Conference PaperPDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The following position paper proposes a general theoretical model for persuasive game design. This model combines existing theories on persuasive technology, serious gaming, and gamification. The model is based on user experience, gamification design, and transfer effects.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Persuasive Game Design: A model and its
definitions.
Abstract
The following position paper proposes a general
theoretical model for persuasive game design. This
model combines existing theories on persuasive
technology, serious gaming, and gamification. The
model is based on user experience, gamification design,
and transfer effects.
Author Keywords
Persuasive Gaming; Gamification; Transfer; Game
World; Real World.
ACM Classification Keywords
K.8.0 [Personal Computing]: Games; J.4 [Social and
Behavioral Sciences]: Psychology, Sociology.
Introduction
The past decennia showed a large interest in the
design, application, and theory of games. However,
although nice overviews of game theory has been
written (c.f. [13]), unified models of persuasive game
design, the design of games aimed at behavioral
change, are scarce. This paper describes a Persuasive
Game Design Model based on three central concepts
related to persuasive gaming: gamification process (c.f.
[4]), game worlds [7] and behavioral change design
(c.f. [10]). See Figure 1 for a schematized overview.
Due to the scope of this extended abstract, the model
and its definitions are only briefly presented.
Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).
CHI’13, April 27 May 2, 2013, Paris, France.
ACM 978-1-XXXX-XXXX-X/XX/XX.
Valentijn Visch
Faculty of Industrial Design,
Technical University Delft.
2628CE, Delft
v.t.visch@tudelft.nl
Niko Vegt
Faculty of Industrial Design,
Technical University Delft.
2628CE, Delft
n.j.h.vegt@tudelft.nl
Hester Anderiesen
Faculty of Industrial Design,
Technical University Delft.
2628CE, Delft
h.anderiesen@tudelft.nl
Katinka van der Kooij
Faculty of Industrial Design,
Technical University Delft.
2628CE, Delft
k.vanderkooij@tudelft.nl
Fig. 1. Persuasive Game Design Model.
Real world and Game world
Persuasive Game Design:
Game design aiming to create a user experienced game
world to change the user behaviour in the real world.
Users experience the real world, but when they are
playing a game the experience of the real world is
changed into a game world experience. This change is
never complete, but remains a mixture of both worlds.
Game worlds and the real world are at the
(unreachable) ends of a continuum. Some game
experiences (e.g. soccer) are closer to the real world
experiences than others (e.g. World of Warcraft) and
some real world experiences (e.g. stock exchange) are
closer to a game world experience than others (e.g.
waiting for the elevator).
An individual is driven by the same motivational needs
in real world and game worlds: the need for autonomy,
competence and social relatedness [12] govern his
behaviour. But whereas the individual has to actively
search for need fulfilment in the real world, game
worlds are explicitly designed to fulfil these needs,
resulting in a game world typical immersive and
satisfying experience [11]. Moreover, a game world is
experienced as a protective world [1], where his actions
have less serious consequences than in the real world.
Encouraged by such protective framing the user enjoys
immersion in the game world on a perceptual (e.g.
presence), cognitive (game rule compliance), action
(game behaviour), emotional (enjoy the wide array of
game emotions), and social level (social player
relationships). The two experiential qualities, immersive
and enjoyable, are dominant in a game world.
However, immersion and enjoyment are not exclusive
for game world experiences. They may also occur whilst
composing music or when one is watching a screenplay.
So what differentiates a game world different from
other ‘flow’-like experiences? We would propose to
describe these differences from a symptom-based view
in the line of Goodman’s definition of the aesthetic
experience: : “A symptom is neither a necessary nor a
sufficient condition for, but merely tends in conjunction
with other such symptoms to be present in, aesthetic
experience[6, p.252]. The symptoms of a game
experience are the presence of one or more game
elements.
Game-elements and Gamification
Gamification:
Design of game-elements applied on real-world
attributes to create a user experienced game-world.
Game-elements are the motivational elements typical
for game-design. Often the elements are rule-based -
constituting the boundaries between the game world
and the real world (c.f. [8]). Typical elements are
challenge, phantasy, competition, and exploration.
Experiencing these elements gives rise to a diverse and
long set of specific game experiences [9]. These
elements also appear in the real world, but to elicit user
experienced game worlds, game designers can design
them by processes like selection, addition, combination,
enhancing or foregrounding. The designed game-
elements do need some material to be applied upon
(e.g. a competition on something). This ‘material’ is
derived from the real world context and consists of
attributes such as objects, social relationships, actions,
attitudes, user motivations or experiences. Note that
persuasive games are not restricted to the digital
medium but its form is dependent on game-elements,
the gamified real-world context, and the aimed transfer
effect (e.g. [14]).
Persuasive Gaming and Transfer
Transfer:
Effect of user experienced game world on forming,
altering, or reinforcing user-compliance, -behaviour, or
attitude, in the real world.
Games can change behaviour in the game world and in
the real world. The enjoyable and immersive game
world can help, motivate, or persuade users to behave
in ways they experience as difficult in the real world
(c.f. games for social, physical, and mental healthcare
e.g. [2]. The designer can intend to change this
behavior as in Fogg’s [5] definition of persuasive
technology: “interactive computing systems designed to
change people’s attitudes and behaviors”. Or the
persuasion might be the effect of the game rhetorics as
in Bogost’s [3] definition of persuasive games:
“videogames that mount procedural rhetorics
effectively”.
Gamification and transfer are separate processes
however: gamification does not imply transfer. We
therefore represented these processes separately in our
model. Transfer of the game world onto the real world
can occur on different levels: the player’s compliance,
behaviour or attitudes may be formed, changed or
reinforced [10]. Transfer effects can be directed when
the original to be changed user-behavioural or -
motivational aspects are gamified and take part in the
game world (as gamified real-world attributes). In the
gameworld these behavioural/ motivational aspects can
be changed towards the target behaviour. When the
target behaviour is realized in the gameworld, the
transfer from the gameworld to the real world can be
designed by the persuasive game designer. This
transfer design is often neglected. Three main design
methods can be applied to make this transfer as
transgression from the game world to the real world:
(1) Sudden change, in which there is no transgression.
The game world experience functions as a prime for the
behaviour in the real world; (2) Gradual change, in
which the game world dissolves gradually into the real
world and vice versa. The game world may (a) finally
vanish into the real world (dissolve) or (b) parts of the
game world may remain present in the real world; and
(3) Adaptive change, when the level of transgression
from the game world into the real world is dependent
from the actual user’s behavioural change in the real
world. Given the behavioural goals of persuasive games
it is essential that the transfer effect of the game world
is tested in effect studies (c.f. evaluations, N=1 studies,
control studies, RCTs). Effect studies can focus on the
game design as a whole or on the effect of individual
game-elements generating generic knowledge for
persuasive game design.
Defining Games: When are games?
Following the central position of the user experience in
the game worlds and the real world, the classification of
a game primarily depends on its use and only
secondary on the game product. For example, a game
product like a baseball bat can be used as
entertainment game (baseball), as a persuasive game
(increase social relations), or as a non-game (weapon).
At the same time, a non-game object like pavement
tiles can be used as non-game (to walk), as game (to
avoid the tile crossings) or as (rather dull) persuasive
game (not to walk on the street). So ultimately, the
decision if something (a product, rule system, or
activity) is a game is dependent on its use. The
question of What is a game? could therefore be
changed into “When is a game experienced as game?”
or shorter When is a game? (c.f. Goodman’s When is
art? question [6]). This question is positively answered
by the user experience of an game world including the
presence of game-elements symptoms. Persuasive
games additionally include aimed behavioural transfer
effects.
Acknowledgments:
The persuasive game design model is a developed
during the G-Motiv project: ‘Designing Motivation:
Changing Human Behavior Using Game-Elements’. G-
Motiv aims to generate knowledge and prototypes for
persuasive game design for social-, physical-, and
mental-healthcare. G-Motiv is a Dutch Fes funded
interdisciplinary research project including design
researchers, behavioural science researchers, game
development agencies, and user organisations. For this
paper we would like thank the direct scientific staff:
Richard Goossens, Huib de Ridder, Marieke Sonneveld,
Ed Tan, and Arnold Vermeeren.
References
[1] Apter, M. Reversal Theory: The Dynamics of
Motivation, Emotion and Personality. Oneworld
Publications, Oxford, 2007.
[2] Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Thompson, D., and
Baranowsky, J. Playing for real: Video games and
stories for health-related behavior change. American
Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(1), 2008, 74-82.
[3] Bogost, I. Persuasive games: The expressive power
of videogames. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2007.
[4] Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., and Nacke, L.
From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining
“Gamification”. Proc. MindTrek ’11, ACM Press (2011).
[5] Fogg, B. Persuasive technology: Using computers
to change what we think and do. Morgan Kaufman
Publishers, CA, 2003.
[6] Goodman, N. Languages of Art: An approach to a
theory of symbols. Hackett Publishing, Indiana, 1976.
[7] Huizinga, J. Homo Ludens. A study of the play
element in culture. Beacon Press, Boston, 1955.
[8] Juul, J. Half-Real: Video games between real rules
and fictional worlds. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2005.
[9] Korhonen, H., Montola, M., and Arrasvuori, J.
Understanding Playful User Experiences Through Digital
Games. Proc. DPPI 2009, ACM Press (2009), 274-285.
[10] Oinas-Kukkonen, H. A foundation for the study of
behavior change support systems. Personal and
Ubiquitous Computing, (2012).
[11] Przybylski, A., Rigby, S., and Ryan, R. A
motivational model of video game engagement. Review
of general psychology, 14(2) (2010), 154-166.
[12] Ryan, R., and Deci, E. Self-determination theory
and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social
developments, and well-being. American Psychologist,
55(1) (2000), 68-78.
[13] Salen, K. and Zimmerman, E. Rules of play: Game
design fundamentals. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2004.
[14] Visch, V., deWit, M., Dinh, L., vandenBrule, D.,
Melles, M., and Sonneveld, M. Industrial design meets
mental healthcare: Designing therapy-enhancing
products involving game-elements for mental
healthcare three case studies. IEEE Proc. SEGAH
Serious Games and Applications for Health, Brage,
(2011), 184-189.
... We argue that educational escape rooms, such as MasterMind, can be positioned in a context of both serious and persuasive gaming and thus need to take into account the design challenges that are particular to both forms of games. Drawing on a general theoretical model for persuasive game design (Visch, Vegt, Anderiesen, & van der Kooij, 2013) and a design framework for the alignment between game goals and learning goals (Van der Linden, Van Joolingen, & Meulenbroeks, 2019), the article reflects on how we engaged with the aforementioned challenges in the design of MasterMind. With this, we hope to contribute to the discourse on serious gaming and help foster the dialogue between serious game designers and educators. ...
... Games can change behavior in the game world and subsequently in the real world. This is the assumption and ultimate aim of persuasive games, a subset of serious games aimed at creating a user experienced game world that changes the user behavior or attitude in the real world (Jacobs, Jansz, & de la Hera Conde-Pumpido, 2017;Visch et al., 2013). Motivating game elements, such as challenges, draw the player into a game world where equivalents of real world tasks are carried out. ...
... Motivating game elements, such as challenges, draw the player into a game world where equivalents of real world tasks are carried out. The transfer of effects from the game world to the real world can be actively designed, but is often neglected (Visch et al, 2013). How to successfully design this transfer is one of the challenges for developers of persuasive games. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article analyzes the design of MasterMind, an escape room that served as a means of professional development in the use and implementation of online educational tools in academic teaching. Escape rooms have inspired educators all over the world to adapt the popular entertainment activity for education. The time-constrained and problem-based games require active and collaborative participants, which makes an escape room an interesting setting for educators. As there are differences in the settings and goals of educational and recreational escape rooms, there is a need for description of the design process, taking into account game design and educational aspects. MasterMind was developed by a multidisciplinary team of educators, educational researchers and game researchers. The design analysis of MasterMind focuses on three related challenges that have informed the design process: 1) the participants' transition from the real world to the game world; 2) the alignment of game design aspects and educational aspects in the game world; and 3) the transfer from experiences and knowledge obtained within the game world back into the real world. The description and analysis is guided by frameworks on persuasive games and the alignment of game goals and learning goals. The analysis gives insights in how to balance game and educational aspects in the design, in order for players to reach both persuasive and learning goals. We recommend an integrated approach of the different design challenges. Therefore, we propose a design model combining and aligning the used frameworks, leading to an integrated approach in tackling design challenges in persuasive, serious games.
... Valentijn Visch et al. (2013) officially proposed the persuasive game design and its general theoretical model in 2013 (Figure 1). Though "playing games", users can transfer the experience of the real world to the experience of the game world, and the gameplay of the game world can promote and "persuade" users to achieve the target behavior change in the real world. ...
... Therefore, "persuasion" in persuasive games can be considered as the behavioral motivation designed for users in the interactive game world, which can promote users to conduct behavior change in the real world (Siriaraya et al., 2018). In the PGD model (Visch, 2013), this behavior change is called "transfer effect", which is defined as the change effect of users' expectation caused by gameplay, from changing users' attitude towards specific problems to changing users' lifestyle. Most of the existing research on PGD focuses on encouraging healthy lifestyle (De la Hera, 2018) and promoting social interaction (Visch, 2017), but relatively little on children's education and learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, children are attaching more and more importance to the learning of various cultural heritages. However, It is the nature of children to play. They can't concentrate for long on the cultural knowledge they are not interested in. "Game" has become one of the effective ways to change this situation. Persuasive game design, as one of the methods of behavior change design, aims to create a user experience game world by using gamification, in order to change the user behavior in the real world. Based on the Hunan Embroidery Museum's cultural leaning project, this study explored the possibility of persuasive game design to promote the positive change of children's learning behavior, and combined with profound experience design, redesigned the traditional cultural learning course-creating immersive learning experience for children through gamification. The results show that reasonable and interesting persuasive games can improve children's learning motivation, stimulate the flow, and promote them to achieve positive changes in learning behavior and enter into an immersive profound learning experience. This study verified the positive effects of persuasive game design and deep experience design on children's learning and personal development with practical projects, and provided some new ideas for the design practice of persuading children's behavior change.
... Currently it is published by Gameloft in the Apple Arcade; see https://www.gameloft.com/game/the-oregon-trail. 4 A game which takes place at the time of the French Revolution in which the player is a judge; see http://we-the-revolution.com/. 5 A grand strategy game set in Europe from the late Middle Ages to the early modern period; see https://www.paradoxinteractive.com/games/europauniversalis-iv. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gaming is an important pastime for young people to relax, socialize and have fun, but also to be challenged, show creativity and work together to achieve goals. The design of games can have an impact on their behavior. With the changing revenue models of games, we see that game design is increasingly taking forms that do not always have a positive impact on children and may interfere with, or even violate, children's rights. This article examines how evolving revenue models of games impact user's behavior via game design. Behavioral design in games thus raises questions about children's rights to play and recreation, to health, to protection from economic exploitation and to data protection.
... To even better deal with pain in real life, we recommended the provision of support to patients to translate virtual lessons to real life. Games that support changing real-life user behavior have been described as persuasive games [33]. Therapeutic VR could consider principles of persuasive game design to optimize healthy patient behavior in real life. ...
Article
Full-text available
Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is the most well-known method to consider values in design. It consists of three iterative phases of investigation: conceptual, empirical, and technical. Although the approach is promising, the role of empirical research remains unclear. We address two opportunities for extending the role of empirical research in VSD. First, we argue that empirical research enables us to identify values in context. Second, we explain that empirical research enables us to anticipate how technology mediates the values of users. We make our point by means of an empirical study in a real-life controlled experimental context into the value mediation of virtual reality (VR) in patients with chronic low-back pain. Using value-oriented semi-structured interviews with twenty patients, we first analyze what values these patients consider important, and how the values are experienced. The second set of interviews held after all patients used VR four weeks at home, aims to provide insight into value changes as mediated by VR. We end the article by a comparison of our empirical results with previous, often speculative, literature into values in VR. We show that empirical research benefits the VSD process by providing in-depth insight into the effects of context and technology on values and the ability to translate these insights into recommendations for more responsible design and implementation of the technology. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12553-022-00671-w.
... Acquired beliefs, attitudes and/or behaviour can then be applied in the real world; the ultimate goal of persuasive games (Jacobs et al., 2017). However, an explicit transfer to the real world is needed and often neglected in game design (Visch et al., 2013). Other than Van der Linden's framework, this model does not focus on the gameplay as such but describes the participants' transition from the real world into the game world and back. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the influence of the educational game design elements immersion, collaboration and debriefing, on fostering learning with educational escape rooms. We based the design of the escape room on an educational game design framework that aligns the learning goal and the game goal, that is, escaping from the room. One‐hundred‐and‐twenty‐six students, aged between 16 and 20 played the escape room. Measures for learning were pre‐and post‐tests. The game experience was measured through questionnaires, classroom observations and interviews with students and teachers. The results show a knowledge gain between pre‐and post‐test. Correlational analysis showed that all three design elements contributed to students' appreciation of the escape room, whereas only immersion had a direct contribution to knowledge gain. Based on the qualitative data it appeared that the used escape boxes contributed most to perceived immersion. Immersion helps students focus on each other and the tasks. Also, a narrative with distinct roles for each student helped to evoke immersion. Unexpectedly, these roles also scaffolded collaboration except for students in the school that engaged in a collaborative learning pedagogy. The study confirms the usability of the framework for game designs, based on theories for the design of physical and hybrid educational games. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic The escape room as a learning environment appeals to teachers of different disciplines, ages, gender and teaching experiences. Teachers implement escape rooms to create active (hybrid) learning spaces, where learners need a combination of knowledge and skills to solve the subject‐based activities. Students and teachers perceive that while participating in escape rooms, students are more engaged, active and learn more compared to regular classes. The assumption is that escape rooms support collaboration and automatically collaborative learning. Review studies on educational escape rooms show that a systematic evaluation is usually absent, disputable or indicates no knowledge gain. Teachers design their educational escape rooms based on digital escape games and/or their experience as players of escape rooms. For digital educational games, important game design aspects are researched. Three main challenges in designing educational games are (1) the participants' transition from the real world to the game world, (2) the alignment of game design aspects and educational aspects and (3) the transfer from attained experiences and knowledge back into the real world. What this paper adds This paper evaluates an educational game design framework for escape rooms, focussing on the above‐mentioned main challenges in designing educational games. It investigates the influence of the educational game design elements immersion, collaboration and debriefing, on fostering learning with a hybrid educational escape room. It informs that all three design elements contributed to students' appreciation of the escape room, whereas only immersion had a direct contribution to knowledge gain. The used hybrid escape boxes contributed most to the immersion; scaffolding students to focus on each other and the tasks. Students' collaboration was successfully fostered. However, it scarcely led to collaborative learning during gameplay, due to lack of discussion and reflection needed for deeper understanding. Implications for practice and/or policy The educational escape game framework would help educators creating immersive games, which not only confront learners with meaningful contexts but also give learning gains. The educational escape game framework would help researchers focussing on important and difficult aspects of designing and implementing educational escape rooms to develop and research more effective escape rooms. In guidelines on creating immersion in educational escape games, the notion of physical objects is lacking. In this hybrid escape room, the physical objects such as escape boxes were the most powerful in creating immersion. In addition, the use of sound design in escape games in classrooms seems overrated. Debriefing after the gameplay is perceived necessary to discuss common misunderstandings, to make connections between the topics in various puzzles and to add more content to interest high‐achieving students. What is already known about this topic The escape room as a learning environment appeals to teachers of different disciplines, ages, gender and teaching experiences. Teachers implement escape rooms to create active (hybrid) learning spaces, where learners need a combination of knowledge and skills to solve the subject‐based activities. Students and teachers perceive that while participating in escape rooms, students are more engaged, active and learn more compared to regular classes. The assumption is that escape rooms support collaboration and automatically collaborative learning. Review studies on educational escape rooms show that a systematic evaluation is usually absent, disputable or indicates no knowledge gain. Teachers design their educational escape rooms based on digital escape games and/or their experience as players of escape rooms. For digital educational games, important game design aspects are researched. Three main challenges in designing educational games are (1) the participants' transition from the real world to the game world, (2) the alignment of game design aspects and educational aspects and (3) the transfer from attained experiences and knowledge back into the real world. What this paper adds This paper evaluates an educational game design framework for escape rooms, focussing on the above‐mentioned main challenges in designing educational games. It investigates the influence of the educational game design elements immersion, collaboration and debriefing, on fostering learning with a hybrid educational escape room. It informs that all three design elements contributed to students' appreciation of the escape room, whereas only immersion had a direct contribution to knowledge gain. The used hybrid escape boxes contributed most to the immersion; scaffolding students to focus on each other and the tasks. Students' collaboration was successfully fostered. However, it scarcely led to collaborative learning during gameplay, due to lack of discussion and reflection needed for deeper understanding. Implications for practice and/or policy The educational escape game framework would help educators creating immersive games, which not only confront learners with meaningful contexts but also give learning gains. The educational escape game framework would help researchers focussing on important and difficult aspects of designing and implementing educational escape rooms to develop and research more effective escape rooms. In guidelines on creating immersion in educational escape games, the notion of physical objects is lacking. In this hybrid escape room, the physical objects such as escape boxes were the most powerful in creating immersion. In addition, the use of sound design in escape games in classrooms seems overrated. Debriefing after the gameplay is perceived necessary to discuss common misunderstandings, to make connections between the topics in various puzzles and to add more content to interest high‐achieving students.
... In terms of its advantages, first of all, mHealth is scalable, accessible, and maybe less stigmatizing than traditional treatment for youths because of the level of anonymity and privacy [12]. Furthermore, mHealth offers the possibility of incorporating motivational elements such as playfulness and gamification, which is advantageous because humans supposedly learn best by playing [13][14][15][16][17]. Finally, mHealth offered in an attractive and fun way through adolescents' own devices fits very well with their daily life and activities [18,19]. Use is flexible, as it is independent of time and place and can be at a self-determined pace, which is thought to enhance self-efficacy [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Anxiety and mood problems in adolescents often go unnoticed and may therefore remain untreated. Identifying and preventing the development of emotional problems requires monitoring and effective tools to strengthen adolescents' resilience, for example, by enhancing coping skills. Objective: This study describes the developmental process, feasibility, and acceptance of Grow It!, a multiplayer serious game app for adolescents aged 12-25 years. The app consists of the experience sampling method (ESM) to monitor thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in daily life to enhance self-insight and daily cognitive behavioral therapy-based challenges to promote adaptive coping. Methods: Our approach entails an iterative game design process combined with an agile method to develop the smartphone app. The incorporated game features (ie, challenges, chat functionality, and visual representation) in the Grow It! app were co-designed with adolescent end users to increase participant engagement and adherence. Results: The Grow It! app was delivered for Android and iOS in May 2020. Grow It! was offered to adolescents during the COVID-19 crisis between May and December 2020. Participants of the Grow It! COVID-19 study (sample 1: N=685; mean age 16.19, SD 3.11 years; 193/685, 28.2% boys; sample 2: N=1035; mean age 18.78, SD 3.51 years; 193/1035, 18.64% boys) completed 31.5% (13.2/42) to 49.5% (10.4/21) of challenges. Compliance of ESM was suboptimal (35.1/210, 16.7% to 32.5/105, 30.9%). Follow-up questionnaires indicated an overall score of the app of 7.1 out of 10. Moreover, 72.6% (278/383) to 75.6% (487/644) would recommend the app to friends. Conclusions: To our knowledge, Grow It! is the first gamified ESM app that both measures individual differences in emotional dynamics and offers an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy-based intervention. Our findings support the feasibility and acceptance, and therefore applicability, of the Grow It! app in adolescents. Further iterations of this serious game app will focus on the increase of compliance and on providing participants feedback through their personal mood profiles.
... The most overt and effective of the game tactics is likely to be tiered/incremental challenges, especially when progress is both tracked (through a wearable tracker) and visible (Paul et al., 2016). When challenges are also partnered with social connectivity, through having a teammate and/or competing with other teams, powerful innate human motivations are harnessed (Visch, 2013). For instance, when patients use a teambased app, adherence is 66% higher compared to patients working solo on nutrition and exercise behaviours (Du et al., 2016). ...
Article
Introduction Gamified health mobile applications (apps) are promoted as innovative approaches to self‐management and risk factor reduction. However, information is lacking on effectiveness or feasibility in older patients at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which limits uptake and recommendations by nurses. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of gamified apps for CVD secondary prevention. Methods EQUATOR PRISMA checklist was used to guide the systematic review. PubMed, Embase and SCOPUS were searched from inception to January 2020 for studies evaluating app interventions incorporating ≥2 game tactics and targeting secondary prevention in patients diagnosed with heart disease, hypertension, stroke or type 2 diabetes. Narrative summaries of results were used as meta‐analysis were not possible. The PROSPERO ID number was CRD42020209791. Results Seven studies involving 657 patients were included. Gamified apps resulted in more improvement in physical activity, HbA1C and diabetes self‐management empowerment compared to multiple different comparators, and more physical activity motivation compared to a neutral content control app. Heart failure knowledge also improved significantly. However, no benefits above usual care were evident for blood pressure or body mass index, or from app use for heart failure self‐management, medication adherence or atrial fibrillation knowledge. App acceptability in terms of usage declined with time but was high for the game components of challenges, medication monitoring, viewing of leader boards and badges and walking training participation. Enjoyment was highest for elements that featured surprise/novelty, having teammates, challenges, good graphic design and clarity. Conclusions Gamified mobile apps show the potential to improve secondary prevention in high CVD risk patients. Indications for acceptability were evident, with higher adherence than clinic‐based secondary prevention programmes. However, further well‐designed randomised controlled trials, which track app usage are needed to confirm this potential and encourage nurses to recommend these types of apps.
Article
This study discusses an attempt to examine the impact of gamebased formative assessment on the students’ knowledge in a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) course, which is a fundamental subject for Multimedia students. This course is important to expose them to the ideas of user interface and interaction design methodologies, skills, and values that are required for them to develop a practical interaction design system. The respondents in this research were 63 undergraduates who enrolled in an HCI course in a public university in Malaysia. An experimental research design was employed whereby the respondents were conveniently assigned to two groups; control (33) and experimental (30). Eight paper-based formative assessments were given to the control group, while eight online game-based evaluations were given to the experimental group. The students’ scores are recorded to assess their understanding of the learning content and their participation in the HCI classroom. A test was also administered at the end of the semester and utilised as a data collection tool to examine the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of student comprehension. The information was then gathered and analysed using descriptive and ANOVA statistical methods. The students’ involvement was reflected through an opinion survey that was given to the students at the end of the semester. The findings revealed that students who participated in a game-based formative assessment shown greater understanding and involvement than students who participated in a formative paperbased evaluation, implying that introducing a scope of game-based formative assessments improved the understanding and participation in the HCI course classroom.
Chapter
Educational games are often described as a balancing act between the entertainment aspects of video games—be it the engagement, motivational, or immersive advantages of it—and the serious subject matter of teaching, learning, and assessment. Thus the key challenge of game-based learning is how the merging of these two aspects could assist in the knowledge retention and application of the subject matters within the real-world environment, especially in the realm of education. The chapter proposes a validation framework that can link elements of learning and assessment in a subject matter to play experience in educational games before those games are developed. The framework will allow game designers and developers to understand the cognitive processes of learning, not only in designing effective educational games, but also to comprehend the intricacies and connections between learning and principles of game design. This in turn enables game researchers to develop effective educational games which are pedagogically and ludologically sound.
Article
Full-text available
The emerging ambient persuasive technology looks very promising for many areas of personal and ubiquitous computing. Persuasive applications aim at changing human attitudes or behavior through the power of software designs. This theory-creating article suggests the concept of a behavior change support system (BCSS), whether web-based, mobile, ubiquitous, or more traditional information system to be treated as the core of research into persuasion, influence, nudge, and coercion. This article provides a foundation for studying BCSSs, in which the key constructs are the O/C matrix and the PSD model. It will (1) introduce the archetypes of behavior change via BCSSs, (2) describe the design process for building persuasive BCSSs, and (3) exemplify research into BCSSs through the domain of health interventions. Recognizing the themes put forward in this article will help leverage the full potential of computing for producing behavioral changes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Industrial Design originally focused on product development. However, since a decade the attention has extended from design for products to design for users, design for experiences and design for emotions. Recently, several projects have been initiated to design products to be used in the application area of mental healthcare — ultimately aiming at an improvement of the patient's Quality of Life by improving their emotion regulation. All these projects involve specific game elements but the designed products are not necessarily digitally. The projects share a design strategy that involves input from clinical practitioners and patients. This paper presents an overview of three projects. The first project has the aftercare of cancer patients as its topic. After breast cancer treatment, a large population of patients suffers from severe fatigue obstructing them to pick up their old life. A product was developed using the game elements tangible interaction and challenge to increase their energy management. The second project has a clinical group of soft-drugs addicted youth as its target group. The developed product aimed to increase their therapy adherence using game elements social coherence and tangible interaction. The third project has burn-out patients as a target group. The prototype consists of an online-game that aims to improve the patient's self-esteem and behavior. The used game-element is virtuality and amount of control. Gradually the game transgresses from low-interaction abstract games to high-interactive realistic role-playing. All projects have been evaluated by the respective patient groups.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It has been commonly acknowledged that the acceptance of a product depends on both its utilitarian and non-utilitarian properties. The non-utilitarian properties can elicit generally pleasurable and particularly playful experiences in the product's users. Product design needs to improve the support of playful experiences in order to fit in with the users' multi-faceted needs. However, designing for fun and pleasure is not an easy task, and there is an urgent need in user experience research and design practices to better understand the role of playfulness in overall user experience of the product. In this paper, we present an initial framework of playful experiences which are derived from studies in interactive art and videogames. We conducted a user study to verify that these experiences are valid. We interviewed 13 videogame players about their experiences with games and what triggers these experiences. The results indicate that the players are experiencing the videogames in many different ways which can be categorized using the framework. We propose that the framework could help the design of interactive products from an experience point of view and make them more engaging, attractive, and most importantly, more playful for the users.
Book
"Like Dewey, he has revolted against the empiricist dogma and the Kantian dualisms which have compartmentalized philosophical thought. . . . Unlike Dewey, he has provided detailed incisive argumentation, and has shown just where the dogmas and dualisms break down." --Richard Rorty, The Yale Review
Article
More Americans now play video games than go to the movies (NPD Group, 2009). The meteoric rise in popularity of video games highlights the need for research approaches that can deepen our scientific understanding of video game engagement. This article advances a theory-based motivational model for examining and evaluating the ways by which video game engagement shapes psychological processes and influences well-being. Rooted in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000a), our approach suggests that both the appeal and well-being effects of video games are based in their potential to satisfy basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We review recent empirical evidence applying this perspective to a number of topics including need satisfaction in games and short-term well-being, the motivational appeal of violent game content, motivational sources of postplay aggression, the antecedents and consequences of disordered patterns of game engagement, and the determinants and effects of immersion. Implications of this model for the future study of game motivation and the use of video games in interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The book represents the most concise and complete statement to date on the theory, and on the research which it has generated. It will be of interest to psychologists, psychiatrists, medical researchers, anthropologists, sociologists, counsellors and philosophers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Can computers change what you think and do? Can they motivate you to stop smoking, persuade you to buy insurance, or convince you to join the Army? "Yes, they can," says Dr. B.J. Fogg, director of the Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford University. Fogg has coined the phrase "Captology"(an acronym for computers as persuasive technologies) to capture the domain of research, design, and applications of persuasive computers.In this thought-provoking book, based on nine years of research in captology, Dr. Fogg reveals how Web sites, software applications, and mobile devices can be used to change peoples attitudes and behavior. Technology designers, marketers, researchers, consumers-anyone who wants to leverage or simply understand the persuasive power of interactive technology-will appreciate the compelling insights and illuminating examples found inside. Persuasive technology can be controversial-and it should be. Who will wield this power of digital influence? And to what end? Now is the time to survey the issues and explore the principles of persuasive technology, and B.J. Fogg has written this book to be your guide.