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The Universal Survey Museum

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... Collection in Dusseldorf and the Uffizi Gallery (Duncan & Wallach, 1980). ...
... After the Louvre adopted this exhibition model in 1810, most public museums followed the example by implementing it in their own collections (Duncan & Wallach, 1980). By classifying the artworks in established categories following a progressive narrative, the art historical exhibition model which responded to ideas of enlightenment, allowed the flourishing of art history as a discipline. ...
... By classifying the artworks in established categories following a progressive narrative, the art historical exhibition model which responded to ideas of enlightenment, allowed the flourishing of art history as a discipline. Art history in the art museum was understood as the progressive narrative of the achievements of great artists, a rationality that fitted the individual achievement oriented mentality of the middle class (Duncan & Wallach, 1980). By adopting this model, the museum legitimised this narrative as a universal truth and reinforced the middle class's claims over its symbolic content. ...
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The recent rise of migratory flows across borders, the effects of the previous financial crises that gave rise to the increasing inequalities and the current polarisation of the social and political climate, characterises the world’s current state of precarity in which rhetorics of xenophobia, racism, discrimination, homophobia, misogyny and extreme conservatism are constantly displayed in the public arena. The current social unrest has led museums to reconsider and reinvent their role in society. This thesis explores the potential of modern and contemporary art museums to work through critical curatorial practices for the benefit of the communities they exist for by inciting social change understood as the promotion of social justice, equality and diversity, and by encouraging democratic participation that could potentially incite visitors to find ways of changing the current state of affairs
... Perhaps the oldest role of the museum in society has been a custodian of culturally meaningful objects, stories, and experiences for future generations. Ever since the earliest public museums in Europe, museums have grounded their importance to society in the collections they preserve and keep (Abt, 2010;Duncan & Wallach, 1980;. Rare objects tied to ethnic heritage, scientific natural discoveries, and artistic achievement are seen as vital components of identity and history for individuals and groups (Abt, 2010;Clifford, 1988;Hoelscher, 2010;. ...
... Both museum studies and urban economic literatures suggest that the creation of art museums and museum like institutions require a sufficient concentration of economic and social activities. The earliest ancestors of museums and arts institutions, from the Mouseion of Ptolemy's ancient Alexandria to the "curiosity cabinets" of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, would not have existed had there not been a sufficient consolidation of power and wealth in the places that birthed them (Abt, 2010;Crane, 2000;Duncan & Wallach, 1980;MacDonald, 2005;. These early museum institutions and spaces owe their existence to those that had the power and wealth to acquire extensive collections of fine objects. ...
Thesis
Art museums often occupy highly contested urban space. Following the successes of art museums like the Guggenheim Bilbao, economic development literature has conceptualized art museums as beneficial anchor institutions that stabilize neighborhoods economically and socially, and catalysts that attract new development. However, an art museum’s ability to attract new development and its connection to more privileged groups likely implicate it in the negative processes of gentrification, which include displacement, socio-cultural isolation of, and/or higher housing costs for residents. While many studies have investigated the local economic impact of art museums, few have investigated how art museums might influence socio-economic change in neighborhoods. My dissertation investigates the role of art museums in neighborhood change, particularly socio-economic change, and in creating high quality, inclusive, and economically sustainable neighborhoods. In my research, I use mixed methods in two distinct analyses to understand the relationship between large-scale art museums and socio-economic and physical change in their neighborhoods. Starting with a quantitative analysis of socio-economic change in 154 neighborhoods adjacent to 59 regional/national art museums in the largest 50 U.S. cities, my dissertation then turns to an in-depth case study of the Portland Art Museum (Oregon) and its surrounding neighborhood between 1890 and 2014 to trace the linkages between the institution and change in its neighborhood. My research demonstrates that urban economic trajectory and institutional dynamics influence what role an art museum has in neighborhood change. Art museums are more likely to bestow anchoring benefits to their neighborhoods in shrinking economies, as well as are more inclined to support bridging between diverse social groups. Art museums in growing economies, while not linked by the data to significant displacement or increased housing costs in their adjacent neighborhoods, are inclined toward fostering relationships with more privileged groups and improving their status among their institutional peers. Thus, for community groups and planners to realize the benefits of art museums as neighborhood anchors, more public financial and human resource investment should be made in art museum programming, especially in high-growth cities.
... They provide a destabilizing, irreverent, decolonizing prelude to the museum's universal survey, which is itself a tangible manifestation of empire. 7 The history of transatlantic empires intertwines narratives of land theft with those of slavery and the Middle Passage. The generative cultural space, marked by trauma, that Paul Gilroy identified as the Black Atlantic is subjected to a phantasmagoric revision in the work of the New York-based Haitian artist Fabiola Jean-Louis (b. ...
... Liminality is a concept that has been used to explore the interplay between people and the built environment in museum research (Duncan and Wallach 1980;Sftinteş 2012). Pioneering work by van Gennep (1909), taken up by Turner (1974), defines liminality as a description of ritual transitions in which a person is separated from social norms. ...
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Museum managers face mounting pressures to increase and widen audiences, with families often perceived as a key audience requiring particular forms of engagement. The article utilises spatial ethnographic research at a major international art museum (Tate Modern) to examine how family museum practices relate to museum spatial design. Liminal spaces were found to be vital in shaping the experiences of family visitors by affording opportunies for more banal practices (such as playing, sitting, talking, eating and resting). Although they may be partially supported by collection displays, liminal spaces do not usually feature in museum management agendas. As the social purpose of museums continues to be debated, the paper argues for a greater understanding of the full range of affordances of museums for families, paying attention to the significance of different types of museum spaces in mediating experience and the importance of optimising those spaces for greater access.
... (Bennett, 1995: 147) (Bennett, 1995;Aronsson and Elgenius, 2015;이필, 2019 (Bennett, 1995 (Duncan andWallah, 1980/2004: 54 (Coombes, 1988 (DiMaggio, 1986;Bennett, 1992;McClellan, 2003 (이인범, 2002; 박소현, 2004, 2006; 박광현, 2009; 최종호, 2012 (Bourdieu, 1999: 56 (Bourdieu, 1999: 71 ...
Article
Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of the state and symbolic power, we analyzed the interactive dynamics centering around the discourse of the “the public” and the “the artistic” between state, intellectuals, and artists in the formation and transformation of the National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Korea (MMCA). Since its inception in 1969, the MMCA has combined the public and the artistic according to a universalist doxa that views art as a tool for nurturing the civility of the modern nation-state and its people. The notion of ‘kultur’ equating the excellency of art with that of nation/state/individual was embedded as an indisputable norm in the management of MMCA. The interactive dynamics between the state and intellectuals/artists, including competition and collaboration, produced and strengthened the norm. The state's cultural policy from the 1960s to the 1980s was consequently double-sided. On the one hand, it was based on censorship of mass culture, oppression of anti-government artists, and direct control of art, which instilled nationalist and anti-communist orientation within the policy frame. On the other hand, as shown in the law and state institutions related to cultural heritage and museums, it operated as symbolic violence by incorporating universalist ideas of artistic progress within nation-state building through mobilizing artists and intellectuals into the policy arena. Previous studies of cultural policies have adopted developmental perspectives that interpret the change of the MMCA as a linear democratic process whereby the oppressive control of art weakens, and the universalist promotion of art strengthens. However, we argue that the latter had a central role in the modernist project of nation-building by the authoritarian state and provided an ideological and institutional foundation for the development of the MMCA even after democratization. Therefore, despite the regime changes and diversification of exhibitions and management, the MMCA has stayed as an influential and long-standing anchorage that has sustained the state’s strong influence in the world of Korean visual art.
... The Louvre's directors devised the now traditional curation model of hanging determined by art-historical schools. Previously the private collection of King Louis XIV, opening up The Louvre to the public meant reframing the art within to match its new symbology (Duncan and Wallach, 1980). The resulting model held pervading influence over curation within art museums going forward, and was seen as an achievement of more logical and progressive thought. ...
Thesis
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This paper examines the act of gallery cleaning staff treating artworks as refuse or material objects. In the cultural imagination, these events are understood as a statement on the topos of contemporary art reception. Cleaners are often depicted as the “ultimate judge” of what constitutes “real” art. How has this come to be? And what is the significance of the joke treatment of such events in media coverage? Via a post-Marxist approach to critical museology, this paper documents how the art museum’s designation as a tool of social reform has shaped the gaze of arts engagement to meet classist ideologies. While this marks the cleaner’s own gaze as distinct, this is inextricably linked to the reductive sociocultural basis of arts interpretation. The cleaner therefore is a vessel for a double-edged narrative, highlighting the divide upon which arts engagement is predicated.
... The necessity of good provenance has come as a surprise to many private collectors who wish to donate to a museum, and the importance of the relationship between museum and benefactor cannot be overstated. Donors may wish to be affiliated with well-known institutions or to establish a personal or family memorial, and, of course, donations provide tax deductions (Duncan and Wallach 2004;Stone 2002:50). Donors may also be on a museum's board of trustees, creating an even more complex relationship. ...
Thesis
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During the first decade of the twenty-first century, the number of repatriation requests from foreign governments to museums in the United States greatly increased, and several landmark cases involving looted cultural heritage were decided in favor of the source nation. These transactions have been changing how American museums, private collectors, and art dealers acquire cultural heritage material, particularly when it has an archaeological origin. This study examines the history of collecting, discusses how efforts to prohibit the trade in illicit antiquities are affecting the way in which institutions and individuals acquire cultural heritage material, and supports a broader goal of identifying future strategies for collecting and stewardship. Chinese antiquities that are popular with art collectors are used as a sample group to represent the trade in archaeological material. Three general questions form the cornerstone of this research: (1) What is the impact of the increased use of cultural heritage legislation on the trade in archaeological objects, and can it be quantified? (2) What does the future of collecting look like for American museums and private collectors? How are museums and collectors changing their policies and approaches as a reaction to new legal actions and changing ethics? (3) What role does China play in the protection and consumption of Chinese cultural heritage? Qualitative data are drawn from interviews with 31 stakeholders. To ground the stakeholders’ concerns in fact-based research; quantitative data are collected from 86 auctions of Chinese antiquities held between 2000 and 2016. Both data sets show that stakeholders interested in acquiring Chinese antiquities are increasingly concerned with provenance, that verifiable provenance increases the value of an object, and that Chinese buyers play a significant role in auctions in the United States. It will be challenging to curb the demand for archaeological materials, and this study concludes with a discussion of the future of collecting in the United States, outlining current programs and examining new strategies aimed at changing how collectors view antiquities. Three potential approaches for reducing the demand for illicit antiquities are evaluated: government-controlled markets, reproductions, and long-term loans.
... However, Louvre as a public museum was a great indicator of the change that now the nation was the sum of public life and its people. Louvre became a tool for citizens to tap into their country's wealth in return for their adherence (Duncan and Wallach 1980). Regardless of these changes in the power structures, the Louvre's role was to excite and inspire its visitors and communicate these power structures' ideas. ...
Article
his paper aims to explore the impacts of employing the Louvre Museum’s ‘universal’ brand on France and UAE’s national identity construction processes. The text looks into brand’s role in accommodating forms of cultural exchange between these two countries, and the use of museum’s collections as cultural capital by the UAE in establishing legitimacy for the new Arab identity and its national aspirations. Such cultural exchange programs expose the hardship of creating and maintaining a ‘natural dialogue’ bet- ween the two ends. While Louvre Museum in Abu Dhabi explores the ‘shared themes’ that aims to connect humanity, within a ‘universal’ museum format that showcases borrowed global artworks; Louvre Museum in Paris reflects a ‘certain’ idea of the world with its comprehensive collections of acquired items. The problem lies in their difference at forming of the ‘universality’ that insists on decontextualiza- tion as this causes a reduction of self’s capacity to both speak and be heard like pointed out by Spivak. Text questions the relevance of a universal museum and cultural exchanges that allow the ‘other’ to gain universal recognition in establishing an authentic identity. These two museums in that sense, are critical to compare and reveal the fabricated need for cultural dependency on the ‘West’ that is happe- ning through the cultural exchange programs. It further highlights the embracement of othering as these exchanges are becoming an economic strategy instead of a cultural one for countries looking to gain acceptance and set a critical precedent within the region and world.
... The efforts to increase visits have strengthened marketing and business activities in museums (Sandell & Janes, 2007). Considering the effects of museums on visitors and interest in increasing visitors' number, it is evident rise in research studies aimed at investigating visitor experiences (Duncan & Wallach, 1980). The traditional collection, conservation, research and display functions of contemporary museums have been expanded. ...
... However, Louvre as a public museum was a great indicator of the change that now the nation was the sum of public life and its people. Louvre became a tool for citizens to tap into their country's wealth in return for their adherence (Duncan and Wallach 1980). Regardless of these changes in the power structures, the Louvre's role was to excite and inspire its visitors and communicate these power structures' ideas. ...
Conference Paper
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his paper aims to explore the impacts of employing the Louvre Museum’s ‘universal’ brand on France and UAE’s national identity construction processes. The text looks into brand’s role in accommodating forms of cultural exchange between these two countries, and the use of museum’s collections as cultural capital by the UAE in establishing legitimacy for the new Arab identity and its national aspirations. Such cultural exchange programs expose the hardship of creating and maintaining a ‘natural dialogue’ between the two ends. While Louvre Museum in Abu Dhabi explores the ‘shared themes’ that aims to connect humanity, within a ‘universal’ museum format that showcases borrowed global artworks; Louvre Museum in Paris reflects a ‘certain’ idea of the world with its comprehensive collections of acquired items. The problem lies in their difference at forming of the ‘universality’ that insists on decontextualization as this causes a reduction of self’s capacity to both speak and be heard like pointed out by Spivak. Text questions the relevance of a universal museum and cultural exchanges that allow the ‘other’ to gain universal recognition in establishing an authentic identity. These two museums in that sense, are critical to compare and reveal the fabricated need for cultural dependency on the ‘West’ that is happening through the cultural exchange programs. It further highlights the embracement of othering as these exchanges are becoming an economic strategy instead of a cultural one for countries looking to gain acceptance and set a critical precedent within the region and world.
... My initial study was therefore an incomplete treatment of a complex institutional, professional, and social issue that may still benefit from further analysis. There were several sound elements of my argument: I acknowledged that museums have a long history as colonialist, heteronormative institutions (Duncan and Wallach 1980;Hein 2010;Steorn 2012); used theory to try and understand the positionality of employees who are historically marginalized in a Western-centric, patriarchal hierarchy; and brought attention to a long-standing issue of inequity in art museums within larger social, political, and cultural discourses. In hindsight, there were several ways in which I fell short. ...
Article
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Art museum educators have long occupied a lower rank than their curatorial counterparts in the institutional hierarchies of their organizations. This manuscript provides an overview of research that attempted to make sense of art museum educator/curator positionalities by suggesting a sexed and gendered binary of museum work. I turn to queer theory to trouble and expand that analysis by situating education/curation as one of many contradictory discourses within a larger Western epistemological tradition that fueled myriad binaries and cast specific bodies in sexed and gendered ways. I utilize the physical structure of the basement – the location of many art museum education departments and offices – as a corollary to the queer closet, a space to interrogate the charged education/curation pairing, explore the habitus of contemporary art museum educators, and evoke queer orientations that consider the basement a point of departure rather than a final point of physical and institutional situatedness.
... Fourth, while there are some precedents for drawing on van Gennep and/or Turner in order to think about museums, this book radically departs from these. It does not, for example, build on these authors in order to examine the museum per se as a coherent ritual site and process that prepares its visitors for the conveyance and affirmation of particular identities, values and distributions of power (Cameron 1972;Duncan 1991Duncan , 1995Duncan and Wallach 1980;Grimes 2010). Neither the technology of the museum nor the museum visitor are the ritual subjects on these pages. ...
... Art museums are no exception. Through their collection and exhibition practices, they valorize certain visuals over others, turning images into national icons that become selfsustaining reference points in a country's collective consciousnesspart of an imagined national story (Anderson 1983(Anderson /2006Bennett 2006;Duncan and Wallach 2006;Macdonald 2003Macdonald , 2006Rydell 2006). ...
Article
Through their collection and exhibition practices, art museums around the world are active agents in the processes of national memory-making that silence and racialize certain individual and group identities As museums reopen in the wake of Covid19 closures and amid the global protests for social justice and racial equality, there is renewed urgency for institutions to do more than stage dominant narratives of nationhood, identity, and citizenship under the guise of detached commemorative hosts. Using visual art from the National Gallery of Canada’s permanent collection as a case study, this article applies an analytic framework to situate and explore dominant and conflicting constructions of national identity, communicated in a national museum. In doing so, it suggests that national narrative frameworks have much to offer critical approaches in the art museum that support renewed calls from scholars and activists, to upend hierarchies, multiply voices, and become bold new spaces for social advocacy and decolonization. Free Download Here: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/KHHMEJCU2WFBYMFR28DQ/full?target=10.1080/09647775.2020.1803111
... This is strongly reflected in the display of Asian art in United States museums, where China and Japan are represented with larger permanent exhibition spaces than their Asian counterparts. This is not unusual, considering that museums have historically organized space to reflect world domination and power (Duncan and Wallach, 2004). One example of this phenomenon may be found in the Cleveland Museum of Art's joint Korea-Japan gallery. ...
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This manuscript describes a semester-long engagement by members of a graduate course cohort to reckon with individual and collective understandings of contemporary art museum practices, the roots of which are deeply entrenched in colonial, Western, patriarchal discourses. In response to course readings, guest speakers, and embodied experiences, members of the group engaged in a project of resistance-shaped by open, ongoing dialogue and critical reflection about the field of museology and centered in both radical critique and boundless possibility. Inspired by Black Feminist scholars, curators, and justice-seekers (brown, 2019; Cooper, 2018; Autry, personal communication, November 15, 2019) who find pleasure in collective visions of world-building, they entered into a communal space of theoretical imaginings together to invoke a not-museum, a site with the potential to enable a socially-responsive, just, affirming ontology for their communities. The authors conclude with a manifesto that serves as a promise, a vision, and a tool with which to build such museums.
... In France, the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, in his influential The Love of Art, attacked the art museum as a de facto fortress of its customary visitors, privileged by their cultural capital (Bourdieu and Darbel 1991). As the American art historian Carol Duncan summarized it, 'What we see and do not see in art museumsand on what terms and by whose authority we do or do not see itis closely linked to larger questions about who constitutes the community and who defines its identity' (Duncan and Wallach 1980). The thesis was largely reproduced and developed in the literature of museum studies of the next generation. ...
Book
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Europe's national museums have been at the centre of ongoing nation-making processes, since their creation. These museums have successfully negotiated conflicts and contradictions to obtain the support of citizens and taxpayers, domestic and foreign visitors, scientists, art connoisseurs, and policy makers. National Museums and Nation-building in Europe 1750-2010 assess the national museum as a manifestation of cultural and political desires, rather than a straightforward representation of the historical facts of a nation. Examining the degree to which national museums have created models and representations of nations, their past, present and future, this book proceeds to assess the consequences of such attempts. Revealing how different types of nations and states-former empires, monarchies, republics, pre-modern, modern or post-imperial entities-deploy and prioritise different types of museums in their making, it constitutes the first comprehensive and comparative perspective on national museums in Europe and their intricate relationship to the making of nations and states.
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The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, beginning in early 2020, were felt across all industries and public institutions, including art museums. Shuttered art museums sought to maintain public interest in their collections and exhibitions by promoting existing online tools, such as the virtual art museum tours hosted by Google Arts & Culture. This article analyses these tours from the perspective of museology and architecture and argues that, rather than a form of virtual reality, these tours are a peculiar kind of image database. As such, they are part of Google’s growing efforts towards mass digitization and data accumulation.
Thesis
This thesis examines the relationship between heritage and borders. It argues that the study of heritage has a tendency to overlook important aspects of the borders of heritage discourses. The dissonance and conflict which occurs at the meeting points of different heritages is well worn academic territory. What is less comprehensively understood are the other products which issue from these meeting points. Taking as its case study the Kalasha, a non-Muslim community of only 4000 members positioned on the Pakistani side of the Afghan border, I demonstrate how in certain settings different heritages can come together in creative combinations. The theoretical underpinnings of my argument are drawn from borderland studies, a discourse which has much to offer the critical discussion of heritage, but which has thus far been underutilised. I also make use of the ecological principal of the ecotone, a methodology which allows me to abstract what I learnt from my case study into a format which is applicable to the wider study of heritage. The thesis makes several novel contributions to the academic discourse. The first is to draw attention to the potential of indeterminate borderlands for advancing critical heritage studies in productive new directions. The second is to produce a methodology for studying the meeting points of different heritages which offers the conceptual space to explore both dissonant and creative outcomes. The final contribution is to argue for a theorisation of heritage narratives as malleable and capable of being combined and in so doing nuance the prevalent understanding of heritage narratives as immutable and immiscible.
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In 1956, the Italian engineer Pier Luigi Nervi, with the architect Annibale Vitellozzi, built the Small Sports Palace in Rome. The Olympic Games, planned for 1960, required the construction of sports facilities to host the competitions. Nervi's solution, especially for the dome, was considered a low-cost, simple-to-build design, to be replicated as a prototype in other Italian cities. Things happened differently. The engineer was busy with other buildings for the Olympic Games and the Small Sports Palace was never replicated. The project became instead the prototype of a different experience for the Italian engineer. In America 10 years later, he was able to export his construction method. He was invited as a senior lecturer to prestigious universities, his books were translated and he designed famous architectures. During his American experience, Nervi was involved with developments in Norfolk, a city in the state of Virginia with an ambitious urban renewal program that included a new Cultural and Convention Center. From the very first drawings published in local newspapers, it was apparent that the design of the dome reproduced the same geometry as the Small Sports Palace in Rome. In the Norfolk Scope Arena, the dimensions of the dome are twice the size of the dome in Rome, which raises the question of how Nervi dealt with the project. The aim of this paper is to compare the two solutions that start from the same concept but are designed for different places and scales. The paper deals with the comparison between the two projects through architectural issues including the copy, model, and repetition. Through the theoretical issues and visual and geometric comparison between the two design projects, this research aims to improve the history of the two buildings through a new point of view about relationships between buildings with the same designer.
Chapter
This paper pays closer attention to the case of France, and to the development of new practices spreading over two decades beginning in 2000. We argue that cultural diplomacy and the increasing politicization of museum collections and museum brands have completely reversed the dynamics of cultural circulation. This chapter explores two theses. The first has to do with the museum and the development of new paths and trajectories of cultural circulation. The second thesis brings us to consider the place of the museum as a medium in this changing cultural landscape. As these new trajectories of cultural relations emerge and as they are promoted by a number of different interests, we are witnessing the itinerary of the museum, the rise of museum nomadism.
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U ovom radu autorica govori o odnosu muzeografije i historiografije u kontekstu kuriranja i pisanja historije umjetnosti u okviru programskog djelovanja Umjetničke galerije Bosne i Hercegovine, osnovane s ciljem ne samo da prikuplja i izlaže umjetnička djela, već i da kreira i prenosi njihove vrijednosti i utiče na razvoj bosanskohercegovačke umjetnosti. Uspostavljena kao najautoritativnija muzejska institucija u oblasti likovne umjetnosti, učestvovala je u izgradnji bosanskohercegovačke historije, od politika prikupljanja, izlaganja, do odnosa s drugim institucijama kulture i historijsko-umjetničkog znanja, odnosno regulirala je javnu sferu umjetnosti u odnosu na politiku vladajuće ideologije. Kroz izlagačke prakse, koje su zapravo diskurzivne prakse, što konstruiraju historijsko-umjetnički narativ, pogotovo u kontekstu retrospektivnih izložbi bosanskohercegovačke umjetnosti, popraćenih katalozima, galerija je aktivno učestvovala ne samo u izlaganju, već i pisanju, odnosno kreiranju historije umjetnosti. U poslijeratnom, postdejtonskom, tranzicijskom stanju destabiliziranog, etnički podijeljenog društva, kada gubi status institucije od državnog interesa i ostaje bez bilo kakvog pravnog statusa, što je implicitno vezano za načine finansiranja i definiranja njenih nadležnosti i zadataka, Umjetnička galerija Bosne i Hercegovine više nije u stanju dati značajniji doprinos historiografiji bosanskohercegovačke umjetnosti, već radije i sama postaje kao fragment socijalističkih ruševina ili artefakt, predmet za izučavanje društveno-političkih, ekonomskih, odnosno tranzicijskih procesa koji nastoje uništiti ideju bosanskohercegovačkog identiteta i kulture, i samim tim i muzejskih institucija koje ih izgrađuju.
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Museums and Nationalism in Croatia, Hungary, and Turkey draws attention to museums as political productions of the nation-state and shows how they can be shaped by the political forces that rule a country. Drawing on case studies and interviews from Croatia, Hungary, and Turkey, the book investigates how the past has been exploited to serve the interests of nationalism in the twenty-first century, and how museums themselves are exploited to serve nationalist ideologies. Arguing that museums have become the cultural offshoots of political wars, Posocco demonstrates that they are now places where the national past is contested, rewritten, sometimes even created from scratch, and finally exhibited. Paying particular attention to the decision-making and economic aspects of the museum, the book also examines the micro-sociological and political aspects, which will be the foundation for further reflections on the macro dynamics of museum-making in other countries and contexts Museums and Nationalism in Croatia, Hungary, and Turkey provides rare and interesting insights into how museums materialise culture in the service of nationalism. The book will be of interest to those engaged in the study of museums, heritage, nationalism, memory and politics, as a result.
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This article investigates when and how art museums might be engaged to benefit neighborhood development. To address this, the article presents research analyzing physical neighborhood and land use change in the Portland Art Museum and the South Park Blocks neighborhood in Oregon between 1932 and the 2010s. The analysis suggests that the art museum benefited neighborhood development in response to planning interventions that promoted a livability agenda. Alongside measures to prevent gentrification, planners and policy makers can activate art museums to create more livable neighborhoods.
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Sergi, D. (2013) Museos y la integración de refugiados en Reino Unido. Educacion Artistica Revista de Investigacion- Patrimonios Migrantes (4), pp. 49-65. https://ojs.uv.es/index.php/eari/article/view/2658 El proyecto analizado es parte de una investigación doctoral que examina los beneficios sociales, personales y psicosociales que los refugiados pueden derivar de las prácticas educativas de museos en el Reino Unido. Más específicamente el estudio investiga cómo los museos pueden fomentar la integración de los refugiados, contribuyendo a la eliminación de barreras derivadas de la falta de competencias lingüísticas y culturales. Con este fin, se analiza el trabajo realizado en los últimos 4 años por el Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts* con refugiados reasentados a través del Gateway Protection Programme, un esquema gestionado por el Home Office (Ministerio del Interior) y ACNUR (Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados).Se considera el museo como un ambiente de aprendizaje de libre elección para demostrar cómo los museos pueden contribuira desarrollar nuevos conocimientos y habilidades. Más concretamente, el proyecto explora cómo las colecciones de museos pueden estimular narrativas subjetivas acerca del proceso de integración, contribuyendo a adquirir habilidades culturales y lingüísticas. Los datos recogidos proceden de una amplia gama de metodologías cualitativas de investigación, que incluyen la observación participante en talleres y el análisis de las respuestas creativas a los objetos. Como consecuencia de la participación en dichas actividades, los participantes demostraron avances importantes en sus competencias lingüísticas y culturales. The case study analysed here is part of an on-going PhD project researching the social, personal and psychosocial benefits refugees might derive from museum-based activities. The study presented is particularly concerned with the way museums in Britain can encourage refugees’ integration, eliminating barriers particularly stemming from lack of linguistic and cultural competences. It analyses the work done in the last 4 years by the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts* with local refugees resettled in Norwich as part of the Gateway Protection Programme, a scheme jointly run by the Home Office and UNHCR (United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees). I apply the idea of museums as free-choice learning settings to discuss how museums can support the provision of new knowledge and skills. More particularly, the case study explores how objects can be used as means to stimulate subjective narratives around the process of resettlement, contributing to gain cultural and linguistic skills. Data collected come from a range of qualitative research methodologies, including ethnographic participant observation of workshops and the analysis of creative responses to collections. As a consequence of their involvement in museum-based activities, research has so far demonstrated that participants reported relevant progress in their language and cultural competences.
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Linara Dovydaitytė addresses the question of communication of Lithuanian museums with audiences. She follows the new museology wave which sees the museum beyond the notions of an archive, site of research or a repository of exhibits. The essay discusses public communication of the museum as promoting communal engagement of memory institutions, diversity and cooperation. Otherwise stated, new museology and practice foreground the importance of interactive communication, individual and group participation and CCI. The essay establishes links between museum discourse and critical theory envisioning a museum as a ‘space of contestation’ which is as an organised arena of discussion and conflict. This happens when an idea of inconvenient heritage is raised or when inconvenient alternative interpretation of events is put forward. Another area of tension exposed by Dovydaitytė is the relationship between museums of popular culture and professional museums which evoke the opposition between entertainment and study. Spaces of materialised memory have long been used for confirmation of the status of high society and the elite, while the shift towards pop culture indicates the penetration of the masses and the market into hierarchically organised halls. On the other hand, museums often represent exploitative, patriarchal, colonial, or even imperial relations, popularise them and thus become sources for reaction and inequality, i.e., is ideological structures. By critically looking at the museum as an institution, Dovydaitytė discusses the current situation of public communication in Lithuanian museums.
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This article explores different theoretical concepts of museum’s communication with its visitors in order to create a conceptual framework for analysis and evaluation of Lithuanian museums’ communicative competences within the field of cultural and creative industries. One of the main questions is how new information and communication technologies influence museum’s communication in a physical as well as virtual space. Despite the fact that digital media has a great impact on museum work, I argue that rather than merely collecting and analysing data of museums’ usage of new technologies it’s more important to reflect critically how and to what purposes new tools of communication are included in contemporary museums’ agenda. One part of the article is devoted to the discussion of general problems of museum communication. Due to its historical and ideological formations, the museum is presented as a site of contention where power positions and different interests encounter. This rather negative notion of museum’s institution is further reflected as possibly productive one in the concept of ‘contact zone’ by James Clifford. In the second part of the article the issue of new technologies and interactive communication is at stake. Keeping in mind the differences between technological and dialogical notions of interactivity (Andrea Witcomb) museum’s communication via new media is analyzed as a phenomenon which may change the very way how museum functions in a society. New technologies not only facilitate museum’s contacts with present and potential visitors but first of all challenge the traditional notion of museum communication where museum is conceived as content provider and visitors as message receivers. Dialogical approach to communication enables various co-creative strategies in providing museum contents and thus undermines authority-based status of the museum. In conclusion, it may be said that the usage of new information and communication technologies in museums depends on museums’ understanding of their social role.
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This chapter addresses the role, actions, and agency of institutions through an examination of the history of museums as international actors. I explore the National Gallery of Canada's (NGC) 1960 exhibition Masterpieces of European Painting 1490–1840 to demonstrate how the institution leveraged international partnerships to advance its own standing among a global community of museums. I outline the complex terrain of individuals and institutions involved in this inaugural show, revealing how efforts to foster international linkages worked with, and at times against, Canada's national interests.
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