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Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

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Abstract

Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a11. Ehri , L. 2005a. “Development of sight word reading: Phases and findings”. In The science of reading: A handbook, Edited by: Snowling , M. and Hulme , C. 135–154. Malden, MA: Blackwell. [CrossRef]View all references) as a sequence of overlapping phases, each characterized by the predominant type of connection linking spellings of words to their pronunciations in memory. During development, the connections improve in quality and word-learning value, from visual nonalphabetic, to partial alphabetic, to full grapho-phonemic, to consolidated grapho-syllabic and grapho-morphemic. OM is enabled by phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme knowledge. Recent findings indicate that OM to support sight word reading is facilitated when beginners are taught about articulatory features of phonemes and when grapheme-phoneme relations are taught with letter-embedded picture mnemonics. Vocabulary learning is facilitated when spellings accompany pronunciations and meanings of new words to activate OM. Teaching students the strategy of pronouncing novel words aloud as they read text silently activates OM and helps them build their vocabularies. Because spelling-sound connections are retained in memory, they impact the processing of phonological constituents and phonological memory for words.

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... One notable area of controversy is how well high-and low-progress readers learn to read through extensive reading of texts of 'manageable' difficulty. A second area is the 'three cueing system' where children's use of syntactic, semantic and graphophonic cues when having difficulties reading unfamiliar words: in Australia and New Zealand, asking children three-cueing system questions is a major strategy in reading instruction, with helpers and parents asking children questions that focus attention on semantic, syntactic, and graphophonic cues, with this being effective for high-progress readers and far less so for struggling-readers (Ehri, 2014;Hempenstall, 2016;Young et al., 2018). ...
... For example, combining computerised interventions with options such as Event-Related Potential (ERP) and fMRI brain mapping (Molfese et al., 2010;Preston et al., 2016), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS; Au et al., 2016;Shin, Foerster, & Nitsche, 2015), physiological measures of cognitive load (Zagermann, Pfeil, & Reiterer, 2016), and use of medications such as those for managing attention difficulties (Diamond, 2013;Rabipour & Raz, 2012). With recent studies showing value in factors as diverse as self-talk empowering learning, saying words aloud enhancing vocabulary development, and sleep consolidating learning (Durrant et al., 2011;Ehri, 2014;Schiff & Vakil, 2015), it's likely that over time, the range of associated useful factors will expand. ...
... Considerable research on self-teaching has focused on word-reading development (Caravolas, 2017;Castles et al., 2018;Ehri, 2014;Nation, Angell, & Castles, 2007;Ricketts et al., 2011;Share, 2008). The self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995) emphasizes decoding and orthographic mapping as the central mechanisms of self-teaching, with students successfully decoding words and building orthographic representations of words, which become increasingly sophisticated as words are re-encountered over time (Caravolas, 2013, Ehri, 2014, Share, 1995. ...
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The research base on cognitive processing is proliferating exponentially on topics such as short-term and working memory, executive function and cognitive processing. This situation creates the need for practical school-level applications from this useful knowledge. Students in nations with highly regular orthographies (e.g., Finland and Estonia) experience very low cognitive load across literacy development, and consequently are less dependent on effective cognitive processing. With English an extremely complex orthography, Anglophone beginning readers experience very high cognitive load across early word-reading, spelling and literacy development. This makes effective cognitive processing extremely important, particularly for at-risk readers. Using cognitive processing and crosslinguistic perspectives, this chapter considers the characteristics and needs of Anglophone struggling readers; teachers' needs in supporting their instruction; and how ongoing Reading Wars divisiveness about word-reading creates the need for research to establish the differing skills and instructional needs of high-progress and low-progress readers. This chapter explores a wide range of cognitive processing areas relevant to optimising reading instruction for at-risk children, many of which currently have had minimal research. These include impacts of high as opposed to low cognitive load in literacy development; and the cognitive processing benefits of regular orthographies. It highlights the value of cognitive-processing research being increasingly focused on school and reading development issues.
... Um dos modelos de leitura mais aceitos atualmente na ciência cognitiva é o de Ehri (2013Ehri ( , 2014. A autora descreveu quatro fases de leitura que se caracterizam pelo tipo de conexões predominantes que são realizadas quando o leitor se depara com a palavra escrita: pré-alfabética, alfabética parcial, alfabética completa e alfabética consolidada. ...
... De acordo com Ehri (2013Ehri ( , 2014, quando os alunos decodificam uma palavra extraindo os fonemas na relação grafema-fonema, conexões são ativadas em seu cérebro que unem a sequência de letras e sons a seu significado e promovem a permanência das grafias na memória. Este processo é denominado mapeamento ortográfico. ...
... Porém, a alfabetização não se resume a tal conhecimento, mas inclui outras habilidades além do reconhecimento de palavras, tais como a compreensão linguística e a fluência (Ehri, 2014). Diante de tais evidências científicas, no Brasil foi publicada a nova Política Nacional de Alfabetização (MEC, 2019), que destacou os componentes primordiais para a alfabetização, a saber: consciência fonêmica, instrução fônica, fluência em leitura, vocabulário, compreensão de textos e produção de escrita. ...
... Leur durée est brève et éphémère, ce qui les rend difficiles à distinguer (Pallier, 1997). Cependant, les chercheurs qui préconisent l'enseignement avec des petites unités ont fait valoir que, puisque les systèmes d'écriture alphabétique représentent la parole au niveau des phonèmes, il faut apprendre aux élèves à détecter ces unités pour établir des liens entre les graphèmes et les phonèmes afin de décoder et d'épeler les mots lors de leur premier apprentissage de la lecture (e.g., Duncan et al., 1997 ;Ehri, 2014 ;Hulme et al., 2002 ;. ...
... Share (2008) a décrit le décodage comme un mécanisme d'autoapprentissage que les lecteurs peuvent appliquer pour débloquer l'identité de mots inconnus pendant qu'ils lisent un texte. Ehri (1992Ehri ( , 1998Ehri ( , 2014Ehri ( , 2020 (Wimmer & Goswami, 1994), l'italien (Degasperi et al., 2011), le gallois (Spencer & Hanley, 2003) et le grec (Nikolopoulos et al., 2006). ...
... En effet, la condition de compatibilité leur est favorable et ils lisent plus rapidement des syllabes fréquentes enchâssées dans des mots fréquents, ce qui est en accord avec notre hypothèse de départ. De plus, ces résultats iraient dans le sens de travaux antérieurs qui illustrent la trajectoire développementale des enfants plus jeunes par rapport aux plus âgés selon laquelle la syllabe est une unité de plus en plus rapidement disponible au fur et à mesure que la lecture s'automatise (e.g., Duncan et al., 1997 ;Ehri, 2014 ;Hulme et al., 2002 ; ...
Thesis
La dyslexie développementale est définie comme un trouble persistant et durable dans l’apprentissage de la lecture et de l’écriture. Son origine est génétique et neurobiologique, et représente 7 à 10% des enfants scolarisés. Pourtant, moins de 20% d’entre eux bénéficient d’une prise en charge, posant la question d’un dépistage et d’un diagnostic adaptés. Actuellement, l’hypothèse explicative privilégiée, celle d’un stock de représentations phonologiques imprécises voire dégradées en mémoire, fait du déficit phonologique un marqueur universel de la dyslexie développementale. Nous allons voir que des hypothèses alternatives existent, notamment celle évoquant un accès dégradé aux représentations phonologiques, elles-mêmes relativement préservées. Au sein de cette thèse, nous avons exploré cette hypothèse, en intégrant le marquage de sonorité et l’impact du contexte socio-évaluatif. En effet, aucune étude à ce jour n’a conjointement envisagé le rôle des propriétés phonologiques universelles et du contexte socio-évaluatif dans les difficultés en lecture des enfants dyslexiques (en dépit de l’omniprésence de ce contexte). Trois-cent-soixante-neuf enfants, dont 123 enfants dyslexiques, ont participé aux expérimentations, exploitant trois tâches expérimentales (i.e., le Word-Spotting, la tâche de localisation syllabique et la tâche de détection visuelle). Les résultats de cette thèse élargissent les perspectives de travaux sur le déficit phonologique chez les enfants dyslexiques, d'une part en poursuivant davantage les études sur le rôle de la syllabe et de la répétition subvocale en lecture, et d'autre part en interrogeant sur les différents moyens qui permettraient efficacement de réduire le stress induit par le contexte socio-évaluatif afin de recueillir de manière fiable les compétences des enfants dyslexiques lors d’évaluations scolaires ou de bilans orthophoniques.
... These early-literacy skills are important developmental precursors of later conventional reading and writing skills. Ehri (2014) argued that children learn how to read individual words by forming mental connections between the written units (e.g., graphemes) and the spoken units (e.g., phonemes) in a word. Some researchers have suggested that writing words requires a greater integration of phonological and orthographic knowledge than reading those same words (Conrad, 2008;Ouellette et al., 2013), thus requiring the use of higher quality orthographic representations Perfetti, 2007). ...
... Current models of reading indicate that skilled readers recognize written words by automatically accessing highly consolidated, word-specific orthographic representations that integrate the reader's knowledge regarding a word's pronunciation, meaning, and orthography (Ehri, 2005;Perfetti, 2007;Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989). According to Ehri (2014), when readers come across unfamiliar words and either say or hear the word's pronunciation, they automatically begin to connect the word's orthography to its pronunciation. Because orthographic representations require the reader to form connections between orthography, pronunciation, and meaning, children must have some knowledge of letters, sounds, and vocabulary before creating orthographic representations. ...
... Although there has been a substantial amount of research concerning how early-literacy skills affect the acquisition and development of conventional literacy skills, there has been less research concerning the effect of early-writing skills on the acquisition and development of conventional reading skills. It is possible that early-writing skills provide information regarding children's developing orthographic representations (Ehri, 2014;Ouellette & Sénéchal, 2008a), a skill that is ultimately important for the development of conventional reading skills (Caravolas et al., 2001). According to Ehri (2005Ehri ( , 2014, the quality of children's orthographic representations improves incrementally via a series of overlapping phases corresponding to children's developing phonological awareness (i.e., pre-alphabetic, partial alphabetic, full alphabetic, and consolidated alphabetic). ...
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Researchers have argued that writing skills have significant implications for developing reading skills. A growing body of research has provided evidence that writing skills, in particular invented spelling, provide unique predictive information regarding future reading skills. This study examined which preschool early writing skills (i.e., name writing, letter writing, and invented spelling) had unique predictive relations with kindergarten and first-grade reading outcomes beyond the predictive contributions of preschool early literacy skills. A total of 252 preschool-age children (mean age = 58.62 months, SD = 3.60) were assessed on early literacy skills and early writing skills. Children completed measures of conventional reading skills in kindergarten and the first grade. Multi-level regression analyses were used to examine the degree to which early writing skills uniquely contributed to later reading outcomes. Results indicated that preschool children’s invented spelling contributed unique variance to later reading outcomes beyond the contributions of early literacy skills. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to measures of early literacy skills, measures of invented spelling may be useful in the early identification of children at risk of reading difficulties.
... Others have suggested morphological awareness reflects a broad form of linguistic awareness encompassing elements of meaning, syntax, and phonology, which together could have a widespread influence on word reading development (Carlisle, 2003;Kuo & Anderson, 2006). And indeed, just as phonological awareness initially serves to secure regular words in memory through robust letter-sound connections which then supports memory for both phonologically regular and irregular words (e.g., Ehri, 2014), the influence of morphological awareness could certainly extend beyond just the reading of morphologically complex words (see also Deacon & Kirby, 2004). ...
... The mid-elementary grades are a highly relevant time period to evaluate these effects. In line with developmental phases of word reading, progress in word reading efficiency during this period is driven by the use of salient, recurring letter patterns such as morphemes (Ehri, 2014). Moreover, texts during these grades are replete with morphologically complex words (Anglin, 1993;White et al., 1989), and children are also rapidly developing knowledge of derivational morphology (Carlisle, 2003;Foorman et al., 2012). ...
... We found that a two-factor model-one that distinguished morphological decoding from broader word reading skill-fit the data better than a model with a unidimensional word reading model, a difference that was significant at Grade 3 and marginal at Grade 4. These results point to morphological decoding as empirically separable from measures of word reading efficiency, as has emerged in a few prior studies (see also Nunes et al., 2012). These findings run counter to the predictions of phase theory (Ehri, 2014) and other conceptualizations (e.g., Grainger & Ziegler, 2011) which make no distinction in the utility of morphemes units (e.g., dis-and -able) from other recurring grapho-syllabic units (e.g., -ight and -ump) in supporting word reading. This prediction has long been surprising to us and others (e.g., Kirby & Bowers, 2017) given that morphemes are semantically and syntactically rich, features absent in other letter patterns. ...
Article
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We know a great deal about children’s first steps into reading. Here, we explore how they become more sophisticated readers, learning to read complex words. Theoretical accounts predict that one key factor is morphological awareness, or awareness of the minimal units of meaning in language. And yet empirical studies have yet to clarify whether morphological awareness has a stronger relation to the development of reading skill for words with multiple morphemes in particular (i.e., morphological decoding) or to the reading of a whole range of words. We examined this question in this study by contrasting the role of morphological awareness in the development of morphological decoding and of broader word reading skill. Participants were 197 English-speaking children who were followed from Grade 3 to 4. We conducted longitudinal analyses that included stringent autoregressive controls to capture the determinants of gains over time, as well as controls for vocabulary and phonological awareness. Structural equation modeling (SEM) path analysis with this set of controls revealed that morphological awareness predicted significant unique gains in morphological decoding from Grade 3 to 4 with no such unique contributions to broader word reading skill. These findings clarify the role of morphological awareness in supporting children in developing the ability to read morphologically complex words, supporting a more targeted role for morphology in theories of word reading development.
... Here, we outline major theories of reading development and orthographic learning, each of which offers predictions about the role oral vocabulary knowledge plays within reading acquisition. Ehri (1992Ehri ( , 2005Ehri ( , 2014 proposed that as children learn to read they progress through a series of phases across developmental time. The phases are named to reflect the main types of connections children form to assist them to remember how to read words. ...
... Orthographic learning as conceptualised elsewhere (Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation & Castles, 2017) occurs in the full alphabetic stage and particularly in the consolidated alphabetic stage. Ehri (2014) theorised that for an orthographic representation to be formed, orthographic mapping must occur, a process thought to be largely driven by phonological decoding. Orthographic mapping refers to the process of forming connections between aspects of lexical representation, and is initiated when a reader encounters a new printed word and then either attempts to produce the spoken word or hears its pronunciation. ...
... Existing theories of orthographic learning view oral vocabulary as exerting an influence on written word learning that commences upon exposure to a written word (Ehri, 1992(Ehri, , 2005(Ehri, , 2014Perfetti, 1992Perfetti, , 2007Perfetti & Hart, 2002;Share, 1995Share, , 2008. This fact is noteworthy because the two cognitive mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how oral vocabulary influences word reading differ with respect to the proposed timing of the effect. ...
Article
In this theoretical review, evidence for the link between spoken and written word knowledge is summarised, highlighting the specific hypotheses posed in this field and the extent to which they are informative regarding causation. A brief overview of major theories of orthographic learning draws attention to how each characterises the role of oral vocabulary within the learning process, and the timing of its influence. The theoretical foundations and evidence for two cognitive mechanisms that seek to explain the relationship between spoken and written word knowledge are outlined, drawing attention to a key difference between them: the proposed timing of the effect. Set for variability (or mispronunciation correction) is thought to operate from the point of visual exposure, while orthographic skeletons are thought to exert an influence on written word learning that begins before exposure to written words. The review closes with a discussion of directions for future research.
... O resultado disso é o surgimento de pronúncias alternadas para "handsome" em determinadas variedades da língua inglesa. Já que esta possui uma ortografia opaca 74 , a recomendação é trabalhar, em sala de aula, a relação grafema-som a fim de que o aprendiz consiga não apenas prever a pronúncia a partir da escrita e vice-versa(CELCE-MURCIA, et al., 2012), mas também formar a conexão entre a forma escrita, a forma falada e o significado da palavra em sua memória(EHRI, 1992(EHRI, , 2014EHRI; ROSENTHA, 2007 ...
... O resultado disso é o surgimento de pronúncias alternadas para "handsome" em determinadas variedades da língua inglesa. Já que esta possui uma ortografia opaca 74 , a recomendação é trabalhar, em sala de aula, a relação grafema-som a fim de que o aprendiz consiga não apenas prever a pronúncia a partir da escrita e vice-versa(CELCE-MURCIA, et al., 2012), mas também formar a conexão entre a forma escrita, a forma falada e o significado da palavra em sua memória(EHRI, 1992(EHRI, , 2014EHRI; ROSENTHA, 2007 ...
Thesis
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This research was motivated by the desire to offer guidelines to a group of 07 Brazilian teachers who requested theoretical-methodological support to know how to treat English pronunciation in a pedagogical way in their classroom. This guidance, which has taken form of a pronunciation teaching approach, was built under the assumptions of Cognitive Phonology (LANGACKER, 1987, 2008, 2013, 2017b, 2017c) and teaching English as an International Language (JENKINS, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002a; MCKAY, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2010, 2018; SEIDLHOFER, 2003; LLURDA, 2004; SHARIFIAN, 2009; MATSUDA, 2018; MARLINA, 2014, 2018). This study also proposed to participants an online workshop that allowed them to reflect critically on the use of the pronunciation teaching approach. In broad terms, findings presented in this study demonstrate that participants: i) did not receive instruction on pronunciation teaching in their initial teacher education; ii) wish that they had received a pedagogical training in pronunciation teaching because this knowledge would let them feel more confident and secure to teach it; iii) appreciated the principles of pronunciation teaching approach proposal; iv) enjoyed participating in a critical and reflective formation aiming to improve their teaching practice and the target approach. These results suggest that this research was able to offer the guidance requested by participants and providing space and moments for teachers to interact, reflect and dialogue in a collaborative way may be of great benefit in order to make their teaching practice better towards building a fairer, more inclusive, egalitarian, and democratic society. At the same time, it is expected that the results of this research can not only encourage further discussions on the need of empowering (future) teachers to integrate pronunciation into their daily class work, but also stimulate teachers and scholars to rethink and resignify English pronunciation teaching for a globalized world. Keywords: Pronunciation Teaching; English Language; Teaching English as an International Language; Cognitive Phonology; Teacher Education.
... For alphabetic languages like English, research finds that explicit in-struction in decoding is the most effective way to introduce letter-sound relationships (Verhoeven, Perfetti, 2021). Ehri (2014) advocates displaying the written form when a new word is taught, as this enhances memorization of the spelling and pronunciation. In addition, asking learners to say new words aloud when they see them in a text was found to explicitly reinforce the phonological-graphic connection. ...
... Following Ehri (2014), I would advocate that from an early stage children need to be shown the written form of the English word as they hear it and learn its meaning. Initially the focus is oral and no attention needs to drawn to the written form, but it needs to be seen. ...
Article
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This theoretical article presents a case for a new approach to the teaching of word recognition in English as a foreign language to young learners in Polish early years education, arguing that there is a need for greater attention to explicit instruction in alphabetic principles, selected phonics and decoding skills. Research in first language (L1) English and foreign language (L2) development of word recognition skills is outlined. Differences between the orthographies of Polish and English are highlighted. Approaches used in L1 early reading instruction are contrasted with those commonly applied in L2 settings. The need for more explicit instruction is rationalized on the basis of a brief description of impressions from 20 hours of classroom observation. The second part of the paper presents some principles for the design of materials to introduce alphabetic principles of English and elements of phonics to support word recognition, with examples. The ability to recognize words rapidly and with ease is a key skill, which, unless mastered early, could potentially have a negative impact on the whole of a child’s language education.
... have fewer literacy experiences with favourite stories, books, shared discussions exploring characters, descriptions, alternative story lines, and the vagaries of print (Ehri, 2014). ...
... Children at risk of reading and writing difficulties commonly need support in multiple areas. These include vocabulary and language skills; word-reading; and cognitive processing skills used in literacy such as verbal short-term and working memory, phonological awareness, executive function skills, metacognition and strategy use (Carlson, Jenkins, Li, & Brownell, 2013;Ehri, 2014). Whilst often needing considerable skill development and sufficient practice to enable automisation of skills, at-risk readers also need this learning to be motivating and engaging, supporting them to be active learners taking control of their learning (Dickinson, 2011). ...
... Moreover, it seems that there is strong association between spelling and reading skills (Vaessen & Blomert, 2013). More specifically, the acquisition of the phoneme-grapheme as well as of the grapheme-phoneme correspondence, leads to the improvement of word reading because fewer cognitive resources are required for the decoding skills (Graham & Santangelo, 2014) and consequently more resources are available for reading comprehension (Ehri, 2014). It has also been suggested that high-quality orthographic representations for spelling further support sight word reading (Ouellette, Martin-Chang, & Rossi, 2017). ...
... It has also been suggested that high-quality orthographic representations for spelling further support sight word reading (Ouellette, Martin-Chang, & Rossi, 2017). Conversely, Ehri (2014) argued that reading supports spelling through better retention of written words in memory. ...
Article
Background: Τhe present study focuses on mechanical processes of braille writing conducted by the fingers. Analyzing and attempting to understand the perceptive feedback of the fingers is in specific situations important to develop methods to minimize phonological type errors. Aim: During a braille spelling task, the authors examined the phonological errors and traced the most and the least error prone finger(s). The authors also examined if it was possible to predict the type of phonological errors in braille writing based on four independent variables relevant to braille code. Method: The error rate of twenty nine participants was estimated by normalizing the frequency of errors performed by each finger in relation to the frequency of the executed keystrokes. Additionally, a multinomial logistic regression examined the potential effect of the column of the braille cell, the dot density of the braille characters and the word length on the type of phonological errors, while a chi-square test has been performed between types of error and fingers. Results: The fingers were not equally error prone to phonological type errors. The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that when a replacement error appeared, the odds for an omission error were significantly less in the right column as well as in short words, while the probability for an addition error was significantly less in both cell columns. In contrast, when a replacement error appeared, the participants tended to perform more omission errors in words with rare density. Conclusions: The right ring finger was the most error prone, while the right middle finger was the least error prone. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that all the independent variables, particularly the cell column, exhibited a statistically significant relation with the types of errors.
... Due to the highly varied speech, the Mandarin-naïve listeners were capable of extracting such between-categories acoustic differences to assign them a stronger weight while simultaneously discarding the within-category acoustic features that were deemed linguistically irrelevant. Finally, auditory speech is both complex and transient in nature, whereas visual information can be held in one's memory and provide more reliable cues than auditory information (Ehri, 2014;Lotto & Holt, 2011;Yeung & Werker, 2009). Hence, the audiovisual pairing of varying acoustic signals and fixed visual information largely enhance one's category learning during speech perception. ...
... As the simultaneous presence of phonemes from the spoken language and graphemes from the written system recur during the learning process, learners start to recognize that the highly varied acoustic speech signal can be matched to relatively fixed visual forms. The many-to-one connection forming process between phonemes and graphemes is strengthened, eventually leading to the symbolization (Ehri, 2014(Ehri, , 2020. ...
Article
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Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated that tone identification can be facilitated when auditory tones are integrated with visual information that depicts the pitch contours of the auditory tones (hereafter, visual effect). This study investigates this visual effect in combined visual–auditory integration with high- and low-variability speech and examines whether one's prior tonal-language learning experience shapes the strength of this visual effect. Method Thirty Mandarin-naïve listeners, 25 Mandarin second language learners, and 30 native Mandarin listeners participated in a tone identification task in which participants judged whether an auditory tone was rising or falling in pitch. Moving arrows depicted the pitch contours of the auditory tones. A priming paradigm was used with the target auditory tones primed by four multimodal conditions: no stimuli (A−V−), visual-only stimuli (A−V+), auditory-only stimuli (A+V−), and both auditory and visual stimuli (A+V+). Results For Mandarin naïve listeners, the visual effect in accuracy produced under the cross-modal integration (A+V+ vs. A+V−) was superior to a unimodal approach (A−V+ vs. A−V−), as evidenced by a higher d prime of A+V+ as opposed to A+V−. However, this was not the case in response time. Additionally, the visual effect in accuracy and response time under the unimodal approach only occurred for high-variability speech, not for low-variability speech. Across the three groups of listeners, we found that the less tonal-language learning experience one had, the stronger the visual effect. Conclusion Our study revealed the visual–auditory advantage and disadvantage of the visual effect and the joint contribution of visual–auditory integration and high-variability speech on facilitating tone perception via the process of speech symbolization and categorization. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21357729
... Data analysis draws upon constructivist and grounded theory approaches (Charmaz, 2008). As researcher-practitioner, I investigated aspects of theory from three psychological processes that informed the research: audiation (Brodsky et al., 2003;Gordon, 2003Gordon, , 2007; representational thinking (Bamberger, 1982(Bamberger, , 1991(Bamberger, , 2005Barrett, 1997Barrett, , 2001Barrett, , 2005Gromko, 2016;Gromko & Russel, 2016;Pramling, 2009;Reybrouck et al. 2009;Upitis, 1990Upitis, , 1992; and language reading (Ehri, 2014;Samuels, 2002;Schwanenflugel et al. 2011;Snow, 2002). The choirlab aspect of the research design had a dual purpose. ...
... El análisis de los datos se basa en enfoques teóricos constructivistas y fundamentados (Charmaz, 2008). Como investigadora y profesional, estudié aspectos de la teoría a partir de tres procesos psicológicos que fundamentaron la investigación: la audición (Brodsky et al., 2003;Gordon, 2003Gordon, , 2007; el pensamiento representacional (Bamberger, 1982(Bamberger, , 1991(Bamberger, , 2005Barrett, 1997Barrett, , 2001Barrett, , 2005Gromko, 2016;Gromko & Russel, 2016;Pramling, 2009;Reybrouck et al. 2009;Upitis, 1990Upitis, , 1992; y la lectura del lenguaje (Ehri, 2014;Samuels, 2002;Schwanenflugel et al., 2011;Snow, 2002). El aspecto de laboratorio coral del diseño de la investigación tenía un doble propósito. ...
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Se presentan resultados de un proyecto de intervención para el programa de radio Ventana al Sonido (GU, 2020) que se transmite los domingos a las 11:00 de la mañana por Radio UAA (94.5 FM), el cual, desde 2014, ha sido implementado como estrategia de aprendizaje situado en las asignaturas de Cultura y Apreciación Musicales de la Licenciatura en Música de la Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes. En el contexto de un trabajo de titulación de maestría, una estudiante de la generación 2018-2020 diseñó un taller de producción radiofónica desde casa para atender el compromiso de programación anual asumido por la institución, el cual se vio afectado repentinamente por el confinamiento derivado de la pandemia COVID-19. Se presentan resultados de la intervención y reflexiones que se interpretan como indicios de cambio social que podrían impactar significativamente el currículo de la educación musical de nivel superior en los próximos años.
... Beyond this stage, orthographic and morphological , in addition to graphemephoneme correspondence knowledge, contribute to proficiency in spelling, particularly because in English, the phoneme-grapheme matching system does not always render correct spellings (Deacon, Kirby & Casselman-Bell, 2009). Ehri (2005Ehri ( , 2014 referred to this as a consolidated alphabetic phase, when spellers become aware of recurring letter sequences as chunks, recognize and use graphotactic conventions. Initially in this phase, children may not recognize the morphological patterns in words and so their spellings of morphological units will be based on phonological clues (Carlisle, 2003). ...
... Initially in this phase, children may not recognize the morphological patterns in words and so their spellings of morphological units will be based on phonological clues (Carlisle, 2003). With increased exposure and practice, they develop an understanding of the connection between the sounds and meanings of morphological units and their orthographic representations (Ehri, 2005(Ehri, , 2014Levesque, Breadmore & Deacon, 2021). For example, the inflectional morpheme marking past tense is represented by the phonemes /t/, /d/, or /ɪd/ or /əd/ depending on word composition (as in the words: worked-/t), hugged-/d/, ended-/əd/), however it will always be represented by the same graphemic representation of ed. ...
Article
Becoming a proficient speller in English is a challenging task requiring integration of knowledge from multiple linguistic and cognitive sources. Spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL) is more complex when the distance between the different languages of the speller is great. Whereas binary scoring practices are prevalent, they are not as informative as analyses of errors based on linguistic characteristics. The present longitudinal study examined the development of spelling in EFL among speakers of Semitic L1, Arabic and Hebrew ( N = 354). A dictation task on a one-word level assessed spelling from 4th–6th grades. Spellings were first scored for accuracy and then analyzed based primarily on phonological and orthographic characteristics. Errors were then grouped according to four predominant developmental trends. While similarities with L1 spelling development were noted, some of the error types could be attributed to unique characteristics of linguistic distance between Semitic languages and English. Both theoretical and practical implications are considered.
... The first, reading accuracy, is emphasized in the initial years of instruction (Peng et al., 2018) and is often assessed with materials that feature letters, words, nonwords, sentences, or connected texts, depending on the children's reading level (e.g., Austin et al., 2012;Bjork & Bowyer-Crane, 2013;Burgoyne et al., 2019). Achieving reading accuracy requires various skills, from recognizing sound-letter correspondences to combining sounds into words to acquiring sight words and holding patterns of words and sounds in memory, as well as identifying nonwords (an index of phonics skills) and reading words in context (Castles et al., 2018;Ehri, 1995Ehri, , 2014. ...
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Two meta-analyses assessed whether the relations between reading and mathematics outcomes could be explained through overlapping skills (e.g., systems for word and fact retrieval) or domain-general influences (e.g., top-down attentional control). The first (378 studies, 1,282,796 participants) included weighted random-effects meta-regression models to explore and contrast the magnitudes of the links between different reading and mathematical competencies. The second (138 studies, 39,836 participants) used meta-analytic structural equation modeling to determine the influence of a domain general factor, defined by intelligence, executive functioning, working and short-term memory, and processing speed measures, on the link between reading and mathematics skills. The overall relation was significant (r=0.52), as were all associations between specific reading and mathematics measures (rs = 0.23 to 0.61, ps<.05). Most of the correlations were similar across different types of reading and mathematics competencies, although generally smaller than within-domain correlations. The domain general model explained most of the covariance between reading and mathematics outcomes, with a few modest moderating effects (e.g., age). The results imply correlations between reading and mathematics measures are largely due to domain general processes, although within-domain correlations confirm the importance of overlapping competencies especially for reading.
... Individual words are decoded and quickly and accurately recognized. Rereading words several times adds them to the reader's mental lexicon (word memory) where they can then be read as whole words, and word reading becomes increasingly automatic as known words are recognized on sight (Ehri, 2014). This process of orthographic mapping is how we create mental images of words. ...
Preprint
Reading proficiency is requisite in our read-to-learn educational system, yet two-thirds of American students are not proficient readers. Assuring educational equity means supporting all learners with multiple component reading interventions that individually scaffold students while remediating weak literacy skills and providing intensive and sustainable intervention early. This study (N = 855) measured the efficacy of two different multiple component reading programs for students in grades three, four, and five. Grade levels of students were assigned to either the treatment intervention or the typical practice condition; and all students were pre-and post-tested using EasyCBM Reading Benchmarks. Students scoring at/below the 30th percentile on either benchmark were also assessed with the WRMT-3 Passage Reading Comprehension and Oral Reading Fluency measures. Students in the treatment condition received Readable English and students in typical practice condition continued to receive Amplify CKLA during their regular ELA times for 45—60 hours. Students receiving Readable English significantly outperformed students in the typical practice condition on measures of oral reading fluency, reading rate, accuracy, and passage comprehension. Raw scores, growth scale values, and grade equivalents are reported, and implications for practice are discussed. In a school year fraught with pandemic instructional interruptions and learning loss, elementary students in the intervention condition averaged a year’s worth of growth in reading fluency and nine months of growth in reading comprehension compared to three- and five-months fluency and comprehension growth in the typical practice condition. Students in the Readable English condition experienced meaningful gains in reading rate and accuracy that will give exponential word reading volume dividends to students able to read text faster and more accurately going forward. This study adds to accumulating evidence that multiple component reading programs designed to reinforce fluency skills also support reading comprehension gains for all students.
... Um bom leitor está apto a identificar palavras com precisão, fluência e velocidade dentro e fora de textos (Ehri, 2014). Para tanto, se faz necessário o ensino explícito e sistemático das relações entre letra e som. ...
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Para que os programas de seleção, coleta, e reaproveitamento dos materiais recicláveis (plástico, metal e vidro) tenham sucesso, é primordial que os cidadãos tenham comportamentos habituais de separação e descarte dos seus resíduos domésticos. A literatura vigente mostra evidências de associação entre as variáveis atitudes e crenças de reciclagem, satisfação com o serviço prestado, e os hábitos de reciclagem, por isso, o presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar a relação entre essas variáveis e verificar o nível de associação entre elas. Participaram do estudo 352 pessoas, todas brasileiras, com 78% de mulheres, 31% com idade de 26 a 35 anos, 47% com o nível educacional licenciado, 58% eram casados, com a maioria residindo em Portugal a mais de 3 anos. Quanto aos procedimentos éticos da pesquisa, seguiram-se os critérios estabelecidos pela declaração de Helsinki, para as pesquisas com seres humanos, solicitando a participação voluntária. Os participantes responderam o índice de Autorrelato do Hábito, escala de Atitude e crenças de reciclagem e de satisfação com o serviço prestado, respondidas numa escala do tipo Likert de cinco pontos. No SPPS 24.0, foram realizadas as estatísticas descritivas (média, desvio padrão, frequência), análise fatorial dos Componentes principais, Lambda 2 de Guttman, correlação intraclasse. No programa AMOS Grafics 24.0, efetuou-se o cálculo das Equações Estruturais. Observaram-se que todas as escalas revelaram indicadores psicométricos confiáveis quanto a sua organização fatorial; em relação ao modelo teórico pretendido, a razão estatística esteve no intervalo exigido, confirmando a hipótese de que a atitude e crença de reciclagem, a satisfação com o serviço prestado e os hábitos de reciclagem são construtos interdependentes.
... In other studies, theoretical views on the developmental stages of literacy have been put forward (see Ehri, 2005 for details). According to Ehri (2014), children's learning to read words requires phonological awareness and knowledge of writing systems. The ability to read words accurately and automatically involves a developmental process from non-alphabetic visual features to grapho-syllabic connections. ...
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This research is a descriptive study in the survey model to determine the direct and indirect effects between visual perception, phonological awareness, and literacy errors. The design of the study is exploratory correlational design. 552 first-grade primary school students participated in the study. The data were collected using measurement tools named phonological awareness, visual perception, word-sentence writing/spelling, and reading errors. According to the findings, visual perception affects sentence writing/spelling both directly and through word-writing-reading errors. Visual perception affects reading errors both directly and through word-sentence writing errors. The results show that the development of prerequisite skills and reading are mediated by writing, writing/spelling are mediated by reading, and learning develops in a spiral manner. It can be said that children’s reading-writing/spelling errors increase because they have difficulty in converting from sound to the letter, from letter to sound, and in synthesizing and analyzing according to their initial level of phonological awareness and visual perception development.
... Vocabulary knowledge is related to both language comprehension and word recognition (Duke & Cartwright, 2021). Vocabulary knowledge provides a link between phonology, orthography, and word meanings (e.g., Ehri, 2014). ...
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Vocabulary knowledge is one of the most important elements of reading comprehension. Text coverage is the proportion of known words in a given text. We hypothesize that text comprehension increases exponentially with text coverage due to network effects and activation of prior knowledge. In addition, the lexical threshold hypothesis states that text comprehension increases faster above a certain amount of text coverage. The exponential relationship between text coverage and text comprehension, as well as the lexical threshold, are at the heart of text comprehension theory and are of great interest for optimizing language instruction. In this study, we first used vocabulary knowledge to estimate text coverage based on test scores from N = 924 German fourth graders. Second, we compared linear with non-linear models of text coverage and vocabulary knowledge to explain text comprehension. Third, we used a broken-line regression to estimate a lexical threshold. The results showed an exponential relationship between text coverage and text comprehension. Moreover, text coverage explained text comprehension better than vocabulary knowledge, and text comprehension increased more quickly above 56% text coverage. From an instructional perspective, the results suggest that reading activities with text coverage below 56% are too difficult for readers and likely inappropriate for instructional purposes. Further applications of the results, such as for standard setting and readability analyses, are discussed.
... Nevertheless, readers might rely on this route to recognize new or unfamiliar words, and then after several encounters, these words become stored in their orthographic lexicon (Doctor & Coltheart, 1980;Ehri, 2014;. Meanwhile, the degree of error during phonological recoding may also depend on the transparency of the language . ...
Thesis
Reading skills are among the most important basic skills in society. However, not all readers are able to adequately understand texts or decode individual words. Findings from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS; German: IGLU) show that about one fifth of fourth graders can only establish coherence at the local level, and in some cases they only have a rudimentary understanding of the text they read (Bremerich-Vos et al., 2017). In addition, these reading deficits persist and have a negative impact on academic and professional success (Jimerson, 1999). Therefore, identifying the causes of these deficits and creating opportunities for interventions at an early stage is an important research objective. The aim of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between the aspects of reading fluency and their influence on reading comprehension. Despite the increasing scientific interest in reading fluency in recent years, a research gap still exists in the relationship between word recognition accuracy and both speed and the relevance of prosodic patterns for reading comprehension. Study 1 investigated whether German fourth graders (N = 826) were required to reach a certain word-recognition accuracy threshold before their word-recognition speed improved. In addition, a sub-sample (n = 170) with a pre-/posttest design was examined to assess the extent that the existing word-recognition accuracy can influence the effects of a syllable-based reading intervention on word-recognition accuracy and word-recognition speed. Results showed that word-recognition speed improved after children achieved a word-recognition accuracy of 71%. A positive intervention effect was also found on word-recognition accuracy for children who were below the 71% threshold before the intervention, whereas the intervention effect on word-recognition speed was positive for all children. However, a positive effect on reading comprehension was only found for children who were above the 71% threshold before the intervention. Study 2 investigated the relationship between word-recognition accuracy threshold and word-recognition speed shown in the first study in a longitudinal design with German students (N = 1,095). Word-recognition accuracy and speed were assessed from the end of Grade 1 to 4, whereas reading comprehension was assessed from the end of Grade 2 to 4. The results showed that the developmental trajectories of word recognition speed and reading comprehension were steeper in children who reached the word-recognition accuracy threshold by the end of the first grade than in children who later reached or had not reached this threshold. In Study 3, recurrence analysis (RQA) was used to extract prosodic patterns from reading recordings of struggling and skilled readers in the second (n = 67) and fourth grade (n = 69) and was used for the classification into struggling and skilled readers. In addition, the classification based on the prosodic patterns from the recurrence quantification analysis was compared with the classification of prosodic features from the manual transcription of the reading recordings. The results showed that second-grade struggling readers have lengthier pauses within or between words and take more time between pauses on average, whereas fourth-grade struggling readers spend more time between recurring stresses and have multiple diverse patterns in pitch and more recurring accents. Although the recurrence analysis had a good goodness of fit and provided additional information about the relationship of prosody with reading comprehension, the model using prosodic features from transcription had a better fit. In summary, the three studies in this dissertation provide four important insights into reading fluency in German. First, a threshold in word-recognition accuracy must be achieved before word-recognition speed improves. Second, the earlier this accuracy level is reached, the greater the gain in word-recognition speed and reading comprehension. Third, the intervention effects of a primary school reading intervention are influenced by the accuracy level. Fourth, although incorrect pauses within or between words play an important role in identifying and describing struggling readers in second grade, the importance of prosodic patterns increases in fourth grade.
... In the development of reading, studies have indicated the importance of the mastery of early reading skills (Ehri, 2014;McClung, O'Donnell, & Cunningham, 2012;Moll et al., 2014;Suggate, Reese, Lenhard, & Schneider, 2014). Both orthography and decoding are basic aspects of the alphabetic principle that learners need to learn before they can read. ...
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This study examined the effect of home environment factors in the acquisition of early reading skills (orthographic awareness and decoding competence). To assess these factors, a sample of seventy-two (72) first grade learners (females = 55%; age range = 7–8 years) and their maternal parents (age range 26–61 years old) from low SES in Zambia's capital city, Lusaka were recruited. Parents, in response to a home literacy questionnaire, reported on their attitudes towards reading, literacy teaching in the home, the home literacy environment, presence of reading materials for adults and children, parental education, occupation, family size and family possessions. Two measures of reading skill were administered at school. Correlations revealed that parental education, occupation and the size of the family were not significantly associated with the reading measures. Family possessions, parental reading attitudes, literacy activities, and reading materials significantly predicted orthographic awareness. In predicting decoding competence, only family possessions, parental reading attitudes and literacy activities were predictive. Regardless of the context, children experience literacy in varied forms and quantities.
... The orthographic processing measure administered in this study might be easier than word reading for the Canadian group, as it involves recognition and included some spellings with vowels. Research shows that learners of English (an opaque alphabetic script) acquire orthographic knowledge after 2 to 3 years of reading instruction (Ehri, 2014(Ehri, , 2017. Therefore, relatively minimal exposure to an orthography is required to begin to acquire knowledge of word patterns. ...
Article
The present study examined components of the simple view of reading in relation to reading comprehension in Arabic. The participants included 80 Arabic-English speaking children, 40 in Saudi Arabia and 40 in Canada, who were in 8–10 years. Subcomponents of linguistic comprehension, specifically vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness, and decoding, specifically un-vowelized word reading and orthographic processing, were examined. Group similarities were noted for some relations among variables, specifically morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge and orthographic processing. However, differences were found in terms of unique and common variables related to reading comprehension with morphological awareness being related to reading comprehension in the Saudi group and vocabulary and orthographic processing being related to reading comprehension in the Canadian group as well as. Therefore, models and assessment of reading comprehension should consider language learning context when selecting variables to include in models of reading comprehension or when assessing reading achievement and potential.
... Phonological awareness is the ability to consciously attend to and manipulate speech sounds. Phonological awareness skills are central to word-level reading because children learning to read in an alphabetic writing system need to learn the arbitrary grapheme-phoneme correspondences that capture the sound sequences in the speech stream (Castles et al., 2018;Ehri, 2014;Kilpatrick, 2020). This ability is strongly associated with concurrent word reading for TD children (see Melby-Lervåg et al., 2012 for a meta-analysis). ...
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We examined the cognitive, language, and instructional predictors of early word-reading ability in a sample of children with Williams syndrome longitudinally. At Time 1, sixty-nine 6-7-year-olds (mean age = 6.53 years) completed standardized measures of phonological awareness, visual-spatial perception, vocabulary, and overall intellectual ability. Word-reading instruction type was classified as (systematic) Phonics (n = 35) or Other (n = 34). At Time 2, approximately 3 years later (mean age = 9.47 years), children completed a standardized assessment of single-word reading ability. Reading ability at Time 2 varied considerably, from inability to read any words to word-reading ability slightly above the level expected for age. The results of a multiple regression indicated that Time 1 word-reading instruction type, phonological awareness, and visual-spatial perception (as assessed by a matching letter-like forms measure) each explained significant unique variance in word reading at Time 2. A systematic phonics approach was associated with significantly better performance than other reading-instruction approaches. Exploratory analyses suggested that the relations between these factors were complex. Considered together, these findings strongly suggest that, in line with the Cumulative Risk and Resilience Model of reading disability, word-reading (dis) ability in Williams syndrome is probabilistic in nature, resulting from the interaction of multiple individual and environmental risk and protective factors. The results also have educational implications: early word-reading instruction for children with Williams syndrome should combine systematic phonics and phonological awareness training while also incorporating letter discrimination instruction highlighting the visual-spatial differences between similar-appearing letters.
... Grade 3 students' substantial reading loss is plausibly associated with the reduction in daily instructional time usually devoted to developing foundational literacy skills and promoting language and reading comprehension. From a developmental perspective, Grade 3 is a stage in which students develop more advanced phonemic awareness, phonics knowledge, and word decoding skills to be fluent readers with greater comprehension skills (Chall, 1983;Ehri, 2014;Kilpatrick, 2015). This requires sufficient instructional time in which children are actively and repeatedly involved in engaging, efficient, and systematic literacy practice. ...
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The current study aimed to explore the COVID-19 impact on reading achievement growth by Grade 3–5 students in a large urban school district in the U.S. and whether the impact differed by students’ demographic characteristics and instructional modality. Specifically, using administrative data from the school district, we investigated to what extent students made gains in reading during the 2020–2021 school year relative to the pre-COVID-19 typical school year in 2018–2019. We further examined whether the effects of students’ instructional modality on reading growth varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, students had lower average reading achievement gains over the 9-month 2020–2021 school year than the 2018–2019 school year with a learning loss effect size of 0.54, 0.27, and 0.28 standard deviation unit for Grade 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Substantially reduced reading gains were observed from Grade 3 students, students from high-poverty backgrounds, English learners, and students with disabilities. Additionally, findings indicate that among students with similar demographic characteristics, higher-achieving students tended to choose the fully remote instruction option, while lower-achieving students appeared to opt for in-person instruction at the beginning of the 2020–2021 school year. However, students who received in-person instruction most likely demonstrated continuous growth in reading over the school year, whereas initially higher-achieving students who received remote instruction showed stagnation or decline, particularly in the spring 2021 semester. Our findings support the notion that in-person schooling during the pandemic may serve as an equalizer for lower-achieving students, particularly from historically marginalized or vulnerable student populations.
... Rapid efficient word recognition is the basic foundation of skilled reading, and its development requires establishment of a robust system of lexical representations. Many foundational skills become integrated with reading development (Ehri, 2005(Ehri, , 2014Rosenthal & Ehri, 2008;Scarborough & Parker, 2003), and this integration allows efficient word recognition, which in turn allows the development of higher-order comprehension and reading fluency (Perfetti, 2007;Perfetti & Stafura, 2014). Although there exists strong evidence of effective strategies for teaching word identification, decoding, and spelling to struggling readers, an exclusive focus on this type of instruction may have caused us to miss aspects of intervention and reading experience that could be key to achieving more robust gains in the quality of lexical representations and greater word reading efficiency (Lovett, 2015). ...
Article
Many children and adolescents with reading comprehension difficulties demonstrate impairment in lexical and sublexical foundational skills, and require intervention for multiple levels of the reading system. This paper provides a merged analysis of results from four controlled intervention studies conducted by our research group: Children and adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) received multiple-component remediation at different ages (early elementary, middle school, high school). All participants demonstrated multi-faceted reading impairment, and all received intervention targeting decoding, word reading, text reading, and comprehension skills. Studies with younger children (Grades 1–3) demonstrated more robust comprehension effects on multiple comprehension measures, while studies with older readers demonstrated more equivocal comprehension effects despite gain on more foundational skills. A parallel moderated-mediation model, using data merged across studies, revealed that intervention-related decoding and word reading change mediated the relationship between intervention and reading comprehension gains. This mediation effect was strongly moderated by age, with younger children demonstrating the greatest mediation. The younger the child, the greater the effects of intervention and the more comprehension gains depended on decoding gains.
... See Figure 1 for an example of guided notes. This explanation with demonstration could be followed by hands-on guided practice and Theories of reading and reading development • The simple view of reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986;Hoover & Tunmer, 2018) • Connectionist theory (Adams, 1990) • Phases of word reading development and orthographic mapping (Ehri, 2005(Ehri, , 2014 • Automaticity theory (Samuels, 1994) Structure of language • Phonology and phonetics: ...
Article
Students with learning disabilities in word-level reading typically require explicit, systematic, and intensive phonics intervention. Teachers’ capacity to provide effective intervention depends largely on their depth of understanding of language and their proficiency with evidence-based instructional methods. This article outlines the key knowledge and skills needed to implement effective phonics intervention and provides suggestions for methods that teacher educators can use to develop candidates’ knowledge and skills.
... The iPad tool uses a picture-supported first-sound mnemonic device [22,30] that pairs letter forms with pictures whose name contains the letter sound. Each lesson consisted of activities at 3 levels (10 min per level). ...
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We investigated a technology-based tool for teaching English letter-sound correspondences with bilingual children learning phonologically and typologically distant languages: English and Chinese. We expect that learning about print at the phoneme level may be particularly challenging, given children’s experience with the morphosyllabic language of Chinese. This randomized-controlled study with 90 kindergarteners examined the effects of an iPad-based supplementary reading program compared with a control condition. The See Word Reading® program utilized picture-embedded cues for teaching phonics within lessons directed at the letter, word, and text levels. Measures of decoding, word reading, and spelling were taken at the pretest, posttest, and follow-up for both groups. Results showed better gains in word reading for the reading group, indicating the positive impact of this supplementary reading tool. Further, data collected online from the app showed that different types of letter-sound pairings were more challenging to learn, including pairings that are inconsistent and with phonemes that are specific to English.
... Theoretical models suggest that young English readers progress through several overlapping developmental phases as they learn to map orthography to word sounds (Ehri, 1995(Ehri, , 2014. As children acquire alphabetic knowledge, they begin to learn the connections between sounds and letters. ...
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Words’ morphemic structure and their orthographic representations vary across languages. How do bilingual experiences with structurally distinct languages influence children's morphological processes for word reading? Focusing on English literacy in monolinguals and bilinguals ( N = 350, ages 5–9), we first revealed unique contributions of derivational ( friend-li-est ) and compound ( girl-friend ) morphology to early word reading. We then examined mechanisms of bilingual transfer in matched samples of Spanish–English and Chinese–English dual first language learners. Results revealed a principled cross-linguistic interaction between language group (Spanish vs. Chinese bilinguals) and type of morphological awareness. Specifically, bilinguals’ proficiency with the type of morphology that was less characteristic of their home language explained greater variance in their English literacy. These findings showcase the powerful effects of bilingualism on word reading processes in children who have similar reading proficiency but different language experiences, thereby advancing theoretical perspectives on literacy across diverse learners.
... Although difficult for most students, this skill can be particularly challenging for ELLs whose native languages include different graphemes, phonemes, and grapheme-phoneme matches (e.g., Chan & Sylva, 2015;Wong Kwok Shing, 2006). Ehri's (2005Ehri's ( , 2014 phase model is a useful theory to guide efforts to support the development of early literacy skills. In this model children start in a pre-alphabetic phase wherein they do not yet have an awareness of the relationships between graphemes and phonemes, but can sometimes guess words based on contextual information (as in the logo on a favorite soft drink). ...
Article
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The importance of letter sound knowledge (LSK) as a precursor to later literacy skills has been well‐documented. Since English language learners (ELLs), or students who first acquired a language other than English, continue to underperform in reading compared to their English‐speaking peers, they are particularly at‐risk for reading and academic difficulties. The current study examines the utility and acceptability of teaching letter sounds to four ELL preschoolers through a software‐based incremental rehearsal tool (Tutoring Buddy). All students demonstrated increases in LSK, with large effect sizes derived through percentage of all nonoverlapping data analyses. Increases were also noted in the students' generalization of letter sounds to measures of letter sound fluency and nonsense word fluency, signified by small to large effect sizes. Large effect sizes generated for real word fluency measures indicated that all students were able to apply LSK to decoding real, consonant‐vowel‐consonant words. All students rated Tutoring Buddy as helpful for their letter sound learning, and varied in how enjoyable they found the intervention to be. Overall, the results support the use of Tutoring Buddy as an effective and acceptable method for teaching letter sounds to young ELLs. Implications for school‐based professionals working with ELL and future directions for research are discussed. Tutoring Buddy was highly effective in improving student letter‐sound knowledge and fluency in word reading. All of the English language learners (ELL) student participants rated Tutoring Buddy as helpful for their learning of letter sounds. Overall, Tutoring Buddy is an effective and acceptable method for teaching letter sounds to young ELL. Tutoring Buddy was highly effective in improving student letter‐sound knowledge and fluency in word reading. All of the English language learners (ELL) student participants rated Tutoring Buddy as helpful for their learning of letter sounds. Overall, Tutoring Buddy is an effective and acceptable method for teaching letter sounds to young ELL.
... The last criterion was that the feminine form must differ phonologically from the oral masculine form in its oral representation. Since seeing a familiar word automatically activates its pronunciation (Ehri, 2014), we wanted to eliminate phonological form as a factor which could potentially influence the estimates despite the task being in written form. Thus, a role noun like employés [employees MASC ] -employées [employees FEM ] was not included despite having a good gender-neutral equivalent (collègues [colleagues]). ...
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The present paper reports findings from a controlled large-scale ( N = 1018) experimental study investigating how four different gender-fair forms influenced native French speakers’ estimated percentage of women compared to the masculine form (interpretable as generic) in 22 non-stereotyped French role nouns. The findings show that the masculine form generated lower perceived percentages of women compared to all other tested forms. In addition, gender-neutral and double forms were found equally efficient in resolving the male bias induced by the masculine form. Since the role nouns were non-stereotyped in terms of gender, these results suggest that the actual form of a role noun has indeed a strong influence on how the gender ratio of that role noun will be perceived. Moreover, the direction of the questionnaire’s response scale had a significant effect on the results, which entails methodological implications for future research. Finally, the provided ratios can be used for future studies investigating French role nouns in different gender-fair forms. In sum, our study suggests that gender-fair forms in French are an efficient tool for increasing the visibility of women, at least in nouns representing non-stereotypical activities.
... However, contemporary teaching paradigms tend to focus more on phonological approaches such as repetition rather than paying explicit attention to lexical forms (De Jong et al., 2015). High-quality lexical representation requires efficient word recognition and strong association among lexical constituents such as form, sound, and meaning (Ehri, 2014;Stafura and Perfetti, 2014). In the native language acquisition process, mapping high-quality lexical and sublexical representations lays the foundation for subsequent acquisition of new words (Perfetti and Harris, 2013). ...
Article
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Research into the lexical quality of word representations suggests that building a strong sound, form, and meaning association is a crucial first step for vocabulary learning. For children who are learning a second language (L2), explicit instruction on word morphology is generally more focused on whole word, rather than sub-lexical, meaning. Though morphological training is emphasized in first language (L1) vocabulary instruction, it is unknown whether this training facilitates L2 word learning through sub-lexical support. To test this, we designed three experimental learning conditions investigating embodied morphological instruction [i.e., hand writing roots (HR), dragging roots (DR), gesturing roots (GR)] to compare against a control condition. One hundred students were randomly assigned to the four experimental groups. Pre- and post-tests examining knowledge of word meanings, forms, and sounds were administered. Results of mixed linear modeling revealed that three embodied morphological instruction on roots enhanced L2 vocabulary learning. Hand writing roots facilitated sound-meaning integration in all category-tasks for accessibility to word form and one task for word sound-form association. By contrast, GR facilitated meaning-based learning integration in two out of three category tasks for word form-meaning association. Chunking and DR facilitated meaning-based integration in one out of three category tasks for word form-meaning association. These results provide evidence that the underlying embodied morphological training mechanism contributes to L2 vocabulary learning during direct instruction. Future directions and implications are discussed.
... However, the dyslexia group exhibited significantly greater difficulties than the SCD group on the phoneme deletion test (Elision test). The ability to identify and manipulate phonemes is essential for skilled decoding within an alphabetic orthography (Ehri, 2014;Wren, 2001). Children must be able to identify individual phonemes within words when developing mental representations of a word in their mind and when converting graphemes to phonemes when reading new or unfamiliar words (Arrow & Tunmer, 2012;Diamanti et al., 2018;Kendeou et al., 2014;Tunmer & Hoover, 2019). ...
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The simple view of reading (SVR) predicts that reading difficulties can result from decoding difficulties, language comprehension difficulties, or a combination of these difficulties. However, classification studies have identified a fourth group of children whose reading difficulties are unexplained by the model. This may be due to the type of classification model used. The current research included 209 children in Grades 3–5 (8–10 years of age) from New Zealand. Children were classified using the traditional approach and a cluster analysis. In contrast to the traditional classification model, the cluster analysis approach eliminated the unexplained reading difficulties group, suggesting that poor readers can be accurately assigned to one of three groups, which are consistent with those predicted by the SVR. The second set of analyses compared the three poor reader groups across 14 measures of reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming. All three groups demonstrated reading comprehension difficulties, but the dyslexia group showed particular weaknesses in word processing and phonological areas, the SCD group showed problems deriving meaning from oral language, and the mixed group showed general deficits in most measures. The findings suggest that the SVR does have the potential to determine reading profiles and differential intervention methods.
... Orthographic mapping is the skill of turning unfamiliar written words into memorized sight words (Ehri, 1998(Ehri, , 2005(Ehri, , 2014Kilpatrick, 2014Kilpatrick, , 2015. Kilpatrick has described it as the holy grail of reading education as the skill determines if students easily remember the words they see. ...
Article
The Feifer Assessment of Reading (FAR) is a comprehensive reading test for children ages 4 through 21 years. The FAR was designed to evaluate the underlying cognitive and linguistic processes of reading. It has 15 subtests to evaluate aspects of phonological development, orthographical processing, decoding, reading fluency, and comprehension skills. Academic achievement tests endeavor to evaluate core neuropsychological and theoretical perspectives that identify students at risk. However, reading tests have historically not focused on why a student may struggle with reading interventions. A neuropsychological approach to reading posits that multiple neural pathways assist the reading process. These processes include orthographic mapping, phonemic awareness, fluency, decoding, and comprehension. The aim of the test is to help the evaluator learn why a student is struggling with reading, as well as to inform intervention. This review explores the Feifer Assessment of Reading (FAR), and its contribution to the neuropsychological evaluation of reading.
... But it is also related to written word recognition processes (Kearns & Al Ghanem, 2019;Kendeou et al., 2009;Mitchell & Brady, 2013;Nation & Snowling, 2004;Perfetti, 2010;Protopapas et al., 2013;Verhoeven et al., 2011;Wise et al., 2007) and, in fact, supports, facilitates and predicts them (Georgiou & Das, 2018;Leseman & de Jong, 1998;Tunmer & Chapman, 2012). This influence can be explained by the fact that vocabulary seems to contribute to the consolidation of the links between the three levels of word representation: orthographic, phonological and semantic (Dujardin et al., 2021), which are the core of orthographic mapping because they allow to forge the word's graphemes, pronunciation and meaning in our memory (Ehri, 2014). A recent study (Duke & Cartwright, 2021) highlights vocabulary as a shared bridging process between oral and written language (word recognition) and thus allows such a mapping (phonology-orthography-semantic) to occur. ...
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Reading in Chinese as an Additional Language focuses on Chinese literacy acquisition, which has been considered most difficult by both learners and teachers of Chinese as an additional language (CAL). Three major areas are covered: (1) acquisition of Chinese characters; (2) reading comprehension subskills and reader’s identity; (3) reading instruction and assessment. The first part delves into the foundation of Chinese literacy development―how to learn and teach Chinese characters. The second part examines various learners’ reading comprehension subskills, as well as the evolution of learners’ literacy identity. The third part explores effective instructional methods and assessment practices for CAL reading development. Theoretically, this book provides frameworks and evidence from both cognitive and sociocultural perspectives on the nature of CAL reading development. Pedagogically, the book showcases how to teach and assess CAL reading skills. Methodologically, this book includes empirical studies using both qualitative and quantitative methods. In terms of scope, the book covers a much broader spectrum of issues about CAL reading research and classroom teaching than has previously been available. Writing is also discussed in several chapters. In terms of technology, the book includes discussion on how the use of computer, the Internet and social media impacts students’ Chinese literacy acquisition. This book will help CAL researchers and educators better understand the nature of CAL reading development and become well informed about CAL classroom teaching and assessment, including the application of interactive approaches to teaching and assessing diverse reading skills.
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This study aimed to identify predictors of single word spelling performance in children using a novel test containing regular words, irregular words and pseudowords. We assessed reading ability, letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatised naming (RAN) in children aged 4–12 years (N = 641). Mixed model analyses with hierarchical nested data were conducted with Year_group (Yr R to Yr 6) included as a factor, PA and RAN as predictors, and reading and letter-sound knowledge as covariates. For irregular word spelling, PA and RAN were significant predictors, but the associations were dependent upon the year the children attended. Interestingly, for regular words and pseudowords PA was not significantly related. For pseudowords, only RAN was a significant predictor and only in Yr 2. We argue that a better understanding of spelling development can be achieved using tools that distinguish between regular and irregular words and pseudowords, as different processes seem to be associated with the different types of letter string across the variable levels of spelling experience.
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Purpose Children learning to read in English must learn to read words with varying degrees of grapheme-phoneme correspondence regularity, but there is very little research comparing methods of instruction for words with less predictable or irregular spellings. Therefore, we compared three methods of instruction for beginning readers. Method Eighty-five Kindergarten children were randomly assigned to either Look and Say (LSay), Look and Spell (LSpell), mispronunciation correction (MPC), or wait-list control conditions. Children were taught 12 irregular words over three sessions. Amount of instructional time and number of exposures to the written and spoken forms of the words was controlled across the three experimental conditions. After training, children were assessed on reading aloud and orthographic choice measures. Results Children showed evidence of superior learning of trained words in the LSpell and MPC conditions, compared to LSay and control conditions. Differences between the LSpell and MPC conditions were not significant. There was no evidence of generalization to untrained items. Conclusions Findings indicate that active processing of a word’s orthography is crucial for learning irregular words. These results have implications for initial reading instruction. Further research is required to determine whether differences between LSpell and MPC conditions emerge after longer periods of training.
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Children's oral vocabulary acquisition is an important aspect of language development that plays a crucial role in reading and literacy development and subsequent academic success. Therefore, it is important to identify and implement evidence-based effective strategies of vocabulary instruction for primary school children. Orthographic facilitation refers to the benefit afforded to word learning by incidentally presenting spellings when new words are introduced (Ricketts et al., 2009). The current study aimed to replicate the orthographic facilitation effect in primary school (grades 1 to 6) children and further assess whether children in different grades benefitted differently from the presence of orthography during spoken word learning. To do this, ninety-one children from grades 1 to 6 were taught novel picture-word pairs with or without spellings. Word learning was assessed during and after training using behavioural and eye tracking data from picture-naming and picture-word-matching (PWM) tasks. Irrespective of grade, all children experienced a significant orthographic facilitation effect during training. The post-training results were more task dependent with all grades showing a significant orthographic facilitation effect on the picture-naming task, and only grades 1-4 showing a facilitation effect on the PWM task. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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This study examined the reading skills of children who have deficient decoding skills in the years following the first grade and traced their progress across 20 sessions of a decoding skills intervention called Word Building. Initially, the children demon- strated deficits in decoding, reading comprehension, and phonemic awareness skills. Further examination of decoding attempts revealed a pattern of accurate decoding of the first grapheme in a word, followed by relatively worse performance on subsequent vowels and consonants, suggesting that these children were not engaging in full al- phabetic decoding. The intervention directed attention to each grapheme position within a word through a procedure of progressive minimal pairing of words that dif- fered by one grapheme. Relative to children randomly assigned to a control group, children assigned to the intervention condition demonstrated significantly greater im- provements in decoding attempts at all grapheme positions and also demonstrated significantly greater improvements in standardized measures of decoding, reading comprehension, and phonological awareness. Results are discussed in terms of the consequences of not fully engaging in alphabetic decoding during early reading expe- rience, and the self-teaching role of alphabetic decoding for improving word identifi- cation, reading comprehension, and phonological awareness skills.
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The lexical quality hypothesis (LQH) claims that variation in the quality of word representations has consequences for reading skill, including comprehension. High lexical quality includes well-specified and partly redundant representations of form (orthography and phonology) and flexible representations of meaning, allowing for rapid and reliable meaning retrieval. Low-quality representations lead to specific word-related problems in comprehension. Six lines of research on adult readers demonstrate some of the implications of the LQH. First, large-scale correlational results show the general interdependence of comprehension and lexical skill while identifying disassociations that allow focus on comprehension-specific skill. Second, word-level semantic processing studies show comprehension skill differences in the time course of form-meaning confusions. Studies of rare vocabulary learning using event-related potentials (ERPs) show that, third, skilled comprehenders learn new words more effectively and show stronger ERP indicators for memory of the word learning event and, fourth, suggest skill differences in the stability of orthographic representations. Fifth, ERP markers show comprehension skill differences in meaning processing of ordinary words. Finally, in text reading, ERP results demonstrate momentary difficulties for low-skill comprehenders in integrating a word with the prior text. The studies provide evidence that word-level knowledge has consequences for word meaning processes in comprehension.
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A quantitative meta-analysis evaluating the effects of phonemic awareness (PA) instruction on learning to read and spell was conducted by the National Reading Panel. There were 52 studies published in peer-reviewed journals, and these contributed 96 cases comparing the outcomes of treatment and control groups. Analysis of effect sizes revealed that the impact of PA instruction on helping children acquire PA was large and statistically significant (d = 0.86). PA instruction exerted a moderate, statistically significant impact oil reading (d = 0.53) and spelling (d = 0.59). Not only word reading but also reading comprehension benefited. PA instruction impacted reading under all the conditions examined although effect sizes were larger under some conditions. PA instruction helped various types of children: normally developing readers as well as at-risk and disabled readers: preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders: low socioeconomic status children as well as mid-high SES. PA instruction improved reading, but it did not improve spelling in disabled readers. PA instruction was more effective when it was taught with letters than without letters. when one or two PA skills were taught than Multiple PA skills, when children were taught in small groups than individually or in classrooms. and when instruction lasted between 5 and 18 hours rather than longer, Classroom teachers were effective in Leaching PA to their Students. Effect sizes were larger for Studies using more rigorous experimental designs, with rigor assessments drawn from Troia ( 1999), In Sum, PA instruction was found to make a statistically significant contribution to reading acquisition.
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An experiment investigated whether exposure to orthography facilitates oral vocabulary learning. A total of 58 typically developing children aged 8-9 years were taught 12 nonwords. Children were trained to associate novel phonological forms with pictures of novel objects. Pictures were used as referents to represent novel word meanings. For half of the nonwords children were additionally exposed to orthography, although they were not alerted to its presence, nor were they instructed to use it. After this training phase a nonword-picture matching posttest was used to assess learning of nonword meaning, and a spelling posttest was used to assess learning of nonword orthography. Children showed robust learning for novel spelling patterns after incidental exposure to orthography. Further, we observed stronger learning for nonword-referent pairings trained with orthography. The degree of orthographic facilitation observed in posttests was related to children's reading levels, with more advanced readers showing more benefit from the presence of orthography.
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Three experiments were designed to examine children's and adults' ability to pronounce consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonsense words. Some of the nonwords, like tain and goach, shared their VC unit with a number of real words. Other nonwords, like goan and taich, shared their VC unit with few or no real words. Pooling across items, the very same grapheme-phoneme correspondences occurred in the two types of nonwords. First graders, good and poor third grade readers, and adults all performed better on the nonwords with the more common VC units than on the nonwords with the less common VC units. Although readers appeared to use VC units in the pronunciation of nonwords, we did not find evidence for use of initial CV units. Implications of the results for reading development, dyslexia, and models of nonword pronunciation are discussed.
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This paper reviews and evaluates three recent stage theories of reading acquisition (Marsh, Friedman, Welch, & Desberg; Frith; Seymour) and also discusses the relationships between phonological awareness and reading, especially the direction of causality in such relationships. Data from a longitudinal study of reading acquisition are then reported. This study included assessments of phonological skills in children before they had begun to learn to read. The results of the study suggest that (a) even if learning to read is conceptualised as a sequence of stages, not all children pass through the same sequence of stages, (b) phonological awareness and reading acquisition have a reciprocal interactive causal relationship, not a unidirectional one, and (c) phonological skills can play a role in the very first stage of learning to read among phonologically adept children. Hence, it is incorrect to claim that the first stage of learning to read always involves such non-phonological procedures as "logographic" processing.
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How do children acquire the vast array of concepts, strategies, and skills that distinguish the thinking of infants and toddlers from that of preschoolers, older children, and adolescents? In this new book, Robert Siegler addresses these and other fundamental questions about children's thinking. Previous theories have tended to depict cognitive development much like a staircase. At an early age, children think in one way; as they get older, they step up to increasingly higher ways of thinking. Siegler proposes that viewing the development within an evolutionary framework is more useful than a staircase model. The evolution of species depends on mechanisms for generating variability, for choosing adaptively among the variants, and for preserving the lessons of past experience so that successful variants become increasingly prevalent. The development of children's thinking appears to depend on mechanisms to fulfill these same functions. Siegler's theory is consistent with a great deal of evidence. It unifies phenomena from such areas as problem solving, reasoning, and memory, and reveals commonalities in the thinking of people of all ages. Most important, it leads to valuable insights regarding a basic question about children's thinking asked by cognitive, developmental, and educational psychologists: How does change occur?
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• The mnemonic value of spellings in a paired-associate sound learning task was examined in 4 experiments. 120 1st and 2nd graders were taught 4 CVC nonsense sounds as oral responses. The stimuli were geometric figures or numbers of alphabet letters corresponding to initial consonant sounds. Various types of adjunct aids or activities occurred during study and feedback periods as the learning trials progressed. Visual spellings or misspellings of the CVC sounds were shown, or Ss imagined visual spellings, or they listened to oral spellings or to sounds broken into phonetic segments, or they rehearsed the sounds. Spellings were not present during test trials when sounds were recalled. In all experiments, sound learning was fastest when correct spellings were seen or imagined. The preferred interpretation is that spellings are effective because they provide readers with orthographic images useful for symbolizing and storing sounds in memory. Spelling-aided sound learning scores were highly correlated with Ss' knowledge of printed words, indicating that this representational process may be used by beginning readers to store printed words in lexical memory. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • The mnemonic value of spellings in a paired-associate sound learning task was examined in 4 experiments. 120 1st and 2nd graders were taught 4 CVC nonsense sounds as oral responses. The stimuli were geometric figures or numbers of alphabet letters corresponding to initial consonant sounds. Various types of adjunct aids or activities occurred during study and feedback periods as the learning trials progressed. Visual spellings or misspellings of the CVC sounds were shown, or Ss imagined visual spellings, or they listened to oral spellings or to sounds broken into phonetic segments, or they rehearsed the sounds. Spellings were not present during test trials when sounds were recalled. In all experiments, sound learning was fastest when correct spellings were seen or imagined. The preferred interpretation is that spellings are effective because they provide readers with orthographic images useful for symbolizing and storing sounds in memory. Spelling-aided sound learning scores were highly correlated with Ss' knowledge of printed words, indicating that this representational process may be used by beginning readers to store printed words in lexical memory. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
• Three phases comprise the development of word reading skill: accuracy, automaticity, and speed. The 3rd phase is reached when components of the identification process (i.e., graphic, phonological, semantic) are unitized in memory for particular words. Attainment of this final phase was explored with 2 experiments. In Exp I with Ss from 1st-, 2nd-, and 4th-grade classes, skilled and less skilled readers identified familiar printed words, CVC nonwords, digits, and pictures. Attainment of unitized speeds to printed words was inferred if Ss identified words as rapidly as digits. This level was exhibited by skilled readers in all grades but by less skilled readers only in 4th grade. Unitized speed with CVCs was evident among 2nd- and 4th-grade skilled readers, but not among less skilled readers at any grade. In Exp II, 18 1st-grade and 19 2nd-grade poor readers practiced reading familiar words and CVCs. Practice boosted RTs to CVCs but not to words read accurately before training, and RTs to both remained slower than digit RTs, indicating that practice promotes the development of unitized speeds very slowly in less skilled readers. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • Three phases comprise the development of word reading skill: accuracy, automaticity, and speed. The 3rd phase is reached when components of the identification process (i.e., graphic, phonological, semantic) are unitized in memory for particular words. Attainment of this final phase was explored with 2 experiments. In Exp I with Ss from 1st-, 2nd-, and 4th-grade classes, skilled and less skilled readers identified familiar printed words, CVC nonwords, digits, and pictures. Attainment of unitized speeds to printed words was inferred if Ss identified words as rapidly as digits. This level was exhibited by skilled readers in all grades but by less skilled readers only in 4th grade. Unitized speed with CVCs was evident among 2nd- and 4th-grade skilled readers, but not among less skilled readers at any grade. In Exp II, 18 1st-grade and 19 2nd-grade poor readers practiced reading familiar words and CVCs. Practice boosted RTs to CVCs but not to words read accurately before training, and RTs to both remained slower than digit RTs, indicating that practice promotes the development of unitized speeds very slowly in less skilled readers. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How do we remedy young children's word-reading difficulties? This article describes how educators collaborated to develop research-based procedures that helped children to become "word detectives.".
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Phonetic-cue reading involves reading words by storing and retrieving associations between some of the letters in spellings and sounds in pronunciations. Cipher reading involves processing all of the letter-sound relations in spellings. These two types of reading were compared experimentally. Novice beginning readers in kindergarten were assigned either to a group that was taught to decode-the cipher readers-or to a group that practiced isolated letter-sound relations-the phonetic-cue readers. On posttests, cipher readers learned to read 15 similarly spelled words almost perfectly, whereas cue readers learned less than half of the words. Cipher readers also spelled better than cue readers. Errors indicated that cue readers were processing partial letter-sound cues in words. Results indicated that phonetic-cue reading is another way besides visual memory and decoding to read words. Results documented the importance of beginning readers' advancing beyond cue reading to cipher reading.
Chapter
Pictures that allow the mind to behold invisible aspects of reality may be worth much more than the 1,000 words proclaimed in the adage, particularly to children in the midst of constructing cognitive schema to make sense of their experiences, and particularly when the picture entails a system of symbols organizing an entire dimension of experience. For example, when children learn to read printed language, they become able to visualize what they are saying and hearing. When children learn to read clocks and calendars, they acquire a visual means of representing the passage of time. When children learn to read music, they become able to visualize what is sung or played on an instrument. In each case, a visual-spatial representational system is acquired by the mind for perceiving and thinking about experiences which cannot be seen and which have temporal duration rather than physical extent as a basic property. Acquisition of a spatial model offers several potential advantages. It enables the possessor to hold onto and keep track of phenomena which themselves leave no trace or have no permanence. It imposes organization upon the phenomena by specifying units, subunits, and interrelationships which might otherwise be difficult to detect or discriminate. However, some degree of distortion or inaccuracy may also result because properties of space may not be completely isomorphic with properties of the nonspatial modality, and also because the spatial system, being a cultural invention, carries no guarantee that it is perfectly conceived.
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This experiment examined whether kindergartners who were taught to segment words into phonemes either by monitoring articulatory gestures or by manipulating blocks would benefit in their ability to read and spell. Novice beginning readers who could invent partial sound spellings but could not decode new words were assigned randomly to three groups. The mouth treatment group learned to position pictures to depict the sequence of articulatory gestures in words. The ear treatment group learned to position blocks to depict the sequence of sounds in words. A no-treatment control group received no special instruction. Results revealed that both types of phonemic awareness instruction were effective in teaching phonemic segmentation and in enhancing children's ability to spell the sounds in words even though letters were not used during training. However, only articulatory instruction enhanced processes that enabled children to read words. Our interpretation is that awareness of articulatory gestures facilitates the activation of graphophonemic connections that helps children identify written words and secure them in memory.
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Learning to read and spell words is a central part of becoming literate. During text reading, most words are processed, and skilled readers are able to do this effortlessly. How they become skilled at processing graphic cues has been the focus of our research. Findings indicate that prereaders do not acquire graphic skill by learning to read signs and labels in their environment. Rather, mastery of letters is required. Whereas prereaders use visual or context cues to identify words, as soon as children move into reading they shift to letter-sound cues. Initially, words are read by accessing remembered associations between a few letters in spellings and sounds in pronunciations. Later, when decoding skill matures, complete spellings are analyzed as phonemic symbols for pronunciations and are stored in memory. Various studies indicate that having a visual picture of speech in memory is an important part of a person's information-processing equipment. Spellings may influence how words are pronounced, what sounds people think are in words, how quickly people judge spoken word rhymes, how rapidly pronunciations change over time.
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Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the letters' sounds (e.g., , desk, /d/). Control letters were learned with the same objects but depicted unlike letter shapes. Children learned to segment initial sounds in words. Then they learned each letter set to criterion in a counterbalanced, repeated measures design. Embedded letters were mastered in fewer trials, were less frequently confused with other letters, were remembered better 1 week later, and facilitated performance in word reading and spelling transfer tasks compared to control letters. We suggest that embedded mnemonics better secured letters to their sounds in memory which in turn improved word learning for children in Ehri's (2005)7. Ehri , L. 2005 . “ Development of sight word reading: Phases and findings. ” . In The science of reading: A handbook , Edited by: Snowling , M. and Hulme , C. 135 – 154 . Malden, MA : Blackwell . [CrossRef]View all references partial alphabetic phase.
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This study investigated the hypothesis that vocabulary influences word recognition skills indirectly through set for variability, the ability to determine the correct pronunciation of approximations to spoken English words. One hundred forty children participating in a 3-year longitudinal study were administered reading and reading-related measures at four time points. Hierarchical regression and path analyses indicated that vocabulary and phonemic awareness made independent contributions to variance in set for variability; that vocabulary directly influenced future reading comprehension and indirectly influenced future decoding and word recognition through set for variability; and that set for variability influenced future reading comprehension indirectly through both decoding and word recognition, controlling for autoregressive effects.
Article
English-speaking preschoolers who knew letters but were nonreaders (M = 4 years 9 months; n = 60) were taught to segment consonant–vowel (CV), VC, and CVC words into phonemes either with letters and pictures of articulatory gestures (the LPA condition) or with letters only (the LO condition). A control group received no treatment. Both trained groups outperformed controls on phoneme segmentation, spelling, word reading, and nonword repetition posttests. LPA training enhanced children's ability to learn to read words with practice more than LO training. The favored explanation, consonant with the motor theory of speech perception, is that LPA training activated the articulatory features of phonemes in words as children practiced reading them so that grapheme-phoneme connections were better secured in memory. Results also suggested that phoneme segmentation training with letters improved phonological short-term memory.
Article
In 2 experiments, the authors examined whether spellings improve students' memory for pronunciations and meanings of new vocabulary words. Lower socioeconomic status minority 2nd graders (M = 7 years 7 months; n = 20) and 5th graders (M = 10 years 11 months; n = 32) were taught 2 sets of unfamiliar nouns and their meanings over several learning trials. The words were defined, depicted, and embedded in sentences. During study periods, students were shown written forms of 1 set but not the other set. Spellings were not present during word recall. Results of analyses of variance showed that spellings enhanced memory for pronunciations and meanings compared to no spellings (ps < .01). Better readers and spellers increasingly outdistanced poorer readers and spellers in remembering pronunciations over trials when spellings accompanied learning (p < .05), suggesting a Matthew effect. An explanation is that spellings activated graphophonemic connections to better secure pronunciations and meanings in memory. Results indicate that orthographic knowledge benefited vocabulary learning and diminished dependence on phonological memory. Instructional implications are that teachers should include written words as part of vocabulary instruction and that students should pronounce spellings as well as determine meanings when they encounter new vocabulary words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The mnemonic value of spellings in a paired-associate sound learning task was examined in 4 experiments. 120 1st and 2nd graders were taught 4 CVC nonsense sounds as oral responses. The stimuli were geometric figures or numbers of alphabet letters corresponding to initial consonant sounds. Various types of adjunct aids or activities occurred during study and feedback periods as the learning trials progressed. Visual spellings or misspellings of the CVC sounds were shown, or Ss imagined visual spellings, or they listened to oral spellings or to sounds broken into phonetic segments, or they rehearsed the sounds. Spellings were not present during test trials when sounds were recalled. In all experiments, sound learning was fastest when correct spellings were seen or imagined. The preferred interpretation is that spellings are effective because they provide readers with orthographic images useful for symbolizing and storing sounds in memory. Spelling-aided sound learning scores were highly correlated with Ss' knowledge of printed words, indicating that this representational process may be used by beginning readers to store printed words in lexical memory. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although English lacks 1-to-1 relationships between sounds and spellings, considering the context in which a phoneme occurs can often aid in selecting a spelling. For example, /a/ is typically spelled as a when it follows /w/, as in wand, but as o when it follows other consonants, as in pond. In 2 experiments, the authors asked whether children's spellings of vowels in nonwords were affected by the following (Experiment 1) and preceding (Experiment 2) consonants. The participants in both experiments had spelling levels that ranged from kindergarten and 1st grade through high school. Children with higher levels of spelling skill took more advantage of context, and use of preceding context generally emerged earlier than use of following context. The results are interpreted within the framework of a statistical learning view of spelling and spelling development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the influence of letter-name instruction on beginning word recognition. Thirty-three preschool children from low-socioeconomic-status families participated in 16 weeks of letter-name or comprehension-focused instruction. After instruction, children's ability to learn 3 types of word spellings was examined: words phonetically spelled with letters children had been taught (e.g., BL for ball), words phonetically spelled with letters children had not been taught, and words with visually distinct letter spellings that were nonphonetic. Children who received letter-name instruction learned words phonetically spelled with letters included in instruction significantly better than other words. Children receiving comprehension instruction performed significantly better on visually distinct word spellings. Results demonstrate the beneficial effects of alphabet-letter instruction on beginning phonetic word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Phonetic-cue reading involves reading words by storing and retrieving associations between some of the letters in spellings and sounds in pronunciations. Cipher reading involves processing all of the letter–sound relations in spellings. These two types of reading were compared experimentally. Novice beginning readers in kindergarten were assigned either to a group that was taught to decode—the cipher readers—or to a group that practiced isolated letter–sound relations—–the phonetic-cue readers. On posttests, cipher readers learned to read 15 similarly spelled words almost perfectly, whereas cue readers learned less than half of the words. Cipher readers also spelled better than cue readers. Errors indicated that cue readers were processing partial letter-sound cues in words. Results indicated that phonetic-cue reading is another way besides visual memory and decoding to read words. Results documented the importance of beginning readers' advancing beyond cue reading to cipher reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents 3 experiments examining the processes used by 5-yr-old children in learning to read words. In Exps 1 and 2, 42 children learned to associate printed 3- or 4-letter abbreviations, or cues, with spoken words (e.g., bzn for the word basin). All letters in the cue corresponded to phonemes in the spoken word, except for one that corresponded to a similarly articulated phoneme. Ss found the phonetic cues easier to learn than the control cues when the critical letter was in the middle or at the beginning of the word. In Exp 3, 15 children learned to read words with a relatively direct correspondence between their letters and sounds more easily than words with less obvious letter-sound correspondences. It is concluded that from a very early stage in learning to read, children are sensitive to the relationships between the phonological and written forms of words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Evaluated whether picture mnemonics help prereaders learn letter–sound associations in 2 experiments with 20 1st graders (Exp I), 30 preschoolers, and kindergartners (Exp II). Pictures integrating the associations were compared with disassociated pictures and with a no-picture control condition. Ss in the integrated-picture group learned 5 letter-sound associations (e.g., f, /f/), each represented by a picture whose shape included the letter (e.g., letter f drawn as the stem of a flower) and whose name (flower) began with the letter's sound. Ss in the disassociated-picture group learned letter–sound associations with pictures having the same names as the integrated pictures, but drawn differently—without letter shapes. Ss in the control group learned associations with picture names but no pictures. Prior to letter–sound training, all groups were taught how to segment the initial sounds of the picture names. Results reveal that Ss taught with integrated mnemonics learned more letter–sound associations and also more letter–picture associations than did the other 2 groups, which did not differ. Integrated pictures were effective because they linked 2 otherwise unconnected items in memory. It is concluded that the shape of letters included in pictures reminded learners of previously seen pictures with those shapes whose names began with the relevant letter sounds. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
traces the development of sight word reading from a time when prereaders use strictly visual cues to a time when readers analyze spellings as symbols for the phonemic structure of words (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study was designed to determine whether children's conceptualization of the component sounds in words is influenced by their knowledge of the words' spellings. For example, the spelling of pitch may lead learners to discover the phonetic element [t] in its pronunciation and to conceptualize this as a separate phoneme, whereas the spelling of rich should not. Positive results were obtained in a phonemic segmentation task with real and made-up words taught to fourth graders. Findings are interpreted to show that phonemic segmentation skill may be a consequence of as much as a prerequisite to learning to read words. Results are consistent with a theory of printed word learning in which visual spellings are retained in memory through a sound symbolization process.
Chapter
Ways to Assess Sight Word ReadingMemory Processes That Enable Sight Word ReadingDevelopmental TheoriesSynopsis of the TheoriesPhase Theory of Sight Word ReadingTransition from the Partial Alphabetic to Full Alphabetic PhaseDevelopment of Automaticity, Speed, and UnitizationConcluding Comments
Article
Reading words may take several forms. Readers may utilize decoding, analogizing, or predicting to read unfamiliar words. Readers read familiar words by accessing them in memory, called sight word reading. With practice, all words come to be read automatically by sight, which is the most efficient, unobtrusive way to read words in text. The process of learning sight words involves forming connections between graphemes and phonemes to bond spellings of the words to their pronunciations and meanings in memory. The process is enabled by phonemic awareness and by knowl-edge of the alphabetic system, which functions as a powerful mnemonic to secure spellings in memory. Recent studies show that alphabetic knowledge enhances chil-dren's learning of new vocabulary words, and it influences their memory for doubled letters in words. Four phases characterize the course of development of sight word learning. The phases are distinguished according to the type of alphabetic knowledge used to form connections: pre-alphabetic, partial, full, and consolidated alphabetic phases. These processes appear to portray sight word learning in transparent as well as opaque writing systems. Life is indeed exciting but demanding these days for researchers who study read-ing. Because many educators are seeking evidence as the basis for decisions about reading instruction, there is great interest in scientific studies of reading processes and instruction. My studies over the years have focused on how beginners learn to read words. My plan is to review what I think we know about learning to read words, particularly sight words; to present some new findings that involve chil-dren's vocabulary learning and memory for orthographic structure; and to point out some issues that linger. An issue of special interest is whether this research in English is relevant for more transparent orthographies.
Article
An experiment with random assignment examined the effectiveness of a strategy to learn unfamiliar English vocabulary words during text reading. Lower socioeconomic status, language minority fifth graders (M=10years, 7months; n=62) silently read eight passages each focused on an unknown multi-syllabic word that was underlined, embedded in a meaningful context, defined, depicted, and repeated three times. Students were grouped by word reading ability, matched into pairs, and randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the strategy condition, students orally pronounced the underlined words during silent reading. In the control condition, students penciled a check if they had seen the underlined words before but did not say the words aloud. Results of ANOVAs showed that the oral strategy enhanced vocabulary learning (ps<.01), with poorer readers showing bigger effect sizes than better readers in remembering pronunciation-meaning associations and spellings of the words. In a second experiment, 32 fifth graders from the same school described the strategies they use when encountering unfamiliar words in context. Better readers reported more word-level strategies whereas poorer readers reported more text-based strategies. Our explanation is that application of the word-level strategy of decoding new words aloud strengthened connections between spellings, pronunciations, and meanings in memory compared to silent reading of new words, particularly among poor readers who were less skilled and less likely to use this strategy unless instructed to do so. KeywordsVocabulary learning–Self-teaching–Orthographic learning–Reading words in text–Decoding vocabulary words–Silent versus oral word reading–Reader ability–Spelling memory
Article
The authors report data from a longitudinal study of the reading development of children who were assessed in the years of their 8th, 11th, 14th, and 16th birthdays. They examine the evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between ages 8 and 11 in groups of children identified with good and poor reading comprehension at 8 years. They also investigate evidence for Matthew effects in reading and vocabulary between 8 and 16 years, in the larger sample. The poor comprehenders showed reduced growth in vocabulary compared to the good comprehenders, but not in word reading or reading comprehension ability. They also obtained lower scores on measures of out-of-school literacy. Analyses of the whole sample revealed that initial levels of reading experience and reading comprehension predicted vocabulary at ages 11, 14, and 16 after controlling for general ability and vocabulary skills when aged 8. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the influence of reading on vocabulary development.
Article
Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds occur either at the beginning (e.g., the letter /be/) or in the middle (e.g., the letter /'eli/) of the letter name. The control group was taught the shapes of the letters but not their names. Then both groups were taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed an advantage for the experimental group, but only for beginning-sound letters. Experiment 2 investigated whether training in phonological awareness could boost the learning of letter sounds, particularly middle-sound letters. In addition to learning the names of beginning- and middle-sound letters, children in the experimental group were taught to categorize words according to rhyme and alliteration, whereas controls were taught to categorize the same words semantically. All children were then taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed that children who were given phonological awareness training found it easier to learn letter sounds than controls. This was true for both types of letters, but especially for middle-sound letters.
Article
This article presents a theoretical framework designed to accommodate core evidence that the abilities to repeat nonwords and to learn the phonological forms of new words are closely linked. Basic findings relating nonword repetition and word learning both in typical samples of children and adults and in individuals with disorders of language learning are described. The theoretical analysis of this evidence is organized around the following claims: first, that nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage; second, that they are both multiply determined, constrained also by auditory, phonological, and speech–motor output processes; third, that a phonological storage deficit alone may not be sufficient to impair language learning to a substantial degree. It is concluded that word learning mediated by temporary phonological storage is a primitive learning mechanism that is particularly important in the early stages of acquiring a language, but remains available to support word learning across the life span.
Article
A good deal has been learned about the basic parameters of orthographic learning, but many researchers in this field have observed that less is known about how this learning comes about. The orthographic learning function needs to be systematically mapped for both normal and disabled readers. Most studies to date have understandably used a small number of selected points on the learning curve, and although more exposures tend to elicit stronger outcomes, only a comprehensive mapping effort can determine whether orthographic learning adheres to the standard power function common to a wide variety of skill learning.
Article
Three phases comprise the development of word reading skill: accuracy, automaticity, and speed. The 3rd phase is reached when components of the identification process (i.e., graphic, phonological, semantic) are unitized in memory for particular words. Attainment of this final phase was explored with 2 experiments. In Exp I with Ss from 1st-, 2nd-, and 4th-grade classes, skilled and less skilled readers identified familiar printed words, CVC nonwords, digits, and pictures. Attainment of unitized speeds to printed words was inferred if Ss identified words as rapidly as digits. This level was exhibited by skilled readers in all grades but by less skilled readers only in 4th grade. Unitized speed with CVCs was evident among 2nd- and 4th-grade skilled readers, but not among less skilled readers at any grade. In Exp II, 18 1st-grade and 19 2nd-grade poor readers practiced reading familiar words and CVCs. Practice boosted RTs to CVCs but not to words read accurately before training, and RTs to both remained slower than digit RTs, indicating that practice promotes the development of unitized speeds very slowly in less skilled readers. (45 ref)
Article
Children (4 to 6 years of age) were taught to associate printed 3- or 4-letter abbreviations, or cues, with spoken words (e.g., bfr for beaver). All but 1 of the letters in the cue corresponded to phonemes in the spoken target word. Two types of cues were constructed: phonetic cues, in which the medial letter was phonetically similar to the target word, and control cues, in which the central phoneme was phonetically dissimilar. In Experiment 1, children learned the phonetic cues better than the control cues, and learning correlated with measures of phonological skill and knowledge of the meanings of the words taught. In Experiment 2, the target words differed on a semantic variable-imageability-and learning was influenced by both the phonetic properties of the cue and the imageability of the words used.
Article
Experiment 1 examined the time course of orthographic learning among Grade 3 children. A single encounter with a novel orthographic string was sufficient to produce reliable recall of orthographic detail. Moreover, newly acquired orthographic information was retained 1 month later. These data support the logistic learning functions featured in contemporary connectionist models of reading rather than a "threshold" model of orthographic learning. Experiments 2 and 3 examined self-teaching among novice readers. In contrast to the findings from less regular orthographies such as English and Dutch, beginning readers of a highly regular orthography (Hebrew) appear to be relatively insensitive to word-specific orthographic detail, reading in a nonlexical "surface" fashion. These results suggest fundamental differences between shallow and deep orthographies in the development of orthographic sensitivity.
Article
Two experiments tested the common assumption that knowing the letter names helps children learn basic letter-sound (grapheme-phoneme) relation because most names contain the relevant sounds. In Experiment 1 (n=45), children in an experimental group learned English letter names for letter-like symbols. Some of these names contained the corresponding letter sounds, whereas others did not. Following training, children were taught the sounds of these same "letters." Control children learned the same six letters, but with meaningful real-word labels unrelated to the sounds learned in the criterion letter-sound phase. Differences between children in the experimental and control groups indicated that letter-name knowledge had a significant impact on letter-sound learning. Furthermore, letters with names containing the relevant sound facilitated letter-sound learning, but not letters with unrelated names. The benefit of letter-name knowledge was found to depend, in part, on skill at isolating phonemes in spoken syllables. A second experiment (n=20) replicated the name-to-sound facilitation effect with a new sample of kindergarteners who participated in a fully within-subject design in which all children learned meaningless pseudoword names for letters and with phoneme class equated across related and unrelated conditions.
Article
Adolescents with word-reading skills below grade level were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Those receiving interventions practiced reading 100 multisyllabic words, either by analyzing graphosyllabic units in the words or by reading the words as unanalyzed wholes. The third group received no special instruction. Posttests revealed that graphosyllabic instruction helped students to decode novel words, remember how to read words with practice, and remember the spellings of words when compared to controls. In contrast, whole-word instruction yielded no benefit on transfer tasks compared to controls. Effects were observed primarily among adolescents reading at a third-grade-equivalent level and less so at a fourth- and fifth-grade-equivalent level. Results are consistent with a connectionist view of word learning and indicate the importance of providing struggling readers with instruction and practice in how to fully analyze the graphosyllabic constituents of words.