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The Language of Internet Memes

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... However, provided the broad range of selection of knowledge employers can have the ability to access online any time freely as well as longevity and stability, there is distinctly a range of ground on which applicants might encounter the practice as demonstrated by (BROWN; VAUGHN, 2011). If applicants are tuned down on the indication of erroneous data, notably if received without their consent, management might aspect legal challenges (DAVISON, 2012). An additional issue can likely defamation of character through on-line posts with third parties: "defamation of character can be a tangle if websites contain inaccurate and slanderous data that may be a major legal concern with traditional background checks" (DAVISON, 2012). ...
... According to Brown and Vaughn (2011) explained that employers are more exposed to the utilization of on-line screening, this might ultimately bring the result of legal activities. The case for companies functioning in numerous settings are likewise sophisticated, also as ensured classes and discrimination laws and rules can change country to country (DAVISON, 2012). http://www.ijmp.jor.br ...
... Similarly, a researcher noticed that few people have claimed that these web search conveniences give distinct methods to use for hiring, nevertheless once looked at in extra detail, it may look like old job searching is as yet being managed through this new channel (SEARLE, 2006). A researcher proposed that companies should implement some guidelines that might be utilized to identify risk associated with social media hiring (DAVISON, 2012). Most companies don't have guidelines that follow best selection practices (DAVISON et al., 2011). ...
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The utilization of social media has expanded rapidly in the 21st century; the majority of people use social media and social networking sites (SNSs) especially millennial “Generation Y” (born between 1980 to 1994 and now 26 to 40 years old). The purpose of the study is to observe the responsiveness of Millennial (Generation Y) to social media recruitment campaign in Pakistan. The research involves the dependent variable as recruitment and selection of generation Y and four independent variables as perceived costs, perceived risks, perceived opportunities, and perceived benefits. Survey sent to 150 respondents, out of which 106 being received. The data gathered was tested by using the SPSS for descriptive statistics, standard deviations, Correlation, regression analysis was done to check the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The results of the first objective revealed that the utilization of social networking in recruitment is inexpensive for many companies, the outcomes of the second variable indicated that when using social media, the human resource professionals gather consistent information for all candidates making fair and speedy hiring, to analyze the third objective, the outcomes have shown that there are numerous risks associated while using social networking sites and lastly when testing the fourth objective observed that various organizations don't have job portal page for recruitment of Millennial (Generation Y) and majority candidates use LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter for job searching. The study concluded that the appropriate utilization of social networking sites in the recruitment and selection of Millennial (Generation Y) provides excess to a more extensive pool of candidates, is cost-effective, faster, and practical for organizations. They take benefit by utilizing social networking sites for recruitment campaigns yet the quality and competency of candidates not compromised however the candidate’s information privacy risk need mitigation.
... We assess the spread of content using memetic propagation analysis (MPA) techniques in order to produce a linear, graphical memetic analysis (LiGMA) to visualize the spread of our examples over time. Next, we assess the visual quality of imagery and changes in visual compression between discrete copies of memetic images using a specially trained version of No-Reference (NR) Image Quality Assessment (IQA) enabled by Mittal, et al's (2011;2012) Blind/Referenceless Image Spatial Quality Evaluator (BRISQUE), which we have retrained for our purposes and named BRISQUEt (an acronym for "Blind/Referenceless Image Spatial Quality Evaluator: reTrained"). Based on the study, the authors conclude by making estimates concerning the specific avenues and extent of spread afforded to different copies of key sample images. ...
... The ability to copy and distribute digital media is often seen as one of its key attributes. Significant existing research within media and cultural studies offers useful definitions and critical interpretations that can enrich technical research (Parikka 2007, Davison 2012, Shifman 2014, Stein et al 2014, Gaboury 2015. Computer and information science has tackled these issues by automating various forms of content identification, evaluation, and classification, with a particular focus on identifying content that is false or misleading (Farid 2006, Gupta et al 2013, Ma et al 2013, Conroy et al 2015, Rubin 2016. ...
... Viral media was originally used to refer specifically to media that is, or is thought to be, self-replicating within host machines in the sense of a biological virus (Parikka 2007). The notion of a meme, on the other hand, emerges from evolutionary studies emphasizing the role of social activity in transmitting cultural habits (Davison 2012). In this study, we prefer the notion of memetic spread, which builds on the study of memes, as well as its etymological roots in terms like mimesis and copying. ...
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This paper introduces a mixed‐methods approach for forensically reconstructing the propagation of visual media via networked digital devices. The authors present case studies drawn from political misinformation around the January 6, 2021 riots at the U.S. Capitol. Using interpretive analysis, the authors identify traces of user interfaces that remain in images being shared about the riots. Using computational analysis, the authors evaluate compression levels in digital photographs of the events in question, thus identifying which instances of the image are closer to the source (as well as which images appear to be identical). By combining these two approaches, the authors argue that SMOC BRISQUEt refines our understanding of misinformation's memetic spread—helpful in curbing future abuses as well as in guiding the production of more effective cross‐platform spread when desired.
... Social media has become an arena for collective debate on pandemic experiences, and memes have become an essential digital tool to convey messages, criticism, or share feelings and experiences (Anapol, 2020). Memes are easy-to-understand messages, resulting from the adaptation of real-life topics attractively depicted that spread like a digital entertainment piece (Davison, 2009). Miller et al. (2020) claim that memes are also used as moderators of values and morality, turning a piece of entertainment into a covert public debate of current topics. ...
... Internet memes are a cultural expression, commonly formulated in the form of jokes or criticism that become relevant through exchanges on the internet in different formats: static, animated gif, or video (Davison, 2009). They are a kind of visual amusement with simple images that do not pretend to be necessarily beautiful or realistic but to entertain and transmit a specific message (Börzsei, 2013). ...
... Memes are messages portrayed by image and text, in a limited space, created out of trend topics, such as celebrity gaffes, political themes, cinema items, and different behaviors (Börzsei, 2013). Davison (2009) indicates that memes are composed of three aspects: the manifestation of the phenomenon, behavior undertaken in meme production, and the ideal message transmitted. ...
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Objective: the paper proposes the methodological use of memes as a shortcut to explore consumer culture. Memes as cultural texts can reveal collective circulating ideologies that may not be accessed through regular interviews. Context: memes are cultural texts that convey easy-to-understand messages, gaining strength within social networks. Cultural texts playfully present the social context and beliefs of societies. We analyzed circulating memes during the COVID-19 pandemic about elderly consumers in Brazil to outline a methodological protocol. Method: we analyzed memes adopting the discourse model to conduct qualitative research of memes as a shortcut to cultural discourses. We collected memes during March and May 2020 using social media networks. They were classified following thematic analysis. Result: the proposal is a methodological procedure for analyzing memes as a cultural text. The process starts with the outline of a data collection protocol, followed by data analysis guidelines, illustrated by the context of elderly consumers. Conclusion: the analysis of memes as cultural texts contributed to understanding of consumer behavior through current cultural content, revealing contrasting ideologies that emerge from consumers, as covert value-systems, circulating alongside institutional mass-mediated ideologies.
... Internet memes are understood as "a piece of culture, typically a joke, which gains influence through online transmission" (Davison, 2012). Specifically, a meme is a multimodal artefact manipulated by users, who merge intertextual elements to convey an ironic message. ...
... Task A: Meme Detection. The lack of consensus around what defines a meme (Shifman, 2013) led to different definitions, focusing on circulation (Davison, 2012;Dawkins, 2016), formal features (Milner, 2016), or content (Gal et al., 2016;Knobel and Lankshear, 2007). For this dataset, manual coding focused both on formal aspects (such as layout, multimodality and manipulation) as well as content (e.g. ...
Chapter
DANKMEMES is a shared task proposed for the 2020 EVALITA campaign, focusing on the automatic classification of Internet memes. Providing a corpus of 2.361 memes on the 2019 Italian Government Crisis, DANKMEMES features three tasks: A) Meme Detection, B) Hate Speech Identification, and C) Event Clustering. Overall, 5 groups took part in the first task, 2 in the second and 1 in the third. The best system was proposed by the UniTor group and achieved a F1 score of 0.8501 for task A, 0.8235 for task B and 0.2657 for task C. In this report, we describe how the task was set up, we report the system results and we discuss them.
... Coined in 1976 by Dawkins (1976), the term 'meme' was originally introduced as the cultural counterpart of biological genes and widely discussed within the research area of memetics (Schlaile, 2021). In recent years, media studies scholars have re-employed the term to indicate a type of user-generated digital object virally circulating on the web: in this sense, the currently shared definition of memes is that of multimodal cultural artefacts, which are created, remixed, and shared by users across various digital platforms (Shifman, 2014;Milner, 2016;Davison, 2012). According to this conceptualisation, users' manipulative practices play a key role in the dynamics of meme diffusion. ...
... In the case of De Luca, a multiplicity of pages originated the cult, while in the case of Conte one page was mainly responsible, followed by copycats, but the result was the same. Coherently with the nature of memes that deny the value of authorship (Davison, 2012), the memetic cult constitutes the outcome emerging from the efforts of a chaotic ensemble of connected or independent actors guided by political aims, a pure 'logic of the lulz' (Milner, 2013), or a combination of them (Fang, 2018). Notably, mass media (digital) newspapers and magazines remain relevant actors, as in both cases their coverage of the emerging cults helped their diffusion, knowledge and transmediality. ...
Article
Our contribution aims at conceptualising the notion of «memetic cult of personality», which originates from the memetic production surrounding political figures, especially during periods of intense media coverage, like that triggered by the Coronavirus outbreak. To do so, we focus on two case studies from the Italian political sphere: former Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte and Governor of Campania Region Vincenzo De Luca, both prominent media figures during the first lockdown. Relying on digital methods for the data collection, our empirical inquiry focuses on a corpus of static image memes, memetic videos and newspaper articles collected across different platforms. By adopting a combination of automated visual analysis and discourse analysis, we demonstrate that memetic cults show some of the traits traditionally attributed to personality cults, while displaying unique features as well. At a general level, it is maintained that memetic cults are co-constructed by users participating in the collaborative practices of memetic production and circulation. Leveraging the ambiguous logic of meme culture, we also illustrate how these cults fuel doppelganger characters and alternative narratives, in which support and mockery are blended together.
... El uso de memes se ha extendido y popularizado en los últimos años en los espacios de internet, convirtiéndose en una de las prácticas habituales de la conversación social. El fenómeno de los memes ha sido estudiado desde diferentes prismas, partiendo de las ideas conceptuales de Dawkins (1976), hasta su popularidad y desarrollo en internet (Shifman, 2014;Shifman y Thelwall, 2009;Milner, 2013Milner, , 2015 y entendido como "a piece of culture, typically a joke, which gains influence through online transmission" (Davison, 2012). ...
... Los memes online, como elementos clave de la cultura popular, desempeñan un papel importante en la creación de significado y en el reflejo de las tendencias políticas en curso (Mancera Rueda, 2020). De ahí la creciente preocupación de los investigadores por el potencial persuasivo de este nuevo género mediático en los contextos políticos (Knobel y Lankshear, 2007;Shifman y Thelwall, 2009;Davison, 2012;García-Huerta, 2014;Shifman, 2009Shifman, , 2014Chagas, 2015). Para algunos autores, el origen del uso de los memes en los contextos electorales debe situarse en las elecciones presidenciales americanas de 2012, unas de las primeras experiencias de fuerte visibilidad y presencia en las redes sociales de los memes (Burroughs, 2013). ...
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En el contexto del politainment online, el recurso de los memes políticos como fórmula humorística y creativa para configurar la imagen política se ha convertido en una práctica cada vez más habitual en las campañas electorales. Especialmente con motivo de la celebración de debates electorales, la difusión de memes políticos en redes sociales ha acaparado el interés de los académicos. Este artículo toma en consideración las taxonomías establecidas sobre los tipos de memes políticos y analiza su capacidad persuasiva. En concreto, la investigación incluye un análisis cuantitativo de los principales memes difundidos en Twitter durante los dos debates electorales que tuvieron lugar en la campaña electoral de 2019 en España: 4N y 7N. El estudio está fundamentado en la perspectiva del framing integrado (textual- visual) y se sustenta sobre el estudio del poder persuasivo de los memes basado en la importancia de cada uno de los elementos de la retórica (pathos, ethos y logos) con el objetivo de analizar, asimismo, las consecuencias sobre su viralidad y repercusión en la audiencia social.
... This line of equerry appears worthwhile considering improved mental health outcomes associated with greater use of social media activity directly related to the current pandemic [33][34][35] . Typically, internet memes depict humorous social commentaries that are contextually relevant to a particular demographic of individuals 36 . They have become a vital aspect of digital culture which are largely well established in the media by consistently maintaining current references that often step into cultural and political domains. ...
... Evidence also suggests that internet memes related to psychiatric difficulties (i.e., anxiety and depression) may be beneficial for populations who experience such difficulties [37][38][39][40] . In a survey of 133 college students, 47% of individuals reported engaging with memes as a way of alleviating psychiatric symptoms 36 . More recent research found perceptual differences between subclinical depressed and non-depressed individuals in their interpretation of depressive memes 38,41 . ...
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[Accepted - In Press] This study examined whether significantly anxious individuals differed from non-anxious individuals in their perceptual ratings of internet memes related to the Covid-19 pandemic, whilst considering the mediating role of emotion regulation. Eighty individuals presenting clinically significant anxiety symptoms (indicating 15 on the GAD-7) and 80 non-anxious controls (indicating 4) rated the emotional valance, humour, relatability, shareability, and offensiveness of 45 Covid-19 internet memes. A measure of emotion regulation difficulties was also completed. The perception of humour, relatability, and shareability were all greater amongst anxious individuals relative to non-anxious controls. These differences were not mediated by emotion regulation deficits. Internet memes related to the current Covid-19 pandemic may tentatively serve as coping mechanism for individuals experiencing severe symptoms of anxiety.
... Although simple in format, the reappropriation of memes for classroom purposes is not straightforward. Part of the essence and allure of Internet memes is their rather uncontrollable existence: they proliferate and transform through rapid and contagious, often unpredictable horizontal and intercontextual processes (Davison 2012). Through affective contagion, of which laughter is one important materialization (Emmerson 2017;Massumi 1995;Weeks 2020), internet memes may hold potentiality for disrupting embodied experience and cracking the subject open for novel responses (Stengel 2014). ...
... (Davison 2012, 122) A short overview of the history of internet memes (e.g. Davison 2012) and the current studies on them in various fields makes clear that memes are upbeat and "easy" on the surface but carry a potential for being vehicles of powerful communication. In semiotics, internet memes have been understood as speech acts (Grundlingh 2018) or collective, emerging expressions (Jenkins 2014); in political studies and critical youth studies, they have been argued to serve as building blocks of ideological meaning and propaganda (DeCook 2018), while in leisure studies they have been viewed as spaces for collectively bringing differing experiences and perspectives into contingent, shifting and affectively constituted public sphere (MacDonald 2021). ...
Article
Because of their mostly upbeat everyday presence in most people's lives globally, Internet memes have gained attention as tools in spreading information and enacting attitudinal change in the face of environmental troubles. The reappropriation of memes for classroom purposes is not straightforward, however. We focus our exploration of Internet memes in environmental education to questions of human-animal relations. The context is a higher education course on multispecies childhood studies. The question we pose is whether and how Internet memes can bring forth tensions in human-animal relations. First we review literature mapping what Internet memes are and how they relate to humour and laughter. Then we explore what memes (can) do by creating Internet memes with university students of education. And finally we turn to affect theory and suggest that the potential for environmental education that Internet memes hold, may lie in understanding and using them as feral pedagogical creatures.
... Memes are ubiquitous in online conversations. Scholars have defined Internet memes as digitized items used to convey a cultural idea or behavior that gains influence through online transmission (Davison, 2012;Shifman, 2014a). Multiple types of memes have been identified (Grundlingh, 2018), but the most common Internet meme is the image macro, which follows a standard format that involves adding text, often humorous, to a picture (Davison, 2012). ...
... Scholars have defined Internet memes as digitized items used to convey a cultural idea or behavior that gains influence through online transmission (Davison, 2012;Shifman, 2014a). Multiple types of memes have been identified (Grundlingh, 2018), but the most common Internet meme is the image macro, which follows a standard format that involves adding text, often humorous, to a picture (Davison, 2012). Grundlingh (2018) maintains that Internet memes function as verbal and non-verbal speech acts capable of communicating a variety of messages. ...
... Hoy en día, los memes hacen referencia a las ideas o conceptos expresados habitualmente de forma gráfica, audiovisual o textual, que se difunden y reproducen a sí mismos con la ayuda de internet las redes sociales, logrando captar la atención de los usuarios, gracias a su componente netamente humorístico y en tono de broma (Davison, 2012), que acaban convirtiéndose en virales. ...
... En ese sentido, Davison (2012) propone separarlos en tres componentes: manifestación (cómo se manifiesta, en cuanto a signos observables externamente), comportamiento (la acción realizada por el individuo que lo recibe y, si lo considera, transmite y/o manipula) e ideal (el concepto o la idea transmitida). La distinción entre cuál de estos tres aspectos está siendo replicado y cuál adaptado es lo que permite distinguir sus características, que son, básicamente: su influencia y sus diferencias de comportamiento y replicación, que según este autor implican otras dos categorías, uso y vista. ...
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Resumen: En el año 2020 se inició la crisis sanitaria de la Covid19 en todo el mundo, acompañada de una amplia difusión de noticias, fake news y contenidos humorísticos que tratan diferentes aspectos del suceso. Esta investigación analiza la proliferación de los memes y publicaciones cómicas de contenido político durante la tercera ola de la pandemia, con la hipótesis de que este tipo de contenidos son un reflejo de la actualidad y materializan la crítica social. A partir de un análisis cuantitativo y de contenido de las principales cuentas, se han seleccionado memes y publicaciones de perfiles destacables de usuarios de Twitter e Instagram. Esta información se ha codificado en función de su diseño, discurso y distribución, con la intención de identificar las publicaciones de mayor alcance sobre sobre la pandemia y con mayor índice de engagement. En conclusión, se puede afirmar que los contenidos meme y humorísticos constituyen una válvula de escape de la ciudadanía ante las crisis mediatizadas y catalizan las emociones, aportando un sentimiento de comunidad, expresado a través de un lenguaje común y universal. Los discursos representados en los memes responden a los temas de mayor preocupación de la sociedad, siendo en este caso las medidas gubernamentales restrictivas.
... Like genes, memes move from mind to mind through communication and social learning. After 40 years of Dawkins definition of Meme,Davidson (2012) defines memes as "a piece of Culture typically a joke,Humor and Social Media: A Linguistic Analysis of Some Egyptian Coronavirus Memes Dr. Menna Mohammed Salama El-Masry‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ(‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﻣﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻮﺙ‬ ...
... Many researchers devote their works to Internet memes: Davison P. [2] who writes about visual effects of memes, Dawkins R. [3] -the scholar who has coined out the term "memes", and Kulkarni A. [4] who discusses key features of political memes; to political discourse: Batsevych F. [5] who works with discourse and its classifications, T. van Dijk [6] who devotes his papers to all the discourse fields, etc. ...
... But, Memes eventually got an academic definition, called an "Internet Meme". As Davison (2012) Internet Meme can roughly be defined as "a piece of culture, typically a joke, which gains influence through online transmission". But what makes Internet memes unique is the speed of their transmission and the fidelity of their form. ...
... We use the term meme to refer to internet memes as defined inDavidson (2012). The memes considered in this task are only composed of image and text. ...
... Electronic ephemera and online sources have the most dynamic and comprehensive sources of information on internet memes as opposed to academic publications. Websites present a rich source of primary data on internet memes; however, Davison (2012) recognizes there are many notable online meme sources. The internet memes lack an accurate definition, especially as a cultural device proving to be inconsistent (Cannizzaro, 2020). ...
Chapter
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The world over, by no doubt, came to halt due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19)—the worst pandemic to be experienced in the twenty-first century. The virus was initially reported in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread across the globe. This pandemic has pushed countries into recessions, forcing sudden severe restrictions and curfews to people’s everyday lives. These restrictions have introduced new social life-styles such as social distancing, quarantining and regular use of hand sanitizers. The virus forced countries, corporate organisations and institutions into a new way of implementing work. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been the general playfulness about the virus that has seen an outpouring of memes and gags on social media platforms that invite academic scrutiny. In this chapter, we consider how humour has been used as a means of communicating indigenous ways of boosting the immune system and treating COVID-19 pandemic. We consider how memes gave people a sense of power to comment on prescribed treatments for the COVID-19 virus. Findings show that memes were used to challenge vaccines, commercialise indigenous herbs such as Zumbani/umsuzwane and constitute a social commentary on COVID-19 indigenous herbs.
... Like genes, memes move from mind to mind through communication and social learning. After 40 years of Dawkins definition of Meme,Davidson (2012) defines memes as "a piece of Culture typically a joke,Humor and Social Media: A Linguistic Analysis of Some Egyptian Coronavirus Memes Dr. Menna Mohammed Salama El-Masry‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ(‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﻣﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻮﺙ‬ ...
Article
The paper aims at investigating verbal humor in some selected Egyptian web memes about Corona Virus. It also aims at identifying the different strategies and techniques used by memes' producers to create humor. In order to carry out these goals, Attardo's (2014) General Theory of Verbal Humor is used as a methodology of this research. General Theory of Verbal Humour consists of six knowledge resources which are called (KRs): a) script opposition, b) logical mechanism, c) situation, d) target, e) narrative strategy and f) language. Results show that "possible/impossible" and "normal/abnormal" oppositions are the two major types of script opposition in the corpus. Analogy and exaggeration, on the other hand, are the most common logical mechanisms to create humor in memes.
... Electronic ephemera and online sources have the most dynamic and comprehensive sources of information on internet memes as opposed to academic publications. Websites present a rich source of primary data on internet memes; however, Davison (2012) recognizes there are many notable online meme sources. The internet memes lack an accurate definition, especially as a cultural device proving to be inconsistent (Cannizzaro, 2020). ...
Chapter
Not only did the COVID-19 pandemic infect large parts of the world’s population, but it also affected the mass media and the internet. The pandemic has gone viral on the internet. On one hand, COVID-19 is frequently concerned with “i-memes”, or social media-based memes (also known as internet memes), a popular form of communication among users. How do these internet memes comment on the COVID-19 pandemic? This question will be answered through influential examples that reflect the crisis discourse. The COVID-19 pandemic also generated viral hoaxes, fake news, misinformation and puns regarding the origin, scale, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the virus, a phenomenon the World Health Organization describes as “infodemic”. Using a critical review of literature based on a thematic approach, this chapter analyses the common “conspiracy theory” associated with the COVID-19 pandemic circulated on social media platforms.
... sign a potential term for memes that can be used to criticize any actions/people/things/decisions as illegitimate, unwanted, or troubling while also pushing for the previous "wrong" decision(s) that had graver and frustrating consequences Even though these memes all suggest a common discontent against the 'unwanted' Rohingya refugees, their polyvocal propagation within a socio-political sphere is achieved through the anonymity of their creation and dissemination. In this regard, Davison (2012) argues that memes secure non-attribution through a veil of anonymity which in turn cultivates different, more transgressive, and more vibrant forms of communication. As there is an alleged problematic law to surveil the online communication and response of netizens in Bangladesh (Digital Act 2018), creators of internet memes can more freely share their ideological and political views from the grassroots level, regardless of their being inappropriate, unpopular, and subversive because of their delinking to authorship. ...
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Despite Bangladesh's alarming population density and crippling economy, the state has homed over 1.1 million Rohingyas in recent years. The frustrations of the netizens over the worsening living conditions and rising crime rates have culminated in memes. Internet memes are effective and humorous tools to express one's views while evading the clutches of 24/7 active surveillance and the social gaze. In Bangladesh, Facebook is the most popular social media platform where netizens have shared, reshared, and indulged in their reactions on several memes regarding the Rohingyas and their migration to Bangladesh. This paper investigates and interprets the possible reasons behind the attitudes or sentiments that have led to the creation of these memes. Through Bakhtinian polyphony and heteroglossia, this paper uses an adapted model of Fairclough's three-dimensional conception of discourse analysis to analyze select Bangladeshi memes on the Rohingya migration that surfaced on Facebook in response to the Rohingya exodus of 2017-2018. Through critical content analysis, this paper uses a heteroglossic scope to analyze their intended messages and how these can dodge the panopticon gaze of constructed social obligations. This analysis offers distinct grassroots applications of memes and an overview of the Bangladeshi netizens' depictions of the Rohingya community.
... Menilik apa yang diungkapkan oleh Davison (2012) "Jika konteksnya adalah konten cuitan saya, bisa dikatakan benar bahwa itu adalah bentuk antipati atau perasaan tidak suka terhadap kebijakan tersebut. Murni hanya untuk kebutuhan dan kepentingan pribadi sih, hanya sebuah cara saya untuk tetap menjadi manusia yang waras dengan meluapkan emosi pada sebuah tulisan. ...
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Humor merupakan salah satu cara komunikasi politik. Humor divisualisasi dalam bentuk meme dan dimanfaatkan oleh kalangan milenial untuk melakukan fungsi pengawasan terhadap kebijakan pemerintah dalam menangani pandemi covid-19. Tujuan dari riset ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana visualisasi humor di kalangan milenial dan mengapa milenial memilih kreasi humor visual dalam mengawasi penanganan covid-19 oleh pemerintah di ranah virtual. Metode yang dipakai dalam riset ini adalah metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan etnografi digital. Temuan riset ini adalah jenis meme yang dikreasikan oleh kalangan milenial dalam mengawasi penanganan covid-19 umumnya adalah meme agresif (aggressive meme). Milenial cenderung memilih visualisasi humor berupa meme sebagai sebuah saluran komunikasi politik karena sifat instan dari kreasi meme namun efektif dalam menyampaikan pesan melalui medsos di ranah virtual. Humour is also used as political communication. Most humour is visualized as memes and used by millenials to do control and watch how government in tackling pandemic covid-19 in Indonesia. This research aims to understand how visualization of humour amongst millenials and why millenials choose visualization of humour to take control in virtual space of how government handling covid-19. Findings of this research is type of memes that often used by millenials related to covid-19 is an aggressive meme. Millenials usually create memes visualization of humour as a channel of political communication because memes is simple and instant but so effective disseminating message through social media in virtual space.
... elor de pe internet este relativ nou. Acestea din urmă au fost definite pentru prima oară în 2009 de către Patrick Davison, în lucrarea sa The language of Internet. Davison spune că o memă de pe internet este "practic o bucățică de cultură, în general prezentată sub formă de glumă, care devine populară pe măsură ce se răspândește în mediul online".(Davison, 2012) Pornind de la această definiție, observăm deja două trăsături importante care deosebesc memele, așa cum au fost ele definite de Dawkins, de memele de pe internet, și anume umorul și viralitatea.Memele descriu viața noastră de zi cu zi, cu situații plăcute și mai puțin plăcute, într-o manieră ludică. Printre subiectele abordate în meme s ...
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Rezumat: Expresiile idiomatice evocă imagini, trezesc imaginația, transmițând informații într-un mod succint, chiar ingenios. Însă cum le transpunem în comunicarea virtuală? În era digitală, utilizatorii de internet au dezvoltat pe rețelele sociale, forumuri sau bloguri noi sisteme de comunicare. Acestea se bazează într-o mare măsură pe comunicarea prin elemente vizuale, precum emoticoanele sau memele. Memele reprezintă un tip de conținut ce constă în asocierea unei imagini și a unui text în vederea reprezentării unor idei, sentimente sau situații, în general într-o manieră ludică. Deși, în mod tradițional, imaginile nu fac parte din obiectul de studiu al lingvisticii, memele de pe internet devin relevante din punct de vedere lingvistic, întrucât constituie o nouă formă de comunicare. Prezentul articol va arăta modul în care frazeologismele sunt transpuse în meme de pe internet, în încercarea de a transmite gânduri, opinii și sentimente într-un mod eficient și creativ, adăugând totodată o notă de amuzament conversațiilor virtuale.
... Gracias a la naturaleza multimodal de Internet, es posible que miembros de diferentes comunidades virtuales pueden difundir cualquier información que combine elementos visuales, textuales o auditivos. Davison (2012), usa en la actualidad el término meme para describir objetos digitales que contienen "una pieza de cultura, típicamente una broma, que gana influencia a través de la transmisión en línea" (p. 122). ...
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Durante la pandemia por COVID-19, se incrementó el uso de las terapias virtuales y el acompañamiento terapéutico a través de redes sociales. Una de estas estrategias fue el uso del humor a través de memes. El humor, tiene una amplia gama de efectos positivos significativos en el bienestar emocional y las relaciones interpersonales. Este artículo de reflexión, se propone analizar el concepto de meme, sus antecedentes como herramienta terapéutica, la relación entre memes, humor y la expresión humana de la risa, el impacto de estos sobre el cortisol y la oxitocina, las consecuencias positivas al compartirlos y las estrategias para elegir un meme que puede ser terapéutico.
... The meme (re)inscribes features of national identity to present the hoiho as relatable in order to solicit votes. Figure 4A is built from a photograph of a hoiho (yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes) overlaid with text captions in a style characteristic of image macro memes (Davison, 2012). The use of "our spirit animal" as the meme caption suggests the hoiho represents some inner aspect of shared New Zealand identity, while the overlaid text reproduce characteristic national features. ...
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Bird of the Year has become a cultural phenomenon. Designed by Forest and Bird to raise awareness of New Zealand's endangered wildlife, the competition attracts engagement from dedicated campaign managers, fans, and baffled international news outlets. Internet memes have become an integral part of the competition. We analyse how Bird of the Year memes (n = 489) support engagement with the campaign. Our thematic analysis of 489 memes circulated on Facebook and Twitter revealed that memes invoke emotions, reflect and (re)produce identities, and encourage pro-environmental action. Memes mobilised humour and fear, cultural ideas about what it means to be a New Zealander, and information about how to conserve endangered species. Memes also self-referentially questioned the efficacy of memes for conservation, raising questions about the potentials and pitfalls of online engagement. Our findings point to the powerful psychological processes through which seemingly light-hearted memes can operate for consciousness-raising.
... The most convenient (and trendiest) examples of these image recombinations are internet memes, including the apocalyptic memes that circulate in social media (Vacker, 2012;Huntington, 2015;Konior, 2019). Visual memes on the internet-both in the classic sense (Dawkins, 1979), in which case they may be considered ideas or motifs) and according to newer interpretations (Davison, 2012;Shifman, 2014)-are instantaneous, ephemeral, and highly variable minute digital works of art (Bown, Bristow, 2019), and, as such, they possess strong argumentative and persuasive rhetorical power (Huntington, 2013), and they are polysemantic (Babič, 2020); they are visual rhetoric at the highest level (Hubbes, 2017). Not only are these meme-images persuasive devices of visual rhetoric, but, in accordance with Cardone's assertions concerning the subversiveness of recombinant apocalyptic narratives, they can also be considered subversive forms of argumentation. ...
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This article investigates apocalyptic spirituality in the contemporary globalized context of re-emerging religiousness and New Age spirituality, in which millennial calendrical anxieties, a conspiracy mentality, and crisis consciousness are bolstered up by the visual flood of old and new electronic media. Two types of religious or spiritual digital environments are presented through their characteristic imagery: the rather traditional environment of Christian millennialism and the hyper-eclectic atmosphere of New Age networks. Avtor raziskuje apokaliptično duhovnost v sodobnem globaliziranem kontekstu ponovno nastajajoče religioznosti in novodobne duhovnosti, v kateri so tisočletne tesnobe koledarskega leta, miselnost zarote in krizna zavest še podkrepljene z vizualno poplavo starih in novih elektronskih medijev. Dvoje religioznih ali duhovnih digitalnih okolij se kaže s svojimi značilnimi podobami: na eni strani precej tradicionalno okolje krščanskega tisočletja, na drugi hipereklektično ozračje omrežij new age.
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Este trabajo tiene como finalidad descubrir cuál ha sido el impacto que tuvieron los memes de César Acuña sobre su imagen. Para ello, en primer lugar, tuvimos que definir qué era un meme; en segundo lugar, determinar el papel que cumplen en el ámbito político. Después de esta aproximación teórica hacia el término, seleccionamos algunos de los memes de Acuña con mayor alcance en las redes sociales; a partir de estos, intentamos establecer el perfil de las personas que interactuaron con estas piezas gráficas y la forma en que lo hicieron. Tras descubrir que la mayoría de personas fueron menores de 30 años, realizamos una encuesta y un focus group a adultos jóvenes.
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We investigate the gendered use of Instagram memes on COVID-19 using a mixed-analysis approach. We find that memes referencing women are mostly related to community support and healthcare, which often express gratitude for frontline workers, while the majority of memes on men refer to news and promotion as well as suffering due to the high death rates and other financial hardships. As for sexual and gender minorities, memes mostly mention community support similar to the case of the memes referencing women. We argue that internet memes offer insight into ongoing trends in the public's perceptions of pandemics, and they should be further examined because they often communicate vital information on gender groups and public health.
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Conference Paper
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Internet Memes have become real advertising tools that companies use to become "friends" to their consumers. In a digital environment in which "the content" is what that matters most, the advertising moves towards users trend topics, in order to connect with them in an orizontal relationship. This kind of marketing strategy has benefits, not only for companies but also for the contemporary consumer, who wants not his social network experince disturbed. Today, brands want to seem cool, well informed, reactive and funny using a silence adv product - the internet meme - that came from users creativity and goes back to them.
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This chapter interrogates how humour perpetrated online was used to enhance the communication process; entertained the online community and enabled Kenyan citizens to cope with the unavoidable situation of extensions of curfews and lockdowns. Focus is on the use of memes and hashtags on social media, specifically Twitter, one week before the announcement of the extension of the curfew and one week after the 6 June 2020 announcement. Data that was used for this study was collected seven days before the curfew extension on 6 June 2020 to seven days after the announcement was made—hence, the 1 June 2020–14 June 2020 period. It focused on hashtags and memes portraying responses by Kenyans on Twitter (KOT). Data interpretation focused on the users’ envisioned meaning through memes and hashtags. Conclusions drawn by the chapter suggest that memes were successfully used not only for humour, but also for communication purposes, as certain memes (specifically image macros) are essentially speech acts and are also understood as being speech acts by internet users (Grundlingh, Social Semiotics, 28(2), 147–168, 2018).
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A meme is a popular form of internet humour. Studies have found that people use memes to comment on and react to events. Therefore, this study investigated Nigerians’ use of humour during the novel coronavirus pandemic. Using content analysis, this study examined 47 memes Nigerians shared through WhatsApp during coronavirus-related lockdowns in 2020. Humour is largely theorized as occurring for relief, incongruity and/or superiority purposes; this study applied the incongruity, superiority and relief theories of humour. The investigation revealed that Nigerians created and shared four types of memes during the coronavirus-related lockdowns in Nigeria that employed incongruity, relief and superiority humour strategies to relieve stress and comment on issues that arose in the country during the pandemic.
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To maximize the advantages of virtual learning, the present study highlights the potential for Internet meme design and creation in English language learning (ELL) courses as an innovative activity that raises student agency, increases multimodal literacy, inculcates intercultural communication, and teaches idiomatic expression. Memes resonate a multimodal feedback loop of popular culture. In the context of language education, multimodal literacy is a necessity for 21st-century education because the affordances of digital learning platforms present the world told alongside the world shown. While some studies feature the usefulness of memes in English as a foreign language (EFL) learning, none have underscored meme creation as a learning activity. To demonstrate the activity in situ, a vignette at two Korean universities features two instructors who ask their respective students (N = 49) to design one meme using an idiom discovered in their ELL materials from a prescribed list, then asks: 1) What common power relations and ideologies emerge in the multimodal discourse of the collected pool of student “idiomemes”? 2) What do the findings tell us about student attitudes and engagement with the activity? 3) What do the findings tell us about the importance of multimodal discourse in EFL learning? Using a multimodal critical discourse analysis of the student-created Internet memes, the findings reveal that students chose culturally familiar images to complete the assignment, suggesting that their engagement and understanding of multimodal, English discourse increases commensurately with content intuitive to their culture. The implications suggest that empowering students with a measure of agency in expressing culturally relevant, multimodal discourse in ELL course content increases their engagement in virtual classrooms. Designing idiomemes, as a virtual learning activity, is further explored as a curricular augmentation that increases the value of a student's language-learning investment.
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This article treats the internet memes as a way of realizing strategic communication. The paper attempts to assess the potential of internet memes of functioning as soft power tools implemented by world leaders in the field of strategic communication. The paper highlights basic notions pertaining to the respective sphere of activity: internet memes, strategic communication, political discourse, and political memes. Moreover, the work stresses the possibility of using internet memes for the purpose of manipulation based on the so called Mandela Effect. The intention of memes’ creation fully depends on the conditions of their verbalization including a need in political thoughts and ideology formation. Thus, the article highlights the ways of transforming entertaining internet memes into means of manipulation. The paper introduces an inventory of factors that can influence and manipulate the internet users' choice. The article suggests a classification of political memes (textual, non-textual, and animated) and determines the description of the concept “political memes” which is based on its narration and content. Language material was selected from the Instagram network, primarily from the official pages of English news agencies: BBC, CNN, Politico and Fox News. The paper discusses the ways of implementing Mandela Effect and its connections with political internet memes. The paper interprets the results of the research conducted by the journal "Slate" that prove the assumption concerning the internet memes' capability of facilitating of strategic communication as well as providing manipulative impact.
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This article aims to analyse how Netflix uses social media to generate a dialogue between the local and transnational layers of television, to position its brand and curate content in domestic markets. Within the frame of transnationalism, a cross-cultural comparative study has been conducted in three different local European markets: the United Kingdom, Spain and the Nordic region. The results show the negotiation between transnationalisation and the needs of local cultural distinctiveness through language adaptation, emphasis on in-house original US flagship productions, the overrepresentation of original local content and use of cultural references at different levels.
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On 10 March 2020, The Whistle-Giver 發哨子的人, an online report published by a Chinese state-run magazine, was deleted from WeChat and Weibo. Prior to its deletion, the report was translated, reposted, and widely circulated by Chinese netizens on Chinese social media. This ordinary (to the Western eye, at least) content sharing on social media was carried out in defiance of state censorship. The information contained in the report, which would have been erased were it not for the voluntary transmission of the message, is now part of the collective memory. This research article investigates the functions of unreadable signs in the transformation and diffusion of the original report as a tool of resistance to censorship. These signs ostensibly consist of scrambled codes as well as texts with concrete meanings. This article attempts to elucidate the interrelation between these unreadable signs, their mechanisms of action, and the particulars of this incident. These signs are the means by which the reposts circumvented censorship as they recorded, shaped, and revived memories of this incident. From the perspectives of linguistics, iconology, and rhetoric, the author argues that these signs resisted censorship by repackaging Dr Ai Fen’s individual memories, as contained in the original report. This collection of abstract images then came to constitute a collective memory. Ultimately this kind of activism means that not only the event itself, but also the whole process of transformation will eventually become inaccessible and will be of little help in future. This article aims to resolve the paradox that seems to arise when unreadable signs are intentionally used as a form of activism to resist censorship. Through this analysis, the author aims to provide greater insight into how the link between censorship and forgetting is severed. Finally, this article will demonstrate that translating and relaying, as a form of resistance and online activism, also carry an inherent risk of forgetting.
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