Article

Recruiting Through the Stages: A Meta-Analytic Test of Predictors of Applicant Attraction at Different Stages of the Recruiting Process

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Abstract

We used meta‐analysis and semipartial correlations to examine the relative strength and incremental variance accounted for by 7 categories of recruiting predictors across multiple recruitment stages on applicant attraction. Based on 232 studies (250 samples, 3,518 coefficients, n= 108,632), we found that characteristics of the job, organization, and recruitment process, recruiter behaviors, perceived fit, and hiring expectancies (but not perceived alternatives) accounted for unique variance in applicant attraction at multiple stages. Perceived fit was the strongest relative and unique variance predictor of applicant attraction albeit a nonsignificant predictor of job choice. Although not among the largest zero‐order predictors, recruiter behaviors accounted for substantial incremental variance at the first 2 stages. Organizational characteristics are more heavily weighed by applicants when maintaining applicant status as compared to the stage of application, and recruitment process characteristics are weighed progressively more as the recruitment stages advance. Job characteristics accounted for the greatest unique variance in job choice decisions. Job characteristics are more predictive in field studies, whereas recruiter behaviors, recruitment process characteristics, hiring expectancies, and perceived alternatives produced larger effect sizes in the laboratory. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications with future research suggestions.

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... Income is very critical for individuals as it satisfies various needs. Pay is positively associated with applicants' attraction toward the organization (Chapman et al., 2005;Renaud et al., 2016;Uggerslev et al., 2012). For Gen-X, money is critical for their survival (Shelton and Shelton, 2005), and they expect a good salary and benefits package commensurate with market conditions (Duxbury and Ormsbee, 2020). ...
... P-O fit can constitute dimensions of complementary fit (compatibility of needs), supplementary fit (similarity of characteristics), or both between the parties Predictors of applicant attraction (Kristof, 1996). The perceived fit with an organization is one of the strongest predictors of applicant attraction (Uggerslev et al., 2012). The value alignment is essential for millennials (Cho et al., 2013). ...
... However, we did not find age, gender, tenure, salary and marital status related to organizational attractiveness in both the generational groups. Consistent with past studies (Chapman et al., 2005;Uggerslev et al., 2012), we found that the type of work, pay, organizational image, P-O fit are related to organizational attractiveness. Surprisingly, job satisfaction in the current organization was found to be related to organizational attractiveness. ...
Article
Purpose: A better understanding of applicant attraction enables organizations to manage their talent needs, thus enhancing HR effectiveness. Even though generational difference exists in modern organizations, scholarly work investigating the salient predictors of applicant attraction between the Gen-X and millennial cohorts is missing. We attempt to inform the literature by addressing this gap. Design/methodology/approach: The study captures applicant attraction using a survey-based study of 1949 working employees in India, representing Gen-X and millennial generations. Findings: The study provides critical factors that differentially impact millennial and Gen-X members’ attraction towards an organization. It also reveals that satisfaction in the current job affects millennials and the Gen-X cohorts differently. Research limitations/implications: Recruitment research has neglected the predictors of applicant attraction among generational cohorts. Further, studies on generational differences have originated in western contexts and have ignored the emerging economies. Based on the responses of working professionals, our study increases the generalizability of the results. Implications: The multi-generational workplace has the largest proportion of both Gen-X and millennial employees. A deeper understanding of their preferences can help HR practitioners leverage the drivers of applicant attraction. Our study provides inputs to design recruitment strategies to target generational groups within and outside the organization. Originality/value: The present study examines the phenomenon in an emerging market marked by a high economic growth rate and an eastern cultural context. Our study presents a more realistic representation of applicant needs by sourcing inputs from working employees across generation groups.
... Research into the attractiveness of organizational attributes varies substantially across studies. Some studies indicate that factors like pay and promotion potential are most important, whereas others highlight the prospect of challenging and interesting work, opportunities for teamwork and positive social interactions [1,2]. Person-organization (PO) fit, operationalized in this study as the level of congruence between values of organizations and their prospective employees, is a useful theoretical lens for understanding these inconsistencies [3]. ...
... To date, two meta-analyses have summarized much of the research on workplace attributes and organization attractiveness [1,2]. The first review of 71 studies, conducted by Chapman et al., found that work environment and organization image (reputation) were much stronger predictors of perceived organization attractiveness (r = .60 ...
... and promotion opportunity (r = .35) [2]. Interestingly, work environment, the strongest predictor in the first meta-analysis, was more modest in the second (r = .30) ...
Article
Does the "ideal" organization exist? Or do different workplace attributes attract different people? And if so, what attributes attract what types of employees? This study combines person-organization fit theory and a policy capturing methodology to determine (a) which attributes are the strongest predictors of perceived organization attractiveness in a sample of Australian job seekers, and (b) whether the magnitude of these predictive effects varies as a function of job seekers' personal values. The design of this study is a randomized experiment of Australian job seekers who responded to an online survey invitation. Each of the 400 respondents received a random subset of 8 of 64 possible descriptions of organizations. Each description presented an organization that scored either high or low on six attributes based on the Employer Attractiveness Scale: economic, development, interest, social, application, and environmental value. Multi-level modelling revealed that all six attributes positively predicted job seekers' ratings of organization attractiveness, with the three strongest predictors being social, environmental, and application value. Moderation analyses revealed that participants with strong self-transcendent or weak self-enhancement values were most sensitive to the absence of social, environmental, and application value in workplaces, down-rating organizations that scored low on these attributes. Our results demonstrate how job seekers' personal values shape preferences for different types of workplaces. Organizations may be able to improve recruitment outcomes by matching working conditions to the personal values of workers they hope to employ.
... Recruiting and selection involves a multi-stage mutual decisionmaking process in which job-seekers and hiring organizations both acquire information about each other. At each stage, they evaluate whether they still find the other party attractive and decide whether they want to proceed with the process or not (Li & Song, 2017;Uggerslev, Fassina, & Kraichy, 2012). Reading job advertisements is often the first instance when job-seekers 1 and hiring organizations get in contact and thus the first critical point in the process as job-seekers decide at this stage whether or not they will enter the recruiting process (Reeve & Schultz, 2004). ...
... Furthermore, also in a rather exploratory approach, we manipulated the information on job benefits in Study 1 with the aim of comparing the effect of information on AI-based tools in personnel selection against other communicated attributes in job advertisements that have been shown to be highly influential regarding job-seekers' and applicants' attraction to organizations (see the meta-analysis by Uggerslev et al., 2012). Recently, Petry et al. (2021) assessed the relative importance of different attributes of advertised jobs and hiring organizations communicated in job advertisements on participants' intention to apply. ...
... This becomes apparent when comparing the effect sizes of the two independent variables. Information on employee benefits, known to be very important for job-seekers' attraction to organizations (Petry et al., 2021;Uggerslev et al., 2012), showed stronger effects on job-seekers' pre-process perceptions and intentions compared to the information on the automation of the screening procedure. This indicates that the negative consequences of communicating the use of AI-based technology in the screening stage of recruiting and selection processes on job-seekers' reactions is rather small. ...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly used in personnel selection to automate decision-making. Initial evidence points to negative effects of automating these procedures on applicant experiences. However, the effect of the prospect of automated procedures on job-seekers’ pre-process perceptions (e.g., organizational attractiveness) and intentions (to apply for the advertised job) is still unclear. We conducted three experiments (Study 1 and Study 2 as within-subjects designs, Study 3 as a between-subjects design; N1 = 36, N2 = 44, N3 = 172) systematically varying the information in job advertisements on the automation of different stages of the selection process (Study 1: screening stage conducted by a human vs. a non-specified agent vs. an AI; Study 2 and Study 3: human screening and human interview vs. AI screening and human interview vs. AI screening and AI interview). Results showed small negative effects of screening conducted by an AI vs. a human (Study 1, Study 2, Study 3), but stronger negative effects when also interviews were conducted by an AI vs. a human (Study 2, Study3) on job-seekers pre-process expectations, perceptions, and intentions. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed with special consideration of the different stages of the recruiting and selection process and explored with a qualitative approach in Study 2.
... On the basis of previous research and meta-analyses (Chapman et al., 2005;Uggerslev et al., 2012;Van Hoye et al., 2013), we scrutinized and cross-checked the HR consultancy firm's survey to identify seven relevant instrumental employer image attributes (i.e., concrete and factual job and organizational attributes that have utilitarian value for potential applicants): compensation (i.e., "offers a competitive compensation package [salary, fringe benefits]"), job security (i.e., "offers long-term job security"), training and development (i.e., "offers high-quality training and development opportunities"), advancement (i.e., "offers opportunities for career advancement"), work-life balance (i.e., "enables employees to create a good balance between work and private life"), working conditions (i.e., "offers a pleasant working environment"), and job content (i.e., "offers interesting work"). Respondents rated the extent to which they agreed that organizations possessed each of these seven image attributes. ...
... Given the cross-sectional nature of the data, we can also not rule out the possibility of reverse causality. Our approach, however, is consistent with prior research that examined employer image perceptions as a contributor to organizational attraction and not vice versa (Chapman et al., 2005;Harold et al., 2014;Uggerslev et al., 2012). ...
... In addition, it is possible that certain image attributes (e.g., training and development, advancement opportunities) become more important as applicants move through the recruitment process and gather more elaborate company-specific information. Along these lines, meta-analytic findings show differences in the strength of the relationship of job and organizational characteristics with organizational attractiveness on the one hand and actual job choice on the other hand(Uggerslev et al., 2012). Therefore, future studies should examine how the relevance and differentiation of image attributes change over the duration of the recruitment process. ...
Article
This study draws from brand positioning research to introduce the notions of points‐of‐relevance and points‐of‐difference to employer image research. Similar to prior research, this means that we start by investigating the relevant image attributes (points‐of‐relevance) that potential applicants use for judging organizations' attractiveness as an employer. However, we go beyond past research by examining whether the same points‐of‐relevance are used within and across industries. Next, we further extend current research by identifying which of the relevant image attributes also serve as points‐of‐difference for distinguishing between organizations and industries. The sample consisted of 24 organizations from 6 industries (total N = 7171). As a first key result, across industries and organizations, individuals attached similar importance to the same instrumental (job content, working conditions, and compensation) and symbolic (innovativeness, gentleness, and competence) image attributes in judging organizational attractiveness. Second, organizations and industries varied significantly on both instrumental and symbolic image attributes, with job content and innovativeness emerging as the strongest points‐of‐difference. Third, most image attributes showed greater variation between industries than between organizations, pointing at the importance of studying employer image at the industry level. Implications for recruitment research, employer branding, and best employer competitions are discussed.
... Second, determining the extent to which OA may be affected by experiences at different stages would improve our understanding not only of their individual contributions but also their relative contributions. Factors that might be significant in explaining changes in OA include organizational practices such as fair or unfair treatment (Uggerslev et al., 2012), cognitive processes such as the re-evaluation of the experience (Jones & Skarlicki, 2013;Lind, 2001;Proudfoot & Lind, 2015), and decisions to offer a job or reject a candidate (Lilly & Wipawayangkool, 2018). We use a multiple-segment factorial vignette design with four repeated measures to examine how applicants' experiences affect OA, both individually and in combination, and aim to examine whether OA lost at any stage can be regained at a later stage and how OA can be maintained throughout the recruitment process. ...
... Therefore, because recruitment involves both parties assessing one another, it can be conceived of as a dynamic decisionmaking process that extends over a longer period of time (Swider, 2013). A meta-analysis testing predictors of OA demonstrated that information received at one stage of the recruitment process affects applicant reactions at later stages (Uggerslev et al., 2012). It is important for organizations to recognize this, so that they can avoid practices that prevent applicants from withdrawing during the recruitment process, encourage applicants to accept a job offer, and encourage good applicants who have narrowly missed out on being appointed to reapply as further positions become available (Ryan & Delany, 2010;Saks & Uggerslev, 2010;Swider, 2013). ...
... Fairness plays a prominent role in shaping how attractive an organization is to individuals. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that applicants who perceived that they were treated fairly during the assessment stage were also more attracted to the job and the organization than those who were treated unfairly (Hausknecht et al., 2004;Uggerslev et al., 2012). During the assessment stage, applicants gain information and form impressions of their prospective employer (Wilhelmy et al., 2019), and the way they are treated during the assessment stage helps them to predict how they might be treated later, as an employer (Breaugh, 2008;Celani & Singh, 2011;Harold et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
How applicants’ perceptions of organizational attractiveness (OA) change over the recruitment process and whether OA, once lost, can ever be regained, has hardly been investigated. Therefore, drawing on organizational justice and signaling theories, we examined the effects of treatment (fair vs. unfair), re-evaluation (positive vs. negative), and outcome (offer vs. rejection) on OA. Results from a multiple-segment factorial vignette study (N = 193 employees) showed a reduction in OA (67%) after applicants were treated unfairly. Up to 24% of this loss was regained in subsequent stages through positive re-evaluation and by being offered a job. The results also showed a reduction in OA (52%) for applicants who were treated fairly but re-evaluated their experience negatively and received a rejection. Thus, one good experience may not be enough to attract applicants, and understanding the combined effect of experiences is even more important than understanding the effect of a single experience.
... Second, we identify applicants' initial preferences as a meaningful predictor of the attitude updating process during recruitment and later job choice decisions. Some research suggests that initial information will have reduced, if any, impact as the recruitment process unfolds and more information is gathered to modify preferences and attitudes Uggerslev et al., 2012). Yet, this study indicates that initial preferences influence the entire recruitment process, including eventual job choices. ...
... Although applicant PID facilitates the decision-making process (DeKay et al., 2011), its occurrence likely results in applicants misperceiving the organizations they join at best or making suboptimal job choice decisions at worst. This study directly answers recent calls (e.g., Darnold & Rynes, 2012;Uggerslev et al., 2012) for longitudinal research to identify mechanisms explaining how applicants evaluate information, update attitudes, and make job choices during the recruitment process. ...
... The dominant paradigm for understanding the process of recruitment suggests applicants constantly obtain new information, integrate the new information with their prior attitudes about the organizations, and update their perceptions and attitudes to facilitate job choice decisions (Barber, 1998;Uggerslev et al., 2012). In general, individuals are expected to process information and develop perceptions of organizational attraction, or how positive a place to work an organization is (Ehrhart & Ziegert, 2005), to guide decision making. ...
Article
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Although the various factors that predict applicant attitudes and decisions during recruitment have been explored, far less is known about the decision‐making process applicants go through to develop attitudes to facilitate job choice decisions. In a field sample (Study 1), applicant initial preferences across four firms predicted the trajectory of subsequent organizational attraction toward the firms over the 5‐month recruiting cycle. Further, these initial preferences significantly predicted job choice decisions at the end of the recruiting cycle. Applicants’ organizational attraction trajectories that developed during the entire recruiting process mediated this relationship. Findings in a laboratory sample (Study 2) were consistent with research on predecisional information distortion (PID). Applicants evaluated the information presented about two hypothetical recruiting companies and overly favored the company that was installed as applicants’ initial preference. Initial preferences had a significant indirect effect on job choice through total PID when the information about the two companies was equivalent and when the initially preferred company was moderately worse. However, the indirect effect was not significant when the initially preferred company was presented as severely worse. Applicants arriving at job choice decisions using biased information evaluations driven by initial preferences can adversely affect both organizations and applicants’ careers.
... Recruiting influences many organizations and job seekers. For example, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates there will be over 17 million job openings each year for the next decade (Torpey, 2020). Similarly, U.S. colleges and universities are expected to award nearly four million degrees for the 2020-2021 academic year (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2020), and the vast majority of these graduates will be participants in the labor force (Spreen, 2013). ...
... PAM does not elaborate the mechanisms by which political affiliation affects job seeker reactions. However, substantial literature suggests that job seekers' liking/attraction to an organization is positively associated with ITP (e.g., Allen et al., 2007;Chapman et al., 2005;Goldberg & Allen, 2008;Uggerslev et al., 2012). The relationship between an attitudinal state (i.e., the job seeker likes an organization) and a behavioral intention (i.e., the job seeker intends to pursue employment in the organization) is also consistent with a substantial body of research on the theory of reasoned action (e.g., Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975;Highhouse et al., 2003). ...
Article
Political divisions appear to be relatively frequent in today's world. Indeed, individuals on opposing sides of these divisions often view each other very negatively. The present multi-study investigation contributes to the nascent literature on organizational political affiliation by examining how job seekers view organizations with political affiliations, a practice that is becoming more prevalent. Studies 1 and 2 indicated that many job seekers are aware of organizations' political affiliations or stances, and that they often considered these affiliations and stances during recent job searches. For example, nearly one-third of participants said they did not apply to an organization because of its political affiliation or stances. Study 3 showed that the extent to which job seekers identified with the organization's party affiliation positively influenced their reactions toward the organization (e.g., perceived similarity and liking), as well as their intention to pursue employment with the organization. In contrast, job seekers' disidentification with the organization's affiliation decreased their feelings of perceived similarity and liking. Study 4 demonstrated that organizational affiliation with a political issue (i.e., gun control/second amendment) also influenced perceptions of similarity and liking. Taken together, results suggest that organizations' affiliations with political parties or their stances on political issues can influence the amount and types of potential employees that organizations attract. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Numerous studies have investigated individuals' job attribute preferences and their importance for job choice decisions and organizational attractiveness (e.g., Boswell et al., 2003;Harris and Fink, 1987;Jurgensen 1978;Posner 1981;Turban et al., 1998; for meta-analyses, see Chapman et al., 2005;Uggerslev et al., 2012). Early studies on job attribute preferences were mostly focused on exploring which single attributes were rated as important in evaluating jobs, and whether these attributes influence job choices (e.g., Jurgensen 1978;Posner 1981). ...
... Desired job attributes. Employees' desired levels of various job attributes were measured with a 31-item questionnaire based on the most commonly used items in the recruitment literature (e.g., Harris and Fink, 1978;Turban et al., 1995;Uggerslev et al., 2012). The participants were requested to rate the importance of 31 job and organizational attributes when making job choice decisions, on a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (not at all important) to 7 (extremely important). ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether employee job satisfaction is associated with the congruence between desired and perceived job attributes. The desired and perceived levels of 30 job attributes were measured on employees from a large Information Technology (IT) company based in Romania. Results indicate that employees who experience congruence between desired and perceived job attributes have higher levels of overall job satisfaction, confirming the assumptions of the value congruence theory. In addition, the results of this study show that employee job satisfaction is associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic factors i.e., job attributes. This indicates that extrinsic factors can also be a source of job satisfaction, the same as intrinsic factors, which is contrary to what Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory assumes.
... Notably, company webpages include information about corporate social responsibility (CSR) statements and diversity and inclusion (D&I) policies. This information might also relate to people's attraction to the company (see Uggerslev, Fassina, & Kraichy, 2012). Therefore, we ran robustness analyses in which we addressed our first two research questions with a CATA of CSR statements and D&I policies as well. ...
... The following criteria had to be met: First, we used only information that was relevant to employer image (see the instrumental-symbolic framework of employer branding, van Hoye & Saks, 2011) and that had the potential to influence (prospective) employees' attraction to the company as an employer. In this context, we drew upon a meta-analytic categorization of job (e.g., compensation, benefits) and organizational characteristics (e.g., organizational image, employee relations) that generate substantial applicant attraction (see Uggerslev et al., 2012). Second, the data had to be directly analyzable through text mining (i.e., only pages with text were analyzed, while graphics, images, PDFs, and similar content were omitted). ...
Article
Full-text available
Information on a company's employment webpage sends signals about the employer image the company intends to project to applicants. Nonetheless, we know little about the content of recruitment signals sent via company employment webpages. This study develops a method to measure companies’ projected employer image attributes based on their employment webpages. Specifically, we analyze companies’ projected employer image attributes by applying computer-aided text analysis (CATA) to the employment webpages of 461 Fortune 500 companies (i.e., more than 11,100 individual pages). Our results show that projected employer image attributes remain relatively stable over time. Moreover, we find relatively low levels of employer image differentiation between companies and between industries. Only a small group of companies (<20%) use distinct employer attribute signals to communicate their projected employer image. Finally, there is limited convergence between projected employer image attributes based on employment webpages and ratings on similar attributes on employer review websites. Generally, our results show that CATA is a viable method for assessing companies’ projected employer image in the context of employer image management and engineering.
... The model covers the complete application process beginning at the transition from recruitment to selection. At the earliest stage, applicants have to assess the valence of the job based on rudimentary information, such as characteristics of the company and the job itself (see Uggerslev et al., 2012, for empirical evidence). Because information is still scarce, applicants should usually be rather uncertain about employer's expectations at this point, which implies that the situation is relatively weak and, thus, individual meta-traits like self-monitoring or trait impression management play a central role in the formation of the initial motivation for self-presentation. ...
... In line with VIE theory (valence-instrumentalityexpectations, Vroom, 1964), applicants reassess the fit between their self-image and the perceived image of the job and organization (Kristof, 1996). The theory thus assumes that comparison of one's true self-image with perceived employer expectations affects perceived attractiveness in addition to features such as perceived fairness of the application process and more detailed knowledge of objective characteristics (Uggerslev et al., 2012). The greater the discrepancy between self-image and perceived expectations, the lower the motivation to try meeting those expectations by means of self-presentation, because people usually strive for a consistent self-concept (cf. ...
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Behaviour in selection situations as an adaptation to external expectations: Testing a theory of self-presentation Self-presentation in a selection setting has largely been viewed as deviant and detrimental for validity, often simplified by the label "faking behaviour". Yet, applicants may also express meaningful skills and motivation when presenting themselves. In this paper, we present an empirical test of Marcus' (2009) theory of self-presentation, which takes this position. By simulating a complete selection process, from choosing a position to final decision making about job offers, we test several key assumptions the model made. If motivation was operationalized as willingness to deviate from true self-image, findings provide partial support for proposed antecedents of initial motivation, for motivational changes during the selection process, for the hypothesis that greater discrepancy between true self-image and perceived expectations lower the motivation to self-present, and for expected effects of analytical self-presentation skills. Hardly any support was found for propositions if motivation was operationalized as willingness to adapt to perceived employer's ideals, and for proposed antecedents of analytical skills. Link to published version: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2021.1981866
... During the early stages of recruitment, individuals determine how attractive an organization is by forming perceptions of both job (e.g., opportunities for promotion) and organizational attributes (e.g., the presence of equal interpersonal treatment; Cable, Aiman-Smith, Mulvey, & Edwards, 2000;Rynes, 1989;Turban, Forret, & Hendrickson, 1998). Relatedly, prior research suggests that theory on organizational justice may explain the crucial role that perceptions play in shaping applicants' attitudes towards organizations (e.g., Chapman, Uggerslev, Carroll, Piasentin, & Jones, 2005;Smither, Millsap, Stoffey, Reilly, & Pearlman, 1996;Uggerslev, Fassina, & Kraichy, 2012). ...
... Based on a deductive approach (Hinkin, 1998), we reviewed the family business literature to develop an understanding of relevant concepts tied to applicant attraction. For example, compensation and benefits, development, advancement and promotion opportunities, and equity perceptions were determined to be some of the most important factors determining applicants' attraction to organizations (Chapman et al., 2005;Uggerslev et al., 2012). Using this information, the first author and two subject matter experts (SMEs) brainstormed a list of items reflecting these factors. ...
Article
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This paper draws from organizational justice theory to consider the mechanisms through which nonfamily members’ perceptions of treatment (i.e., interpersonal treatment equivalent to that received by family-member employees, preferential treatment in favor of family-member employees) may shape their behavioral intentions within family businesses. Results from Study 1 (N = 173) demonstrated that organizational attractiveness mediates the relationship between perceptions of interpersonally equal treatment and job pursuit intentions. Additionally, results from Study 2 (N = 222) indicated that affective commitment may help explain the effects of both perceptions of interpersonally equal and preferential family-member treatment on turnover intentions. Job satisfaction was also found to mediate the influence of perceptions of interpersonally equal treatment on turnover intentions. Taken together, results from these studies may help to expand our understanding of outcomes associated with perceptions of interpersonally equal and preferential family-member treatment in family-business contexts.
... They call for more research on specific individual differences and their interplay in relation to how they shape different recruitment stages. In one of the most comprehensive studies on applicant attraction, Uggerslev et al., (2012) explored predictors of applicant attraction in terms of three recruitment stages, such as generating applications, maintaining the applicant status (i.e., the applicants have applied for the job and have gone through the selection process, but have not yet received an offer), and job choice decisions (i.e., the applicants are deciding whether to accept or reject the offer). Their meta-analytic results showed that the perceived fit with the organization was the strongest predictor of applicant attraction to the organization. ...
... For instance, research into applicant reactions has called for studies that would employ longitudinal designs to study applicant reactions and behaviours throughout the entire recruitment and selection process (McCarthy et al., 2017). Attraction and job choice research has similarly called for studies with multiple measurement points that would shed more light on how the persuasion mechanisms might evolve during the recruitment stages and to identify the optimal timing of different recruitment and selection activities (Uggerslev et al., 2012). As it might be very difficult to secure samples of applicants who could be asked to participate in comprehensive programme of research over time, the use of experimental research designs might be useful to tease out some of these causal factors. ...
Article
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Considered as one of the cornerstones of work and organizational psychology, it is not surprising that the selection and recruitment literature is vast. In this review, we synthesize and integrate the findings from around 40 meta-analyses and literature reviews from the last decade to identify the most recent meta-trends and future research directions in the selection and recruitment research and practice. We organize our key findings around three superordinate areas: a) recent developments in selection research, covering findings on validities of selection methods, expanding the criterion space, and applicant reactions and impression management; b) recent developments in recruitment research, paying attention to the evidence around recruitment methods and applicant attraction; and c) new technology in recruitment and selection. In our call for future research, we delineate a number of substantive issues and the need for more sophisticated theoretical developments in the field as well as methodological challenges that future efforts should address. We concur with the vast literature in that selection and recruitment research is a vibrant field, which we expect will address a number of ongoing political, cultural, technological, societal, and employment regulations-related issues to keep creating impact and providing meaningful findings for recruitment and selection practices in organizations.
... Organisations therefore emphasise upon areas which can make way for a sustainable competitive advantage; whereby, citizenship behaviours are a phenomenon of particular interest (Alkahtani, 2015). In this context, personorganisation fit is a fundamental concept for recruiting such individuals who can most probably behave as citizens (Uggerslev et al., 2012). Theorists consider organisational success to be reliant upon continuous engagement of employees in organisational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) (Dirbeba Dinka, 2018). ...
Article
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Organisational citizenship behaviour has been deemed cruciallyrelevant for organisational effectiveness and success; thus,significant emphasis is laid upon enhancing and sustainingfavourable workplace attitudes and behaviours by managementsacross organisations. Various models of organisational citizenshipbehaviour have been presented by researchers in the past; however,a meagre number of studies managed to establish a causalframework explaining employees’ drive towards citizenshipbehaviours. Therefore, the present study analysed the role ofperson-organisation fit in inspiring citizenship behaviours throughaffective commitment upon two backdrops i.e., Social ExchangeTheory and Social Identity Theory. The study employed 290 validresponses; conveniently collected from the six major bankingsector organisations operating in Pakistan, which were subjected toregression analysis through the Process Macro [Model-4] for SPSSv. 22. Subsequent to analysis, it was found that affectivecommitment partially mediates the relationship between person-organization fit and organisational citizenship behaviour;signifying that, values congruence elicits higher commitment fromemployees, eventually promoting citizenship behaviours; whereas,incongruence in employee organisational values may hold adverseimplications for commitment levels as well as the employees’tendency to exhibit extra-role behaviours.
... Applicant reactions are important because they may have a negative impact on how applicants view organizations (Langer et al., 2017). Prior research has found that recording interviews can come across as less personal, creepy, and bring up privacy concerns (Chapman & Rowe, 2002;Langer et al., 2017;Uggerslev et al., 2012). Some applicants may not even realize they are being recorded in states that only require one-party consent. ...
Thesis
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Despite the numerous benefits structured interviews offer, prior research and literature has shown that hiring professionals are inclined to use unstructured interviews over structured interviews. While unstructured interviews are convenient, they pose several severe limitations when compared to structured interviews. Namely, unstructured interviews can result in adverse legal outcomes, significantly worse predictive validity, and difficulty in comparing applicants. Our research examines if three variables: Interviewer conventional personality, interviewer training, and recording improve the acceptance and use of structured interviews. Our study included 171 hiring managers from the SIOP user directory, SIUE alumni from the I/O psychology program, Human Resource managers from the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM), and managers recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Our survey found that interviewer training helped improve acceptance and content standardization of the interview. Neither interviewer conventional personality nor recording of the interview improved structured interview acceptance or use. However, our results did find that structured interviews are used more often than previously thought and that recording was used by a third of respondents to compare applicants or for legal defense. We found marginal support that interviewers who recorded their interviews reported using lower content standardization. Given our findings, we recommend that interviewer training be used to improve structured interview acceptance and use above and beyond recording.
... However, especially in the case of personnel selection, automated systems seem to predominantly lead to negative applicant reactions that could lead to applicants withdrawing their application and thus reducing the pool of potentially suitable applicants for hiring organizations (Uggerslev et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Applicants seem to react negatively to artificial intelligence-based automated systems in personnel selection. This study investigates the impact of different pieces of information to alleviate applicant reactions in an automated interview setting. In a 2 (no process information vs. process information) × 2 (no process justification vs. process justification) between-subjects design, participants (N=124) received respective information and watched a video showing an automated interview. Testing mediation effects via different applicant reaction variables indicated that process justification is better than process information which can even impair applicant reactions. However, information did not increase organizational attractiveness compared to not receiving any information. This study thus sheds light onto what type of information contribute to positive and negative applicant reactions to automated systems. Note that this paper was originally included as a second study in our paper: Langer, M., König, C. J., & Fitili, A. (2018). Information as a double-edged sword: The role of computer experience and information on applicant reactions towards novel technologies for personnel selection. Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 19-30. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2017.11.036
... Research has also found that the company s location is important when choosing a career (Turban & Keon, 1993;Uggerslev et al., 2012). On the other side, location has also been identified as an important factor for business performance (Sridhar & Wan, 2010). ...
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Norway struggles with a low degree of innovative activity, even though it is ranked as one of the world's best countries to establish new businesses. It is well established that startups have scarce resources in their first years and naturally have challenges in competing with established companies when recruiting skilled employees. This study aims to determine how startups can become more attractive when recruiting or retaining employees, given capital restrictions. This is done by examining how personal characteristics, background and financial compensation affect entrepreneurial intention. In this context, the entrepreneurial intention is defined as creating a business as a founder and working as an employee at a startup company´, contributing to a better understanding of Norway's lack of innovative activity. An online survey was distributed to master's students enrolled in Engineering and Economics degrees in Norway. The participants were asked to answer questions that were both in line with earlier proven frameworks and others based on earlier scientific literature. The results were further analysed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and probit regression models. The results showed a significant difference between respondents who were planning to work within startups and others. Individuals with startup intentions have significantly lower risk aversion. Among the personal characteristics, we found significant differences in five traits and four skills. Workplace environment factors, like flexibility and autonomy, were more important for participants with entrepreneurial intention. The location of the company was negatively correlated with respondents who planned to participate in startups. Males and students with families whose income is below average were more likely to participate in startups. Moreover, financial compensation can make startups more attractive, whereby option agreements make it possible for startups to recruit or retain students in Norway, even when not offering competitive salaries. Furthermore, we recommend that startups increase their exposure to students, as both earlier experience and affiliation are positively correlated with startup intention.
... The goal of any selection system is to identify the best possible candidates, but that requires such candidates to enter and remain in the applicant pool. Expectations of the selection process can be formed based on past experiences as well as consideration of the fairness of the process (Bell et al., 2006;McCarthy et al., 2017;McColl & Michelotti, 2019), which will then affect key recruitment outcomes such as application and pursuit intentions (Uggerslev et al., 2012). Additionally, potential applicants may interpret elements of the selection process as signals, thereby forming judgments about the organization and their desire to be associated with it. ...
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In search of greater resource savings and efficiencies, companies are turning to new technologies in the interview process, such as artificial intelligence evaluation (AIE). However, little is known about candidate reactions to this new tool. We identified outstanding questions regarding reactions to AIE arising from justice and signaling theories and conducted interviews with 33 professionals to understand their perceptions of AIE use in selection. Participants raised issues related to all four types of justice and indicated that there is a signaling effect of AIE use. Despite acknowledging the superior objectivity of AIE, participants expressed a desire for the maintenance of human elements in the evaluation process, seemingly preferring ‘the devil they know’ (human biases and intuition) rather than the one they do not (AIE algorithm). This result is explored through the lens of uncertainty reduction, discussing theoretical implications for justice and signaling theories, and providing implications for the implementation of AIE in the selection process.
... The experience of communicating with Skype is widespread among Poles -due to emigration being at a level higher than 10%, Skype helps families maintain daily contact -and thus, it can be considered that a synchronous interview should be unproblematic for potential job candidates. The knowledge of the candidates' expectations towards the selection process also suggests a preference for interaction with the recruiter (Uggerslev, Fassina, & Kraichy, 2012). ...
Article
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If human resource management (HRM) tools based on information technologies (ICT) are to support organizational effectiveness, it is imperative that these tools are accepted by employees. Knowledge concerning how ICT-based selection tools are perceived by potential employees is limited, which was the impulse for this research. A standard methodology for studies into fairness assessment of recruitment tools was followed here. Descriptions were prepared for five new ICT-based selection tools (long-distance synchronic interview; game results and analysis of candidates’ behaviour while playing a computer game; gathering information over the internet in the form of content-based analytics and structure-based analytics). Data from 833 Polish candidates collected using an e-questionnaire showed that fairness assessment for the five new selection tools is lower than for their traditional counterparts, i.e., interview, work samples, references and biodata questionnaire. It was also shown that the internet experience — measured by frequency of its use — and belonging to a younger generation do not significantly affect higher acceptance of ICT-based methods. The article indicates what kinds of activities may be undertaken to increase this acceptance.
... In the last few decades, empirical evidence has strongly supported the idea that job choices are dependent on how applicants evaluate work attributes (Chapman et al., 2005;Uggerslev, Fassina, & Kraichy, 2012). For instance, in their meta-analysis, Chapman et al. (2005) showed medium to large effect sizes for the relationship between work attributes, on the one side, and job attraction and acceptance intentions, on the other side, across almost one hundred studies. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation starts by noting that agencies are of vital economic and societal importance, as they are responsible for delivering many public services. Agency employees play a key role in delivering these services and, to manage these employees effectively, policy makers believed that a business-like approach towards HRM is the way to go. Agencies were created with the idea that they can adopt this approach more easily, as they were expected to experience lower levels of bureaucracy typically associated with central government. The claims that underlie the creation of agencies have barely been tested empirically, particularly those related to HRM. This lacuna is the starting point of this dissertation for a systematic investigation into the way people are managed in agencies. Through multiple studies on between- and within-sector differences in HRM and work-related attitudes and behaviors in agencies, the conclusion is that a business-like approach towards HRM is not found in agencies nor do they seem to operate under lower levels of bureaucracy. While agencies are in some respects similar to central government and businesses, they should not be viewed as simply in between government and businesses. They are hybrid organizations that, on the one hand, constitute a fairly similar group when it comes to HRM and work-related attitudes and behaviors, but, on the other hand, also differ in what HRM entails and how it shaped.
... In order to achieve that, organisations must develop a better understanding of the relative importance of different job and organisational attributes for attracting talent. Traditional characteristics that are commonly advertised to attract applicants are salary, career opportunities and attractive location (Montgomery and Ramus, 2011;Uggerslev, Fassina and Kraichy, 2012). ...
Thesis
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR), in particular workplace CSR, has been found to positively influence employer attractiveness and job choice in various settings and populations. Building on signalling theory, social identity theory and person-organisation fit theory, this paper therefore hypothesises that CSR is perceived as an important criterion for employer selection. The author further proposes that the importance of certain aspects of CSR varies between German and Chinese job seekers due to variations in national-level cultural values. An online survey was conducted with 88 students from Germany and 92 students from China to examine the proposed differences. The survey incorporates CSR issues of four CSR dimensions (workplace, marketplace, community and environment) in an overall job factor context, allowing for an assessment of the relative importance of these CSR issues against other important job factors and organisational attributes. This paper found support for the proposition that CSR is perceived as a highly relevant criterion for employer selection, with many CSR practices, such as ensuring a safe and healthy working environment as well as providing equal opportunities to all employees, rated as more important than traditional attributes (e.g. opportunities for advancement and promotion, high number of holidays). It was also found that importance ratings of 18 out of 65 attributes differed significantly between German and Chinese students, which can be attributed to the impact of national-level cultural values such as individualism/collectivism. The findings suggest that CSR practices can play an effective role in attracting new employees in both countries, Germany and China. This study expands on previous studies by including various, concrete types of CSR practices, directly contrasting them with traditional organisational and job characteristics and comparing the results between two culturally diverse countries. Implications for tailoring CSR and recruitment efforts across Germany and China are derived from the findings.
... Moreover, it would be interesting to explore whether employers with a more generous vacation policy attract better candidates (e.g. Beaudry et al., 2014;Chapman et al., 2005;Cunningham, 2009;Honeycutt and Rosen, 1997;Uggerslev et al., 2012). Similarly, do employers offering more Study of organizations in the ICT sector ...
Article
Purpose This study examines the link between vacations, parental leave and voluntary turnover among Canadian organizations in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector. Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis is carried out using firm-level data sourced from a survey that was completed by HR managers of 125 ICT firms operating in the province of Quebec (Canada).The organizational voluntary turnover rate was used and was obtained by dividing the number of employees who voluntarily quit an organization within the last year by the total number of its employees. Based on ordinary least squared estimates, results were generated by regressing voluntary turnover rate on vacation and parental leave. Findings Vacation, operationalized as the average number of annual vacation days, is negatively and significantly associated with the voluntary turnover rate of the ICT organizations surveyed. Parental leave, operationalized as the percentage of salary reimbursed during parental leave, does not significantly reduce voluntary turnover in the ICT organizations surveyed. Practical implications In light of the results of this study, if organizations in the ICT sector, in Canada or abroad, desire to reduce voluntary turnover, compensating employees through the use of additional vacation days appears to be a viable approach. Originality/value This research constitutes an empirical test of the link between turnover and two compensation practices adopted by firms. To our knowledge, there is no prior scientific evidence on that subject in the Canadian ICT sector.
... In addition, there is a lack of literature that considers regional aspects of the recruitment processes of highly qualified workers (Winterhager and Krücken 2015). When regional aspects are considered, they are seen as a subfactor of contextual characteristics or as organizational characteristics (Rynes and Cable 2003;Uggerslev et al. 2012). Hence, there is a gap in our knowledge of the recruitment of highly skilled workers from a regional perspective. ...
Article
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This paper studies the perceived difficulty of recruiting scarce competencies to rural regions. Furthermore, the role of policy in facilitating and enhancing recruitment to and better skills matching in rural regions is discussed. Based on a survey targeted to the business sections of Swedish municipalities, the results show that recruitment is perceived to be difficult in both rural and nonrural regions and that the difficulty of recruiting for the right skills results in a lack of skills matching and constitutes an obstacle to growth. Rural regions located close to urban areas can to some extent mitigate these recruitment problems, and their locations pose less of a barrier in recruitment processes compared to those of remotely located rural regions. Which policies can help remedy recruitment problems faced in rural regions? In both rural and nonrural regions, incentives for writing off student debt and relocation support for accompanying persons and tandem recruitment are perceived to be the most promising policies. Rural regions are more receptive to the implementation of such policies. Finally, the need for flexibility and policies that can be adapted to the regional demand for labour are stressed.
... The high complexity scenario involved the hiring of public employees. Selecting employees is a highly normative process that consists out of many intertwined factors (Villegas et al., 2019) and multiple phases (Uggerslev et al., 2012). Algorithms can be used in different phases of the hiring process, including CV screening and interviewing candidates through natural language processing and is contested (Binns et al., 2018;Raub, 2018). ...
Thesis
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The rise of behavioral public administration demonstrated that we can understand and change decision-making by using insights about heuristics. Heuristics are mental shortcuts that reduce complex tasks to simpler ones. Whereas earlier studies mainly focused on interventions such as nudges, scholars are now broadening their scope to include debiasing, and psychological theories beyond heuristics. Scholars are moreover shifting their attention away from citizen-focused interventions to public sector worker-oriented interventions, i.e. the very people who are expected to nudge society. This dissertation seeks to explore how behavioral sciences can facilitate understanding and support decision-making across the public sector. We present four studies that investigate a range of behavioral theories, practices, issues and public sector workers. This dissertation shows that when handling heuristics in the public sector, we need to take into account the institutional and situational settings, as well as differences between public sector workers. The results of this dissertation can be used by practitioners and academics to understand and support decision-making in public sector contexts.
... A képi és tartalmi elemek megjelenítése a legmeghatározóbb lehet a munkáltatói imázs alakításában (Lievens et al., 2016;Uggerslev et al., 2012). A vizuális jelek megjelenése az álláshirdetéseken belül a vonzóság mellett a bizalom kialakításában is szerepet játszik. ...
Article
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Az álláshirdetéseknél megjelenő információs aszimmetria különleges figyelemfelkeltést és bizalmat idéz elő a hirdető cég és az álláshirdetésre jelentkezők között. A menedzsmentirodalomban a jelzési elmélet alkalmazása kiemelt szerepet kap a stratégiai menedzsment és a HR-menedzsment területén. A vállalkozások számára az álláshirdetések attribútumainak megtervezése és kidolgozása különösen jelentős a legjobb képességű munkavállalók megtalálásában. Emellett a fiatal munkavállalók jellegzetességeinek és munkakeresési szokásainak ismerete is szükséges az álláshirdetési folyamat sikerességéhez. A tanulmány célja alapot adni az álláshirdetésekben megjelenő értékajánlat kidolgozásához, ahhoz, hogy az álláshirdetők azonosítani tudják a fejlesztendő pontokat és ezek ismeretével a munkakeresők igények beépítésével az álláshirdetéseket vonzóbbá tegyék. A kvalitatív megkérdezés alapján elért kutatási eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a hirdetésekkel szemben a vonzó megjelenés és munkáltatói márka fontossága kiemelkedő a megkérdezett fiatal munkavállalók számára. A szerzők a hirdetések értékelésénél az értékelemzés módszerét vették alapul ahhoz, hogy a leghatékonyabban kidolgozható hirdetésfunkciókat és értékhordozó funkciókat azonosítani tudják, mely funkciókat már az értéktervezés módszerével ábrázolták.
... In line with VIE theory (valence-instrumentality-expectations; Vroom, 1964), applicants reassess the fit between their self-image and the perceived image of the job and organization (Kristof, 1996). The theory thus assumes that comparison of one's true self-image with perceived employer expectations affects perceived attractiveness in addition to features, such as perceived fairness of the application process and more detailed knowledge of objective characteristics (Uggerslev et al., 2012). The greater the discrepancy between self-image and perceived expectations, the lower the motivation to try meeting those expectations by means of self-presentation because people usually strive for a consistent self-concept (cf. ...
Article
Self-presentation in a selection setting has largely been viewed as deviant and detrimental for validity, often simplified by the label “faking behaviour”. Yet, applicants may also express meaningful skills and motivation when presenting themselves. In this paper, we present an empirical test of a theory of self-presentation, which takes this position. By simulating a complete selection process, from choosing a position to final decision-making about job offers, we test several key assumptions the model made. If motivation was operationalized as willingness to deviate from true self-image, findings provide partial support for proposed antecedents of initial motivation, for motivational changes during the selection process, for the hypothesis that greater discrepancy between true self-image and perceived expectations lower the motivation to self-present and for expected effects of analytical self-presentation skills. Hardly any support was found for propositions if motivation was operationalized as willingness to adapt to perceived employer’s ideals and for proposed antecedents of analytical skills.
... "perceptions of employability," "perceived employability," "employability perceptions," "employability radius," "rated employability," "ratings of employability," "employability ratings," "perceived internal employability," "perceived external employability," "employability judgments," "judgments of employability."). Second, we backward citation searched a large number of reviews and meta-analyses dealing with employability and related literatures (e.g., job search, Forrier et al., 2009;Fugate et al., 2004;Lo Presti & Pluviano, 2016;Rubenstein et al., 2018;Steel & Griffeth, 1989;Uggerslev et al., 2012;Vanhercke et al., 2016;Vanhercke et al., 2014;Williams et al., 2015). Finally, to identify unpublished research from the grey literature (e.g., conference papers, in-press or in-preparation manuscripts, unpublished correlation matrices), we (1) (2) contacted 58 researchers who have published research involved PE. ...
Article
Personality predicts performance, but the moderating influence of occupational characteristics on its performance relations remains underexamined. Accordingly, we conduct second-order meta-analyses of the Big Five traits and occupational performance (i.e., supervisory ratings of overall job performance or objective performance outcomes). We identify 15 meta-analyses reporting 47 effects for 9 major occupational groups (clerical, customer service, healthcare, law enforcement, management, military, professional, sales, and skilled/semiskilled), which represent N = 89,639 workers across k = 539 studies. We also integrate data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) concerning two occupational characteristics: 1) expert ratings of Big Five trait relevance to its occupational requirements; and 2) its level of occupational complexity. We report three major findings. First, relations differ considerably across major occupational groups. Conscientiousness predicts across all groups, but other traits have higher validities when they are more relevant to occupational requirements: agreeableness for healthcare; emotional stability for skilled/semiskilled, law enforcement, and military; extraversion for sales and management; and openness for professional. Second, expert ratings of trait relevance mostly converge with empirical relations. For 77% of occupational groups, the top-two most highly rated traits match the top-two most highly predictive traits. Third, occupational complexity moderates personality–performance relations. When groups are ranked by complexity, multiple correlations generally follow an inverse-U shaped pattern, which suggests that moderate complexity levels may be a “goldilocks range” for personality prediction. Altogether, results demonstrate that occupational characteristics are important, if often overlooked, contextual variables. We close by discussing implications of findings for research, practice, and policy.
... Schneider's framework is a theory of interactionist processing (Ehrhart & Ziegert, 2005), which suggests that a person's preference for a particular organization is based on their own implicit estimate of the congruence of their personal characteristics and the attributes of potential work organizations (Schneider, Goldstein, & Smith, 1995). Empirically, perceived fit is a strong predictor of applicant attraction, but a non-significant predictor of actual job choice (Uggerslev, Fassina, & Kraichy, 2012 9 Generally, the model assumes that when an individual applies for a particular job, it is due to some kind of attraction to it (Dickson, Resick, & Goldstein, 2012). However, there is some ambiguity as to whether the individual is attracted to the job or to the organization. ...
Chapter
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Research on person-environment (P-E) fit has become increasingly nuanced over time, resulting in an alphabet soup of conceptually related acronyms, e.g., person-job (P-J), person-supervisor (P-S), person-group (P-G), person-organization (P-O), and person-vocation (P-V) fit-all temporally connected to attraction-selection-attrition (ASA). We propose a typology for P-E fit research that conceptualizes these various components into three dimensions: functional, environmental, and temporal. The functional dimension deals with the operational definitions of fit. The environmental dimension identifies the various units of analysis with which a person might fit. The temporal dimension arranges fit according to time by spanning the entirety of the work cycle and its effects on the organization. Drawing on a number of representative publications, we demonstrate how each of these dimensions might look in public sector research, identifying any gaps that might prompt future lines of research for HRM in the public sector.
... In a meta-analysis by Uggerslev et al. [36], the researchers stated that perceived fit is one of the strongest predictors of prospective employees' organizational attraction throughout the recruitment process. As such, previous studies showed that such perception is also one of the most important predictors for shaping job search intention. ...
Article
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With the burgeoning “war for talent”, attracting the right workforce has become a major key checkpoint for a firm’s sustainability. The main purpose of this study was to predict prospective employees’ organizational attraction by integrating person–organization (P–O) fit perceptions and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) into a single framework. Although many studies have reported inconsistent results for the impact of subjective norms and self-efficacy on intention in the TPB framework, adequate empirical research on applicant attraction for this theoretical phenomenon is still unavailable. This may be the first study that examined the mechanism of how and when the TPB model becomes more instrumental with subjective P–O fit perceptions. With a sample of 335 young job seekers in Bangladesh, the study examined the research hypotheses related to the TPB and P–O fit using path analysis with AMOS, a structural equation modeling (SEM) program. The results showed that P–O fit partially mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and job search intentions. Observably, P–O fit significantly moderated the relationship between subjective norms and job search intentions in such a way that the impact of subjective norms was stronger for individuals with a lower level of P–O fit but slightly weaker for those with a higher level of P–O fit. In line with the research findings, some notable theoretical contributions and practical implications for HR professionals have been discussed.
... In order to increase their appeal to potential applicants, organizations can use multiple triggers (for reviews and meta-analyses, see for example Breaugh, 2008;Breaugh & Starke, 2000;Chapman et al., 2005;Ployhart, 2006;Uggerslev, Fassina, & Uggerslev, 2012). In fact, research suggests that potential applicants are attracted to a firm based on how they perceive job characteristics, including pay Greening & Turban, 2000), opportunities for promotion (Lievens, Van Hoye, & Anseel, 2007;Slaughter & Greguras, 2009), and challenging work (Carless & Imber, 2007), as well as organizational characteristics such as organizational image (Turban et al., 1998), work environment (Carless & Imber, 2007), and firm size (Turban & Keon, 1993). ...
Article
Attracting talent is key for every organization. This research introduces a novel way to attract talent: creative workspace design. In two studies with complementary samples and methods, we examine whether, when, and how a firm's creative workspace design enhances organizational attractiveness. In Study 1, we use an experimental design to examine the attraction effect of creative (vs. conventional) workspace design from the applicant's perspective. First and foremost, we find that creative workspace design has a positive effect on organizational attractiveness. Second, our findings reveal two underlying mechanisms that help to explain this positive attraction effect: perceived climate for creativity and perceived innovation ability of the firm. Moreover, findings show that this attraction effect is stronger for highly creative (vs. less creative) individuals and attenuated for high-value (vs. low-value) workspaces. In Study 2, we validate the positive attraction effect of creative workspace design from the firm's perspective by using international survey data on a firm level. Taken together, this work sheds new light on how workspace design influences organizational attractiveness, elucidates why and when applicants are attracted by creative workspace design, and provides actionable implications for practice.
... What is the major challenge for a human resource (HR) manager? It is undeniable that demographic and economic changes over the last couple of years have led the organizations to fierce competition for attracting qualified candidates (Uggerslev et al., 2012). Social scientists argue that attracting the right people at the right time is getting harder than ever. ...
Article
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Purpose Drawing on the signaling theory and technology acceptance model, the main purpose of this study was to predict prospective employees' intentions to apply for jobs in a firm, with a special focus on the mediating role of attitudes toward corporate websites and the moderating role of perceived value fit. Design/methodology/approach Collecting data from a convenient sample of 318 prospective job candidates, the research hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS (version 24) and SPSS Process Macro (version 3.4). Findings The test results revealed that prospective employees' attitudes toward corporate websites partially mediate the association of corporate reputations, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness with their intentions to apply for jobs in an organization. Noticeably, perceived value fit moderated the perceived usefulness–application intentions link in such a way that the impact of perceived usefulness on intentions to apply appears higher for individuals with a low level (than a high level) of perceived value fit. Research limitations/implications Consistent with the research findings, a notable theoretical contribution and practical implications for HR professionals have been discussed. This paper ends with outlining some limitations and future research directions. Originality/value Despite having the salient buffering effects of perceived value fit on the applicant attraction process, empirical study on this theoretical phenomenon is still sparse in a pre-employment context. This may be the first study that demonstrates under what circumstances prospective employees' job pursuit intentions could be optimized in respect of their perceived value fit within a single framework comprised of two theories.
... An important concept in this literature is Person-Organization fit (P-O fit), which is often operationalized as the match between individuals' values and their perception of the organization's values ( Evertz and Süss, 2017 ;Kristof, 1996 ). According to meta-analyzes by Chapman et al. (2005) and Uggerslev et al. (2012) , perceptions of P-O fit are key drivers of applicant attraction. Only few studies, however, have investigated fit between individuals' prosocial values and organizations' mission. ...
Article
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We conduct a discrete choice experiment to investigate how the mission of high-tech companies affects job attractiveness and contributes to self-selection of science and engineering graduates who differ in prosocial attitudes. We characterize mission by whether or not the company combines its profit motive with a mission on innovation or corporate social responsibility (CSR). Furthermore, we vary job design (e.g. autonomy) and contractible job attributes (e.g. job security). We find that companies with a mission on innovation or CSR are considered more attractive. Women and individuals who are more altruistic and less competitive feel particularly attracted to such companies.
Chapter
In this chapter of the book, we examine how lessons learned from teacher selection can be applied to recruiting better candidates to consider teaching as a profession, and to developing the candidates who are in training (see Fig. 10.1). We will consider the steps before and after the selection stage, and we will look at how the concepts and methods used in selection might productively be adapted to the purpose of recruiting and developing prospective teachers.
Article
A main aim of this doctoral research was to examine job applicant reactions towards online testing, and specifically different forms of feedback provision. As job recruitment is a `bilateral process` with the recruiters aiming to employ a candidate, and from the candidate`s perspective the feedback provision and selection process may indicate the employer`s future behaviour in determining whether they accept a job offer. The research is underpinned by organisational justice theory and by Gilliland’s (1993) organisational justice model. This model considers how elements of procedural and distributive justice interact and examines the effect such fairness reactions have in terms of individual and organisational outcomes. The research was designed to build on a literature review, followed by a pilot study to test several psychological constructs to explore applicant feelings in a field setting. This preliminary phase then informed the experimental phase. The first experiment compared applicant reactions to paper-and-pencil testing compared to online testing, and to positive and negative feedback. Having established no clear differences in test-takers fairness and justice reactions across mode of test administration on a verbal (i.e. comprehension) ability test, the second experiment then focused on test-reactions towards online testing which are nowadays more widely used in graduate recruitment. Interpersonal, non-interpersonal, and combined forms of feedback were manipulated, alongside three types of feedback messages (passed, reject no explanation, reject with explanation), after participants had undertaken two online tests. Perceived stress was found to increase when rejection was reinforced with an automated report compared to interpersonal feedback, whereas with a positive outcome there was decreased stress in the report condition. These findings suggest that personal communication is important when there is bad news. These insights paved the way for the field study. In this field study, candidates who had recently applied for a job position involving some aspect of online testing were invited to participate in a self-report survey. The aim of the study was to investigate feelings of fairness and justice, and to compare outcome favourability (job offer, rejection), and the effect of providing explanations (or no explanations) to candidates within a field setting. Findings revealed the applicants’ preference of holistic (overall performance) over mechanical (one aspect of performance) explanations of recruitment decisions, while perceptions of fairness and justice were based on outcome favourability. Furthermore, feedback acceptance fully mediated the effect of outcome favourability (job offer, rejection) and process fairness, clear and open manner, and organisational fulfilment obligations. Pertinently, providing an explanation of the recruitment decision resulted in lower stress irrespective of a positive or negative outcome. This finding suggests that an explanation of recruitment decisions can mitigate the psychological effects of rejection and enhance candidate reactions towards the recruiting organisation. In summary, this research has made some important contributions to the field of occupational selection by investigating applicant reactions to online testing. It has highlighted the importance of feedback and its beneficial psychological effect on applicants irrespective of decision outcome. This new insight allays fears of feedback having detrimental effects by recruiters, often due to litigation and image concerns. The research employed experimental and field studies to highlight these issues.
Article
It is no secret that the veterinary profession is going through a ‘recruitment crisis’, with many practices struggling to fill positions. This article examines some of the research on what actually works in recruitment advertising, and offers some evidence‐based advice on the most effective way to attract appropriate applicants to apply to a vacancy.
Article
The purpose of this article is to report the development and implementation of a STEM teacher attraction intervention based on person-environment (and person-vocation) fit theory. Study 1 reports the administration of an 'realistic job preview' (RJP) intervention requiring participant responses, followed by experienced teacher feedback and a tailored fit message to 111 university students in STEM-related fields. Results showed a significant relationship between RJP performance and interest in a teaching career, even after controlling for prior career intentions. Study 2 reports the results from individual interviews with 14 university students studying STEM-related subjects on the factors contributing to career-decision making, especially regarding teaching as a career. The 16 codes were distilled into three themes: the role of personal reflection, critical influences on career decisions, and patterns of change. We conclude with suggestions for implementation of RJPs as a supplement to current attraction and recruitment approaches.
Article
Online recruitment has become ubiquitous, just as many scholars predicted it would in early research and theory related to online employer branding. Studies from the early 2000s provide evidence of branding patterns that organizations used to signal their legitimacy as an employer, yet the landscape of online recruitment and the predominant values of the current workforce have transformed since these initial investigations. As such, this study sought to develop an updated understanding of strategic employer branding by examining the websites of employers of choice. Among a sample of 59 organizations awarded for embodying the values of modern job seekers (work-life balance, job satisfaction, supportive of women, and financial growth), a content analysis of the text communicated on their About Us and Careers corporate webpages was performed. Though isomorphic patterns of communication emerged both among and between pages, there was simultaneous evidence that organizations strive to highlight their unique characteristics as well. These findings are discussed through the lenses of institutional theory and the attraction-selection-attrition model, and further outline their implications for other organizations seeking competitive advantage through employer branding. Finally, researchers are called upon to continue to explore the systematic communication of employer brands and how these brands are managed.
Article
Research on job assignments has generally assumed employees will accept assignments when offered. In this study, we examine managerial preferences for potential job assignment opportunities conceptualized using human capital theory to provide a holistic understanding of this phenomenon. Using two pilot studies, we refine the list of reasons managers use when forming lateral assignment preferences. In the main study, we collected data from a representative sample of more than 1200 managers in a large US organization who provided preferences for all possible assignment locations (about 40) in their regions and reported reasons for their preferences. Results showed career development reasons (e.g., promotion potential, opportunity to learn) and social information reasons (e.g., location manager, customers) attracted managers to assignments, and health and well‐being reasons (e.g., commuting, stress) repelled managers. There were several differences in these relationships by managerial level such that health and well‐being reasons were more important than career development reasons for lower‐level managers than higher‐level managers, who seemed to generate their preferences based more evenly on both types of reasons. We ask whether gender moderates the relationship between health and well‐being reasons and preferences and find little support. We also explore whether manager racioethnicity moderates the relationship between community racioethnicity and preferences and find a few differences. Most findings were replicated when predicting actual movement 2 years later. Results suggest managerial preferences should consistently be considered in job assignment research and that organizations should obtain and use preference data when making internal staffing decisions.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a conceptual model on the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) “fit” on organizational attractiveness among job applicants under the boundary conditions of chief executive officer (CEO) activism and CSR credibility. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on archival research, largely reviewing extant in CSR and drawing propositions based on existing theory. Findings Paper draws propositions based on CSR fit, credibility and CEO activism. The paper asserts the influence of CSR fit on organizational attractiveness among job applicants. It further explains moderated mediating mechanism through which CSR fit influences organizational attractiveness among job applicants. Originality/value Recruitment has primarily explored the role of CSR in attracting potential job candidates. This paper presents the role of CSR “fit,” an aspect not explored before in recruitment. This paper also introduces the role of CEO activism in recruitment.
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Companies searching for talent face intense competition in labor markets, so they might attempt to use their reputations to attract qualified people. Today’s job seekers can gather additional reputational cues from online profiles on rating platforms, as well as from general information. Therefore, companies might have multiple reputations. Their profile reputation reflects cues provided by rating platforms (e.g., numerical ratings); their corporate reputation refers to preexisting perceptions and general knowledge of the firm. To the extent that a company’s profile reputation and corporate reputation exist in parallel, they likely interact to affect job seekers’ application intentions. With preliminary insights gained from qualitative interviews and extensive pretests, the authors conduct an online experiment with 725 job seekers to determine how company profiles on employer review sites might exert signaling effects on job seekers’ application intentions. In line with the theoretical predictions, a company’s profile reputation affects application intentions, contingent on applicants’ prior evaluation of the firm’s corporate reputation. That is, the employer’s profile reputation matters for attracting talent, but companies with a poor general corporate reputation also can benefit more from a good profile reputation. These nuanced insights in turn offer several implications for human resource management efforts.
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Evaluators’ fit assessments are not only influenced by applicants’ qualities, but also by stereotypes, especially in recruitment for high-status jobs in male-dominated fields. The unidimensional agentic stereotype of these work contexts signals agentic job and organizational requirements (stereotypically male qualities such as achievement orientation), although the actual requirements usually also include communality (stereotypically female qualities such as interpersonal skills). In a series of five experiments, we investigate the relevance of perceived applicant agency for perceived applicant fit, the influence of recruitment material, contextual differences, and the role of applicant gender. Our findings indicate that perceived applicant agency drives perceived person-job and person-organization fit in strictly male stereotyped work contexts, regardless of gender, and agentic recruitment material enhances this effect. Contrasting different contexts (high- with low-status jobs and a male-dominated with a gender-balanced and female-dominated field) revealed that the relevance of perceived agency increases with perceived job status, and the relevance of perceived communality decreases with the expected share of men. Although women were perceived as highly agentic in strictly male stereotyped work contexts, their need to be perceived as agentic also was higher than for men, due to the perceived lack of fit between women and high-status jobs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The focus of this study is to examine the personal-organizational relationship in hotels This paper discussed the partnership of a strong employer brand with employees of an institution in our country and the advantages that this brand promised to employees with employees, Fit, employer branding, desirable employer, attractive employer, brand force employer, brand operation employer: brand clarity, organization of brand. Material and mechanism collaborating, the advantage and advantages of employer branding Employer branding, employer branding and their management process, employer branding benefits Keyword – Employer Attractiveness, Employer Branding, Person-Organization Fi
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Globalization increases national culture and language diversity, which, if well managed, can benefit organizational performance. National culture is comprised of both language and country of origin, yet until relatively recently research has tended to focus on one or the other. We use person-organization fit theory and the meaning-based model of advertisement experience to propose that other-group orientation, a characteristic supportive of a pro-diversity climate, influences the relationship between language and national culture diversity recruiting messages and perceived person-organization fit. We used two randomized field experiments, one with 458 currently or recently employed people and one with 327 real job seekers, to test our model. Language and national culture diversity messages independently decreased perceived fit among those lower in other-group orientation and increased perceived fit among those higher in other-group orientation. A combined language and national cultural diversity message had the strongest effect by both decreasing fit perceptions among job seekers lower in other-group orientation and increasing fit perceptions among those higher in other-group orientation. These results refine both existing theory on and the practice of recruiting for pro-global diversity values by demonstrating that the relationship between recruiting message wording about an employer’s pro-national culture and pro-language diversity values and person-organization fit is moderated by other-group orientation. These findings can help employers better understand how recruiting messages can play a strategic role in hiring pro-global diversity talent.
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Within the context of modern, turbulent careers, perceived employability (PE)—one's perceived chances of obtaining a new job—has risen in importance as a crucial psychological resource that enables individuals to better cope with and navigate this environment. Increased attention to the construct has brought tremendous interest into its determinants. Several models of employability determinants have been proposed to account for PE, each taking a different perspective concerning what it means to be employable. Although hundreds of studies evaluating relationships between variables outlined by these models and PE have been carried out, the literature is scattered and contradictory. The various predictor models outline unique sets of PE determinants. Further, the specific operationalizations of these determinants vary widely across studies, as do the empirical findings. There also exists a paucity of research attempting to compare and contrast findings between these models, thus the relative strengths and weaknesses of these various frameworks in accounting for PE are unknown. To address these issues, drawing upon influential models of PE determinants, we carry out a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the literature, spanning 202 studies (k = 221 independent samples). We observed evidence suggesting that, among the various models applied, Movement Capital dimensions (i.e., human capital, social capital, career insight, adaptability) consistently exhibited the most robust correlations with PE. We also observed some evidence suggesting that certain relationships are truncated for unemployed individuals as compared to employees or students. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Purpose: Studies comparing the consequences of payroll cost reduction methods (i.e. cutting pay and downsizing) have been limited, with no studies comparing these methods' impact on job-seeker attraction. The current research tries to close this gap by comparing the effects of cutting pay and downsizing on job-seeker attraction outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Two studies are conducted. The first study compares the effects of the two payroll cost reduction methods (i.e. cutting pay vs downsizing) on job-seeker attraction through a within-subject design experiment of people in the United States. The second study analyzes secondary data in South Korea to compare the two methods' effects on the number of job applicants applying for job openings. Findings: The results demonstrate that organizations with a history of pay cuts yield more favorable job-seeker attraction outcomes than organizations with a history of downsizing. Practical implications: Although firms that choose to downsize may better maintain the morale of surviving employees, the decision of downsizing can have long-term costs, such as having a worse capability to attract job-applicants than firms that choose to cut pay and share the pain as a group. Originality/value: The research provides an insight into which payroll cost reduction method yields better outcomes in terms of job-seeker attraction. The research responds to the call in the payroll cost reduction method literature of identifying a feasible alternative to downsizing in terms of various outcomes other than the morale of current (or remaining) employees.
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Research has shown that the use of digital technologies in the personnel selection process can have both positive and negative effects on applicants’ attraction to an organization. We explain this contradiction by specifying its underlying mechanisms. Drawing on signaling theory, we build a conceptual model that applies two different theoretical lenses (instrumental-symbolic framework and justice theory) to suggest that perceptions of innovativeness and procedural justice explain the relationship between an organization’s use of digital selection methods and employer attractiveness perceptions. We test our model by utilizing two studies, namely one experimental vignette study among potential applicants (N = 475) and one retrospective field study among actual job applicants (N = 335). With the exception of the assessment stage in Study 1, the positive indirect effects found in both studies indicated that applicants perceive digital selection methods to be more innovative. While Study 1 also revealed a negative indirect effect, with potential applicants further perceiving digital selection methods as less fair than less digitalized methods in the interview stage, this effect was not significant for actual job applicants in Study 2. We discuss theoretical implications for the applicant reactions literature and offer recommendations for human resource managers to make use of positive signaling effects while reducing potential negative signaling effects linked to the use of digital selection methods.
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We adopted an interactionist perspective to investigate how the personality characteristics of self-esteem (SE) and need for achievement (nAch) moderated the influences of organizational characteristics on individuals' attraction to firms. Subjects read an organization description that manipulated reward structure, centralization, organization size, and geographical dispersion of plants and offices and indicated their attraction to the organization. Although subjects were more attracted to firms that were decentralized and that based pay on performance, results supported the interactionist perspective. Subjects with low SE were more attracted to decentralized and larger firms than high SE subjects. Subjects high in nAch were more attracted to organizations that rewarded performance rather than seniority. Finally, organization size influenced attraction differently for individuals high and low in nAch.
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We conducted a field study to test eight propositions derived from a process model of the selection interview (Dipboye, 1982; Dipboye & Macan, 1988). According to the model, interviewers' preinterview impressions of an applicant bias the subsequent conduct of the interview and processing of information in the direction of confirming these initial impressions. To test predictions from the model, we surveyed managers and the applicants they interviewed in each of 164 interviews. In support of the model, interviewers' preinterview evaluations were positively related to postinterview evaluations of applicant qualifications and process variables predicted to mediate this relation. Results also supported the model in that interviewers with favorable preinterview impressions were more likely to attribute good interview performances to the applicants' qualifications for the job and poor performances to external factors. Contrary to the model, confidence failed to moderate the above findings, and preinterview impressions were not predictive of applicant reports of interviewers' time spent in questioning. Some possible implications of the model for future research and for improving interview practice are discussed.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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This chapter outlines the two basic routes to persuasion. One route is based on the thoughtful consideration of arguments central to the issue, whereas the other is based on the affective associations or simple inferences tied to peripheral cues in the persuasion context. This chapter discusses a wide variety of variables that proved instrumental in affecting the elaboration likelihood, and thus the route to persuasion. One of the basic postulates of the Elaboration Likelihood Model—that variables may affect persuasion by increasing or decreasing scrutiny of message arguments—has been highly useful in accounting for the effects of a seemingly diverse list of variables. The reviewers of the attitude change literature have been disappointed with the many conflicting effects observed, even for ostensibly simple variables. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) attempts to place these many conflicting results and theories under one conceptual umbrella by specifying the major processes underlying persuasion and indicating the way many of the traditionally studied variables and theories relate to these basic processes. The ELM may prove useful in providing a guiding set of postulates from which to interpret previous work and in suggesting new hypotheses to be explored in future research. Copyright © 1986 Academic Press Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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In this study, the authors investigate the effects of two web site design features on prospective applicants' evaluations of a hiring company's online recruitment image. A total of 175 students navigated one of four web sites to locate and review a job advertisement. Participants visited a web site that was easy or difficult to surf and viewed a job ad that was presented in bullets or paragraphs of text. Afterward, they completed a survey that measured their impressions of the recruitment image, reactions to the hiring organization, and their willingness to apply for a position. The results provide partial support for the anticipated favorable effect of navigational ease on participants' impressions of recruitment image. Contrary to the authors' prediction, however, organizing the text in bulleted rather than paragraph format did not significantly improve evaluations of the company's recruitment image.
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We focus on the beliefs that applicants develop about organizational culture during the anticipatory stage of socialization. Data from 240 job applicants suggested that an organization used product and company information to encourage applicants to hold favorable, rather than accurate, culture beliefs. For example, the organization appeared to overstate the degree to which its culture was risk-oriented. Information that is less susceptible to image management attempts (for instance, word of mouth) was unrelated to applicants' culture beliefs.
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A major issue in educational research involves taking into consideration the multilevel nature of the data. Since the late 1980s, attempts have been made to model social science data that conform to a nested structure. Among other models, two-level structural equation modelling or two-level path modelling and hierarchical linear modelling are two of the techniques that are commonly employed in analysing multilevel data. Despite their advantages, the two-level path models do not include the estimation of cross-level interaction effects and hierarchical linear models are not designed to take into consideration the indirect effects. In addition, hierarchical linear models might also suffer from multicollinearity that exists among the predictor variables. This paper seeks to investigate other possible models, namely the use of latent constructs, indirect paths, random slopes and random intercepts in a hierarchical model.
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During the 1990s, many writers began to sound alarm bells about impending labor shortages of skilled and professional workers. At the same time, it became increasingly clear that human capital and the management of employees is a critical factor in an organization's success and competitiveness. The increasing importance of human capital, combined with continuing concerns about labor shortages, has made applicant attraction and recruitment more important than ever.
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Although laboratory studies have found that selection information can affect applicant perceptions, this has not been tested in the field. The authors followed 2 cohorts of police applicants (N = 274) in a longitudinal Study to examine the relationship between information, applicant perceptions, and behavior (e.g., turnover). Information was related to perceived fairness measured at the time of testing and I month later when applicants received their results. Information moderated the relationship between outcome favorability and test-taking self-efficacy among African Americans but not among Whites. Information was not related to the behavioral measures. The discussion focuses on why certain findings from previous studies were not replicated and on the use of information when applicants have an investment in getting a job.
Conference Paper
This study examined several unexplored issues in research on applicants' perceptions of fairness. First, the study explored possible differences between procedural violations that advantage individuals vs. those that are disadvantageous. Second, the study examined the complex relationship between process and outcome fairness across the stages of the selection process. A longitudinal, simulated selection process was used; procedural justice was manipulated by varying the consistency of test administration, and distributive justice was manipulated by varying perceptions of equity. Results indicate that favorable rule violations are perceived similar to rule satisfaction and that a complex and dynamic relationship exists between process and outcome fairness.
Conference Paper
This series of field studies used a fairness framework to investigate applicant reactions to test score banding in 3 police selection contexts. Studies 1 (N = 85) and 2 (N = 369) involved applicants for entry-level positions,and Study 3 (N = 39) involved applicants for promotion. Across all 3 studies, race interacted with applicants' belief that banding is associated with affirmative action to affect measures of fairness and organizational outcomes such as attractiveness and perceived employee relations. Reactions were also related to applicants' perceived outcomes as a result of banding. Results are explained in terms of self-interest and suggest that reactions to banding are largely a function of the association of banding with affirmative action.
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We argue that assessing attraction outcomes is critical to systematic improvement of recruitment effectiveness and offer a new assessment framework that can be adapted by all organizations for any position in any staffing scheme. These methods (a) permit outcomes of different recruitment processes - attraction, status maintenance, and gaining job acceptance - to be evaluated independently, (b) support concurrent evaluations of attraction outcomes, (c) enable cost-benefit analyses of alternative recruitment processes, (d) allow meaningful comparisons of applicants from different recruitment events, and (e) support more aggressive management of the recruitment function than is otherwise possible. An illustrative example demonstrates these methods using attraction outcome data from 5 organizations' recruitment of associate engineers and shows that not only do attraction outcomes differ, the value of those differences can be substantial.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This quasi-experimental study examined job applicants' organizational perceptions prior to and immediately after completing pre-employment assessments, and after the hiring decision was announced. Participants were actual applicants (N = 262) for non-exempt level data processing positions at a medium-size Midwestern insurance company. As part of the selection process, applicants completed both a cognitive ability test and a personality inventory. Information about the tests was used as a manipulation. Approximately half of the participants received information prior to completing the assessments that explained the tests' content, job relatedness, and validity, and a description of the testing process, while the other half were not provided with this information. Applicant perceptions were measured prior to testing, immediately after testing, and after hearing about the hiring decision (approximately 30 days after testing). Applicants' general test fairness perceptions, attitude strength antecedents, information condition, hiring decision, as well as a number of control variables, were used as predictors of applicants' organizational attraction and word-of-mouth behavior. Testing information was significantly related to organizational attraction at each measurement phase and to recommendation behaviors after the hiring decision was announced. Additionally, information provision influenced applicants' posttest organizational attraction through its impact on applicants' interactional justice perceptions. Applicants' organizational knowledge and job importance, two attitude strength antecedents, were positively related to applicants' pretesting organizational attraction. The attitude strength antecedents and test information interacted to influence applicants' post-hiring decision organizational attraction and word-of-mouth behavior, such that applicants receiving information whose attitude strength was high were more strongly attracted to the organization and engaged in more word-of-mouth behavior. This research indicates that providing job applicants with pretesting information increases their attraction to the organization and their pro-organizational behaviors. Both practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
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The authors investigated the process of deciding whether or not to apply for jobs, using the verbal protocol analysis (VPA) technique. Verbal reports provided by participants as they evaluated job postings and decided whether or not to interview for jobs were analyzed to assess what information was heeded, the impact of incomplete or unusual information, and the role of inferences regarding job characteristics and probability of hire. Results indicated that location and compensation received the most attention and that participants also responded to the amount of information provided. In addition, participants made inferences about unobserved characteristics and probability of hire, although the latter played little role in the decision to interview. The study also provided support for the usefulness of VPA by demonstrating that neither the verbal protocol process nor the use of prompts significantly influenced participants' decisions (as compared with the decisions of control groups).
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The relationship between and among interviewers' evaluations of applicants and applicants' evaluations of interviewers in a college placement center was examined. 62 applicants being interviewed by 11 different recruiters from various industrial and academic agencies participated. Interviewers and applicants evaluated each other on three analogous dimensions: over-all general impression of the applicant (interviewer), personal liking of the applicant (interviewer), and chances that the applicant will receive further consideration by the organization (chances that the applicant would accept a job if offered). Intercorrelations between the interviewers' and the applicants' evaluations ranged from .12 to .42. Further, the interrelationships among the evaluations differed between the interviewers and the applicants. The evaluations of chances of further consideration (or offer acceptance) were more highly related to the other more interpersonal evaluations for the interviewers than for the applicants.
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Following a justice framework, the present study examined actual candidates taking selection tests to gain full-time employment. The reactions of 144 applicants for an entry-level accounting job were examined in a real employment testing context at 3 time periods: before testing, after testing but before feedback on whether they passed or failed the test, and after test performance feedback. With controls for pretest perceptions, several of the 5 procedural justice measures (information known about the test, chance to perform, treatment at the test site, consistency of the test administration, and job relatedness) predicted applicant evaluations regarding the organization, perceptions of employment testing, and applicant test-taking self-efficacy. Test outcome favorability (passing or failing the employment test) predicted outcomes beyond initial reactions more consistently than procedural justice perceptions. Procedural justice perceptions explained incremental variance in some analyses after the influence of outcome favorability was controlled.
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Although the self-selection matching hypothesis is considered to be an integral part of the psychological effects of realistic job previews (RJPs), several writers have concluded that self-selection is not a valid explanation for the effect of RJPs on job survival (Colarelli, 1984; Reilly, Brown, Blood, & Malatesta, 1981). This conclusion, however, is based on research that has measured job acceptance rates as a surrogate measure for self-selection (Rynes, 1991; Wanous & Colella, 1989) and research that has often ignored the perception of choice boundary condition of RJPs (Breaugh, 1983). In the present study, a simulation of the job choice process was conducted in which 138 undergraduate commerce students were randomly assigned to either a one-job preview condition (an RJP or a traditional job preview, TJP) or a two-job preview condition (RJP and TJP) in order to examine the effects of job previews on self-selection and job choice. In addition, we also tested expectancy theory as a theoretical model to explain the effects of job previews on job choice. The relation between self-efficacy and job choice was also examined. As expected, differences in job acceptance rates were only found in the two-job preview condition in which most subjects (71.4%) selected the traditional job preview. Support was also found for the effect of job previews on self-selection and for expectancy theory as a model for the effects of job previews on job choice. Further, subjects with stronger self-efficacy beliefs were more likely to choose the RJP than the TJP, and self-efficacy significantly increased the accuracy of the expectancy theory model in predicting subjects′ job choice decision. Both the practical and research implications of the effects of job previews on self-selection and job choice are discussed.
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This article integrates perspectives from two distinct traditions of person-environment fit (i.e. value congruence and need fulfillment) during the recruitment process. Results from a longitudinal study on 132 job seekers indicated support for a model where value congruence influenced organizational attraction through job seeker expectations of need fulfillment. Supplementary analyses using response surface methodology further suggest that relationships between the constructs did not always correspond to relationship forms usually associated with PE fit. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for recruitment research, signaling theory, and PE fit theory.
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The article reports on the results of research which was conducted to test the specific mechanisms that explain why some individuals are particularly interested in becoming employees in companies that engage in corporate social responsibility. To do their research researchers tested two mechanisms; person-organization fit and signalling among individuals who read web pages from recruiting companies in which researchers manipulated the presence and type of corporate social responsibility. They found that individuals had more favorable attitudes towards a company and ranked it as their top choice for employment when web pages contained corporate social responsibility information.
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This study explored whether applicants' preinterview job beliefs affected their interview behavior and postinterview reactions. I obtained 106 pre- and postinterview applicant surveys and audiotapes of 24 interviews. Results indicated that applicants' preinterview expectancies correlated positively with their impression management tactics, confirmatory questions, and perceptions of recruiters. Perceptions of recruiters partially mediated pre-to postinterview job-belief relationships. Job-knowledge confidence and the expected total number of job offers moderated effects of preinterview beliefs on confirmatory questions. Research and practical implications are discussed.
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The relationship between college placement interviews and subsequent employment decisions by organizations and applicants has received scant research attention. In a longitudinal field study, we found that applicants' job choices were related to their postinterview intentions. However, organizations' job offer decisions were not related to recruiters' postinterview intentions or to their perceptions of applicants' intentions. The results offered general support for the applicability of the theory of reasoned action to the recruitment process.
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This policy-capturing study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on applicant attraction to organizations. In a sample of 201 graduating business students, we found that each aspect of CSR, i.e., economic, legal, and ethical responsibility, had a unique effect on organizational attraction and probability of accepting offer. The participants also combined these three types of information in an interactive configural manner. Applicants with different ethical predispositions were affected by CSR to different extents. Future research needs and practical implications are discussed.
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This review critically examines the literature from 1985 to 1999 on applicant perceptions of selection procedures. We organize our review around several key questions: What perceptions have been studied? What are determinants of perceptions? What are the consequences or outcomes associated with perceptions applicants hold? What theoretical frameworks are most useful in examining these perceptions? For each of these questions, we provide suggestions for key research directions. We conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of this line of research for those who design and administer selection processes.
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The ability to attract highly qualified employees constitutes a significant competitive advantage, and is ultimately linked to an organization’s economic success. Creating and maintaining organizational attractiveness is therefore crucial to organizations. While previous research has demonstrated that an organization’s ethical conduct (e.g., corporate social responsibility) enhances its attractiveness for potential employees, there is no empirical evidence on whether the ethical behavior of an organization’s leaders can also affect organizational attractiveness. Using both experimental and correlational data we investigate the influence of leader ethical behavior on organizational attractiveness and examine the underlying mechanisms behind this relationship. In line with our hypotheses, ethical leader behavior leads to significantly higher ethical leadership ratings and to significantly higher ratings of organizational attractiveness. Furthermore, higher ethical leadership ratings were associated with str...
Article
Job seekers tend to be more attracted to organizations known for corporate social responsibility (CSR), but research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms. Using data from 171 job seekers who attended job fairs, we tested three mediators of the relationship between perceptions of CSR and organizational attractiveness: perceived value fit, employer prestige, and expected employee treatment. Results showed that job seekers' perceptions of community-focused and environmentally-focused practices predicted organizational attractiveness beyond the effects of other variables (e.g., job offer expectancy). Results showed support for all three mediating mechanisms.
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This article reports the results of a comprehensive meta-analysis of turnover antecedents, extending an earlier one by Hom and Griffeth (1995). As such, this updated meta-analysis represents the most wide-ranging quantitative review to date of the predictive strength of numerous turnover antecedents. Importantly, the present investigation identifies various moderators of antecedent-turnover correlations. The implications of these findings for both theory and practice are discussed.
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Candidates in 551 initial graduate recruitment interviews provided estimates of the level of their motivation to succeed immediately before and after each interview. Their level of state anxiety was also measured before interviews. At the end of the interview they indicated how much they liked the interviewer personally and estimated both the likelihood of their being successful in the interview and the likelihood that they would accept a job with that company, if eventually offered one. Interviewers were asked to evaluate each candidate and to estimate his chances of being offered a job by their company. When candidates liked interviewers personally, they were more optimistic about their chances of success and were more willing to accept potential job offers. Candidates were also more confident of success at the end of the interview when their pre-interview motivation had been high. However, interviewer evaluations of candidates were most favourable when the level of their pre-interview motivation had been intermediate. Candidate state anxiety was unrelated to the favourability of interviewers' evaluations of them.
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Construct validity and applicant reactions were investigated for situational (SI), patterned behavior description (PBDI), and general interview questions. General questions were relatively independent of other types, and appeared to reflect (to some extent) personality. SI and PBDI questions were highly correlated but PBDI questions were more reflective of experience while SI questions were more reflective of basic job knowledge. Applicants had more favorable affective reactions to general than to SI or PBDI questions. Affect and willingness to recommend the employer were correlated with ratings of interviewer behavior. Recommendations include using multiple question types, and emphasizing interviewer training in establishing rapport.
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A study was conducted with 151 student participants to discern whether wording used in employment advertisements can systematically influence the personality composition of those who are attracted to the advertisement. Drawing upon Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) theory and the needs-supplies operationalization of the person-organization fit model, it was hypothesized that there would be positive relationships between participant levels of conscientiousness, openness to experience, and extraversion and attraction to employment advertisements that included qualification descriptors related to these personality dimensions. As hypothesized, multiple regression results indicated a significant positive relationship between conscientiousness and attraction to advertisements calling for conscientiousness-related characteristics. Similarly, a significant positive relationship was found between openness to experience and attraction to advertisements calling for openness-related characteristics. Positive significant relationships were found between extraversion and attraction to the advertisements in general. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.
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Decision theory and research have focused almost exclusively on choice—the selection of the best option from a choice set containing two or more options. Largely overlooked is the question of how those particular options got there in the first place—why them and not others? This article describes a theory, called image theory, about how prechoice screening of options governs the contents of the set from which a choice is made and summarizes empirical tests of the theory. The research results suggest that screening plays a far more important role in decision making than is generally appreciated and that our view of decision making must be broadened accordingly.
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A descriptive theory of decision making is proposed in which decision makers represent information as images. One image consists of principles that recommend pursuit of specific goals. A second image represents the future state of events that would result from attainment of those goals. A third image consists of the plans that are being implemented in the attempt to attain the goals. A fourth image represents the anticipated results of th