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Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities.
Guppies As predAtors of Mosquito LArvAe
Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014 299
Correspondence: SNR Saleeza, Institute of Bio-
logical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University
Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
SNR Saleeza1, Y Norma-Rashid1,21
1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia; 2Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University,
Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract. Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on
the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti,
and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and
female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars
of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies
on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito
larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were
121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The
daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus,
and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater
preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and
the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed
more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night
Keywords: Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, guppy, predation
activities, Malaysia
sphaericus (WHO, 1986). Biological control
of mosquitoes was very popular during
the early part of the 20th century, but this
type of control has been replaced with the
insecticidal control due to easy availabi-
lity of chemicals such as organochlorines
and organophosphates. However, because
of problems with insecticide resistance
and greater awareness of environmental
contamination, there has been renewed
interest in biological methods (Service,
Among the popular biocontrol agents
against mosquito populations are the
  Gam-
 and G. holbrooki. This species,
however, is ineffective for the control of
Natural predators are used in bio-
logical control. This type of control is an
environmentally friendly preventative
method to control, among others, popu-
lations of pest organisms (Becker, 2006).
Several organisms have proved to be ef-
fective predators against mosquito larvae,
genus Toxorhynchites, dragonflies and
tode, Bacillus thuringiensis H-14, and B.
southeAst AsiAn J trop Med pubLic heALth
300 Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014
mosquitoes in what is termed as “contain-
er habitats”, that is, mosquito breeding
places such as phytotelmata, tree holes,
bamboo nodes, and discarded containers
(Kumar and Hwang, 2006). Another com-
the South African guppy, Poecilia reticulata,
which can tolerate waters of high tem-
peratures or that are organically polluted.
Carps, Cyprinus carpio, found in Chinese
Aedes aegypti.
Clarias fuscus in Myanmar,
Oreochromis, Tilapia species in Africa, and
Aplocheilus species in Europe and Asia are
placed in water storage tanks to control
Ae. aegypti (Service, 2000). Additionally,
guppies of the Poecilia reticulata species are
used to control dengue vector, Ae. aegypti,
in domestic water storage containers in
rural areas of Cambodia (Seng et al, 2008).
agents has been proved effective towards
malaria mosquito larvae (Howard et al,
2007; Kweka et al, 2011). P. reticulata also
shows preference for other prey besides
mosquito larvae (Manna et al, 2008).In this
P. reticulata was investigated using mos-
quito larvae of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus,
and Cx. quinquefasciatus as prey.
The guppies, P. reticulata, used as
predators in the experiments were col-
lected in the drains of Putrajaya and Kuala
for their wet weights and lengths before
and after the experiment. Before the start
acclimatized to laboratory conditions
and were placed in plastic aquaria for
a period of one week prior to the actual
as a diet for maintenance. Guppies were
starved for 24 hours before introduction
to the experimental aquaria, as this period
would increase the motivation to feed
(Bhattacharjee, 2009).
The experimental aquaria contained
mentation. For this experiment, the daily
feeding rates of guppies for three species
of mosquito larvae were recorded. The
P. reticulata was exposed to 100 4th instar
larvae for each species of Ae. aegypti, Ae.
albopictus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Three
aquaria were arranged for each mosquito
species, and three replicates of experi-
ments were completed on separate days.
and the daily feeding rate was recorded
repeatedly at 3-hour interval.
were not used in subsequent experiments.
At each 3-hour interval, the water from
experimental aquaria was sieved and
transferred to a white tray to count the
number of mosquito larvae consumed
carried out within 24 hours from 5:00 AM
until 5:00 pM for ‘lights on’ and from 5:00
pM until 5:00 AM for ‘lights off’. Using
this experimental procedure, the active
 
P. reticulata could be obtained.
The second experimental setup was
to assess the relationship of feeding rate
with different water volumes together
with the number of predator and prey
densities. This procedure was done in
three replicates for each species the ex-
perimental protocols used are: 1) Aquaria
liter of water volume and 100 4th instar of
Guppies As predAtors of Mosquito LArvAe
Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014 301
volume and 100 4th instar of mosquito
two fish with 1 liter of water volume
and 100 4th instar of mosquito larvae; 4)
4th instar of mosquito larvae; 5) Aquaria
liter of water volume and 100 4th instar of
volume and 100 4th instar of mosquito lar-
4th instar of mosquito larvae; 8) Aquaria
liter of water volume and 200 4th instar of
mosquito larvae.
The data of daily consumption rate
of both male and female guppies were
analyzed using one-way ANOVA (SPSS®;
IBM, Armonk, NY), and the relationships
between consumption rate and variation
of water volume, prey species, number of
lyzed using multiple regression.
Exposing 100 4th instar mosquito lar-
vae of every species to a single predator
species assessed the daily feeding rate.
The number of larvae remaining was re-
corded at every 3-hour interval, and the
experiment was carried out over 24 hours.
The overall feeding rates of female
males for all 3 species of mosquitoes test-
ed. Both female and male guppies showed
greater preference for Ae. aegypti larvae,
followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least
preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus (Fig 1).
It was observed that the female guppies
were more aggressive than male guppies
as they consumed more mosquito larvae
species. Both male and female guppies
spent most of their time at surface water
and were active in searching mosquito
larvae, but the female guppies were more
aggressive than male guppies. When the
mosquito larvae were released in the
aquaria, the first attack of guppy was
very fast.
The feeding rate between lights on
and lights off also varied between male
and female guppies, but both were active
during lights on. As shown in Fig 2, both
predators were active during lights on
as they consumed more mosquito larvae
during this time. The presence of light
can easily search and attack the prey. Some
studies indicate that when the water is tur-
because their vision is not clear (Robertis
et al, 2003; Turesson and Brönmark, 2007;
Jacobsen et al, 2014)
In this study, 100 and 200 4th instars of
mosquito larvae were used in the preda-
tion experiment. When 100 4th instars of
mosquito larvae were exposed to the gup-
pies, they consumed all mosquitoes, and
when 200 4th instars of mosquito larvae
were exposed to the guppies, more than
100 4th instars were consumed. Larvae
consumption increased, as there was an
increase in prey densities, until satiation
level was reached (Table 1).
From the regression equation, it was
observed that the feeding rate of male
guppies increased when water volume
was increased, and the number of preda-
tors was increased. Conversely, the feed-
ing rate of female guppies increased when
water volume and mosquito larvae densi-
ties were increased. All the three factors
male and female guppies.
southeAst AsiAn J trop Med pubLic heALth
302 Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014
Sex of Mosquito Water Fish (n) Mosquito Mean ± SE
guppies species volume densities
Male Ae. albopictus 1 1 100 49.67 ± 1.202
1 2 100 100.00 ± 0.000
1 1 200 53.00 ± 2.887
2 1 100 37.33 ± 1.453
Female Ae. albopictus 1 1 100 87.00 ± 7.572
1 2 100 100.00 ± 0.000
1 1 200 102.00 ± 10.599
2 1 100 73.00 ± 5.686
Male Ae. aegypti 1 1 100 77.00 ± 9.815
1 2 100 100.00 ± 0.000
1 1 200 101.00 ± 2.082
2 1 100 60.00 ± 4.726
Female Ae. aegypti 1 1 100 100.00 ± 0.000
1 2 100 100.00 ± 0.000
1 1 200 123.00 ± 4.619
2 1 100 85.00 ± 2.887
Male Cx. quinquefasciatus 1 1 100 46.00 ± 5.196
1 2 100 100.00 ± 0.000
1 1 200 50.00 ± 8.544
2 1 100 34.00 ± 6.083
Female Cx. quinquefasciatus 1 1 100 77.00 ± 6.928
1 2 100 85.00 ± 4.041
1 1 200 94.00 ± 6.351
2 1 100 65.00 ± 4.041
Table 1
Feeding rate of male and female guppies in 24 hours (mean ± SE of 3 experiments)
on larvae of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the variations in
Sex of guppies Equations for larval feeding rate R-value
Male guppy Y = 44.55 – 19.0 X1 + 37.22 X2 0.77
Female guppy Y = 93.83 + 17.16 X1 + 14.83 X2 0.67
Table 2
larvae by guppies.
Y, feeding rate of larvae; X1, water volume; X2, number of predator; R, multiple correlation coef-
Guppies As predAtors of Mosquito LArvAe
Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014 303
Number of mosquito larvae
consumed by guppies
Mosquito species
Female guppies
Male guppies
Cx. quinquefasciatus
Ae.albopictus Ae.aegypti
Light on Light off Light on Light off
Female Male
Number of mosquito larvae
consumed by guppies
Cx. quinquefasciatus
Fig 1–Number of mosquito larvae consumed by
female and male guppies (P. reticulata) on Ae.
albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus
Fig 2–Feeding rate of female and male guppies (P.
reticulata) on Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Cx.
quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 hours during light
on and light off.
In this study, guppies were used as
predators against three common mosquito
larvae in Malaysia. Saleeza et al (2011)
reported that the three common mosquito
larvae, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Cx.
quinquefasciatus, are commonly found in
residential areas in both urban and sub-
The number of prey consumed var-
ies with the difference in body size. This
means that prey consumption increases
with body size (Manna et al, 2008). This
 -
alcanti et al (2007) who report that the ef-
and sex. Cavalcanti et al 
urban areas. A number of studies
have indicated that guppies of the
P. reticulata species are good pred-
ators, as they can control mosquito
larvae population (Manna et al,
2008; Seng et al, 2008; Anogwih
and Makanjuola, 2010; Ghosh et
al, 2011). However, guppies do not
choose Cx. quinquefasciatus when
other available foods are present
in polluted water or drain water,
such as plankton (Dua et al, 2007).
P. reticulata is a more effective
predator against Ae. albopictus
cies such as Puntius bimaculatus
and Rasbora caverii. A study in Sri
Lanka suggested that, in compari-
son to Toxorhynchites larvae, which
consumed more mosquito larvae
(Wijesinghe et al, 2009).
In this study, it was observed
that female guppies (P. reticulata)
ate mosquito larvae more than
male guppies did. This result
al (2008): female guppies ate more
than male guppies, with 122.9
and 74 Ae. aegypti larvae per day,
respectively. This is due to the
larger size of the female guppies.
Therefore, female guppies can
consume more mosquito larvae
than male guppies can.
southeAst AsiAn J trop Med pubLic heALth
304 Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014
Ae. aegypti larvae and found that the
       
and female guppies are more capable
to eradicate Ae. aegypti larvae than male
guppies are.
According to Neng et al (1987), the
 Clarias fuscus de-
pends on the body weight of the predator.
Anyaele and Obembe (2010), the adult
higher biocontrol potential compared to
feeding rate, the daily feeding rate of the
guppies on mosquito larvae species was
different between sexes. However, the
prey preferences of both sexes of guppy
were the same, as they preferred Ae. ae-
gypti > Ae. albopictus > Cx. quinquefasciatus
larvae, and they tried to avoid the pupa
stage of mosquito development.
Most frequently, male and female
guppies were at the water surface actively
searching and attacking mosquito larvae;
however, they totally avoided mosquito
pupae. This behavior has also been ob-
served by Anogwih and Makanjuola
(2010). Moreover, in this study, it was ob-
served that male and female guppies were
more active and consumed more mosquito
larvae during lights on period. Anyaele
  
eat more under lights on compared with
on their visual ability to search for prey.
However, according to Ghosh et al (2011),
this difference in eating behavior during
daytime and nighttime had no practical
In terms of prey preference among
the three species of mosquito larvae, both
sexes of guppy prefer Ae. aegypti larvae
compared with the other two species of
the selectivity of prey by predator are as
follows: how the prey escapes from the
predator (guppy), ability of the predator,
prey attraction, and posture of mosquito
larvae. Deacon (2010) states that the fac-
are vegetation, feeding behavior of differ-
ent mosquito genera, ability to escape, dis-
tinct morphology, posture in the water for
mosquito larvae, and color of the larvae.
In this study, both sexes of guppy
preferred Ae. aegypti larvae compared
with Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus
larvae. As suggested by Kesavaraju et al
by the behavior of prey species and de-
velopment stage of prey. This means that
different predator attacks different stage
of mosquito larvae. However, in this
study, the 3rd and 4th instar larvae used as
the trial experiment showed that guppy
preferred late-stage larvae compared with
early-stage larvae. The black color of the
Ae. aegypti larvae could be the factor that
attracted the guppy to attack and consume
them, unlike the Cx. quinquefasciatus lar-
vae that are pale in color.
Otherwise, Rajasekharan and Chow-
daiah (1972) suggest that the preference
of Gambusia for Ae. aegypti larvae could
be attributed to the larvae’s small size,
their vertical position in water, and their
tendency to clump in groups; these factors
facilitate their capture. Kar and Aditya
(2003) state that planaria prefer and con-
sume Anopheles larvae more than they do
Culex larvae. It is likely due to the behavior
of the prey and the predator, as the larval
posture of Anopheles larvae is parallel to the
water surface. This posture helps planaria
to attack the larvae more easily.
Additionally, Kar and Aditya (2003)
state that Culex larvae are more active
Guppies As predAtors of Mosquito LArvAe
Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014 305
and move faster than Anopheles larvae
and Culex 
attacked. This suggests a reason that both
sexes of guppy observed in this study
Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the
other two species. Anyaele and Obembe
Anopheles compared with Culex. It is most
likely because Culex has the ability to es-
cape faster than Anopheles.
As reported by Culler and Lamp
(2009), the preference towards certain
type of prey is not only due to the ease to
capture they prey, but it also depends on
tor. For example, although ostracods are
easy to capture, they lack the nutritional
composition needed by predators for their
growth, and so predators do not prefer to
eat the ostracods (Culler and Lamp, 2009).
Anogwih and Makanjuola (2010) also
found that guppies prefer alternative prey,
that is, Chironomus larvae, which are the
most preferred prey, only then followed
by mosquito larvae and worm larvae.
Manna et al (2008) also indicated that
guppies prefer alternative preys such
 
preys are present, but nonetheless guppies
still consume mosquito larvae. Manna et al
(2008) also mentioned that guppies have a
wide range of dietary choices. Both stud-
ies, Anogwih and Makanjuola (2010) and
Manna et al (2008), showed that the guppy
prefers alternative prey than mosquito
larvae when both are present together;
however, in both experiment, it was ob-
served that the guppy also consumed the
Aphyosemion gularis prefers mosquito
larvae than non-mosquito macroinverte-
brates, such as chironomid larvae (Any-
aele and Obembe, 2011).
 
and Knight (2012), and these factors are
categorized into two, namely, ecological
factors and behavioral factors. The eco-
logical factors include suitable breeding
sites or habitat for predator and prey,
prey preference by predators, and devel-
opmental stage of both prey and predator.
The behavioral factors are, for example,
the feeding habits of their predator and
preference for alternative prey.
The effective way to use biocontrol
agents depends on the suitability of the
breeding site for predators to eradicate the
mosquito population and species prefer-
ence for mosquito larvae. For example, a
study in French Polynesia found that cov-
ered sites are preferred by Aedes spp and
are suitable for Mesocyclops aspericornis
light. Therefore, the most effective way
to control Aedes spp in covered sites is by
using M. aspericornis.
tation to its new environment (Lardeux,
1992). According to Kweka et al (2011),
besides habitat type, predator species
found that   is the most
effective predator than other predators
belostomatidae, and tadpoles in consum-
ing Anopheles gambiae larvae. Other factors
that influence predation activities are
number of predators, prey densities, water
volume, and respective sizes of predator
and prey (Aditya et al, 2007; Chandra et al,
2008), aquatic vegetation (Savino and
Stein, 1989; Shaalan et al, 2007), body size of
predator, behavior of predator, and mech-
anism of prey capture (Tranchida et al,
2009; Ohba and Takagi, 2010).
southeAst AsiAn J trop Med pubLic heALth
306 Vol 45 No. 2 March 2014
In this study, when two fish were
exposed to prey, the number of prey
consumed was more than when only one
quito larvae were consumed by these two
two male guppies were released in the
aquaria, but this was not observed when
two female guppies were released. It was
likely due to competition when the two
Anogwih and Makanjuola (2010) reported
low foraging behavior of guppies when a
to mosquito larvae, competition between
their foraging behavior.
In terms of feeding rate in this study,
female guppies had their feeding rate
increased when the prey densities were in-
of Anyaele and Obembe (2010). They re-
ported that larval consumption increased
when the densities of prey increase until
satiation level is reached, that is, when the
of Pseudomugil signifer Kner and Gambu-
sia holbrooki Girard consume more larvae
at the lowest densities compared to the
highest densities. However, both species
reached a level of satiation when they are
exposed to high densities of larvae and
late instars of mosquito larvae (Willems
et al, 2005).
tion activities and feeding rate. When 2
liters of water was used in the experiment,
the predation activities and feeding rate
decreased. Fish spent more time forag-
ing and searching for mosquito larvae.
The feeding rate decreased when water
volume of water was increased, and the
feeding rate increased when the number
of predators and the densities of preys
were increased (Chandra et al, 2008; Man-
dal et al, 2008). As discussed by Jacob et al
(1983), environmental factors such as tem-
 
but salinities do not affect the predation
activities. The predation activities increase
when the temperature is increased and
the feeding rate under lighting is higher
than in dark condition. In addition, Marti
et al (2006) suggested that different prey
attack strategies and handling time of
feeding rate.
We would like to thank the Institute
of Medical Research for supplying the
mosquito larvae that we used in the
experimentation, the Putrajaya Health
the Putrajaya areas, and the Institute of
Biological Science, University Malaya
   
This project was funded by IPPP grant
PS209/2009C and PV065/2011B.
Aditya G, Bhattacharyya S, Kundu N, Kar
 
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... (2012), Gupta & Banerjee 2013, Griffin (2014, dan Saleeza et al. (2014). Spesies ikan larvivora yang memiliki persebaran luas, yaitu Gambusia affinis (Pyke 2005) dan Aplocheilus panchax (Costa 2013). ...
... (*tidak diperoleh individu G. affinis yang termasuk dalam kelas ukuran). Jurnal Iktiologi IndonesiaTingkat pemangsaan terhadap larva nyamukPenelitian sebelumnya(Jacob et al. 1983, Gupta & Banerjee 2013, Saleeza et al. (2014 ...
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Research on the potency of arfak rainbowfish as a biocontrol of mosquito larvae was held in Fisheries Laboratory FPPIK, the Universitas Negeri Papua from August to November 2013. This study aimed to describe the potency of arfak rainbowfish as a biocontrol of mosquito larvae and compared it with two introduction fish species, Gambusia affinis, and Aplocehilus panchax. All of the three species collected from Prafi River, Manokwari were acclimatized for one month in the laboratory. Male individuals were selected and grouped into four size classes according to body length. Three individuals were chosen to represent each species in each size class. Each individual was treated with mosquito larvae (stage IV instars and pupae) of 100 individuals separately, as well as 50 individual instars and pupae simultaneously. The level of predation and selectivity of both prey types was recorded, within 15-minute observation period. All of the three species showed levels of predation on instars and pupae increased with increasing body size. The level of predation on instars was higher than the pupae when the two treatment preys were treated separately. Furthermore, the predation level of arfak rainbowfish on instars and pupae higher than the other two fish species in all size classes, and also the relative degree of selectivity did not differ between the two types of prey in each size class. These results as well as other criteria indicate M. arfakensis has potential as a biocontrol agent to mosquito larvae.
... For example, studies on pre-emptive action towards mosquito larvae propagation using biocontrol agents are widely reported (WHO, 2011;McGregor and Connelly, 2021;Faithpraise et al, 2014). Examples of predators tested include Rhantus sikkimensis and larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Aditya et al, 2006;Aditya et al, 2007), Diplonychus spp and Anisops spp (Shaalan et al, 2007), Odonata nymphs (Chandra et al, 2006;Mandal et al, 2008), Acilius sulcatus (Order Coleoptera, Family Dytiscidae) , M e s o c y c l o p s ( O r d e r C y c l o p o i d a , Family Cyclopidae) (Marten et al, 1989;Marten, 1990;Marten et al, 1994;Soumare and Cilek, 2011), planaria (Dugesia bengalensis) (Kar and Aditya, 2003), guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) (Seng et al, 2008); diving beetles (Ohba and Takagi, 2010), and Laccotrephes greisus (Ghosh and Chandra, 2011) In Malaysia, common biocontrol agents are Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and guppy fish (Nyamah et al, 2011;Ong, 2016;Saleeza et al, 2014). Toxorhynchites spp larvae have also been used but the impact of their application on communities and environment are still ongoing (Nyamah et al, 2011). ...
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Biocontrol has been proposed as an effective approach in controlling mosquito population. In this study, three Odonata (dragonfly) nymphs (Neurothemis fluctuans, Orthetrum chrysis and O. sabina) were investigated for their feasibility as biocontrol agents against dengue virus vectors Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each Odonata nymph species was separately fed each of the mosquito species IV instar larvae maintained at a fixed level by replenishing every three hours for 24 hours under controlled laboratory conditions and 12-hour light-dark period. N. fluctuans and O. sabina nymphs preferred Ae. aegypti as their prey, while O. chrysis favored Cx. quinquefasciatus. Amount of larval consumption is significantly higher during light compared to dark period (p-value <0.05). However, overall there are no significant differences in consumption rates of the three dragonfly nymph species for the test mosquito larvae. Thus, Odonata nymphs are potential biocontrol agents against mosquito vectors of dengue disease.
... During the 20 th century, biological control of mosquitoes was very effectively carried out. However, the application of chemical insecticide was in top priority because of the easy availability and costeffectiveness (Saleeza et al., 2014). However, due to the development of insecticide resistance in these vectors, in addition to their ill-effects on the ecosystem, chemical insecticides were less preferred, and biological control agents were prioritized. ...
.In this review, the mosquito vector borne diseases (VBD) majorly malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, Zika were presented to comprehend the global disease incidence as the control of these disease transmitting vectors are challengeable globally nowadays. It has been found that malaria affects nearly 500 million people and lymphatic filariasis about 100 million people worldwide every year. About 25 million people are infected by dengue, with approximately 25,000 deaths annually. For mosquito larval adult control measures, synthetic pesticides playing major role but owing to resistance development its application is impeded. Alternatively, bacterial biopesticides are very useful for larval control mainly due to environment friendliness and lack of resistance development. As of now, Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) and B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) are in use but Bs is nowadays not recommended for field application due to resistance. Significant results on resistance development are noticed in India, Brazil and France. Due to these situations, there is a growing interest in discovering novel biological agents from natural sources. In the present review, the current global scenario of VBDs were discussed.
... This is a sign that the population balance is still maintained between mosquitoes and controlling organisms. These controlling organisms can be predators, parasites and entomopathogens (Saleeza et al. 2014;Benelli et al. 2016;Udayanga et al. 2019). Several insect orders are predators of mosquito larvae, namely Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera (Dida et al. 2015;Udayanga et al. 2019;Couret et al. 2020;Eba et al. 2021). ...
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Muhamat, Hadisusanto S, Umniyati SR, Soesilohadi RCH. 2021. Dynamics of Toxorhynchites splendens population in the Larval phase at a rubber plantation in Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 4915-4922. This study aims to describe a water-filled rubber sap bowl as a habitat for larval Toxorhynchites splendens. The research used a quota drive count method, taking the first 10 rubber sap bowls found in the study area: (i) with larval Tx. splendens, (ii) with other mosquito larvae, (iii) with water but without mosquito larvae, and (iv) without water. The number of larval Tx. splendens was calculated based on the developmental phase and other mosquito larvae present in each bowl. Environmental factors, such as temperature and humidity, rainfall, wind velocity, and duration of irradiation were the additional data. The results of this study showed that the average frequency of On average, over 20% of bowls contained larval Tx. splendens, and the percentage increased in high rainfall. During low rainfall in August and September, Tx. splendens used water-filled rubber sap bowls as breeding places. This study concludes that Tx. splendens can make use of water-filled rubber sap bowls as places for breeding. Each rubber sap bowl contained one or more individuals of instar larvae 2, and the number decreased as the developmental phase continued because of the limited volume of water in the bowl, cannibalism, and the number of other mosquito larvae as prey.
... Despite this, Gambusia spp. together with other Poeciliid fishes (e.g., Poecilia reticulata) are still used as mosquito control agents in some parts of the world (Jayapriya & Shoba, 2014;Saleeza et al., 2014;Verma et al., 2016). From a conservation perspective it is, therefore, essential to identify regions where the-deliberate or accidental-introduction results in a high probability of establishment due to suitable (current and future) climatic conditions. ...
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Aim Formerly introduced for their presumed value in controlling mosquito-borne diseases, the two mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki (Poeciliidae) are now among the world's most widespread invasive alien species, negatively impacting aquatic ecosystems around the world. These inconspicuous freshwater fish are, once their presence is noticed, difficult to eradicate. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to assess their geographic potential and to identify their likely ability to persist under novel climatic conditions. Location Global. Methods We build species distribution models using occurrence data from the native and introduced distribution ranges to identify putative niche shifts and further ascertain the areas climatically suitable for the establishment and possible spread of mosquitofish. Results We found significant niche expansions into climatic regions outside their natural climatic conditions, emphasizing the importance of integrating climatic niches of both native and invasive ranges into projections. In particular, there was a marked shift toward tropical regions in Asia and a clear niche shift of European G. holbrooki. This ecological flexibility partly explains the massive success of the two species, and substantially increases the risk for further range expansion. We also showed that the potential for additional expansion resulting from climate change is enormous—especially in Europe. Main conclusions Despite the successful invasion history and ongoing range expansions, many countries still lack proper preventive measures. Thus, we urge policy makers to carefully evaluate the risk both mosquitofish pose to a particular area and to initiate appropriate management strategies.
... They have various combinations of colour patterns especially on the sides of the body and fins (Froese & Pauly, 2018). P. reticulata has several roles and benefits in life, including predators of several disease-causing mosquito larvae (Saleeza et al., 2014), used as ornamental aquarium fish (Singh et al., 2010), and act as an indicator of quality in the aquatic environments (Sarikaya et al., 2017). ...
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Poecilia reticulata is a freshwater fish from the northeastern part of South America and spread widely to various countries in Asia and other continents. However, research about P. reticulate is limited even though it is a well-known fish species in Indonesia. The purpose of study was to identify the fish species of P. reticulata through DNA barcoding using the COI gene to determine the phylogenetic relationships among fish populations in East Java, Indonesia. In a present study, there were eight samples of P. reticulata from four different freshwater locations in East Java. Extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA samples were conducted to obtain the genetic data and construct a phylogenetic tree based on DNA sequences. The COI gene is the most popular markers to study genetic populations and phylogeography among the animal kingdom. Our phylogenetic reconstruction showed a clear that there were two groups of P. reticulata. The first group was obtain through species from East Java, Sukabumi, West Java (KU692776.1), Dominican Republic, Pandeglang, Banten and Myanmar. The second group was P. reticulata from southern Africa, Brazil, and Sukabumi, West Java (KU692775.1). The result of this study indicate that the guppy fish in East Java identic with P. reticulata from West Java (KU692776.1), which a widely used in classification based on evolutionary relationships. The findings of this study have important implication for the development of advance research about adaptation, phylogeny, and evolution of fish, especially of guppy fish.
... Predatory larvivorous fish have also been utilised to reduce the container index of Aedes mosquito larvae. Among the species used are Gambusa affinis, Poecilia reticulate, Tilapia mossambica and Sarotherodon niloticus (71). G. affinis is tolerant to insecticides making it ideal to be used together with chemical control methods (72). ...
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Currently, treatments for dengue infection are only symptomatic as no antiviral agents nor vaccines are available to combat this virus. Despite challenges faced by researchers, many efforts are ongoing to reduce cases of dengue infection either by targeting the vector or the virus. Vector population is monitored and reduced by using mechanical, chemical and biological controls. Chemical control is achieved either by using synthetic or natural insecticides where the latter is more preferable. In biological control, bacteria, fungi and larvivorous fish are utilised to reduce the vector population. Moreover, genes of mosquitoes are also explored to produce progenies which are sterile with low survival ability. Vaccines are among the most effective ways to prevent viral infection. Various approaches have been used and are still being explored towards producing vaccines for dengue. These include live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, nucleic acid and virus-like particles vaccines. The aim is to produce a vaccine which can target all the four serotypes of the virus. Monoclonal antibodies are widely researched on to equip the host defense mechanism against the dengue virus. Deeper understanding of the virus replication cycle warrants the development of antiviral agents which target viral proteins vital for the replication process. Bioactive compounds are also utilised in the development of antiviral agents. The importance of surveillance and supportive therapy are also discussed.
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The risks of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus nuisance and vector‐borne diseases are rising and the adverse effects of broad‐spectrum insecticide application has promoted species‐specific techniques, such as sterile insect technique (SIT) and other genetic strategies, as contenders in their control operations. When specific vector suppression is proposed, potential effects on predators and wider ecosystem are some of the first stakeholder questions. These are not the only Aedes vectors of human diseases, but are those for which SIT and genetic strategies are of most interest. They vary ecologically and in habitat origin, but both have behaviourally human‐adapted forms with expanding ranges. The aquatic life stages are where predation is strongest due to greater resource predictability and limited escape opportunity. These vectors' anthropic forms usually use ephemeral water bodies and man‐made containers as larval habitats; predators that occur in these are mobile, opportunistic and generalist. No literature indicates that any predator depends on larvae of either species. As adults, foraging theory predicts these mosquitoes are of low profitability to predators. Energy expended hunting and consuming will mostly outweigh their energetic benefit. Moreover, as adult biomass is mobile and largely disaggregated, any predator is likely to be a generalist and opportunist. This work, which summarises much of the literature currently available on the predators of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, indicates it is highly unlikely that any predator species depends on them. Species‐specific vector control to reduce nuisance and disease is thus likely to be of negligible or limited impact on non‐target predators.
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The corn silk (CS) is composed of the thread-like stigmas of female inflorescences of Zea mays L. and represents an important waste material from maize crop production that can be recycled in further applications. In this research, the CS was used for the bio-fabrication of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) that were evaluated against (I–V) larval instars and pupae of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. CS-AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDAX, XRD, FTIR, DLS, and zeta potential analysis. Z. mays extract analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry reveals 14 compounds. The larvicidal effectiveness of CS-fabricated AgNPs was 2.35 μg·mL−1 (I Instar) to 6.24 μg·mL−1 (pupae). The field application in water storage reservoirs of both CS extracts and CS-AgNPs (10 × LC50) led to a 68–69% reduction in larval density after 72 h post-treatment. Ecotoxicological impact of CS-fabricated AgNPs was evaluated on the predatory efficacy of Poecilia reticulata on all the larval instars and pupae of Ae. aegypti. Finally, CS-AgNPs were tested to elucidate its anti-biofilm attributes. The CS-AgNPs at 125 μg·mL−1 showed a biofilm inhibition of 90% on S. aureus and 79% on S. epidermidis. These results support the use of CS-AgNPs for futuristic green alternative to mosquito vector management.
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A study was conducted to compare the feeding efficacy of Toxorhynchites larvae (L3 & L4) and three larvivorous fish species on Aedes larvae. Ground-level cement water-storage tanks (20%-80%) and water-storing barrels (8.33%-54.55%) formed the majority of Aedes-positive outdoor containers. Ae. albopictus, Ae. macdougali and Ae. vittatus were recorded in water-storage tanks, with Ae. macdougali being dominant. In the laboratory, the consumption rate (time to devour 10 Ae. albopictus L3 larvae in a vessel of 78.57 cm2 of surface area) for Toxorhynchites was significantly lower (mean time of 330 minutes) than for any of the tested fish species, Poecilia reticulata (Guppy), Puntius bimaculatus (Ipilli Kadaya) and Rasbora caveri (Dandiya), which needed 16.67, 27.33 and 24 minutes respectively. There were no significant differences (P=0.062) between the consumption rates of the three fish species. A field study was carried out to determine the feeding efficacy of Toxorhynchites larvae, P. reticulata, P. bimaculatus and R. caveri on Aedes larval populations in outdoor cement tanks by noting the percentage reduction of Aedes larvae per 100 cm2 surface area after one week. Toxorhynchites larvae caused a 20%-83.33% reduction with 1-8 larvae per tank. A complete reduction (100%) was achieved with P. bimaculatus and R. caveri with 1-3 fish per tank. P. reticulata showed similar results, but with 90% reduction being achieved once with two fish per tank. There was a higher possibility of losing Tx. larvae than the fish species during the removal of water by the householders. The efficiency of the three fish species for consuming Aedes larvae was greater than that with Tx. larvae. It appears feasible to use Puntius bimaculatus, Rasbora caveri and Poecilia reticulata for controlling Aedes breeding in outdoor cement water-storage tanks in Sri Lanka.
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Contrast degradation theory predicts that increased turbidity decreases the visibility of objects that are visible at longer distances more than that of objects that are visible at short distances. Consequently, turbidity should disproportionately decrease feeding rates by piscivorous fish, which feed on larger and more visible prey than particle-feeding planktivorous fish. We tested this prediction in a series of laboratory feeding experiments, the results of which indicated that prey consumption by two species of planktivorous fish (juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma)) is much less sensitive to elevated turbidity than piscivorous feeding by sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Planktivorous feeding in the turbidity range tested (0-40 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) was reduced at high light intensity, but not at low light intensity. Comparatively low (5-10 NTU) turbidity decreased both the rate at which sablefish pursued prey and the probability of successful prey capture. These results suggest that turbid environments may be advantageous for planktivorous fish because they will be less vulnerable to predation by piscivores, but will not experience a substantial decrease in their ability to capture zooplankton prey.
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In this study, the natural environment of Poecilia reticulata (Guppy) was simulated to estimate an efficient guppy-mosquito larvae density that can be used for routine biological control practice. The fish predatory pattern was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys and their predatory behaviour closely observed for 24 hours. Varying prey densities were exposed to varying densities of P. reticulata. The interaction between P. reticulata and the various prey types were assessed using 2-way ANOVA test and Manly's selectivity index (S). Prey consumption of P. reticulata increased significantly with predator-prey density and time interval (p<0.05). Individual fish of similar sizes attained satiation at predator-prey density of 1:30 over the period of observation. Despite the preference for Chironomus larvae, P. reticulata never ceased feeding on mosquito larvae. Further analysis with Duncan post hoc tests showed that the four time points of application (6 hour, 12 hour, 18 hour and 24 hour) were the same only at the lowest and highest predator densities of 1 and 10 respectively. There were variations in the peak periods of mosquito larvae consumption by the fish that followed with decline in feeding even with increased mosquito larvae density. The observed predatory behaviour of the fish revealed shoaling behaviour; avoidance of immobile larvae; low foraging when single; competition for prey when paired; total avoidance of mosquito pupae; and more time spent on surface water. It is most likely that the presence of alternative preys will affect the efficiency of P. reticulata as mosquito control agent under field condition. The right estimation of predator-prey density may increase the sensitivity of guppy by facilitating total consumption of larvae within a time span.
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Ram Kumar and Jiang-Shiou Hwang (2006) Larvicidal efficiency of aquatic predators: a perspective for mos- quito biocontrol. Zoological Studies 45(4): 447-466. Biological control of mosquito larvae with predators and other biocontrol agents would be a more-effective and eco-friendly approach, avoiding the use of synthetic chemicals and concomitant damage to the environment. Manipulating or introducing an auto-reproducing predator into the ecosystem may provide sustained biological control of pest populations. The selection of a biological control agent should be based on its self-replicating capacity, preference for the target pest popula- tion in the presence of alternate natural prey, adaptability to the introduced environment, and overall interaction with indigenous organisms. In order to achieve an acceptable range of control, a sound knowledge of various attributes of interactions between a pest population and the predator to be introduced is desirable. Herein, we qualitatively review a wide range of literature sources discussing the ability of different aquatic predators to con- trol mosquito larval populations in environments where mosquitoes naturally breed. Different predators of mos- quito larvae include amphibian tadpoles, fish, dragonfly larvae, aquatic bugs, mites, malacostracans, anostra- cans, cyclopoid copepods, and helminths. The most widely used biocontrol agents of mosquito populations are the western mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis, and the eastern mosquito fish, G. holbrooki. The effect of these fishes on native faunal composition and their inability to survive in small containers, tree holes etc., which are ideal breeding sites of vectorially important mosquitoes, make them inefficient in controlling mosquito popula- tions. On the basis of larvicidal efficiency, the ability to produce dormant eggs, the hatchability of dormant eggs after rehydration, faster developmental rates, and higher fecundity, various tadpole shrimp can be considered to
This paper presents an idea of biological control of mosquitoes by their predators, the planarians. The suggested technique for biological control would be of special interest, because unlike pesticides, it does not cause secondary envi ronmental effects as pollutant. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the potential application o f planarians as predators of the mosquitoes at their developmental stage.
The saltwater mosquito, Aedes vigilax , is prolific in coastal wetlands including mangroves and saltmarshes. Ae. vigilax is a vector for arboviruses such as Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses, with significant consequences for human health and economic productivity. In Australia the dominant form of mosquito control is chemicals. For mangroves, this is because there is a critical lack of knowledge supporting alternative approaches, such as environmental modification or biological control using larvivorous fish. This review examines the potential of fish as biological agents for the control of mosquito larvae in mangroves. We consider two key aspects: how larvivorous fish use mangroves; and can larvivorous fish reduce larval mosquito populations sufficiently to provide effective mosquito control? The link between fish and mangroves is reasonably well established, where mangroves act as refuge habitat for small and juvenile fish. Also, research has established that fish can be significant predators of mosquitoes, and therefore may be effective control agents. However, studies of fish activity within mangroves are limited to study of the fringe of the mangroves and not the internal structure of mangrove basins and as a result, fish populations within these areas remain unstudied. Also, until recently there was little appreciation of the mangrove-mosquito habitat relationship and, as a consequence, the importance of the mangrove basin as the key mosquito habitat has also been overlooked in the literature. Similarly, the predator/prey relationships between fish and mosquitoes within mangrove basin environments also remain unstudied, and therefore the importance of fish for mosquito management in mangrove basins is not known. There are substantial knowledge gaps regarding the potential of fish in controlling larval mosquitoes in mangroves. The gaps include: understanding of how larvivorous fish use mangrove basins; the nature of the fish-mosquito predator/prey relationship in mangrove basins; and whether larvivorous fish are effective as a mosquito control option in mangroves.