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Purpose – Patience is underestimated in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of patience and the individual and organizational benefits it confers. Then, the paper discuses emotional self-regulation and explain how two self-regulatory techniques can affect the patience of individuals in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper considers religious, philosophical, and psychological perspectives on patience; and highlight the emotional underpinnings of patience. Findings – The paper argues that patience plays an important role in organizations and that individuals can use emotional self-regulation to enhance their patience. The paper offers two key points about the relationship between self-regulation strategies and patience: first, situation selection mitigates the need for patience and second cognitive reappraisal facilitates the execution of patient responses and the development of the virtue itself. Practical implications – The paper provides recommendations for increasing individuals’ patience in organizational settings. Originality/value – The virtue of patience has received scant research attention. This paper focusses on the importance of patience in the workplace and examines how emotional self-regulation can facilitate its activation.
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... Exhibiting patience seems to involve balancing the polarities of apathy and irascibility, and passivity and overreaction, that is, balancing the reactivity of avoidance and anger (Comer & Sekerka, 2014). Patience has been theoretically linked to humility (Comer & Sekerka, 2014;Schnitker et al., 2017), and some depictions of patience share aspects with Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
... Exhibiting patience seems to involve balancing the polarities of apathy and irascibility, and passivity and overreaction, that is, balancing the reactivity of avoidance and anger (Comer & Sekerka, 2014). Patience has been theoretically linked to humility (Comer & Sekerka, 2014;Schnitker et al., 2017), and some depictions of patience share aspects with Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
... For example, patience is thought to involve setting "aside self-interests for the good of another," and perceiving one's own needs and desires as "no more (or less) important than … others'" (Comer & Sekerka, 2014, p. 8). Unique to patience, however, is that patience occurs in response to disappointment, frustration, and suffering, and in responding, a patient person will engage in effective intra-and interpersonal regulation of emotion (Comer & Sekerka, 2014;Schnitker, 2012). Kierkegaard suggested patience was a key virtue in R/S development (Bowen, 2020), and the monastic theologian John Cassian linked the formation of patience to humility (Casey, 1986). ...
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Prior research on the religiousness/spirituality—well-being association has largely neglected the dimension of religious/spiritual exploration, and the recent trend examining virtues, religiousness/spirituality, and well-being has predominantly involved cross-sectional data. We expanded prior research by analyzing a longitudinal model consisting of three waves of data, approximately 6 months between waves, that explored the associations between experiential avoidance, humility, patience, religious/spiritual exploration, and distinct dimensions of well-being. We used joy as an indicator of the positive emotion dimension of subjective well-being, and presence of meaning in life as an indicator of eudaimonic well-being. We used a diverse sample of emerging religious leaders attending 18 graduate theological schools across North America (N = 283; Mage = 29.81; SD = 0.51; range = 19–62; 47.7% female; 61.8% White). We observed a negative influence for initial levels of exploration on later joy and meaning in life, when initial levels of experiential avoidance were high and humility was low. In contrast, we found a positive influence for initial levels of exploration on later joy and meaning in life, when initial levels of experiential avoidance remained high and humility was high. Initial levels of patience exhibited a positive influence on meaning in life 1 year later, indirectly via greater levels of exploration at time 2. Practical implications centered on providing opportunities for individuals to explore alternative beliefs, practices and experiences, and encouraging engagement in humility and patience self-cultivation practices, each of which could move them toward greater well-being.
... Bireysel faydalar: Sabırlı davranan birey hızlı ve ani karar vermek yerine rasyonel karar ve davranış sergileme eğilimindedir. Kişinin gecikmiş isteklerinin yerine getirilmesi ile başa çıkma yeteneği olumsuz sonuçlarla ters ve olumlu sonuçlarla pozitif yönde korelasyon gösterir (Comer & Sekerka, 2014). Öyleyse kişi sabır göstererek oluşabilecek olumsuz olayları en düşük seviyeye indirebilir denilebilir. ...
... Örgütsel faydalar: Örgütsel gelişme ve büyüme için zor koşullarla sabırla baş etmek gerekir. Bu da kaliteyi artıran önemli bir unsurdur (Comer & Sekerka, 2014). İşyerinde sabrın bir diğer potansiyel faydası, kişilerarası etkileşimleri daha da artırarak performansı yükseltebilmesidir (Pearson & Porath, 2005). ...
... Bireyler, etkisiz ve istenmeyen durumlar için faydalı ve uygun duygusal durumları yönetmeye çalışırlar. Diğer bir deyişle, daha uyumlu bir yanıt ve yaşantı oluşturmak için öz düzenlemeyi kullanabilirler(Comer & Sekerka, 2014). Bu da beraberinde tabiki sabrı getirmektedir.Bireylerin sabır göstermeleri için durumsal yaklaşımlarının seçimi, kendilerini alıkoymaktan kaçınmak için adımlar atmayı içerir. ...
Article
Article Info Abstract This research was conducted to identify views of PhD students regarding the concept of patience in academia. The research was carried out with 8 PhD students studying at a Faculty of Education in Aegean Region in 2018-2019 academic years. Phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in the study. The participants were selected on a volunteer basis with criterion sampling, convenience sampling and maximum variation sampling methods. The data was collected with semi-structured interview form created by the researcher and analyzed with content analysis method. Validity, reliability and ethics were considered in the study. The concept of patience was addressed within the categories of finding a solution and closing the case and education. The researcher has reached the conclusion that PhD students can show patience to courses/academic studies, friends, academicians and physical environment; and showing patience creates psychological, physical and familial effects as well as effects on social life and effects related to friends.
... Bireysel faydalar: Sabırlı davranan birey hızlı ve ani karar vermek yerine rasyonel karar ve davranış sergileme eğilimindedir. Kişinin gecikmiş isteklerinin yerine getirilmesi ile başa çıkma yeteneği olumsuz sonuçlarla ters ve olumlu sonuçlarla pozitif yönde korelasyon gösterir (Comer & Sekerka, 2014). Öyleyse kişi sabır göstererek oluşabilecek olumsuz olayları en düşük seviyeye indirebilir denilebilir. ...
... Örgütsel faydalar: Örgütsel gelişme ve büyüme için zor koşullarla sabırla baş etmek gerekir. Bu da kaliteyi artıran önemli bir unsurdur (Comer & Sekerka, 2014). İşyerinde sabrın bir diğer potansiyel faydası, kişilerarası etkileşimleri daha da artırarak performansı yükseltebilmesidir (Pearson & Porath, 2005). ...
... Bireyler, etkisiz ve istenmeyen durumlar için faydalı ve uygun duygusal durumları yönetmeye çalışırlar. Diğer bir deyişle, daha uyumlu bir yanıt ve yaşantı oluşturmak için öz düzenlemeyi kullanabilirler(Comer & Sekerka, 2014). Bu da beraberinde tabiki sabrı getirmektedir.Bireylerin sabır göstermeleri için durumsal yaklaşımlarının seçimi, kendilerini alıkoymaktan kaçınmak için adımlar atmayı içerir. ...
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Araştırma doktora öğrencilerinin akademide sabır kavramına ilişkin görüşlerini tespit etmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışma, 2018-2019 akademik yılında Aydın Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi’nde doktora öğrenimi gören 8 doktora öğrencisi ile yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada nitel araştırma desenlerinden fenomenoloji deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada katılımcılar ölçüt örneklem, kolay ulaşılabilir durum örneklemesi ve maksimum çeşitlilik örnekleme yöntemi ile gönüllülük esasına göre seçilmişlerdir. Araştırmada veriler, araştırmacı tarafından oluşturulan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu ile toplanmış, veriler içerik analizi yöntem ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmada geçerlik, güvenirlik, etik unsurlara dikkat edilmiştir. Araştırmada sabır kavramı çözüm yolu bulma ve olayı kapatma ile eğitim kategorileri içerisinde ele alınmıştır. Akademide dersler/akademik çalışmalar, arkadaşlar, hocalar ve fiziki ortama sabır gösterildiği; akademide sabır göstermenin doktora öğrencileri üzerinde psikolojik, bedensel, ailesel ve sosyal hayat/arkadaşlar ilişkileri üzerinde etkileri olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.
... These studies have also shown that awe is unique to other positive emotions in that (1) it can evoke the feeling of "small self" and make people feel more connected to others and the world around them, which decreases self-oriented behaviors and increases other-oriented or prosocial behaviors; and (2) it can alter perceptions of time availability, rendering people to perceive that time is more plentiful, and thus reduces their impatience and increases their future-oriented behaviors. These findings suggest that, in the workplace, awe can possibly increase employee organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), ethical decision making, patience, and subjective well-being, as well as promote an inclusive and supportive organizational climate, all of which are major concerns of organizational scholars and practitioners (Comer and Sekerka, 2014;Craft, 2013;Ocampo et al., 2018). Therefore, it is important for both scholars and managerial practitioners to understand whether awe can be elicited in the workplace, and if so, the approaches to promoting awe at work. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its practical importance, the emotion of awe has received scant research attention in the organizational literature. To facilitate future scholarship on this important topic, we explore and compare the elicitors of awe at work in three countries representing two culture clusters, including the U.S. and Canada (the Anglo cluster) and China (the Confucian Asia cluster). We gathered responses from 163 working adults from the U.S. and Canada and 126 working adults from China using open-response survey, and analyzed each response following the guidance of grounded theory. Across cultures, there are ten common elicitors of awe, including virtue of organization, ability and achievement of organization, beauty of workplace, virtue of colleagues, ability and achievement of colleagues, dedication of colleagues, charisma of colleagues, status and power of colleagues, personal growth and achievement, and perceived meaningfulness. Looking within cultures, we found two awe elicitors that are specific to China: status and power of organization, and work content. Organizations and supervisors wishing to induce the emotion of awe would be well-advised to pay attention to the design of their workplace, as well as their attitudes and behaviors toward employees, customers, and the general public. This study contributes to the emotion literature, organizational literature, and cross-cultural literature by demonstrating elicitors of awe in the workplace across the Anglo cluster and the Confucian Asia cluster.
... When the relevant literature is examined, there are few studies that directly examine the relationship between patience and difficulty in regulating emotion (Khormaei et al., 2016). When current studies are examined, patience is more encouraging to use emotion regulation strategies (Comer & Sekerka, 2014), helping to control emotions (Schnitker & Emmons, 2007), protecting against negative emotions (Kahn, 2006) and fighting against harsh living conditions (Curry , Price, & Price, 2008;Morinis, 2007). In a similar study, Kıral (2019) stated that patience at the academy has implications for important areas of life such as psychological, physical, familial and social life. ...
Article
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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between patience, emotion regulation difficulty, and cognitive flexibility among university students, and to determine the predictability of patience in cognitive flexibility and emotion regulation difficulty. The study group of the study consisted of 342 (65.5%) females, 180 (34.5%) males, 522 university students whose age range varies between 18-25 and with an average age of 21.30. In the study, as data collection tools; Patience Scale, Emotion Regulation Difficulty Scale Short Form and Cognitive Flexibility Inventory were used. The data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis techniques. According to the findings of the research; negative between patience and difficulty in regulating emotions (r =-. 25, p <.01); Cognitive flexibility with positive (r =-. 28, p <.01) direction were found significant. According to multiple regression analysis, emotion regulation difficulty and cognitive flexibility were found to explain 18% of patience variance, and cognitive flexibility was found to be the strongest predictive variable. Findings are discussed according to the literature.
... Therefore, patience heightens the ambiguity tolerance of individuals in different situations due to the fact that patience is like self-strain and tolerance (4). Moreover, patience is defined in recognized religions of the world as a moral virtue of an individual, which enables them to deal with everyday hardships and big challenges (2). As a result, patience helps individuals to accept situations, which seem difficult or even impossible to change. ...
... Time saving and performance improving technologies are increasingly applied in organisations. An inherent facet of these technologies is ongoing development, yet organisations seem to pay little attention to the capacity necessary for processes with an unforeseen time-span, such as developments, that is, the capacity of patience (Verstegen 2015;Comer and Sekerka 2014). This study aims at elucidating the role of patience in relation to a digitalised work environment. ...
... Time saving and performance improving technologies are increasingly applied in organisations. An inherent facet of these technologies is ongoing development, yet organisations seem to pay little attention to the capacity necessary for processes with an unforeseen time-span, such as developments, that is, the capacity of patience (Verstegen 2015;Comer and Sekerka 2014). This study aims at elucidating the role of patience in relation to a digitalised work environment. ...
Presentation
Over the last decades, remote work arrangements (RWAs), such as teleworking, mobile working and virtual working, have acquired increasing relevance within the organizational landscape, in conjunction with the rise of new ICTs that enable their large- scale adoption in organizations. Although these work practices are largely intended to generate positive outcomes for organizations and their employees, these outcomes depend on the process of implementation of RWAs programs where a critical concern is represented by organizational control and supervisory practices. Embracing a post-Fordist vision, some authors (e.g. Lautsch et al., 2009; Wiensenfeld et al., 1999) predict that RWAs would led to a change in traditional organizational control mechanisms and practices, with a weakening of technocratic control and more emphasis on output control, self-control and remote workers' autonomy. To date, empirical research (e.g. Dimitrova, 2003; Taskin & Sewell, 2015) has not confirmed this (positive) change in all contexts and evidences still remain inconclusive about which changes RWAs produce on organizational control mechanisms and supervisory approaches. Contrary to mentioned work by e.g. Lautsch et al., 2009 and Wiensenfeld et al. 1999, and similarly to studies on "autonomy" (Barley & Kunda, 2004; Barker, 1993), Taskin and Sewell (2015) showed that after telework adoption both professional and nonprofessional workers perceived restrictions on their autonomy due to an intensification of technocratic control; however, they were willing to accept diminished autonomy and even contributed to reinforce socio-ideological control based on socialization practices, workplace norms (e.g. trust) and the image of the "ideal worker" (Putnam et al., 2014) constantly available to colleagues and connected to the organization (see also Mazmanian et al., 2013). Further research is needed to understand how RWAs adoption affects control and how perceptions of autonomy engender tensions to be managed across different contexts. In this regard, management literature on RWAs has privileged home-based teleworking, neglecting mobile teleworking, which "involves travel and/or spending time on customers' premises" with laptop computers and mobile phones supporting work execution (Hislop and Axtell, 2007), as well as new flexible and virtual work practices where the integration of ICTs enabled to access anytime and anywhere to information through tablets and smartphones (Messenger & Gschwind, 2016). More importantly, there is a paucity of empirical research addressing control and supervisory in mobile working and how these issues related to autonomy perceptions (e.g. Dambrin, 2004 Leclercq-Vandelannoitte et al., 2014; Limburg & Jackson, 2007). In this context, empirical results found that mobile teleworkers defend their autonomy and 90 resist new forms of control, or, on the contrary, accepted intrusive control (enabled by mobile technologies), in exchange of higher flexibility. In order to provide insights about the interplay between control and autonomy in the context of remote working, we conducted a longitudinal case study in an Italian subsidiary of a Dutch company manufacturing and selling pneumatic solutions. In PneumOne (a pseudonym) we conducted 21 semi-structured interviews lasting 90 minutes on average with all sales force and their sales manager in the transition from office-based mobile working, i.e. all salespeople had an assigned workstation in different local branch located all over the country, to home-based mobile teleworking. This was due to the dismiss of all Italian local branches with the exception of one located in Northern Italy, that became the only corporate headquarters for all Italian employees, both office-based and home-based. Interviews, carried on between December 2014 and November 2015, were related to two temporal stages, i.e. the passage from office-based mobile working to home-based mobile teleworking and six months after its implementation. The case was enlightening since RWA adoption was realized in conjunction with the transfer of the pneumatic business by a multi-business and multi- national company to an investment fund aimed at improving the operational efficiency and fostering the market growth of the new firm. Interviews were integrated with documents including organizational charts, presentations, brochures and main artifacts directly or indirectly used as tools of control for salespeople. Following Gioia et al. (2012), data analysis was based on an inductive process and realized through moving from first- order to second-order themes, cycling between existing concepts and categories in the relevant literature (e.g. "perceptions of control") and emerging data and themes (e.g. "striving for autonomy"). Our research found that remote work adoption in PneumOne reduced rather than intensified technocratic control, including behavioral and output control rules and procedures, making it less obtrusive. Notably, output control continues to be based on a historically-based practice of Management by Objectives, that materialized in an annual personnel review document, that pre- existed in the former multi-business firm and continued to be used in PneumOne to assign measureable objectives (i.e. annual revenue targets). Moreover, behavioral supervision and control - historically based on joint customer visits and telephone calls made by supervisor to salespeople - were reduced in frequency. Although the overall loosening of formal control was the result of a contingent situation (i.e. new firm with scant resources) rather than a corporate decision, the sales manager tended to justify control practices and his supervision style through the "rethoric of autonomy" used to describe professional salespeople' work. In response to enhanced autonomy, remote workers, however, generally expressed de-escalation in organizational commitment and identification. Indeed, they would be willing to give up part of their autonomy to fulfill their committment to others (e.g. customers) by adhering to rules inscribed in material artifacts of formal control (e.g. CRM, Outlook), by receiving visits from their supervisor, by participating in formal meetings. These, counterintuitively, were an emergent form of technocratic control driven by salespeople's social agency and their will to meet periodically to build team cohesion and improve collective performance. Perceptions of poor supervision and failure of artefacts designed for control, led teleworkers to rely on individual resources, 91 such as self-designed artifacts (e.g. excel files) or personal skills (e.g. technical competences), in order to enable the self-organization and self-monitoring of their work. The reiteration of these routines led over time to reinforce a negatively framed "culture of inadequate control" rather than a positively framed "culture of autonomy" and to shared expectations of individualistic behaviors detrimental for reciprocal support and team building.
Chapter
There is a gap in the existing exegetical research for organizational leadership when it comes to the Epistle of James the brother of Jesus and cynic-turned-believer. This chapter examines James 4:13–5:12 for biblical insights into contemporary organizational leadership. The historical, social, and cultural background of the epistle of James is discussed. Then an exegetical study of the selected pericope is conducted. This exegetical study yielded the following six principles: leader humility, just compensation of workers, patience, refraining from backbiting, endurance, and integrity. The ways in which each of these principles applies to contemporary organizational leadership are then discussed.
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In this research, we examine the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on patience, which is operationalized as willingness to wait for a chosen alternative. Because decision makers socialized in low (high) socioeconomic status environments learn a model of agency that emphasizes exerting self-control (vs. exerting environmental control), we predict that they will exhibit greater (less) willingness to wait for a chosen alternative. In three studies in which participants of various ages chose an alternative and then learned that it was not immediately available, lower childhood socioeconomic status consistently predicted greater willingness to wait and less negative emotional reactions to waiting. We discuss implications of this effect in organizational settings.
Book
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In this famous excerpt from The Republic, Plato develops and explains the allegory of the cave. In the cave are people who have lived their entire lives chained to the cave, and they have only been able to watch the shadows that are projected onto the walls in front of them. Plato surmises that the people in the cave would assume that the shadows on the wall constitute reality. Plato then supposes that a person leaves the cave and steps out into the sunshine. Once his/her eyes adjusted, s/he would see that the things around him/her were real, while the shadows would appear fake. Plato likens this to the search for Truth that he advocates. He argues that once one sees the Truth, all other ideas will be no different than shadows on a cave wall.
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The premise that a successfully initiated behavior will be maintained over time can be found either implicitly or explicitly in most, if not all, models of behavioral decision making. Yet this premise is at variance with behavioral data obtained across a range of domains. Specifically, people who have successfully initiated a new pattern of behavior more often than not fail to sustain that behavior over time. Furthermore, intervention strategies that have been shown to help people initiate changes in their behavior have not had a similar impact on rates of behavioral maintenance The observation that initial behavioral success does not ensure continued success suggests that greater attention must be given to the manner in which newly enacted behaviors evolve into a habit. Although behavioral maintenance can be operationally defined as a series of similar decisions to take action, the processes that guide people's behavioral decisions need not be invariant over time. In this chapter, we first review how investigators have traditionally conceptualized the processes that underlie the ongoing self-regulation of behavior. To date, if anything, different phases in the behavior change process have been described. Although there is value in specifying the behavioral markers that characterize people at each point in the behavior change process, these descriptions must be complemented by an understanding of the factors that regulate transitions through each phase. We propose that once people have chosen to initiate a new pattern of behavior, four distinct phases in the behavior change process can be identified. Furthermore, the primary determinants of the behavior shift as people transition from one phase to the next. To this end, we examine a series of hypotheses regarding the differential influence of specific factors throughout the behavior change process. We hope that this framework will motivate a new generation of theorizing and empirical investigations that will afford a better specification of the factors that facilitate or inhibit behavioral maintenance.
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"In private life, we try to induce or suppress love, envy, and anger through deep acting or "emotion work," just as we manage our outer expressions of feeling through surface acting. In trying to bridge a gap between what we feel and what we "ought" to feel, we take guidance from "feeling rules" about what is owing to others in a given situation. Based on our private mutual understandings of feeling rules, we make a "gift exchange" of acts of emotion management. We bow to each other not simply from the waist, but from the heart. But what occurs when emotion work, feeling rules, and the gift of exchange are introduced into the public world of work? In search of the answer, Arlie Russell Hochschild closely examines two groups of public-contact workers: flight attendants and bill collectors. The flight attendant's job is to deliver a service and create further demand for it, to enhance the status of the customer and be "nicer than natural." The bill collector's job is to collect on the service, and if necessary, to deflate the status of the customer by being "nastier than natural." Between these extremes, roughly one-third of American men and one-half of American women hold jobs that call for substantial emotional labor. In many of these jobs, they are trained to accept feeling rules and techniques of emotion management that serve the company's commercial purpose. Just as we have seldom recognized or understood emotional labor, we have not appreciated its cost to those who do it for a living. Like a physical laborer who becomes estranged from what he or she makes, an emotional laborer, such as a flight attendant, can become estranged not only from her own expressions of feeling (her smile is not "her" smile), but also from what she actually feels (her managed friendliness). This estrangement, though a valuable defense against stress, is also an important occupational hazard, because it is through our feelings that we are connected with those around us. On the basis of this book, Hochschild was featured in Key Sociological Thinkers, edited by Rob Stones. This book was also the winner of the Charles Cooley Award in 1983, awarded by the American Sociological Association and received an honorable mention for the C. Wright Mills Award. © 1983, 2003, 2012 by The Regents of the University of California.