely studied in the literature. However, few studies have examined the impact of openness to different types of external knowledge on start-ups’ innovation performance. Moreover, previous literature could be further complemented by additional investigation into how the coworking spaces provided by accelerator programs may engender informal sources of knowledge that enhance the innovation performance of accelerated start-ups. To address this research gap, we investigate whether start-ups participating in accelerator programs can enhance their innovation performance through information transfer from informal networks provided by business accelerator programs. In order to do so, we draw two-stage data collection data from 113 start-ups accelerated by Italian accelerators from 2013 to 2016 and the response data collected in 2018. Our results reveal that coopetitors, educators, and investors are beneficial for different innovation outcomes of accelerated start-ups. These findings contribute to the innovation management literature, the small business management literature, the literature on accelerators and the coworking spaces literature.
... As a final implication, the study opens room for implementing open innovation initiatives in the company [71]. Local stakeholders offer consolidated opportunities in key strategic innovative drivers, such as renewable energy [72], industrial symbiosis [73], energy-exchanging networking [74], sustainable and cleaner production [75] and virtualsupported product development [76]. ...
Article
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This study aims at identifying factors that facilitate the development of the capacity to generate innovations in a subsidiary of a multinational company. Based on the understanding that innovation management deals with the establishment of organizational routines and the investigation of environmental factors that affect the success of the innovation process, the purpose of this work is to contribute toward identifying these factors. For this, a single case study was carried out in a Brazilian subsidiary of a German multinational company, having as incorporated objects the two Business Units of the subsidiary. The results include 20 potential factors to drive the innovation process in the subsidiary company organized as a tree-like structure with three categories: reasons to innovate, spontaneous factors and induced factors. The structure serves as a conceptual framework to address future research, as well as to help subsidiaries’ managers to leverage innovative potential. The study opens room for further implementation of open innovation in the company, as the innovation process is now more stable and robust. Excellent alternatives for open innovation projects are available in the local market and can now be implemented by the company.
... The term "open innovation" (OI) refers to the process of "using external knowledge while making internal expertise freely available to others" [68]. Numerous channels exist for tapping into this pool of external expertise, from casual conversations with clients and research and development (R&D) partnerships to more formal contracts for independently created technologies [69]. The term "open innovation" refers to a business strategy that aims "to increase the markets for external use of invention", which includes both the sourcing and commercialization of technologies [70]. ...
Article
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One of the industries with the fastest growth rates worldwide, and notably in Thailand, is medical tourism. With connections to Cambodia and Laos, Ubon Ratchathani is located in lower northeastern Thailand, close to Vietnam and Myanmar. Therefore, there is a significant chance that this region will welcome medical travelers. High-quality medical facilities are available in Ubon Ratchathani to fulfill the needs of medical tourists. A visitor’s decision to travel to Ubon Ratchathani for medical treatment is influenced by factors other than the high-level medical facilities, such as lodging, accessibility to public transportation, and tourist attractions. The public transportation services in Ubon Ratchathani, especially the public bus system, are poorly designed and may let down visitors. The purpose of this study is to develop a smart public bus route design that will meet tourists’ demands. The concept of open innovation will be utilized to develop the model. We surveyed 400 visitors to Ubon Ratchathani. The tourists’ opinions and views of public transportation will be made public and used as an input parameter when designing bus routes. The bus route can then be constructed using the differential evolution algorithm (DE). A web-based smart public transportation system was built. In order to construct an efficient smart public bus system (SPBS), open innovation was used in the development phase. According to the computational results, the new routes using DE lead to a 5.97% reduction in travel distance when compared to the output of the more well-known genetic method. More than 98.5% of visitors are satisfied with the new routes, and once they start running, 99.5% of all respondents plan to use public transit.
... The strategy of innovation is a process for accelerating the pace, productivity, and sustainability of development. Involvement in the innovation process is no longer totally controlled by the focus firm but instead shared with other interested parties to improve open innovation (Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014). It also refers to an innovation model that emphasizes purposeful knowledge inflows and outflows across a firm's boundary to leverage external sources of knowledge and commercialization paths (Chistov et al., 2021). ...
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Aim/Purpose This study examines the impact of decision-making, crisis management, and decision-making on sustainability through the mediation of open innovation in the energy sector. Background Public companies study high-performance practices, requiring overcoming basic obstacles such as financial crises that prevent the adoption and development of sustainability programs. Methodology Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led to the closure of businesses in Iraq, a survey was distributed. To facilitate responses, free consultations were offered to help complete the questionnaire quickly. Of the 435 questionnaires answered, 397 were used for further analysis. Contribution The impact of crises that impede the energy sector from adopting sustainable environmental regulations is investigated in this study. Its identification of specific constraints to open innovation leads to the effectiveness of adopting environmentally friendly policies and reaching high levels of sustainable performance. Findings The impacts of risk-taking, crisis management, and decision-making on sustainability have been explored. Results show that open innovation fully mediates the relationship between the factors of risk-taking, crisis management, decision-making, and sustainability. Recommendations for Practitioners The proposed model can be used by practitioners to develop and improve sustainable innovation practices and achieve superior performance. Recommendation for Researchers Researchers are recommended to conduct in-depth studies of the phenomenon based on theoretical and empirical foundations, especially in light of the relationship between crisis management, decision-making, and risk-taking and their impact on sustainability based on linear and non-compensatory relationships. Impact on Society This study provides a reference for organizations with similar cultural backgrounds in adopting sustainable practices to minimize pollution in the Iraqi context. Future Research A more in-depth study can be performed using a larger sample, which not only includes the energy industry but also other industries.
... The strategy of innovation is a process for accelerating the pace, productivity, and sustainability of development. Involvement in the innovation process is no longer totally controlled by the focus firm but instead shared with other interested parties to improve open innovation (Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014). It also refers to an innovation model that emphasizes purposeful knowledge inflows and outflows across a firm's boundary to leverage external sources of knowledge and commercialization paths (Chistov et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim/Purpose: This study examines the impact of decision-making, crisis management, and decision-making on sustainability through the mediation of open innovation in the energy sector. Background: Public companies study high-performance practices, requiring overcoming basic obstacles such as financial crises that prevent the adoption and development of sustainability programs. Methodology: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led to the closure of businesses in Iraq, a survey was distributed. To facilitate responses, free consultations were offered to help complete the questionnaire quickly. Of the 435 questionnaires answered, 397 were used for further analysis. Contribution: The impact of crises that impede the energy sector from adopting sustainable environmental regulations is investigated in this study. Its identification of specific constraints to open innovation leads to the effectiveness of adopting environmentally friendly policies and reaching high levels of sustainable performance. Findings: The impacts of risk-taking, crisis management, and decision-making on sustainability have been explored. Results show that open innovation fully mediates the relationship between the factors of risk-taking, crisis management, decision-making, and sustainability. Recommendations for Practitioners: The proposed model can be used by practitioners to develop and improve sustainable innovation practices and achieve superior performance. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers are recommended to conduct in-depth studies of the phenomenon based on theoretical and empirical foundations, especially in light of the relationship between crisis management, decision-making, and risk-taking and their impact on sustainability based on linear and non-compensatory relationships. Impact on Society: This study provides a reference for organizations with similar cultural backgrounds in adopting sustainable practices to minimize pollution in the Iraqi context. Future Research: A more in-depth study can be performed using a larger sample, which not only includes the energy industry but also other industries.
... to market, improving the quality of new products, and spreading the risk of product innovation (Emden et al., 2006;Usman and Vanhaverbeke, 2017). More and more firms use collaborative innovation with supply chain partners to improve the efficiency of product innovation, which also produces a new innovative model (Brunswicker and Vanhaverbeke, 2015;H. Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Spender et al., 2017). Supply chain planning (SCP) serves as an important link in the development of supply chain collaborative innovation, and the overall planning of supply chain partners has an important impact on the effective operation of supply chain collaborative innovation. ...
Article
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Purpose The study aims to figure out the impact of supply chain planning (SCP) on innovation performance (IP), the mediating role of agreement on supply chain vision and goals (ASCVG), and the moderated effect of information technology (IT) use with buyers and suppliers. Design/methodology/approach Based on 265 pieces of data collected from global manufacturing companies, the authors tested the proposed hypothesis through regression analyses. Meanwhile, the plug-in of statistical software SPSS, PROCESS (Model 4 and 14) was used to examine the mediation and moderated mediation models. Findings The results reveal that ASCVG partially mediates the effect of SCP on IP. Furthermore, the indirect influence of SCP on IP is stronger when the extent of IT use with buyers is higher, while this indirect effect is not moderated by IT use with suppliers. Originality/value In this study, the authors investigated the combined effect of SCP, ASCVG, and IT use with external partners on IP, which provides theoretical and practical insights into the ways that manufacturing firms effectively use the SCP, ASCVG and IT use with external partners to heighten IP.
... However, a data sharing alliance to advance an innovative solution in the field of safety and security technology is more likely to be solved in cooperation and is beneficial for participating firms under certain conditions (Davis, 2016). Concerning the value and quality of shared data, the main reason to engage in a data sharing alliance is the possibility to access unique resources of different partner organizations, which impacts the firm's internal resource base and innovation capability (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014). However, the utility of sharing more of the same data might have diminishing returns for certain use cases. ...
Article
Nowadays mobile positioning devices, such as global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) but also external sensor technology like cameras allow an efficient online collection of trajectories, which reflect the behavior of moving objects, such as cars. The data can be used for various applications, e.g., traffic planning or updating maps, which need many trajectories to extract and infer the desired information, especially when machine or deep learning approaches are used. Often, the amount and diversity of necessary data exceeds what can be collected by individuals or even single companies. Currently, data owners, e.g., vehicle producers or service operators, are reluctant to share data due to data privacy rules or because of the risk of sharing information with competitors, which could jeopardize the data owner's competitive advantage. A promising approach to exploit data from several data owners, but still not directly accessing the data, is the concept of federated learning, that allows collaborative learning without exchanging raw data, but only model parameters. In this paper, we address the problem of anomaly detection in vehicle trajectories, and investigate the benefits of using federated learning. To this end, we apply several state-of-the-art learning algorithms like one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) and isolation forest, thus solving a one-class classification problem. Based on these learning mechanisms, we successfully proposed and verified a federated architecture for the collaborative identification of anomalous trajectories at several intersections. We demonstrate that the federated approach is beneficial not only to improve the overall anomaly detection accuracy, but also for each individual data owner. The experiments show that federated learning allows to increase the anomaly detection accuracy from in average AUC-ROC scores of 97% by individual intersections up to 99% using cooperation.
... Further, two other studies [11,12] have shown that organizations with more sources of external knowledge achieved better product and process innovation for organization's proprietary products. Moreover, a recent survey study [13] in 125 large firms of EU and US showed that 78% of organizations in the survey are practicing OI and neither of them has abandoned it since the introduction of OI in the organization. This intense practicing of OI also leads 82% of the organizations to increase management support for it and 53% of the organizations to designate more than 5 employees working full-time with OI. ...
Preprint
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Open Source Software (OSS) ecosystems have reshaped the ways how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to customers. However, firms still need support for strategic product planning in terms of what to develop internally and what to share as OSS. Existing models accurately capture commoditization in software business, but lack operational support to decide what contribution strategy to employ in terms of what and when to contribute. This study proposes a Contribution Acceptance Process (CAP) model from which firms can adopt contribution strategies that align with product strategies and planning. In a design science influenced case study executed at Sony Mobile, the CAP model was iteratively developed in close collaboration with the firm's practitioners. The CAP model helps classify artifacts according to business impact and control complexity so firms may estimate and plan whether an artifact should be contributed or not. Further, an information meta-model is proposed that helps operationalize the CAP model at the organization. The CAP model provides an operational OI perspective on what firms involved in OSS ecosystems should share, by helping them motivate contributions through the creation of contribution strategies. The goal is to help maximize return on investment and sustain needed influence in OSS ecosystems.
... The results of many empirical studies confirm the positive relationship between the openness of innovative processes and the achievements of enterprises in the field of innovative activity. In recent years, numerous publications have been actively discussing the works by Chesbrough (2003aChesbrough ( , 2003b, Chesbrough and Rosenbloom (2002), Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014), Lessl and Asadullah Janasz (2005Janasz ( , 2010, Poznańska and Sobiecki (2012), Kolterman (2013), Bojewska (2015), Matusiak et al. (2001), Janasz and Kozioł (2007), Witness (2007), Pichlak (2012). Several of these studies also touch upon the problems of the Polish SMEs sector, ...
Book
This monograph shares the latest empirical insights and knowledge about attitudes towards open innovations, as well as drivers and barriers of open innovation collaboration from the perspective of the Polish and knowledge-intensive SMEs sector. The introduction is followed by a presentation of the theoretical and conceptual framework of the open innovation paradigm, open innovation ecosystem and its major dimensions. The next section focuses on the specific features of high-tech and knowledge-intensive SMEs and their innovative collaboration with key stakeholders (with firms, academia, public authorities, end users etc.) as well as the problem of knowledge sharing. Section three presents the dynamics, structure and development of the selected R&D and knowledge-intensive industries in Poland. It introduces the specifics of four selected sectors: biotechnological and pharmaceutical sectors, electronics and computer industries, the chemical industry, as well as the media, publishing and printing industries, from the global perspective as well as that of the Polish market perspectives. Finally, chapter four presents the results of the research survey conducted on the Polish market. It provides insights on major drivers and barriers of open innovation in a high and medium-high tech SMEs, as well as the description of attitudes, behaviours and experiences observed in this group of entrepreneurs. The monograph ends with conclusions and policy implications.
... The reality that companies need to attain an attractive position within ecosystems interwoven by coopetition pushes scholars to rethink the governance and organizing principles of OI (Dahlander et al., 2021;Jacobides, 2019). Given that companies have been abundantly engaging in interactions with heterogeneous partners to boost their innovation capabilities, a stream of OI research and practice focused on business-to-business (B2B) has gained on topicality Bogers et al., 2017;Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014;Gurca, Bagherzadeh, Markovic, & Koporcic, 2021). Markovic et al. (2021, p. 159) defined B2B OI as "a distributed, structured innovation process comprising manifold inbound and outbound knowledge flows derived from purposeful interactions with business partners." ...
Article
More and more self-interested businesses are organizing themselves in interdependent, non-hierarchically controlled networks to jointly create superior value by engaging in open innovation projects. In aligning the heterogeneous actors toward a focal value proposition, it is crucial for the orchestrators of such arrangements to manage their inter-organizational relationships by navigating the interplay of contractual and relational governance mechanisms. Despite the relevance of how contracts and relational governance co-evolve, knowledge on the interaction of contracts and relational governance in specific contexts is still missing. Through a multiple-case study of ten multinational ecosystem orchestrators, we explore how large multinational orchestrators govern the interplay inter-organizational relationship mechanisms in open innovation projects across ecosystems. Based on our findings, we propose a five-dimensional, sequential model of governing the interplay of inter-organizational relationship mechanisms in open innovation projects across ecosystems and discuss our contributions in the context of the current literature.
... Open innovation as a paradigm assumes that companies can and should use external and internal ideas, as well as internal and external paths to the market [45,46]. The inclusion of civil society is also emphasized in the development of alternative partnerships and user innovation. ...
Article
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This study aims to evaluate the financial and economic feasibility of implementing a biorefinery to process the solid waste, called brewers’ spent grain, generated in the production of craft beer into special flour. In addition, to present a path for open innovation in the possibility of replication of the process and technology used in the plant. The inappropriate disposal generates an environmental problem, but individually, depending on the production volume of the brewery, the cost of processing the waste can be unfeasible. On the other hand, such waste embeds a high nutritional value for human food. This study followed the precepts of the circular bio-economy and industrial symbiosis strengthening of sustainable development. The research method is the Monte Carlo simulation, including four different scenarios and projections. The results indicate the financial and economic viability of industrial plants—biorefineries—for the transformation of the residue into special flour in three of the four scenarios studied in the five-year cycle. In the Monte Carlo simulation, no losses are evident in any of the 10,000 interactions. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity of the supply is slightly higher than the price of the final product. Results may be useful to support the development of new, innovative products relying on collaboration among internal and external partners and open innovation concerns.
... Therefore. the AI-based facilitation on idea platforms should result in an engaging process to support individuals in voluntarily generating a contribution to an "open call" (Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014;Lüttgens et al., 2014) and yield idea submissions with a common structure comprising specific and detailed descriptions. To investigate the potential of the proposed AI-based facilitator for idea generation on idea platforms, the CA concept needs to be instantiated with a software prototype. ...
Article
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Large numbers of incomplete, unclear, and unspecific submissions on idea platforms hinder organizations to exploit the full potential of open innovation initiatives as idea selection is cumbersome. In a design science research project, we develop a design for a conversational agent (CA) based on artificial intelligence to facilitate contributors in generating elaborate ideas on idea platforms where human facilitation is not scalable. We derive prescriptive design knowledge in the form of design principles, instantiate, and evaluate the CA in two successive evaluation episodes. The design principles contribute to the current research stream on automated facilitation and can guide providers of idea platforms to enhance idea generation and subsequent idea selection processes. Results indicate that CA-based facilitation is engaging for contributors and yields well-structured and elaborated ideas.
... Ammon Salter (360) stands out in this cluster [5,227,247]. Furthermore, to this cluster belongs authors, such as Marcel Bogers (278) and Sabine Brunswicker (185), who have conducted research together with Chesbrough on OI practices [2,248,249]. It also includes Linus Dahlander (169) [44,250] and Nadine Roijakkers (126), who delved into OI issues and their practices [31,251]. ...
Article
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Research on open innovation (OI) has increased in recent years, showing its potential in various areas of knowledge. Its relation to small and medium-sized enterprises has attracted the attention of academics. This article aims to evaluate the intellectual structure of the scientific study of OI, and its close relationship with various scientific fields, through a bibliometric analysis of this academic field using the Scopus database and the application of the VOSviewer software. The methodology comprises a rigorous systematic and transparent process divided into four phases: (i) the establishment of search criteria for the research field, through a literature review for its selection; (ii) the selection of the database, the establishment of the search equation and extraction of information; (iii) the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selected documents and an explanation of the usefulness of the software; and (iv) the analysis of the results through the approaches of scientific output performance and bibliometric mapping. The results show an increasing trend of IO publications in SMEs, consolidated in 396 articles with contributions from 65 countries and 947 authors. The intellectual structure shows seven themes related to firm performance, R&D networks, business management, business models, capabilities and knowledge transfer. This study contributes to the field by providing an overview of IO in SME contexts. It also provides insightful information to policymakers for developing policies for firm economic growth.
... In the open innovation paradigm, appropriation remains a central element for firms aiming to exchange and interact with their external environment. As such, Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014) stipulated that the major challenge for managers in open innovation process lies in the protection of key competencies and the implementation of an intellectual property (IP) rights protection system. Indeed, there may be increasing tensions over knowledge exchange during the open innovation project, as openness practices carried concrete risks of knowledge leakage, encouraging free-riding behaviors (Marullo et al., 2020). ...
Article
In this paper, the main objective is to examine inbound open innovation adoption by exploring its antecedents in terms of dynamic organizational capabilities, its implications on innovation performance, but also its mediating role between these capabilities and Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) innovation performance. Therefore, a conceptual model was proposed and empirically tested on the basis of data extracted from a survey involving a sample of 228 Tunisian manufacturing SMEs and analyzed through the Structural Equation Modeling method. In doing so, this paper adds to the existing literature on open innovation in SMEs and fills a neglected theoretical gap by proposing a link between dynamic capabilities theory and the open innovation paradigm, two literatures that have little overlap, to improve current understanding of innovation performance in SMEs. Ultimately, by empirically confirming the significant relationship between dynamic organizational capacities and innovation performance through the mediating role of open innovation, our results are mainly relevant for entrepreneurs and innovation managers in SMEs who can find valuable guidance on how to strengthen innovation performance under the nexus between the dynamic capabilities perspective and open innovation by focusing on the development of three capabilities that are dynamic capabilities, absorptive capability, and appropriation capabilities.
... Primary data was collected through a self-developed questionnaire pre-tested through a pilot study. Survey instrument was developed based on indicators suggested by Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014) and Torkkeli et al. (2007) to measure outside-in and inside-out innovation while those suggested by Inauen and Wicki (2011) and Sözbilir (2018) for operationalization of innovation performance in a firm. Inter-organizational networks were measured through the organization's perception based on centrality, trust, proximity, knowledge qualities, and diversity of networks as suggested by Lazaric and Lorenz (1998). ...
Article
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Innovation plays a prominent role in the contemporary world. It brings novel products and services to the market while exploring new ways of production, distribution, marketing and impacts all other aspects of organizations including human behaviour through hard as well as soft methods. Open innovation has been introduced as a new paradigm in innovation management. This study examines the impact of open innovation on innovation performance of the listed companies in Sri Lanka with the moderating effect of inter-organizational networks. Open innovation practices have been recognized in this study in two folds-as outside-in open innovation and inside-out open innovation Data were collected through a survey among 165 top-level managers of listed companies in Sri Lanka. The sample was selected using purposive and snowballing sampling methods. After testing the validity and the reliability of the instrument and collected data, simple regression analysis was conducted to Issue 3/2021 30 test the hypotheses. The study findings indicate that both outside-in open innovation and inside-out open innovation positively and significantly impact innovation performance. Further, results show that inter-organization networks positively moderate the effect of both inside-out open innovation and outside-in open innovation on innovation performance.
... First, it contributes to the literature on incubators and accelerators. Business incubation mechanisms have received increasing attention in the OI literature (Chesbrough and Brunswicker, 2014;Van de Vrande et al., 2009), demonstrating that being located in the open environment of a business incubator is one of the main factors affecting startup success. Scillitoe and Chakrabarti (2010) found that incubator managers offer relevant business assistance that helps startups learn Standard errors in parentheses. ...
Article
Accelerator programs are emerging in recent years as a new model of startup assistance. However, despite the rapid proliferation of such programs, academic literature on the topic is surprisingly scarce. In particular, previous literature has neglected to investigate how the open environment provided by startup accelerators can enhance the innovation performance of accelerated startups despite Open Innovation practices are commonly adopted in acceleration programs. To address this gap, we investigate how startups participating in accelerator programs can enhance innovation performance through sources of external knowledge provided by startup accelerators. In doing so, we draw data from 113 startups accelerated by Italian accelerators since 2013. Our results reveal that different sources of external knowledge provided by accelerators are beneficial for different innovation outcomes contributing to the literature on accelerators. Moreover, our findings contribute to the literature on startups and open innovation highlighting that different external sources of knowledge increase innovation performance of startups.
... Regarding the third research question from an interorganizational relationship perspective, the results indicate that individual data owners benefit from a data sharing alliance for detecting anomalies within trajectories instead of relying on fragmented data islands otherwise. Firms usually engage in data sharing alliances in order to improve their own resource base and innovation capability by accessing unique resources from different partner organization [5]. As shown in Table 3 and discussed above, after a certain threshold participants will result in a better detection accuracy when holding only a fraction of the information necessary for detecting abnormal behavior. ...
... Companies' ability to manage knowledge successfully helps achieve a competitive advantage and increases financial performance (Teece, 2010). Various studies have shown that innovation benefits significantly from access to different knowledge sources (Chesbrough & Brunswicker, 2014). The process by which knowledge is shared and the extent to which they can retain this knowledge from competitors. ...
Article
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For the development of a modern organization, it is essential to have a goal other than generating profit. Corporate culture understood as a construct critical to the organization's successful development, based on transparency, acceptable practices, interactive communications, makes the organization's strategies more inspiring and clear to stakeholders. Such a corporate culture helps to transform organizational structures into more equal, team-based ones, involving the formation of networks of partners and facilitating participation in business ecosystems. The described corporate culture is based on constant change. It helps transform traditional management approaches to emphasize sharing and participation, assisting the stakeholders to be independent and stay connected. It supports all business processes-including innovative and socially responsible practices. This culture can be defined as a socially responsible culture of innovation. It helps companies to perceive transformation as an opportunity to create results and shape them later through organizational learning and knowledge exchange. Change is an element of organizational growth related to understanding the importance of communications, innovation, corporate culture, and stakeholders' relationships. This article presents a model created by the author of the culture of socially responsible innovation.
... In order to provide a strong theoretical contribution to these research domains we analysed the challenges that can hamper effective collaborative innovation in SMEs as well as their effective involvement in regional entrepreneurial ecosystems (Brunswicker and Chesbrough 2018;Chesbrough and Brunswicker 2014;Laursen and Salter 2006;Radziwon and Bogers 2019;Zardini et al. 2018). SMEs are in fact traditionally oriented to engage in collaboration in the commercialisation phase of a technology rather than its experimental and pre-competitive phase (Verbano et al. 2015), such as the project we analysed. ...
Chapter
Digital transformation poses different challenges to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Governments and policymakers are launching several initiatives to engage SMEs in open innovation (OI) and to promote collaborative models oriented to facilitate the adoption of new digital technologies. However, most of the OI literature focuses on large companies and high-tech start-ups and we have little evidence about the barriers to OI in low- and medium-tech SMEs. This paper develops a multiple embedded case-study on seven Italian R&D pre-competitive collaborative projects in the domain of Industry 4.0. We have collected semi-structured interviews, triangulated with participant observation and document analysis to develop an exploratory analysis to individuate the barriers to OI in low- and medium-tech SMEs in inter-organizational projects. We classified barriers in four different dimensions (administration/finance, organization, strategy, and collaboration), analyzing every dimension in detail.KeywordsDigital transformationSMEsInter-organizational projectsOpen innovationBarriers
... In addition, IP is moving from only a protection mechanism to a tradable good; for example, the Deutsche Bank buys substantial IP mostly from universities and high-tech ventures (Gassmann, Enkel, and Chesbrough 2010). Consequently, Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014) suggest that the practice of buying and selling innovations is becoming prevalent in large companies with customer co-creation, informal networking and university grants as the most common inbound practices, while outbound practices include joint ventures and selling market-ready product ideas to another company that eventually sells the products. ...
Article
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In an environment of changing customer needs, technological advancement and digitization, the importance of business model innovation in supporting companies to accrue benefits from increased digitization while counteracting threats has intensified. Factors driving business model innovation could be of value in facilitating business model innovation success and accrue benefits from increasing digitization. As the factors driving business model innovation are often triggers for the next cycle, however, there is limited empirical research on factors driving business model innovation. This paper presents empirical findings on factors driving business model innovation using unstructured interviews with nine executives from five sample companies in South Africa. Main finding from the research indicate that both external and internal factors such as existential crises, serve as valuable triggers for business model innovation. Furthermore, entrepreneurial inspirational leadership and quality of staff are important conditions for business model innovation success. The study findings imply that both companies and policymakers who seek to facilitate innovation need to take into account the impact of the business model innovation triggers on business model innovation success. The main contribution of the paper is the empirical finding on factors driving business model innovation using as a lens the sample case study companies.
... Many years later, the term "open innovation" was already long known, and intensively applied, Chesbrough and Brunswicker (2014) showed in their empirical study of 125 large firms that participants exhibited only a moderate satisfaction with their current outcomes of OI initiatives as they lack systematic planning approaches. Being one of the most complex organizational activities to manage due to their multi-directional nature (Slowinski and Sagal, 2010), OI partnerships require integrative practices that control and guide these type of innovation projects through their lifecycle (Barbosa et al., 2021;Keinz and Marhold, 2021). ...
Article
A key challenge in open innovation (OI) projects relates to the tension of facilitating open knowledge exchange processes while ensuring sufficient protection to avoid knowledge leakage. Although prior research has discussed several solutions to balance sharing with protecting, these practices either tend to lay too much or not enough emphasis on knowledge protection. In this article, we complement current research by examining whether the formal control mechanisms, prespecified behaviors and prespecified outcomes, may serve as more efficacious project management solutions. We investigate their effect on OI project performance and knowledge leakage and compare their influence with that of contracts, using a data set of 106 new product OI projects in high-technology industries. We find that prespecified behaviors influence project performance in the form of an inverted U-shape, while prespecified outcome increases project performance in a linear fashion. Contracts decrease knowledge leakage while having no influence on project performance. Our study contributes to a more elevated understanding of the role of project management in coping better with the inherent sharing-protecting tension in OI.
Chapter
We argue in favor of Open Innovation (OI). It is the idea that firms can intentionally appropriate complementary knowledge from external sources. OI considers inbound and outbound activities—for profit or not—to access, transform, use, or release knowledge, through the establishment of partnerships and alliances. We suggest that OI should not be considered as an independent theory, but rather as an evolution of the linear (closed) innovation process—a strategic response to profound transformations of technological, social, and economic regimens. However, regardless of its popularity as a strategic tool for value creation, OI is not yet a formal activity in firms, and therefore it does not have a considerable effect in their operational performance. In this context, organizational culture plays a key role. We argue that once formalized, OI can be a powerful strategic asset to develop new business models for products and services.
Chapter
This chapter takes stock of the empirical literature on research and development (R&D) alliances, one among other open-innovation (OI) practices, and identifies opportunities to bring the traditions of research on R&D alliances and OI into closer alignment. Through a structured literature review, it finds a wealth of research on the antecedents and consequences of R&D alliances and their characteristics, and almost half the sampled articles study R&D alliances alongside other OI practices. The chapter establishes that the core of the R&D alliance literature is rich and fairly balanced. Yet, it also argues that productive opportunities exist for more comprehensively examining the interdependencies between R&D alliances and other OI practices in their effects on performance.
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