Strength training can improve myriad health parameters in elderly cohorts. Although potentially more appropriate for the elderly, low-load resistance training protocols have been less investigated. We aimed to examine the effects of 12 weeks of chair-based, low-load resistance training with elastic band (EBT) on functional fitness and metabolic biomarkers in older women. One hundred sixty-eight women were allocated randomly to an elastic band resistance training (EBT, n = 86, 75.7 ± 8.9 years, 71.3 ± 12.2 kg) or a control group (CON, n = 82, 74.5 ± 8.2years, 70.6 ± 12.0 kg). RT protocol consisted of periodized chair-based, low-load whole-body resistance exercises (2 sets, 12-15 repetitions, 40-60% of one repetition maximum-1RM) using an elastic band, twice weekly for 12 weeks. The resistance training program was generally designed to maintain internal load over time, provided with increasing intensity using various elastic bands (Thera-Band). Functional fitness (30-s Chair Stand,30-s Arm Curl, 2-min Step Test, Chair Sit-and-Reach, Back Scratch, 8-Foot Up-and-Go, Handgrip Strength) and metabolic markers (Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high (HDL) and low (LDL) density lipoprotein) were measured before and after the training period. To detect pre/post intervention changes and between group- differences 2x2 repeated measures ANOVA was applied. Significant improvements over time for all fitness variables for EBT comparing to CON were obtained (F = 12.78, p < 0.05 for 30-s Chair Stand; F = 14.04, p < 0.05 for 30-s Arm Curl; F = 5.18, p < 0.05 for 2-min Step Test; F = 10.90, p < 0.05 for Chair Sit-and-Reach; F = 16.57, p < 0.05 for Back Scratch; F = 11.79, p < 0.05 for 8-foot Up-and-Go; and F = 29.25, p < 0.05 for Handgrip Strength). In addition, significant improvements over time for all but one (triglycerides) biomarkers for EBT comparing to CON were obtained (F = 7.30, p < 0.05 for blood sugar levels; F = 13.36, p < 0.05 for total cholesterol; F = 8.61, p < 0.05 for HDL; and F = 11.53, p < 0.05 for LDL). Furthermore, the participants' adherence to training sessions of over 90% was reported. In conclusion, 12 weeks of EBT is safe and beneficial for improving health-related fitness and metabolic biomarkers in older women and seems to be viable model to ensure a high training adherence rate.