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Chemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Rhizome Through GC-MS



The volatile oil of turmeric (Curcuma longa L., zingiberaceae) was isolated from its rhizomes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) was applied to the methanolic extract of C. longa. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 16 constituents of which, 6 compounds contributing 70.0 % of the total oil constituents could be identified. The compounds were identified on the basis of their fragmentation pattern and matching with the data library. The most abundant components were aromatic turmerone (25.3 %), a-tumerone (18.3 %) and curlone (12.5 %). Other constituents are caryophyllene (2.26 %) and eucalyptol (1.60 %). The component present in lowest amount is a-phellandrene (0.42 %).
Asian Journal of ChemistryVol. 22, No. 4 (2010), 3153-3158
Chemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Turmeric
(Curcuma longa) Rhizome Through GC-MS
Botany Department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
The volatile oil of turmeric (Curcuma longa L., zingiberaceae) was
isolated from its rhizomes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-
MS) was applied to the methanolic extract of C. longa. The chromato-
graphic analysis of oil showed 16 constituents of which, 6 compounds
contributing 70.0 % of the total oil constituents could be identified. The
compounds were identified on the basis of their fragmentation pattern
and matching with the data library. The most abundant components
were aromatic turmerone (25.3 %), α-tumerone (18.3 %) and curlone
(12.5 %). Other constituents are caryophyllene (2.26 %) and eucalyptol
(1.60 %). The component present in lowest amount is α-phellandrene
(0.42 %).
Key Words: Curcuma longa, Turmerone, Curlone, Zingiberaceae,
Zingiberaceae is among the plant families which are widely distributed throughout
the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. There are 200 species of this family
belonging to 20 genera. Turmeric has been used not only as a spice but as a natural
colorant, to flavor the food stuff and also as an herbal medicine for many centuries.
It is also an important medicinal plant whose fresh rhizomes and dried powder are
popular remedies of blood disorders, cold, cough, jaundice and various skin
diseases.Turmeric, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, has been widely used for centuries
in indigenous medicine for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory conditions
and other diseases1. The wild turmeric is called Curcuma aromatica and the domestic
species is called C. longa2. Its powder has long been used as a spice, coloring agent,
cosmetic and medicinal agent in Asian and Eastern cultures3. It is very popular in
Asian medicine for the treatment of coryza, hepatic disorders and rheumatism4. It
is also used for hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, indigestion and liver problem since
long5. Research indicates that turmeric and its active components (volatile oil and
curcuminoids) have unique antioxidant, antitumorigenic, anticarcinogenic, antiin-
flammatory, antimutagenic, antiarthritic and antimicrobial properties as reviewed
†Centre for Applied Chemistry, PCSIR, Lahore, Pakistan.
Essential oils are volatile and fragrant substance of plants. They are obtained
from plants through steam distillation or other processes8. They may be present in
particular secretory parts. Generally these oils contain volatile substances which
are terpenes and their oxygenated derivatives usually known as camphors9,10. Chemical
constituents of turmeric rhizomes include volatiles and non-volatiles. The chemical
constituents of volatile oil were identified using GC and GC-MS and main components
are ar-tumerone, zingiberene, turmerone and curlone. The non-volatile compounds
are colouring agents and rich source of phenolics11. The aroma of the turmeric is
contributed by its steam volatile essential oils while the phenolic compounds,
curcumin and its analogues account for its bright yellow colour12.
Aromatic tumerone (20-30 %) was reported to be the major compound present
in turmeric volatile oil13, which is a mosquito repellent14 and may be an effective
drug for the treatment of respiratory disease15 and dermatophytosis16. Synthetic
tumerone appears to act as anticarcinogenic17. Antivenom activity of tumerone iso-
lated from turmeric has also been reported18. Recently, turmeric oil was found to be
both as antifungal19 and antibacterial20 agents. Defence responces in plants against
insects are generally triggered by volatiles21-23.
The rhizomes of Curcuma longa were collected from Ayub Agriculture Research
Centre, Faisalabad.
Extraction of essential oils: The cut pieces of rhizome were subjected to hydro-
Steam distillation: Known weight of rhizomes were taken in reaction vessel
and attached to steam generator. A water cool condenser was also attached with
reaction vessel. Steam generator produced the steam which passed through the
sample condensed and collected with essential oils. The oil was dried over anhydrous
sodium sulphate and stored at 4 ºC till GC-MS analysis was carried out. The yield
of the oil is calculated on the basis of fresh weight of sample.
GC-MS analysis: GC-MS of Varian, Saturn model 2000, equipped with ion
trap detector (ITD) was used for the identification of different components of es-
sential oil of Curcuma longa. Sample was injected on a DB-5MS (30 m × 0.25 mm
id, 0.25 µ film thickness) column. Helium was used as a carrier gas with a flow rate
of 7.0-9.5 psi and split ratio 1:5. The column temperature was maintained at 75 °C
for 5 min with a 2.5 °C rise/min to 250 °C.
Various components were identified by their retention time and peak enhancement
with standard samples in gas chromatographic mode and MS library search from
the derived mass fragmentation pattern of various components of the essential oil.
The essential oil was extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa by hydro-
distillation. The yield of oil was 0.673 %. GC-MS analysis of turmeric revealed
the presence of 16 components. Out of which, six have been identified from their
3154 Naz et al. Asian J. Chem.
fragmentation pattern by mass spectroscopy (Table-1). The oil was found to be the
mixture of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. As reported by He et al.24, sesqui-
terpenoids are the major constituents of turmeric oil and ar-turmerone (25.3 %)
was identified as a major component followed by α-tumerone (18.3 %) and curlone
(12.5 %). These tumerones have similar chemical structures, physical properties
and molecular weights, even though they have different tastes25. For instance, it
was reported that ar-turmerone is the best local treatment for edema, necrosis and
local hemorrhage after Bothrops alternatus envenomation26. Moreover, ar-turmerone
has been shown to display antiplatelet activity and is a more potent platelet inhibitor
against platelet aggregation induced by collagen than aspirin27. In addition ar-
turmerone is assumed to improve insulin resistance and ameliorate type 2 diabetes
mellitus through the same biological mechanism as thiazolidinedione derivatives28.
Furthermore, the insect repellent and anti-feeding properties of Curcuma have been
attributed to turmerone29,30 and curcuminoids31.
Name of
compounds R:T m.f. m.w.
(%) m/e Value
C10H16 136
0.42 M+
51 (5 %), 65 (7 %), 77 (37 %), 93 (100 %),
105 (4 %), 115 (2 %), 121 (3 %), 136 (29 %)
Eucalyptol 7.75
%), 71 (66 %), 77 (12 %), 81 (90 %), 84 (68
%), 93 (69 %), 96 (39 %), 108 (100 %), 111
(86 %), 125 (16 %), 136 (13 %), 139 (81 %),
154 (92 %)
Caryophyllene 13.92
C15H24 204
M+ 51
(7 %), 55 (26 %), 69 (59 %), 79 (70
%), 83 (4 %), 93 (94 %), 93 (94 %), 105 (62
%), 109 (17 %), 120 (45 %), 133 (100 %),
147 (37 %), 161 (43 %), 175 (13 %), 189 (27
%), 204 (9 %)
Ar-tumerone 20.01
M+ 51 (3 %), 55 (22 %), 65 (6 %), 77 (
16 %),
83 (100 %), 91 (27 %), 98 (4 %), 105 (53 %),
111 (14 %), 115 (8 %), 119 (67 %), 132 (15
%), 201 (24 %), 216 (32 %)
Tumerone 20.10
%), 99 (5 %), 105 (100 %), 111 (31 %), 120
(55 %), 126 (6 %), 200 (8 %)
Curlone 20.70
12.50 M+
%), 105 (19 %), 120 (100 %), 218 (4 %)
Eucaluptol (1.6 %), the monoterpene cyclic ether, was identified in Curcuma
extract. It is also known by a variety of synonyms: 1,8-cineol, limonene and cajeputol.
This component might contribute to the characteristic fresh and camphoraceous
fragrance and pungent taste of turmeric. As a result of this, Curcuma extracts could also
be incorporated in pharmaceutical formulations for use as an external applicant,
nasal spray, cosmetic, food flavouring and analgesic, as well as disinfectants32.
Vol. 22, No. 4 (2010) Chemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Turmeric 3155
α-Phellandrene (0.42 %) was found in very low amounts. Caryophyllene (2.26 %)
was also identified as natural bicyclic sesquiterpene. There is considerable quantitative
variation in the percentages of main components depending upon the cultivars from
which the oil is produced.
The present data represented essential oil composition of Pakistan turmeric
which had not been reported before while the oil composition of C. longa from its
various parts of the world has been studied extensively33. The essential oil from
turmeric rhizomes from Calicut, India34 having components of ar-tumerone (31.1 %),
tumerone (10.0 %), curlone (10.6 %) and ar-curcumerene (6.3 %). The chemical
analysis of rhizome oils of Malaysian C. domestica was determined35 which contained
significant amounts of α-tumerone (45.3 %), β-tumerone (13.5 %), linalool (14.9 %).
The major oil constituents of C. longa from northeastern region of India, Bhutan36
were α-tumerone (45.3 %), β-tumerone (13.5 %), linalool (14.9 %).
The rhizome oil of C. longa from northern plains of India was reported to
contain 59.7 % of ar-turmerone37 while the rhizome oil of another Indian chemotype38
was characterized by ar-tumerone (41.4 %), tumerone (29.5 %) and turmerol (20 %).
Other turmeric oils from India39 contained zingiberene (25.0 %) and ar-turmerone
(25.0 %). The major constituents of the rhizome oil40 were α-turmerone (44.1 %),
β-tumerone (18.5 %) and ar-turmerone (5.4 %).
Essential oils41 from rhizome of C. longa contained a lower concentration of
ar-turmerone (4.0-12.8 %). It was reported that GC-MS of hexane extract of turmeric
rhizome42 gave very different percentage of components e.g., ar-turmerone (2.6-
70.3 %), α-turmerone (trace-46.2 %) and zingiberene (trace-36.8 %).
The rhizome oil of C. longa of Chinese origin was analyzed by GC-MS43. The oil
was reported to contain 17 chemical constituents of which turmerone (24 %), ar-
turmerone (18 %) and germacrone (11 %) are the major compounds.
The best processing conditions to maximize the yields of essential oil and pigments,
as well as their contents of ar-turmerone, (α and β)-turmerone and the curcuminoids,
respectively have been reported. Autoclave pressure and distillation time were the
variables studied for the steam distillation process and the highest yield of essential
oil was 0.46 wt %44. The oil produced from 5-10 month old C. longa rhizomes that
were grown in Bhutan was analyzed using GC and GC-MS45. The major comp-
ounds were found to be ar-turmerone (16.7-25.7 %), α-turmerone (30.1-32.0 %)
and β-turmerone (14.7-18.4 %).
The metabolic profile of polar (methanol) and non-polar (hexane) extracts of
Curcuma domestica from Korea was established46. GC-MS of hexane fraction revealed
a high proportion of ar-turmerone (19.5 %), α-turmerone (20.1 %) and α-turmerone
(17.6 %).
The spectrum of α-turmerone47 shows the molecular ion at m/z 216, ions for
loss of methyl (m/z 201), α-cleavage to the aromatic ring (m/z 119) and α-cleavage
to the carbonyl (m/z 83). There are also two odd electron ions at m/z 132 and m/z
98 that result from McLafferty rearrangements.
3156 Naz et al. Asian J. Chem.
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... Previous studies reported that the largest compound in turmeric oil was ar-turmerone, followed by α-turmerone and βturmerone in relatively equal amounts [3,41]. Such results are slightly different with the findings obtained in this study and may be caused by several factors, such as geographical origins, microclimate conditions, soil content, and the differences of turmeric root age [41][42][43][44][45][46][47]. ...
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This research aimed to determine the role of Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae in degrading starch on turmeric rhizome substrate to increase the yield of turmeric oil. The substrate in the form of turmeric rhizome was given additional yeast extract of 10% weight per volume to meet the nutritional needs of fungal growth. The fungal concentration used in inoculation was 5x107 cells/ml. The solid-state fermentation process was carried out in dark conditions (~0 W), temperatures of 25–28 ºC, 99% humidity, and aeration (3.5 L/min). Turmeric oil was isolated using a steam distillation method for three hours, with the substrate moisture content of 68–71% and a substrate–water ratio of 1:5. The biodegradation process was conducted for 11 days. The starch content and turmeric oil yield was determined during the fermentation particularly on days 7, 9, and 11. The results showed that the biodegradation process of starch in solid-state fermentation succeeded in increasing the yield of turmeric oil. Aspergillus awamori showed the most desirable starch degradation activity by 62.5% to 2.9% wet weight on the 11th day of fermentation. Aspergillus oryzae had the most positive effect, nearly doubling the turmeric oil yield to 3.17% dry weight after 11th day of fermentation. The main constituents of turmeric oil are ?-turmerone, ?-turmerone, and ar-turmerone. ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan bagi mengkaji peranan Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus niger, dan Aspergillus oryzae dalam mendegradasikan kanji pada substrat rizom kunyit bagi meningkatkan hasil minyak kunyit. Substrat dalam bentuk rizom kunyit telah diberi tambahan ekstrak yis 10% mengikut berat setiap isipadu bagi memenuhi keperluan nutrisi pertumbuhan kulat. Kepekatan kulat yang digunakan dalam inokulasi adalah 5x107 sel/ml. Proses penapaian berkeadaan pepejal telah dijalankan dalam keadaan gelap (~0 W), suhu 25–28 ºC, kelembapan 99%, dan pengudaraan (3.5 L/min). Minyak kunyit diasingkan menggunakan kaedah penyulingan wap selama tiga jam, dengan kandungan lembapan substrat 68-71% dan nisbah substrat-air 1:5. Proses biodegradasi dijalankan selama 11 hari. Kandungan kanji dan hasil minyak kunyit ditentukan semasa penapaian terutamanya pada hari ke-7, 9, dan 11. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa proses biodegradasi kanji dalam penapaian berkeadaan pepejal berjaya meningkatkan hasil minyak kunyit. Aspergillus awamori menunjukkan aktiviti degradasi kanji yang paling diingini iaitu sebanyak 62.5% hingga 2.9% berat basah pada hari ke-11 penapaian. Aspergillus oryzae mempunyai kesan yang paling positif, iaitu hampir dua kali ganda hasil minyak kunyit kepada 3.17% berat kering selepas hari ke-11 penapaian. Konstituen utama minyak kunyit ialah ?-turmerone, ?-turmerone, dan ar-turmerone.
... The information for GC-MS analysis in n-Hexane extract of different species from Curcuma genus are listed below in Table 5. (Naz et al., 2010) Curcuma amada Hexane fraction of ethanolic extract ...
Jour Pl Sci Res 38 (1) 2022 Climate Change and Health and Ayush: Curcuma and COVID-19 Heat waves hit both poles at once. Planet earth is warming and climate change is affecting. “Temperature records were smashed in Antarctica last week: one weather station recorded temperatures that were 40! above normal. At the same time, it is 30! warmer than average at the North Pole. “They are opposite seasons. You don’t see the North and the South [Poles] both melting at the same time,” says ice scientist Walt Meier. (�colorado-arctic-antarctica-eda 9ea 8704108bdab2480 fa2cd4b6e34?utm_source= Nature+Briefing&utm_ campaign=9faf4287e9-briefing-dy-20220321&utm_ medium=email&utm_term=0_c9dfd39373-9faf4287e 9-45318994). “Not a good sign when you see that sort of thing happen,” said University of Wisconsin meteorologist Matthew Lazzara. Although both Lazzara and Meier said what happened in Antarctica is probably just a random weather event and not a sign of climate change, but if it happens again or repeatedly then it might be something to worry about and part of global warming, they said. In my own experience as student in 1965-1967 period, Jaipur the pink city (the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan) was so cool that its maximum temperature in summer was about 37o C even in May and June. The highest temperature was 42o C and within two or three days rain splashes will come. Jaipur was surrounded by hills and almost on all sides and hills were lush green after the rain. Ramgarh dam as source of water for entire city, used to overflow in rainy season and Jaipur had a population of around a lac or so in 1947. A single bus of Kamal Co used to run between stations (some 6 km from city) and walled city during early days of freedom. However, Jaipur and Udaipur (another city in the state of Rajasthan, India) or for that matter any city of the world is facing climate change but there is no concern in the present generation of politicians, scientists, medical and health practitioners as if nothing is happening. UN bodies are more of an ornamental structures. Any solutions to global warming mitigation are not spread or accepted even by those nations who will be most affected by climate change the poorest of the poor. CO26 is just another meeting and IPCC reports are just a number. Jaipur temperatures or for that matter all temperature across India are reaching 6 degrees higher than normal. It is almost 40 to 42o C in most cities of Rajasthan. The Journal of Plant Science Research is doing its part in understanding the phenomenon and providing solutions. Can you believe idea of plant-based vaccine that too from a plant commonly use as vegetable in India? Yes, this week it’s official that Medicago’s homegrown, plant-based COVID-19 vaccine has been approved by Health Canada ( news/health/medicago-s-homegrown-plant-based�covid-19-vaccine-approved-by-health-canada�1.6362745?utm_source=Nature+Briefing&utm_campaign =8f 4263cf0e-briefing-dy-20220315&utm_ medium =email&utm_term=0_c9dfd3). The shots use Medicago’s plant-derived, virus-like particles — which resemble the coronavirus behind COVID-19 but don’t contain its genetic material — and also contain an adjuvant from GSK to help boost the immune response. Curcuma longa (Turmeric) has shown promising response to prevents many diseases including current global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and neurodegenerative disorders. Curcuma longa (Haldi) a plant-based Ayurveda medicine and its content Curcumin has shown effectiveness in help fighting COVID-19 (see review in this issue by Singh et al.). Some of the other topics covered in this issue include peach cultivation in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Physical properties of soil of Aravalli hills of Rajasthan; Leaf and Sheath Blight disease of Maize Caused Rhizoctonia solani; Peptone induced pigment (a natural pigment in textile and food industry) production in Ganoderma lucidum. Algae, the principle primary producers are photosynthetic thallophytes, usually are microscopic, unicellular and colonial or multicellular. The maintenance of a healthy canal ecosystem The Journal of Plant Science Research ii Editorial depends on the abiotic properties of water and the biological diversity of ecosystem. Large scale industrialization has caused concern regarding the pollution of water. Jayasree et al. (this issue) provides ecological Study of Blue Green Algae of Canal Waters of Kerala. As Editor-in-Chief of JPSR, I feel honoured to have contributions from distinguished scientists from India and abroad. I would expect that authors follow guidelines and devote more time in articulating their ideas and discussing them in detail based on the results obtained or review of literature. The most important point in each paper remains what is the “Take home lesson”. Being UGC Care indexed journal we have added responsibility and our acceptance rate is around 70 percent. Professor Govindjee from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, Professor Yau from USA, Professor Ogita from Japan and Professor N. K. Dube from BHU Varanasi provide support in screening the manuscripts. Our editorial, Ms. Shyaloo and Ms. Princee Singh, Prints Publications team left no stone unturned to provide you this issue. Prof. Ashwani Kumar Editor-in-chief Alexander von Humboldt Fellow (Germany)
... The major compounds identified by GC-MS of C. longa ethyl acetate extract were caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, (-)isolongifolol, curdione, B-sesquiphellandrene (Chowdhury et al. 2008). Rania et al. (2002) and Naz et al. (2010) reported Caryophyllene, susquiphellandrene as a major constituent of C. longa rhizome. Mehra & kumar. ...
... Individually, the EO of C. amada (leaf) analyzed from India contained camphor (17.9%), isoborneol (7.3%), and epicurzerene (10.8%) as major compounds (Padalia et al., 2013). Likewise, the EO extracted through hydrodistillation from C. longa leaves collected in Brazil contained βphellandrene (31.5%), 1, 8-cineole (15.2%), and α-terpinolene (22.5%) as major compounds (Saccol et al., 2017), while rhizome EO analyzed in Pakistan though steam distillation showed ar-turmerone (25.3%), α-tumerone (18.3%), and curlone (12.5%) as major components (Naz et al., 2010). In Malaysia, EO extracted through hydrodistillation of C. xanthorrhiza rhizome showed xanthorrhizol (31.9%), β-curcumene (17.1%), and ar-curcumene (13.2%) as principal components (Jantan et al., 2012). ...
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Essential oils, extracts and chemical components from aromatic plants are widely used as flavors and fragrances by the food and cosmetics industries because they act highly effective against plant pathogens and pests. According to recent research studies, some botanicals derived from higher plants are efficient insecticides against particular pests, and fungicidal against necrotrophic and biotrophic plant pathogens, in addition to their use in food production. Towards substituting synthetic insecticides/fungicides with natural substitutes, which do not carry negative health effects, the essential oils, extracts and chemical components of Curcuma species have been examined against various plant pathogens and insect pests that harm food crops. The present review discusses the efficacy of essential oils, extracts and few main components derived from a wide range of Curcuma plants against a wide variety of pests and pathogens of food crops. In addition, their mechanism of action against insects and plant pathogens as well as their potential impact on crops (i.e. the allelopathic nature) are discussed. Finally, the commercialization of Curcuma-based pesticides is reviewed and challenges and knowledge gaps are highlighted.
... The extraction yield for EO from curcuma rhizome was 0.25%, which is comparable with the results published by Naz et al., who achieved a yield of 0.67% for the Pakistani sample [47], but significantly lower than the result published by Zhang et al. (4.03%) for the samples from China [48]. This inconsistency in the results can be explained by differences in the origin of the sample, the time of harvest, the characteristics of the sample (dried or fresh samples), and the extraction method used [49]. ...
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The ginger family (Zingiberaceae) includes plants that are known worldwide to have a distinctive smell and taste, which are often used as spices in the kitchen, but also in various industries (pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetic) due to their proven biological activity. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AA) of essential oils (EOs) of four characteristic ginger species: Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton (cardamom), Curcuma Longa L. (turmeric), Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (ginger), and Alpinia Officinarum Hance (galangal). Furthermore, the total phenolic content (TPC) and AA of crude extracts obtained after using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and different extraction solvents (80% ethanol, 80% methanol and water) were evaluated. A total of 87 different chemical components were determined by GC-MS/MS in the EOs obtained after hydrodistillation, 14 of which were identified in varying amounts in all EOs. The major compounds found in cardamom, turmeric, ginger, and galangal were α-terpinyl acetate (40.70%), β-turmerone (25.77%), α-zingiberene (22.69%) and 1,8-cineol (42.71%), respectively. In general, 80% ethanol was found to be the most effective extracting solvent for the bioactivities of the investigated species from the Zingiberaceae family. Among the crude extracts, ethanolic extract of galangal showed the highest TPC value (63.01 ± 1.06 mg GA g −1 DW), while the lowest TPC content was found in cardamom water extract (1.04 ± 0.29 mg GA g −1 DW). The AA evaluated by two different assays (ferric-reducing antioxidant power-FRAP and the scavenging activity of the cationic ABTS radical) proved that galangal rhizome is the plant with the highest antioxidant potential. In addition, no statistical difference was found between the AA of turmeric and ginger extracts, while cardamom rhizome was again inferior. In contrast to the crude extracts, the EOs resulted in significantly lower ABTS and FRAP values, with turmeric EO showing the highest AA.
Essential oils (EOs) comprised of various bioactive compounds have been widely detected in the Curcuma species. Due to the widespread distribution and misidentification of Curcuma species and differences in processing methods, inconsistent reports on major compounds in rhizomes of the same species from different geographical regions are not uncommon. This inconsistency leads to confusion and inaccuracy in compound detection of each species and also hinders comparative study based on EO compositions. The present study aimed to characterize EO compositions of 12 Curcuma species, as well as to detect the compositional variation among different species, and between the plant specimens and their related genetically validated crude drug samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The plant specimens of the same species showed similar EO patterns, regardless of introducing from different geographical sources. Based on the similarity of EO compositions, all the specimens and samples were separated into eight main groups: C. longa; C. phaeocaulis, C. aeruginosa and C. zedoaria; C. zanthorrhiza; C. aromatica and C. wenyujin; C. kwangsiensis; C. amada and C. mangga; C. petiolata; C. comosa. From EOs of all the specimens and samples, 54 major compounds were identified, and the eight groups were chemically characterized. Most of the major compounds detected in plant specimens were also observed in crude drug samples, although a few compounds converted or degraded due to processing procedures or over time. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis allowed the marker compounds to discriminate each group or each species to be identified.
Food commodities are often contaminated by microbial pathogens in transit or during storage. Hence, mitigation of these pathogens is necessary to ensure the safety of food commodities. Globally, researchers used botanicals as natural additives to preserve food commodities from bio-deterioration, and advances were made to meet users’ acceptance in this domain, as synthetic preservatives are associated with harmful effects to both consumers and environments. Over the last century, the genus Curcuma has been used in traditional medicine, and its crude and nanoencapsulated essential oils (EOs) and curcuminoids were used to combat harmful pathogens that deteriorate stored foods. Today, more research is needed for solving the problem of pathogen resistance in food commodities and to meet consumer demands. Therefore, Curcuma-based botanicals may provide a source of natural preservatives for food commodities that satisfy the needs both of the food industry and the consumers. Hence, this article discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of EOs and curcuminoids derived from the genus Curcuma. Further, the action modes of Curcuma-based botanicals are explained, and the latest advances in nanoencapsulation of these compounds in food systems are discussed alongside knowledge gaps and safety assessment where the focus of future research should be placed.
Effects of cooking and drying on colour, curcuminoids, essential oil and aroma compounds of Curcuma longa L. were assessed. Sliced fresh turmeric rhizomes were air‐dried at 60 °C directly or after cooking at 95 °C for 3 or 90 min. Microscopic observations showed that curcuminoids and essential oil are located in different dedicated cells. Curcuminoids and essential oil of dried turmeric were both around 10 % db. After processing, curcuminoids were dispersed throughout the matrix. Drastic cooking and drying operations decreased chromatic values more than smooth cooking. Cooking had no impact on curcuminoid and essential oil contents and slightly modified aromatic profile of essential oils. Drying decreased the curcuminoid (< 38 %) and essential oil (< 13 %) contents. Turmeric starchy matrix preserves the curcuminoids and essential oil during the process. We recommend a preliminary smooth cooking step to reduce the drying time, save energy consumption and preserve turmeric quality.
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The essential oils of leaves, flowers, rhizomes and roots of turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) were analysed by GC-MS. The major constituent of flower oil was p-cymene-8-ol (26.0%) while leaf oil was dominated by α-phellandrene (32.6%). The rhizomes and roots contained ar-turmerone (31.0% and 46.8%, respectively) as major constituents.
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The essential oil composition of four genetically diverse stocks of Murraya koenigii leaves cultivated at the CIMAP Research Farm, Lucknow, were analysed by GC and GC–MS. The oil from the stock of the northern Indian plains, Lucknow, showed ˇ-pinene (70.0%), ˇ-caryophyllene (6.5%) and ˛-pinene (5.4%) as the major constituents, while the oil from the stock of the lower Himalayan range, Pant Nagar, showed ˛-pinene (65.7%), ˇ-pinene (13.4%) and ˇ-phellandrene (7.4%) as the major constituents. In contrast to the above, the oil from the stock of southern India, Kozhikode, showed ˇ-caryophyllene (53.9%), aromadendrene (10.7%) and ˛-selinene (6.3%) as the major constituents. On the other hand, the oil from the stock of eastern India, Bhubaneshwar, showed ˇ-phellandrene (30.2%), ˇ-caryophyllene (24.2%), ˛-pinene (15.0%), (E)-ˇ-ocimene (5.0%) and aromadendrene (4.5%) as the major constituents. The GC–MS analysis of the stock oil samples from the northern Indian plains, lower Himalayan range, southern and eastern India resulted in the identification of 65, 56, 57 and 66, constituents, representing 99.2%, 98.8%, 87.4% and 98.2% of the oils, respectively.
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It was investigated the efficiency of two extracts of plants and one fraction of their properties against the local effects of bothropic envenomation. Bothrops alternatus venom (1.25µg) diluted in 100µl of sterile saline solution was inoculated (intradermally) into the shaved dorsal back skin of 30 New Zealand rabbits. The animals were divided in six groups receiving the following treatments: group I: subcutaneous application of Curcuma longa extract (1.0ml); group II: topic treatment of Curcuma longa hydroalcoholic extract (1.0ml); group III: topic application of ar-turmerone in vaseline (1.0g); group IV: topic application of Curcuma longa methanolic extract (1.0ml); group V: topic application of Calendula officinalis ointment (1.0g); group VI: topic application of saline (1.0ml). These treatments were done at 30 minutes, and at 2, 4, 24 and 72 hours after venom inoculation. Intensity of local edema, hemorrhagic halo and necrosis were evaluated until 168h after that. Additionally, seven days after the Bothrops venom inoculation, blood was collected from heart with and without EDTA (10%) for hemogram and biochemical parameters (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and fibrinogen) and all the animals were anesthetized, sacrificed by ether inhalation and submitted to necropsy. Fragments of tissues were taken for histopathological evaluation. The most efficient treatment for inhibition of edema, necrosis and local hemorrhage after Bothrops alternatus venom was the topic application of ar-turmerone.
Characteristics of higher plant terpenoids that result in mediation of numerous kinds of ecological interactions are discussed as a framework for this Symposium on Chemical Ecology of Terpenoids. However, the role of terpenoid mixtures, either constitutive or induced, their intraspecific qualitative and quantitative compositional variation, and their dosage-dependent effects are emphasized in subsequent discussions. It is suggested that little previous attention to these characteristics may have contributed to terpenoids having been misrepresented in some chemical defense theories. Selected phytocentric examples of terpenoid interactions are presented: (1) defense against generalist and specialist insect and mammalian herbivores, (2) defense against insect-vectored fungi and potentially pathogenic endophytic fungi, (3) attraction of entomophages and pollinators, (4) allelopathic effects that inhibit seed germination and soil bacteria, and (5) interaction with reactive troposphere gases. The results are integrated by discussing how these terpenoids may be contributing factors in determining some properties of terrestrial plant communities and ecosystems. A terrestrial phytocentric approach is necessitated due to the magnitude and scope of terpenoid interactions. This presentation has a more broadly based ecological perspective than the several excellent recent reviews of the ecological chemistry of terpenoids.
The volatile essential oils from commercial samples of dry turmeric and samples γ-irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy were isolated using simultaneous distillation extraction technique and analyzed by GLC (Gas Liquid Chromatography) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Some of the major compounds identified by GC/MS were α-phellandrene, p-cymene, 1:8cineol, β-caryophyllene, ar-curcumene, zingeberene, ß-sesquiphellandrene, nerolidol, turmerone, ar-turmerone, curlone and dehydrozingerone. No detectable differences were observed between the aroma impact compounds of the irradiated and commercial samples.
The insecticidal activity of materials derived from the rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa, against four agricultural and four stored-product insects was examined using direct contact application method. The biologically active constituent of the Curcuma rhizome was characterized as the sesquiterpene ketone ar-turmerone by spectroscopic analysis. Potencies varied according to insect species and dose. In a test with Nilaparvata lugens female adults, ar-turmerone caused 100 and 64% mortality at 1,000 and 500 ppm, respectively. Against Plutella xylostella larvae, the compound gave 100 and 82% mortality at 1,000 and 500 ppm, respectively. Against Myzus persicae female adults and Spodoptera litura larvae, ar-turmerone at 2,000 ppm was effective but weak insecticidal activity was observed at 1,000 ppm. At a dose of 2.1 mg/cm2, ar-turmerone was almost ineffective (
Two compounds were isolated from Curcuma longa L. and identified from their spectral characteristics as 2-methyl-6-(4-methylphenyl)-2-hepten-4-one (ar-turmerone) and 2-methyl-6-(4-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-y1)-2-hepten-4-one (turmerone). ar-Turmerone and turmerone gave an average 62.9% (class IV) and 43.1% (class III) repellency, respectively, to Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) after 8 weeks of study. Turmerone was unstable thermally and also at ambient temperature in the presence of air, yielding its dimer or the more stable ar-turmerone.
The aroma concentrate of fresh rhizomes of Curcuma amada Roxb. was prepared by an efficient simultaneous steam distillation/solvent extraction. The qualitative analysis of these volatile aroma components was performed by using a gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy system aided by the computer library search. This led to the identification of 61 unreported compounds out of 68 compounds for which mass spectra have been recorded. Identification of the components has been confirmed by their Kovats retention indices. The aroma concentrate of mango ginger was comprised of a mixture of character impact compounds of both raw mango and turmeric.
This work studies the enrichment of turmeric α-β-Ar turmerone using supercritical fluid extractions followed by solid–liquid column partition fractionation. The high-pressure vapor–liquid phase equilibrium of the α-β-Ar turmerone with carbon dioxide was also examined. The purity of α-β-Ar turmerone was increased from 67.7% in extracted oil up to 91.8% in enriched oil, as determined by HPLC analysis. An equilibrium apparatus that comprises two vibrating tube densitometers was then adopted to obtain vapor and liquid equilibrium data for this asymmetric system of α-β-Ar turmerone and carbon dioxide mixture at 313.15 K and 333.15 K. Pressures ranged from 2.82 MPa to 20.80 MPa. Experimental data at elevated pressures were successfully correlated with theoretical methods of Peng–Robinson, Soave–Redlich–Kwong and Patel–Teja equations of state, individually combined with quadratic, Panagiotopoulos–Reid and Adachi–Sugie mixing rules.