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Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea II: Revision of the genus Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906, with the description of seven new species (Phasmatodea, Areolatae, Pseudophasmatidae, Pseudophasmatinae).

Abstract and Figures

The genus Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 is revised at the species-level, based upon examination of all necessary type-material and extensive material housed in ANSP, CMNH and USNM mainly collected on nine international expeditions and collections at 280 sites distributed throughout the geography of the Dominican Republic from 2001 through 2004. A re-description of the genus and detailed descriptions of all 13 known species are provided. Seven new species are described and illustrated: Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp., Malacomorpha macaya n. sp., Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp., Malacomorpha minima n. sp., Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp. & Malacomorpha obscura n. sp. from Hispaniola and Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp. from Puerto Rico. The eggs of M. bastardoae n. sp., M. cyllarus (Westwood, 1859), M. jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906), M. multipunctata n. sp., M. obscura n. sp., M. sanchezi n. sp., and M. spinicolle (Burmeister, 1838) are described and illustrated, those of the four latter species for the first time. According to the original description and distribution Phasma graveolens King, 1867 is obviously a synonym of Malacomorpha cyllarus (Westwood, 1859), and not a synonym of Anismorpha buprestoides (Stoll, 1813) as stated by previous authors (n. syn.). A lectotype is designated for Phasma spinicolle Burmeister, 1838. The newly described species, but M. longipennis (Redtenbacher, 1906) and M. hispaniola n. sp. in particular, prove the genera Pseudolcyphides Karny, 1923 (Type-species: Phasma spinicolle Burmeister, 1838) and Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906 (Type-species: Anophelepis poeyi Saussure, 1868) to be synonyms of Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 (n. syn.). Consequently, the type species of both genera are here transferred to Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 (n. comb.). The genus now contains apterous, brachypterous and pterous species restricted to the Greater Antilles and Bahamas.
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ZOOTAXA
Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea II:
Revision of the genus Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906,
with the descriptions of seven new species
(Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Pseudophasmatinae)
OSKAR V. CONLE, FRANK H. HENNEMANN & DANIEL E. PEREZ-GELABERT
Magnolia Press
Auckland, New Zealand
1748
CONLE ET AL.
2 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Oskar V. Conle, Frank H. Hennemann & Daniel E. Perez-Gelabert
Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea II: Revision of the genus Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906, with the descrip-
tions of seven new species (Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Pseudophasmatinae)
(Zootaxa 1748)
64 pp.; 30 cm.
14 Apr. 2008
ISBN 978-1-86977-209-3 (paperback)
ISBN 978-1-86977-210-9 (Online edition)
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Accepted by B. Mantovani: 12 Feb. 2008; published: 14 Apr. 2008 3
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2008 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1748: 164 (2008)
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Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea II: Revision of the genus Malacomorpha
Rehn, 1906, with the descriptions of seven new species
(Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Pseudophasmatinae)
OSKAR V. CONLE¹, FRANK H. HENNEMANN² & DANIEL E. PEREZ-GELABERT³
¹Goldbachweg 24, 87538 Bolsterlang, Germany. E-mail: conle@phasmatodea.com
²Triftstrasse 104, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. E-mail: hennemann@phasmatodea.com
³Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA.
Website: www.phasmatodea.com
Table of contents
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................................4
Material and methods.......................................................................................................................................................... 5
Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 .................................................................................................................................................5
Keys to the species of Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906........................................................................................................... 10
Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906.................................................................................................................... 11
Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp. .............................................................................................................................. 15
Malacomorpha cyllarus (Westwood, 1859)............................................................................................................... 18
Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp. ...............................................................................................................................22
Malacomorpha jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906)...................................................................................................... 25
Malacomorpha longipennis (Redtenbacher, 1906) ....................................................................................................30
Malacomorpha macaya n. sp..................................................................................................................................... 33
Malacomorpha minima n. sp. ....................................................................................................................................35
Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp. ..........................................................................................................................38
Malacomorpha obscura n. sp. ...................................................................................................................................42
Malacomorpha poeyi (Saussure, 1868) n. comb. .......................................................................................................45
Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp. ..................................................................................................................................48
Malacomorpha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838) n. comb. ...........................................................................................52
Biogeography.................................................................................................................................................................... 56
Habitats .............................................................................................................................................................................58
Biology & behaviour .........................................................................................................................................................60
Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................................... 62
Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................................................................................62
References......................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Abstract
The genus Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 is revised at the species-level, based upon examination of all necessary type-mate-
rial and extensive material housed in ANSP, CMNH and USNM mainly collected on nine expeditions to the Dominican
Republic, including collections at 280 sites distributed throughout the country. A re-description of the genus and detailed
descriptions of all 13 known species are provided. Seven new species are described and illustrated: Malacomorpha bas-
tardoae n. sp., M. macaya n. sp., M. hispaniola n. sp., M. minima n. sp., M. multipunctata n. sp. & M. obscura n. sp.
CONLE ET AL.
4 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
from Hispaniola and M. sanchezi n. sp. from Puerto Rico. The eggs of M. bastardoae n. sp., M. cyllarus (Westwood,
1859), M. jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906), M. multipunctata n. sp., M. obscura n. sp., M. sanchezi n. sp., and M. spini-
collis (Burmeister, 1838) are described and illustrated, those of the four latter species for the first time. According to the
original description and distribution Phasma graveolens King, 1867 is obviously a synonym of M. cyllarus (Westwood,
1859), and not a synonym of Anismorpha buprestoides (Stoll, 1813) as stated by previous authors (n. syn.). A lectotype
is designated for Phasma spinicollis Burmeister, 1838.
The newly described species, M. longipennis (Redtenbacher, 1906) and M. hispaniola n. sp. in particular, prove the
genera Pseudolcyphides Karny, 1923 (Type-species: Phasma spinicollis Burmeister, 1838) and Alloeophasma Redten-
bacher, 1906 (Type-species: Anophelepis poeyi Saussure, 1868) to be synonyms of Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 (n. syn.).
Consequently, the type species of both genera are here transferred to Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 (n. comb.). The genus
now contains apterous, brachypterous and pterous species restricted to the Greater Antilles and Bahamas.
Key words: Phasmatodea; Pseudophasmatidae; Pseudophasmatinae; Anisomorphini; Malacomorpha; Alloeophasma;
Pseudolcyphides; Greater Antilles; Cuba; Jamaica; Hispaniola; Puerto Rico; Bahamas, new species; new synonyms; lec-
totype; descriptions; eggs
Introduction
The Phasmid fauna of the Greater Antilles is by far richer and more diverse than supposed in the past. This is
particularly obvious through the extensive examination of new material from Hispaniola. A survey of the His-
paniolan orthopteroid insects was carried out from 2001 through 2004 and comprised nine international expe-
ditions and collections at 280 sites distributed throughout the area of the Dominican Republic. Besides many
interesting Orthoptera, large numbers of Phasmatodea were collected, which multiply the amount of species
known from Hispaniola. The higher elevations of the island in particular still seem to harbor many so far
unrecognized species.
The subfamily Pseudophasmatinae is only represented in the West Indies by the two closely related gen-
era, Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 and Anisomorpha Gray, 1835. A new species of Anisomorpha Gray from the
Dominican Republic, which represented the first record of this genus from the West Indies, was recently
described by Conle, Hennemann & Perez-Gelabert (2006). Malacomorpha is widely distributed but restricted
to the Greater Antilles, and according to the present study contains 13 species, seven of which are described as
new. Due to the extensive material from the Dominican Republic at hand, six of the seven newly described
species and the majority of species are currently known from Hispaniola. However, according to the generally
high percentage of still unknown species of Phasmatodea in the Greater Antilles, detailed future perspectives
of the other islands faunas will quite certainly reveal several additional new species of Malacomorpha.
In the past, Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906, Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906, Pseudolcyphides Karny,
1923 and Anisomorpha Gray, 1835, have been subject to studies by several authors and were treated variably
(e.g. Conle & Hennemann, 2002 & Zompro, 2004). The discovery of seven new species of Malacomorpha
and the availability of extensive new collections led to many significant changes at the generic level and
proved Malacomorpha to be more polymorphic than suggested by former authors. As a result, both
Alloeophasma Redtenbacher and Pseudolcyphides Karny are shown to be junior synonyms of Malacomorpha
Rehn.
Accordingly, Malacomorpha Rehn is in need of a full revision and this work includes a clarification of its
synonymy and differentiation from related genera, descriptions and illustrations of seven new species,
detailed re-descriptions and illustrations of the remainder six species of the genus, descriptions and illustra-
tions of all known eggs, providing keys and information on its biology, behaviour, host-plants and distribution
are the subjects of the present revision.
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 5
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Material and methods
The present work is based on the examination of all necessary type-material. For this we received much sup-
port from curators of all corresponding museums and institutions. The material was mainly dried and pinned,
but rarely includes specimens preserved in alcohol. Measurements were taken using a long ruler and digital
caliper and are given to 0.1 mm. If more than one egg was examined, average measurements are given. If not
differently cited and no live specimens were available the colouration of the insects is described from dried
specimens, this is important because, specimens may have changed colour during preservation. Examinations
of the insects were carried out using a stereoscope (Zeiss Stemi SV 6) and an entomological lens with 5x mag-
nification. Eggs were examined at 10x magnification. All examined eggs were fully developed and already
laid or taken from the female’s ovipositor. The terminology used to describe egg structures follows that of
Clark-Sellick (1997). The scale for the drawings and photos of eggs measures one millimetre.
Abbreviations
The abbreviations of museums and collections are following Arnett et al. 1993.
ANSP: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia / USA.
BMNH: The Natural History Museum, London / England.
CMNH: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh / USA.
FSCA: Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainsville / USA.
ISNB: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles / Belgium.
MCZ: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA / USA.
MHNG: Museum d'histoire naturelle, Geneva / Switzerland.
MNHN: Museum d'Histoire naturelle, Paris / France.
MNHU: Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin / Germany.
NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna / Austria.
OXUM: Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford / England.
RMNH: Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum, Leiden / Netherlands.
USNM: United States National Museum, D.C., Washigton / USA
ZSMC: Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich / Germany.
FH: Private collection Frank H. Hennemann, Kaiserslautern / Germany.
OC: Private collection Oskar V. Conle, Bolsterlang / Germany
HT: Holotype
PT: Paratype
ST: Syntype
LT: Lectotype
PLT: Paralectotype
Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906
Type-species: Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906: 113, fig. 2, by original designation of Rehn, 1906: 114.
Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906: 113, fig. 2.
Bradley & Galil, 1977: 203 (in part). [Listed as a synonym of Anisomorpha Gray - in error]
Bragg, 2001: 636.
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 46.
CONLE ET AL.
6 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Zompro, 2004: 147, figs. 85a, b & 9: 3, 4. [ Pseudophasmatinae: Anisomorphini]
Otte & Brock, 2005: 189.
Agathemera, Kirby, 1904: 402 (in part).
Alloeophasma Redtenbacher 1906: 126. [Type-species: Anophelepis poeyi Saussure, 1868: 67, by monotypy] n. syn.
Bradley & Galil, 1977: 203. [Listed as a synonym of Anisomorpha Gray - in error]
Bragg, 2001: 628.
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 17.
Zompro, 2004: 142, figs. 81a & b. [ Pseudophasmatinae: Pseudophasmatini]
Otte & Brock, 2005: 43.
Anisomorpha, Redtenbacher, 1906: 90 (in part).
Bolivar, 1888: 141.
Caudell, 1909: 111. [Referring to Phasma graveolens King, 1867]
Wolcott 1936: 35.
Bradley & Galil, 1977: 203 (in part).
Vanschuytbroeck & Cools, 1981: 25 (in part).
Langlois & Lelong, 1996: 20, 22, 23 (in part).
Perez-Gelabert, 2001: 27.
Anophelepis, Saussure, 1868: 67 (in part – not Westwood, 1859).
Saussure, 1870: 171, pl. 4: 18 & 18a.
Stål, 1875: 56.
Necroscia, Westwood, 1859: 155, pl. 13: 2 & 14: 5 (in part).
Olcyphides, Redtenbacher, 1906: 108 (in part—not Griffini, 1899).
Bradley & Galil, 1977: 203.
Langlois & Lelong, 1996: 22.
Phasma, Burmeister, 1838: 585 (in part).
De Haan, 1842: 123 (in part).
Westwood, 1859: 123 (in part).
King, 1867: 78.
Saussure, 1868: 69 (in part).
Saussure, 1870: 195, pl. 4: 23 (in part).
Bolivar, 1888: 141.
Redtenbacher, 1906: 127. [Phasma cyllarus Westwood listed as “species incertae sedis”]
Pseudolcyphides Karny, 1923: 234. [Type-species: Phasma spinicollis Burmeister, 1838: 585, by original designation] n.
syn.
Bradley & Galil, 1977: 203.
Bragg, 2001: 642.
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 102.
Zompro, 2004: 142, figs. 80a, b & 8: 14. [ Pseudophasmatinae: Pseudophasmatini]
Otte & Brock, 2005: 287 (in part).
Pseudophasma, Kirby 1904: 411 (in part).
Description: , : Small to moderately sized Anisomorphini (body length 33.5–70.0 mm, 21.0–
42.0 mm), apterous, brachypterous or with fully developed alae, body slender to robust. Body surface either
almost smooth, sparsely granulose or slightly rugulose; dull to partly shiny. Often with dorso-lateral longitudi-
nal rows of granules or spiniform tubercles on mesonotum. Basic colour of body pale to dark brown overlaid
with ± distinct dark and pale broken lines, patches or speckles. Dorsal surface of head and body often with a
dark dorsomedian longitudinal line, usually becoming increasingly indistinct on abdomen. Legs pale to dark
brown and in most species to a various degree furnished with drab or yellowish speckles and patches. Head
short and broad, at best 1.3x longer than wide, oval in cross-section and flattened dorsally. Vertex smooth,
rarely bearing a few minute granules; flat to very gently rounded. Eyes prominent and projecting hemispheri-
cally; their length contained at best 3x in that of cheeks. Ocelli strongly reduced and rudimentary in apterous
taxa, fully developed in pterous taxa. Antennae long and filiform, about as long as body and reaching to or
projecting over apex of abdomen. All antennomeres except scapus cylindrical and finely bristled. Scapus oval
in cross-section, indistinctly longer than wide. 3rd segment at least as long as scapus, often longer and may be
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 7
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
as long as scapus and pedicellus combined. Mesonotum of variable length, 1.1–2.5x longer than pronotum
and 1.1–3.0x longer than wide. Mesosternum in most species with a ± decided longitudinal median carina or
keel; otherwise smooth. Tegmina and alae absent, vestigial or alae fully developed; may be as long as dis-
tinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. Wings may be unequal between the sexes of certain species, with
brachypterous and pterous. Tegmina small, scale-like and with central portion ± roundly or conically
raised; at best covering bases of alae or anterior portion of metanotum. Anal region of alae translucent to
transparent pale brown with brown veins. Median segment slightly shorter or longer than metanotum. Abdo-
men 1.1–2.5 x longer than head and thorax combined, cylindrical. Surface smooth and sometimes shiny, cer-
tain species with a ± prominent posteromedian tubercle or hump on tergites II–IX. Tergites II–VII smooth and
shiny in species with well developed alae. Cerci small, short, round in cross-section, slightly incurving, and
gradually constricted towards the apex; finely bristled. Abdomen of very gently tapered towards the apex;
occasionally slightly swollen medially. Subgenital plate of small to moderately sized, scoop-shaped and
pointed apically; length ranging from just not reaching anterior margin to slightly projecting over posterior
margin of anal segment. Poculum of small and flat, scoop-shaped and posterior margin with a ± distinct
median indentation; hardly projecting over posterior margin of tergite IX. Vomer well developed and sclero-
tised, triangular to parallel-sided with outer margin swollen; apex rounded and simple (serrate in one species).
Legs moderately slender to rather robust, all ± decidedly carinated, destitute of spines or teeth, minutely bris-
tled and quadrate in cross-section. Medioventral carina of femora distinct. Profemora 1.2–2.5x longer than
mesothorax. Hind legs hardly reaching to, or considerably projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora com-
pressed and curved basally to a variable degree; may be very shallow in certain species. Basitarsus 2.0–3.0x
longer than second tarsomere; simple.
Eggs: Small to medium-sized. Capsule barrel-shaped, distinctly longer than wide, ± decidedly com-
pressed laterally and oval in cross-section. Surface strongly sculptured; all over covered with granules, rough
tubercles, humps, ridges or slightly raised net-like structures. Micropylar plate small, circular to elongate-
oval, at best 2.2x longer than wide and covering distinctly less than 1/3 of capsule length. Median line distinct
and of variable length, being either very short or almost reaching the polar-area. Internally the plate is open
with a distinct median line. Operculum oval and flat to slightly convex with the surface granulated or tubercu-
lose, occasionally with a small hump in the centre.
Differentiation: Closely related to Anisomorpha Gray, 1835 but distinguished by: the shorter and broader
head (at best 1.3x longer than wide); relatively larger eyes; more slender and relatively shorter antennae; less
shiny body surface and longer basitarsus which is at least 2x longer than the 2nd tarsomere.
Comments: The description of Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp., M. multipunctata n. sp. and availability
of adult specimens of Malacomorpha longipennis (Redtenbacher, 1906) from ANSP show the characters used
to distinguish Pseudolcyphides Karny, 1923 and Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906 from Malacomorpha
Rehn, 1906 in former studies on Pseudophasmatinae, to remain no longer valid.
The Cuban M. longipennis shows an apparently similar spination of the mesonotum and has the same
smooth and shiny dorsal surface of the abdomen as Pseudolcyphides spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838), the geno-
type of Pseudolcyphides. The profemora of P. spinicollis (Burmeister) are indeed a little less distinctly curved
basally than in the majority of Malacomorpha-species but it is also true for M. multipunctata n. sp., a fairly
typical apterous representative of the genus. Therefore, this feature can be regarded as nothing but intrage-
neric variation, which places Pseudolcyphides as a junior synonym of Malacomorpha (n. syn.). Conle & Hen-
nemann (2002) distinguished Alloeophasma from Malacomorpha by the smooth abdominal tergites and
relatively longer mesothorax. The unarmed abdominal tergites are also true for several of the here newly
described apterous species of Malacomorpha, e.g. M. sanchezi n. sp. or M. multipunctata n. sp., and the three
species contained which have fully developed alae in both sexes. The mesothorax of A. poeyi (Saussure,
1868), the type-species of Alloeophasma, is just a little longer than in other species of Malacomorpha and can
be regarded as lying within the range of the genus. Although A. poeyi appears rather slender, detailed compar-
CONLE ET AL.
8 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
ison with all other species contained in Malacomorpha, leave no characters that sufficiently serve to distin-
guish it on the generic level. Consequently, Alloeophasma is here synonymised with Malacomorpha (n. syn.).
The classification of Pseudophasmatinae and allotment of the genera amongst the tribes Anisomorphini
and Pseudophasmatini proposed by Zompro (2004) is confusing due to its being based on features insufficient
for the distinction of taxa or not even of existence. Zompro (2004: 142), transferred Pseudolcyphides and
Alloeophasma from Anisomorphini to the newly described tribe Pseudophasmatini but retained Malacomor-
pha in Anisomorphini. However, as shown above all three taxa represent the same genus, with Pseudoly-
cphides and Alloeophasma being synonyms of Malacomorpha.
Zompro (2004: 131) distinguished between Pseudophasmatini and Anisomorphini on the basis that the
profemora were at least as long or distinctly longer (Pseudophasmatini), or equal in length to shorter than the
head, pro- and mesonotum combined (Anisomorphini). However, measuring of these segments and compar-
ing the length relations in numerous taxa of both tribes clearly show several species of either tribe to violate
this distinguishing feature. Even within a single genus species occur, which have the profemora longer, equal
or shorter than the combined length of the head, pro- and mesonotum. Zompro (2004: 133 & 144) furthermore
distinguished between these two tribes by “ocelli present” (Pseudophasmatini) or “ocelli increasingly
reduced” (Anisomorphini). This is not a feature of tribal value and rather obvious, due to Zompro included
mainly winged forms in Pseudophasmatini and predominantly apterous taxa in Anisomorphini. It is generally
known, that the reduction of ocelli in Phasmatodea evolved parallel to a reduction of the flight organs. This
case is clearly seen in Malacomorpha which contains apterous, brachypterous and pterous taxa, with distinct
ocelli present in the pterous species and increasingly reduced in apterous species. Other characters used by
Zompro (2004: 133 & 144) to distinguish between Anisomorphini and Pseudophasmatini are ineffective and
merely represent arbitrary trends that are not even constant for either tribe, e.g. “meso- and metafemora more
rectangular in cross-section”, “meso- and metafemora more trapezoid in cross-section” or “female abdomen
more round in cross-section”. In the phylogenetic discussion of Pseudophasmatinae, Zompro (2004: 130)
stated the generic group of Anisomorphini, which contains Malacomorpha, to be characterized by a rough and
dull body surface. Now, after the discovery of several new species, this is only true for certain species of Mal-
acomorpha. The body surface can be conspicuously shiny in some species, e.g. M. macaya n. sp..
Zompro (2004) stated that the micropylar plate has a circular shape in Pseudophasmatini, while it is
longer than wide, cordiform or oval shaped in Anisomorphini. Again, this distinguishing feature does not hold
for all taxa of either tribe. A refutation and invalidation is for instance represented by the micropylar plates of
Malacomorpha, which range from almost circular over slightly oval to distinctly longer than wide. Further-
more, it is well known and it was sufficiently recognized that the shape of the micropylar plate varies even
intraspecifically in certain members of Anisomorphini (e.g. Anisomorpha ferruginea (Palisot de Beauvois) or
Anisomorpha buprestoides (Stoll, 1813)) and therefore is of questionable use for the distinction of higer ordi-
nate taxa (see: Conle & Hennemann, 2002).
For an unknown reason Zompro (2004: 142) listed Creoxylus Redtenbacher (1906: 141, in part—not
Audinet-Serville, 1838) as a synonym of Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906.
When designating a type-species for Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, Conle & Hennemann (2002: 17) were
not aware that Phasma cyllarus Westwood, 1859 was not placed in that genus by Redtenbacher, but as “spe-
cies incertae sedis” in his Phasmatini, section Phasmata (1906: 127). As Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906
was described with only A. poeyi (Saussure, 1868) included, there was no need to designate a type-species and
the designation is invalid.
Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 is very closely related and probably the sister taxon of Anisomorpha Gray,
1835.
Distribution: Restricted to the Greater Antilles and Bahamas. So far recorded from Cuba, Bahamas, His-
paniola, Jamaica and Puerto Rico ( Maps 1 & 2).
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 9
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
MAP 1. Distribution of the genus.
MAP 2. Distribution of the species from Hispaniola.
Species included:
1. Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906: 113. [Bahamas]
2. Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp. [Hispaniola]
3. Necroscia cyllarus Westwood, 1859: 155. [Jamaica]
= Phasma graveolens King, 1867: 78 n. syn.
CONLE ET AL.
10 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
4. Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp. [Hispaniola]
5. Anisomorpha jamaicana Redtenbacher, 1906: 94. [Jamaica]
6. Anisomorpha longipennis Redtenbacher, 1906: 92. [Cuba]
7. Malacomorpha macaya n. sp. [Hispaniola]
8. Malacomorpha minima n. sp. [Hispaniola]
9. Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp. [Hispaniola]
10. Malacomorpha obscura n. sp. [Hispaniola]
11. Anophelepis poeyi Saussure, 1868: 67. [Cuba]
= Phasma cubense Saussure, 1868: 69.
12. Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp. [Puerto Rico]
13. Phasma spinicollis Burmeister, 1838: 585. [Hispaniola]
Keys to the species of Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906
1. Pterous or brachypterous (at least small alae present)................................................................................. 2
- Apterous....................................................................................................................................................... 7
2. Alae distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen................................................................hispaniola n.sp.
- Alae not reaching apex of abdomen ............................................................................................................ 3
3. Alae projecting over abdominal tergite VII................................................................................................. 4
- Alae not projecting over abdominal tergite III ............................................................................................ 5
4. Mesonotum with minute granules; Jamaica ..................................................................................... cyllarus
- Mesonotum with prominent spine-like tubercles; Hispaniola.......................................................spinicollis
5. Alae slightly projecting over abdominal tergite II...................................................................... longipennis
- Alae at best as long as mesonotum............................................................................................................. .6
6. Tegmina present; mesonotum unarmed; Cuba.......................................................................................poeyi
- No tegmina; mesonotum with minute spines; Hispaniola............................................ multipunctata n. sp.
7. Abdominal tergites with a prominent posteromedian hump; Jamaica.......................................... jamaicana
- Posteromedian hump of abdominal tergites hardly visible or absent; not Jamaica..................................... 8
8. Body surface distinctly granulose, dull; Bahamas..................................................................... androsensis
- Body surface at best partly granulated, at least partly shiny; not Bahamas.................................................9
9. Antennae irregularly annulated with brown & yellowish; Puerto Rico................................. sanchezi n. sp.
- Antennae not annulated; Hispaniola.......................................................................................................... 10
10. Tibiae pale yellow, only base and apex brown........................................................................macaya n. sp.
- Tibiae brown with indistinct yellowish mottling....................................................................................... 11
11. Slender; dorsomedian line of head, thorax and abdomen very distinct...................................minima n. sp.
- Stout; dorsomedian line of head, thorax and abdomen indistinct..............................................................12
12. Body uniformly dark brown to black; strongly shiny........................................................ bastardoae n. sp.
- Body mid to dark brown with a few paler speckles; dull...................................................... obscura n. sp.
1. Pterous (at least small alae present)............................................................................................................. 2
- Apterous....................................................................................................................................................... 7
2. Alae distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen................................................................hispaniola n.sp.
- Alae not reaching apex of abdomen ............................................................................................................ 3
3. Anal segment with two distinct posterolateral apices; basitarsus 3x longer than following tarsomere poeyi
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 11
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
- Anal segment without distinct posterolateral apices; basitarsus < 3x longer than following tarsomere.....4
4. Alae projecting over abdominal tergite IX....................................................................................spinicollis
- Alae not projecting over abdominal tergite VIII ......................................................................................... 5
5. Alae hardly as long as mesonotum............................................................................... multipunctata n. sp.
- Alae much longer than mesonotum, at least projecting over abdominal tergite VI .................................... 6
6. Mesonotum with minute granules; Jamaica ..................................................................................... cyllarus
- Mesonotum with prominent spine-like tubercles; Cuba..............................................................longipennis
7. Abdominal tergites with a prominent posteromedian hump; Jamaica.......................................... jamaicana
- Posteromedian hump of abdominal tergites hardly visible or absent; not Jamaica..................................... 8
8. Body surface distinctly granulose, dull; Bahamas...................................................................... androsensis
- Body surface at best partly granulated, at least partly shiny; not Bahamas.................................................9
9. Anal segment constricted posterolaterally............................................................................. obscura n. sp.
- Anal segment expanded posterolaterally................................................................................................... 10
10. Antennae irregularly annulated with brown & yellowish; Puerto Rico................................. sanchezi n. sp.
- Antennae not annulated; Hispaniola.......................................................................................................... 11
11. Tibiae pale yellow, only base and apex brown....................................................................... macaya n. sp.
- Tibiae brown with indistinct yellowish mottling....................................................................................... 12
12. Small (body < 37.0 mm); slender; dorsomedian line of head, thorax and abdomen distinct. minima n. sp.
- Larger (body > 37.0 mm); robust; dorsomedian line of head, thorax and abdomenfain.. bastardoae n. sp.
Eggs*
1. Micropylar plate ± circular .......................................................................................................................... 2
- Micropylar plate distinctly longer than wide............................................................................................... 4
2. Capsule surface with distinct raised net-like structures............................................................................... 3
- Capsule surface rugose, covered with blunt humps and swellings (Figs. 70–71)........................ jamaicana
3. Capsule < 1.7x longer than wide; raised structures of darker colouration than rest of capsule (Figs. 78–79)
.......................................................................................................................................................spinicollis
- Capsule 2x longer than wide; colouration plain (Figs. 72–73)......................................multipunctata n. sp.
4. Micropylar plate oval, 1.3–1.5x longer than wide....................................................................................... 5
- Micropylar plate lanceolate, 2.2x longer than wide (Figs. 66–67).................................... bastardoae n. sp.
5. Micropylar plate small, < 1/5 the length of capsule; sculpturing of capsule faint, at best tuberculose or
minutely rugose ........................................................................................................................................... 6
- Micropylar plate larger, ¼ the length of capsule; capsule surface prominently scabrous and covered with
tooth-like structures (Figs. 68–69).................................................................................................... cyllarus
6. Capsule 2x longer than wide, barrel-shaped; polar-area with a prominent Impression (Figs. 76–77)..........
................................................................................................................................................sanchezi n. sp.
- Capsule 1.6x longer than wide, ovoid; polar-area rounded (Figs. 74–75).............................. obscura n. sp.
* The eggs of Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906, Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp., Malacomorpha longipennis
(Redtenbacher, 1906), Malacomorpha macaya n. sp., Malacomorpha minima n. sp. and Malacomorpha poeyi (Saussure,
1868) are not known.
Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906
(Figs. 1–5)
Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906: 113, fig. 2 & 2a ( ). HT, (penultimate instar nymph): Bahamas, Key No. 4,
North Side of South Bight, Andros, May, 23, 1904, (Wheeler) (USNM—not traced)
CONLE ET AL.
12 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 48, pl. 12: 114 ( genitalia).
Zompro, 2004: 147, fig. 85b ( ).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 392.
Material examined [11 , 7 , 4 nymphs]: 1 : Bahamas Ids., Nassau, Jan., 31, 05, A.E. Night, A. P.
Morse Coll., Ansp, Anisomorpha androsensis (Rehn) det. C. F. Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 1 : Matheustown, Sr.
Inagua, Bahamas, July, MCZ, ANSP, Anisomorpha androsensis (Rehn) det. C. F. Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 1 , 1
nymph: Bahamas, Sr. Inagua, 27.II.99, Greenway Coll., Ansp, Anisomorpha androsensis (Rehn) det. C. F.
Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 1 , 1 (nymph): Nassau, Bahama Islands, W.W. Worthington, Carn. Mus., Bruner
Cln., Anisomorpha androsensis (Rehn) det. C. F. Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 1 , 1 : Nassau, N.P., Bahamas, II.
1949, H.R. Roberts!, ANSP, Anisomorpha androsensis (Rehn) det. C. F. Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 1 : Blue
Hills, Nassau, Bahama Islands, W.W. Worthington, Dec. 28. 1908, Carn. Mus. Acc. 3744, ANSP, Ex Carn.
Mus., Bruner Cln., Anisomorpha androsensis (Rehn) det. C. F. Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 1 (nymph): Bahamas,
Acklin, C.G. Maynard, Malacomorpha androsensis juv. Rehn, det. Hebard 1923, Hebard CLN., ANSP,
Anisomorpha androsensis (Rehn) det. C. F. Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 2 , 1 : Arthus Town, Cat I., Bahamas,
VII, 17, 1935, W.J. Clench, MCZ (ANSP); 2 , 1 (nymph): Bahamas Ids., Nassau, May 7. 05, A.E. Night,
Coll. A.P.M., Lo. 108, No. 18, A.P. Morse Coll., MCZ (ANSP); 1 : Simons Long I., Bahamas, V. 21, MCZ
(ANSP); 1 , 1 : Bahama Islands, New Providence, Carmichael area, 25°01’N, 77°25’W, 13. February
2005, Caribbean pine forest and scrub, coll. W.E.Steiner & J.M.Swearingen (USNM); 1 : Bahama Islands,
New Providence, pine forest area south of airport, 25°1’30”N, 77°28’40”W, 15. February 2005, Caribbean
pine forest and scrub, coll. W.E.Steiner & J.M.Swearingen (USNM); 1 , 1 : Grand Bahamas, July 25, 1960,
P.S.Mills, on orchid leaf in a baggage for Fla.—at Miami, Fla., w0303, USMN, Anisomorpha androsensis
(Rehn) det. C.F.Moxey 1972 (USNM).
Distribution: Bahamas (Andros Island: South Bight; Great Antigua Island [Moxey, 1972: 29]; Matthew
Town [Moxey, 1972: 29]; Inagua; Acklins Island; Cat Island; Grand Bahama; New Providence Island: Nassau
& Long Island).
Differentiation: The small size, rather the robust body and the lack of a posteromedian hump on the
abdominal tergites of this species, the only taxon of the genus known to occur in the Bahamas, show relation
to M. bastardoae n. sp., M. obscura n. sp. and M. minima n. sp. all from Hispaniola. M. androsensis can be
distinguished from all these species by the short and robust, yellowish and brown annulated antennae and for
the numerous yellow granules of the dorsal body surface.
M. androsensis differs further from the first species by: the smaller size; more robust body; relatively
shorter and more robust legs and for a generally paler colouration of the body. From M. obscura n. sp. it may
also be distinguished by: the smaller size; broader femora and shorter cerci of both sexes; as well as the later-
ally expanded anal segment of and less convex subgenital plate of . From M. minima n. sp. it is readily
distinguished by: the slightly larger size; relatively shorter and more robust legs and dull body surface.
Description: (Fig. 1): Small (body length 37.0–48.0 mm), very robust for the genus with a rather
bulgy abdomen. Rudiments of tegmina and alae completely lacking. Legs stout and short, distinctly carinated;
all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae broad for the genus and reaching to posterior margin of
abdominal tergite IV. Body surface minutely tuberculose and rugulose, not shiny; mesonotum bearing several
minute tubercles roughly arranged in four longitudinal rows. Basic colouration of body and legs pale to dark
brown, overlaid with many minute yellowish to pale brown speckles, broken lines and patches. A prominent,
dark longitudinal dorsomedian line runs along the complete dorsal surface of the head and body. Head with
several indistinct, pale and dark brown longitudinal dorsolateral lines and dark postocular line. Antennae
irregularly annulated, the antennomeres being yellowish drab basally and brown apically. Eyes marbled in
black and mid brown. Legs pale to dark brown with indistinct yellowish mottling and minute yellow spots.
Head: Small, hardly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally. Vertex with six
longitudinal lines of very minute granules. Minute rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes roughly circular, project-
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 13
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
ing hemispherical, their length contained 2–2.5x in that of cheek. Antennae reaching to posterior margin of
tergite IV. Scapus almost 2x longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly
carinated. Pedicellus hardly longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about half as long as scapus, but wider
than following antennomeres. Third antennomere elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus combined,
IV distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Pro- and mesothorax slightly broadened towards the posterior. Pronotum as
long as but broader than head, indistinctly longer than wide, and slightly broadened towards the posterior.
Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median
depression indistinct and slightly displaced towards anterior third of segment. Median line slightly impressed.
Mesonotum wider and about 1.7x longer than pronotum, 1.3–1.5x longer than wide and gently broadening
towards the posterior, the increase in width being continuous with that of the pronotum. Bearing several tuber-
cles roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Metanotum
and median segment as wide as posterior of mesonotum and combined about the same length. Metanotum and
median segment combined hardly 1.4x longer than wide, slightly broadened towards posterior end. Metano-
tum transverse, almost 2x wider than long and shorter than median segment. Slightly impressed median line
continued from the mesonotum. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median segment distinct and
almost straight. Pro-, meso- and metasternum simple and very gently rugulose.
Abdomen: 1.3–1.5x longer than head and complete thorax combined, bulgy and gradually tapered
towards the apex. Median segment slightly longer than metanotum, about 1.5x wider than long, rectangular.
Tergites II widest and longest, X narrowest and shortest. II–VI transverse being 2.5–3.5x wider than long, VI
sub-quadrate, and VII–IX roughly quadrate. Tergites II–IX each with a faint posteromedian tubercle or hump
(sometimes almost absent). Sternites II–VII simple and smooth. Anal segment tapered towards apex, narrower
than IX, wider than long, with an indistinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral margins with a faint concave
excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate apex just visible. Subgenital
plate small and flat, at best reaching 2/3 the way along anal segment; minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci
small, short, slightly incurving, and gradually constricted towards the apex, which is slightly thickened and
club-like; finely bristled.
Legs: Rather short and robust, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled. Pro-
femora slightly longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching to posterior margin of abdominal tergite IV, and
hind legs not projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally. Basi-
tarsus 2x longer than second tarsomere.
(Fig. 2): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 23.0–27.0 mm), abdominal
segments II–VII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but pro-, mesothorax less distinctly broadened towards the posterior. Pronotum as long
and wide as head. Mesonotum 2x longer than wide and very gently widened towards the posterior.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.5x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface
and granulation as in . Tergites II–VII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior and
broader than previous. II slightly transverse, III–VII longest and roughly quadrate, IX the shortest. VIII and
IX 1.5–2.0x wider than long. Anal segment broader than previous tergites, about 2x wider than long. Posterior
margin rounded, swollen and laterally expanded, with a very small median indentation. Sternites II–VII sim-
ple and smooth. Cerci as in .
Poculum small and rather flat, slightly spoon-like and hardly reaching the posterior margin of tergite IX.
Posterior margin rounded, and with a small triangular incision medially. Vomer longer than wide, parallel-
sided basally, with apex broadly rounded; outer margin swollen.
Legs: As in . Hind legs hardly projecting over apex of abdomen.
CONLE ET AL.
14 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 1–5. Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906 1) (USNM), 2) (USNM), 3) apex of abdomen in lateral
view, 4) vomer, 5) apex of abdomen in lateral view.
TABLE 1: Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha androsensis (Rehn, 1906)
* according to Rehn (1906: 115)
Comments: Rehn (1906: 113) described Malacomorpha androsensis from Andros Island (Bahamas) as
the only species to be contained in the newly described genus Malacomorpha. It is therefore is the type-spe-
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha androsensis
HT, (penultimate instar) (USNM)* (ANSP) (ANSP)
Body: 32.0 23.0–27.0 37.0–48.0
Pronotum: 3.7 2.3–2.4 3.7–4.7
Mesonotum: 5.0 3.8–4.1 6.5–8.0
Metanotum: 6.0 (+ m. seg.) 1.6–1.8 3.2–4.2
Median segment: 2.2–2.3 4.0–4.6
Profemora: 7.0 6.4–6.8 9.5–10.5
Mesofemora: 5.5 4.4–4.8 7.2–8.0
Metafemora: 7.8 6.7–6.9 10.0–11.4
Protibiae: – 5.1–5.3 9.7–10.6
Mesotibiae: – 4.0–4.1 6.7–7.7
Metatibiae: – 5.5–5.7 10.7–11.7
Antennae: > 18.0 > 28.0
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 15
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
cies by monotypy. Rehn’s original description and illustration (Fig. 2) were based on a single penultimate
instar nymph. This can be deducted from the small body dimensions and description of the genitalia.
According to Rehn (1906) and Otte & Brock (2005: 392) the HT is preserved in the USNM, but it was not
traced during several investigations of the concerned collection by the third author. Thus, it could not be
examined for the present study and must be presumed as lost. M. androsensis appears to be rather widely
spread throughout the Bahamas having so far been recorded from nine different islands ( see above).
Although several adult are traced in the collections of ANSP and USNM, the eggs remain unknown.
Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp.
(Figs. 6–12, 82)
HT, : Dominican Republic, RD-211 Upper Las Abejas, Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco, Pedernales
prov., 1.310m, 6.iv.2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro, R. Bastardo, (d/n) (USNM).
PT, 1 : Dominican Republic, RD-211 Upper Las Abejas, Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco, Peder-
nales prov., 1.310m, 6.iv.2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro, R. Bastardo, (d/n) (USNM).
PT, 1 , 2 (nymphs): Dominican Republic, RD-139 Caseta no. 3, Parque Nacional Sierra de Baho-
ruco, Independencia Prov., 18°13.720’N 71°35.243’W, 1.941m, 3.vii.2003, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro.
(night) (USNM).
PT, 2 , 3 , 1 nymph: Dominican Republic, Independencia Prov., Loma del Toro, Caseta 5 of P.N.
Sierra de Bahoruco, 18°19.270’N 71°40.576’W, 2357m, 12.viii.2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro
(USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, Prov. Pedernales, Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco, Caseta 2,
23°19.72’mE 20°14.802’mN, 1.771m, 28.vi.2005, R.Bastardo, E.Fernandez (OC).
Distribution: Dominican Republic (Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco).
Etymology: This new species is dedicated to the Dominican biologist Ruth Bastardo for her great effort
and support in collecting the type-specimens.
Differentiation: Closely related to Malacomorpha obscura n. sp., for the distribution (Hispaniola), the
smooth dorsal surface of body and a similar colouration of the antennae. It differs by: the more slender body;
more slender and longer legs and antennae and darker colouration of both sexes; swollen and laterally
expanded anal segment and broader vomer of .
Description: The colouration is described from photos of a live couple (paratypes) taken by the third
author in the Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco (Dominican Republic).
(Figs. 6 & 82): Small (body length 37.0–43.0 mm), robust for the genus with a moderately bulgy
abdomen. Rudiments of tegmina and alae completely lacking. Legs slender but not very long, indistinctly car-
inated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae slender and long, nearly reaching to posterior margin
of anal segment. Body surface minutely rugulose, partly shiny; mesonotum bearing several minute tubercles
roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Basic colouration
of body and legs dark brown to black. Some specimens show a very indistinct, dark longitudinal dorsomedian
line running along the complete dorsal surface of the head and body. Antennae brown at the base, turning into
yellow to reddish in the apical half. Eyes marbled in black and mid brown. Legs brown to dark brown with
indistinct yellowish mottling.
Head: Medium sized, hardly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally,
smooth. Minute rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes small, roughly circular, projecting hemispherical, their
length contained 2x in that of cheek. Antennae slender and long, nearly reaching to posterior margin of anal
segment. Scapus almost 1.5x longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly
carinated. Pedicellus hardly longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider
CONLE ET AL.
16 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
than following antennomeres. Third antennomere as long as pedicellus, IV slightly shorter. Remaining anten-
nomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Pro-, meso- and metathorax slightly broadened towards the posterior.
Pronotum as long as but wider than head, 1.2x longer than wide and slightly broadened towards the posterior.
Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median
depression indistinct and slightly displaced towards anterior third of segment. Median line slightly impressed.
Minutely rugulose. Mesonotum wider and about 1.5x longer than pronotum, 1.5x longer than wide and paral-
lel-sided. Bearing several minute tubercles roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal
rows in the anterior half. Metanotum and median segment as wide as posterior of mesonotum and combined
0.8x as long. Metanotum and median segment combined as long as wide, parallel-sided. Metanotum trans-
verse, 1.6–1.8x wider than long and slightly longer than median segment. Transverse fissure between metano-
tum and median segment distinct and almost straight. Meso- and metaepisternum rugulose. Pro-, meso- and
metasternum simple and smooth.
Abdomen: 1.3–1.5x longer than head and complete thorax combined, bulgy and gradually tapered
towards the apex. Surface rugulose and partly shiny. Segments parallel-sided, tergites I–IX each with a faint
minute posteromedian tubercle or hump. Median segment slightly shorter than metanotum, about 2.0–2.5x
wider than long, rectangular. Tergites II–VI widest and longest, VIII–X narrowest, IX shortest. II–VII trans-
verse being 3–4x wider than long, VIII–IX 2–2.5x wider than long. Sternites II–VII simple and smooth. Anal
segment tapered towards apex, posterior margin rounded, narrower than IX, wider than long, and with an
indistinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the
cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate apex, not visible from dorsal. Subgenital plate flat, at best
reaching to posterior margin of anal segment; minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci small, short, slightly
incurving, and gradually constricted towards the apex, which is slightly thickened and club-like; finely bris-
tled.Legs: Legs slender but not very long, indistinctly carinated; unarmed and with all carinae minutely bris-
tled, partly shiny. Profemora nearly 1.5x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching to posterior margin of
abdominal tergite V and hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora very indistinctly
compressed and curved basally. Basitarsus 2.5x longer than second tarsomere.
(Figs. 7 & 82): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 23.0–29.5 mm),
abdominal segments II–VII parallel-sided.
Head: As in .
Thorax: As in , but prothorax less distinctly broadened towards the posterior. Pronotum as long and
wide as head. Mesonotum 1.8–2x longer than wide. Metanotum and median segment combined 1.3x longer
than wide.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.4–1.5x longer than head and thorax combined. Sur-
face and granulation as in . Tergites II–VII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior
and broader than previous. II slightly transverse, III–VII longest and narrowest 1.5x wider than long, IX the
shortest. VIII and IX 1.5–1.8x wider than long. Anal segment broader than previous tergites, about 1.5–2x
wider than long. Posterior margin rounded, gently swollen and laterally expanded. Sternites II–VII simple and
smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and flat, spoon-like, slightly projecting the posterior margin of tergite
IX. Posterior margin rounded. Vomer triangular, as long as wide, with apex broadly rounded; outer margin
swollen.
Legs: As in .
Eggs (Figs. 11–12): Rather large, capsule ovoid, 1.5x longer than wide and slightly oval in cross-section;
lateral surfaces increasingly convex towards the centre. Polar-area indistinctly flattened if seen in lateral
aspect. Anterior margin slightly swollen but smooth. Capsule surface very minutly punctured and covered all
over with shallow, irregularly raised ridges, which become more marked around the micropylar plate and
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 17
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
increasingly indistinct towards the anterior, posterior and ventral portions of the capsule. Micropylar plate lan-
ceolate with the anterior end tapered and the posterior margin broadly rounded; more than two times longer
than wide, and a little less than 1/3 the length of capsule. Surface smooth and slightly convex laterally. Micro-
pylar cup large, also of a roughly lanceolate shape and positioned close to the posterior margin of micropylar
plate. Median line very prominent, reaching about half the way towards polar-area. Operculum oval, slightly
convex and with a small, conical hump in the centre; surface otherwise rugulose. General coloration of cap-
sule pale to mid brown the raised structures pale straw to cream; dorsal half of capsule with a few darker
markings. Micropylar plate straw.
Measurements [mm]: length 3.6, width 2.3, height 2.5, length of micropylar plate 1.2.
Comments: Specimens from Loma del Toro were collected mostly from the walls of the cabin and also a
few from the bare ground.
FIGURES 6–12. Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp. 6) PT (USNM), 7) HT (USNM), 8) apex of abdomen in lateral
view, 9) vomer, 10) apex of abdomen in lateral view, 11) egg in dorsal view, 12) egg in lateral view.
CONLE ET AL.
18 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
TABLE 2. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha bastardoe n. sp.
Malacomorpha cyllarus (Westwood, 1859)
(Figs. 13–20, 83–84)
Necroscia cyllarus Westwood, 1859: 155, pl.13: 2 ( ), pl.14: 5 ( ). LT, : 397, , Jamaica; cyllarus Westw., Necroscia
cyllarus Westwood, ST, Necroscia cyllarus Westw. (BMNH); PLT, : Jamaica, 402, 397; , cyllarus Westw.,
Pseudophasma, Necroscia cyllarus Westw., Necroscia cyllarus Westwood, ST (BMNH). [examined]
Redtenbacher, 1906: 127. [As “Species incertae sedis”]
Pseudophasma cyllarus, Kirby, 1904: 411.
Rehn, 1904: 99.
Anisomorpha cyllarus, Langlois & Lelong, 1996: 22.
Malacomorpha cyllarus, Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 49, pl. 6: 54–55 ( ,), pl. 12: 117–118 (genitalia), pl. 16: 177–178
(egg), 19: 208. [Designation of lectotype]
Zompro, 2004: 147, fig. 9: 4 (egg).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 392.
Phasma graveolens King, 1867: 78. Type(s): Jamaica, Santa Cruz Mountains (depository unknown—presumed lost). n.
syn. [Not: Phasma graveolens, Caudell, 1909: 111. Misidentification, = Anisomorpha buprestoides Stoll, (1813)]
Material examined [28 , 12 , 3 nymphs]: 1 , 1 : Jamaica, F. Klages, Coll. W. J. Holland, ANSP,
Ex Carn. Mus. Bruner Cln. (ANSP); 1 (nymph): Malvern, Jamaica, Petrunkevitch, MCZ (ANSP); 2 :
Montego Bay, Jamaica, Mar. 14, 1911, Anisomorpha cyllarus (Westw.) det. Hebard 1924 (ANSP); 1 , 1 :
Jamaica, St. Ann Parish Rose Hill, 95m, Runaway Bay, 1. May 1973, Don & Mignon Davis (USNM); 1 :
Jamaica, St. Ann Par. Discovery Bay, 27.–28. February 1984, J.M. Carpenter (USNM); 1 : Snug Harbor,
Montego Bay, Jamaica, 6.26.10, E.A. Andrews Coll., USNM, ANSP, Anisomorpha cyllarus (Westw.) det. C.F.
Moxey 1972 (USNM); 1 , 3 : 92–32, Jamaica (BMNH); 3 : ex Zucht O. Conle 2001 (MNHU); 2 ,
1 : ex Zucht 2001 O. Zompro, Zuchtstamm Jamaika (OC); 16 , 4 , 2 (nymphs): ex Zucht O. Conle
2002, Zuchtstamm aus Jamaika (OC); 1 , 2 , eggs: ex Zucht: F. Hennemann, urspr. Jamaika, 2001–2002
(FH, No’s 0490-1 to 3 & E).
Distribution: Jamaica (Montego Bay: St. James [Moxey, 1972: 30] & Snug Harbour; Runaway Bay; Dis-
covery Bay: St. Ann Parish Rose Hill 95m; Kingston [Rehn, 1904: 99]; Long Mountain [Moxey, 1972: 30],
St. Andrew [Moxey, 1972: 30]; Clarendon: Portland Ridge [Moxey, 1972: 30]; Trelawny: Falmouth [Moxey,
1972: 30]; Santa Cruz Mountains: Belmont [King, 1867: 78] & Malvern
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp.
HT, (USNM) PT, (USNM) PT, (USNM, OC)
Body: 28.0 23.0–29.5 37.0–43.0
Pronotum: 2.8 2.6–3.0 4.4–4.9
Mesonotum: 4.7 4.9–5.2 7.2–8.3
Metanotum: 2.4 2.2–2.4 3.0–3.8
Median segment: 2.2 1.9–2.1 2.7–2.9
Profemora: 7.1 6.1–7.7 9.5–9.7
Mesofemora: 6.2 5.5–6.5 8.1–8.6
Metafemora: 8.8 7.1–8.9 10.5–11.2
Protibiae: 7.5 6.4–8.4 10.0–10.6
Mesotibiae: 6.5 5.7–6.7 8.5–8.7
Metatibiae: 8.8 7.3–9.3 11.5–11.9
Antennae: > 18.0 24.0 28.0–32.0
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 19
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Differentiation: Similar to the species of the genus with fully developed alae in both sexes: Malacomor-
pha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838) & Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp.; and in the male similar to Malacomor-
pha poeyi (Saussure, 1868).
From Malacomorpha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838) it differs by: the smaller size; more slender body and
legs; lack of spines on the mesonotum, paler and less speckled coloration of the body and legs of both sexes.
From Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp. it differs by: the mesonotum being longer in relation to the pronotum,
the shorter alae which only reach to the posterior margin of of tergite VII or VIII of both sexes; the vomer
without serration of .
From the of M. poeyi (Saussure, 1868) it differs by: the smaller size and the shorter and more robust
body.
The eggs differ from all other known eggs of the genus by the very prominently sculptured, scabrous cap-
sule surface which is covered all over with tooth-like structures.
Description: The colouration is described from live specimens.
(Figs. 13 & 83): Large (body length 57.0–65.0 mm), slender for the genus with a rather cylindrical
abdomen. Tegmina and alae present. Alae reaching towards the posterior end of tergite VII or even VIII. Legs
slender but not very long, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae long and slen-
der, reaching to posterior margin of anal segment. Body surface minutely tuberculose and rugulose, not shiny
except dorsal surface of abdomen; mesonotum bearing several minute tubercles roughly arranged in four lon-
gitudinal rows in the anterior half. Basic colouration of body and legs pale brown, overlaid with many minute
dark brown speckles and broken lines. A prominent, dark longitudinal dorsomedian line runs along the com-
plete dorsal surface of the head and thorax, becoming more indistinct or even absent towards the end of the
abdomen. Tegmina and costal region of alae pale brown sometimes with indistinct brown mottles. Anal region
of alae translucent. Head with several indistinct, pale and dark brown longitudinal dorsolateral lines and
sometimes with an indistinct dark brown postocular line. Antennae pale to mid brown with irregular yellowish
bands, the antennomeres irregularly coloured. Eyes marbled in black and mid brown. Legs pale brown with
indistinct yellowish and dark brown mottling and minute spots.
Head: Slightly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally. Vertex smooth.
Rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes large, roughly circular, distinctly projecting hemispherical, their length con-
tained 1.5x in that of cheek. Antennae reaching to posterior margin of anal segment. Scapus 1.5x longer than
wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus as long as wide, dis-
tinctly narrower and about half as long as scapus, but wider than following antennomeres. Third antennomere
elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus combined, IV distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres
increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Pro- and metathorax parallel-sided, only mesothorax distinctly broadened
towards the posterior. Pronotum as wide as but 1.5x longer than head, 1.5x longer than wide, parallel-sided.
Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median
depression indistinct and slightly displaced towards anterior third of segment. Median line slightly impressed.
Mesonotum hardly wider and almost 1.5x longer than pronotum, 2x longer than wide and parallel-sided. Bear-
ing several minute tubercles roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal rows in the
anterior half. Metanotum and median segment wider than mesonotum and combined longer than mesonotum.
Metanotum and median segment combined hardly 2x longer than wide, parallel-sided, smooth and shiny, cov-
ered by the tegmina and alae. Metanotum transverse, wider than long and slightly shorter than median seg-
ment. Slightly impressed median line continued from the mesonotum. Transverse fissure between metanotum
and median segment very distinct and almost straight. Meso-, metaepisternum and pro- and metasternum sim-
ple and smooth. Mesosternum with moderate longitudinal ventromedian carina. Tegmina short and oval,
strongly convex, bearing fine veins, reaching towards the posterior margin of metanotum. Alae reaching
towards the posterior end of tergite VII or even VIII.
CONLE ET AL.
20 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Abdomen: 1.5x longer than head and complete thorax combined, slender and gently gradually tapered
towards the apex. Surface smooth, dorsal area covered by the closed alae, shiny. Median segment slightly
longer than metanotum, gently wider than long, rectangular with transverse impressed fissure in the centre.
Tergites parallel-sided. II–VI widest and longest, VIII–X narrowest and shortest. II–VII roughly quadrate,
VIII & IX transverse, 1.5–2.0x wider than long. Tergites VII–IX each with a minute faint posteromedian
tubercle or hump (sometimes almost absent). Sternites II–VI simple and smooth, VII bearing a small black
praeopercular organ. Anal segment parallel-sided towards apex, posterior margin laterally slightly broadened,
narrower than IX, about 1.5x wider than long, with an indistinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral margins
with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate apex just
visible. Subgenital plate boat-shaped, with faint ventromedian longitudinal impression; reaching the posterior
marging of anal segment; minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci small, short, slightly incurving, and gradu-
ally constricted towards the apex, which is slightly thickened and club-like; finely bristled.
Legs: Rather slender and not very long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bris-
tled. Profemora at least 2x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching to posterior margin of abdominal
tergite IV, hind legs hardly projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora considerably compressed and curved
basally. Basitarsus 2x longer than second tarsomere.
(Figs. 14 & 84): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 33.0–40.0 mm),
abdominal segments II–VII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but mesothorax less distinctly broadened towards the posterior.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.5x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface
and granulation as in . Tergites II–VII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior and
broader than previous. III–VII are the longest and narrowest, IX is the shortest, X is the widest. II–VII 1.5 –
2x longer than wide, VIII & IX 1.5–2.0x wider than long, anal segment broader than previous tergites, about
2x wider than long. Posterior margin rounded, swollen and laterally expanded, with a very small median
indentation. Sternites II–VII simple and smooth. Cerci as in but slightly longer. Poculum small and flat,
spoon-like, reaching towards the posterior margin of tergite IX. Posterior margin rounded with minute pointed
apex medially. Vomer longer than wide, parallel-sided basally, with apex broadly rounded; outer margin swol-
len.Legs: As in .
Eggs (Figs. 18–20): As in other species of the genus the eggs present considerable variation concerning to
the size, colour and sculpturing of the capsule. Average eggs were used for the descriptions provided below.
Of moderate size for the genus. Capsule barrel-shaped, 1.6–1.8x longer than wide, oval in cross-section,
lateral surfaces gently convex. Polar-area flattened and with a distinct impression if seen in lateral aspect.
Anterior margin of capsule raised and strongly armed with rugulose or tooth-like structure. Entire surface of
capsule strongly scabrous, rugulose and all over covered with irregular spine or tooth-like structures, which
become conspicuously more decided and numerous towards the dorsal egg surface and micropylar plate.
Structures forming two shallow, irregularly raised sub-parallel longitudinal carinae beginning at the anterior
end of the micropylar plate and ending at anterior margin of capsule. Two further more distinct but irregular,
slightly converging ridges reach from the posterior end of the micropylar plate almost to the polar area.
Micropylar plate rather large, oval, 1.2–1.4x longer than wide and slightly less than 1/3 the length of capsule.
Surface gently concave and very minutely granulose. Micropylar cup very small and positioned close to the
posterior margin of micropylar plate; oval. Median line indistinct, very fine and almost reaching to polar area;
laterally accompanied by an irregular ridge. Operculum oval, very slightly convex and with a prominent, con-
ical to knob-like hump in the centre; otherwise structured like capsule. General colouration varying from plain
pale greenish over pale to mid brown, impressed portions in between the raised structures darker brown.
Micropylar plate plain dark brown.
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 21
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
FIGURES 13–20. Malacomorpha cyllarus (Westwood, 1859). 13) (OC), 14) (OC), 15) apex of abdomen in lat-
eral view, 16) vomer, 17) apex of abdomen in lateral view, 18) egg in dorsal view, 19) egg in lateral view, 20) inter-
nal micropylar plate.
Measurements [mm]: length 2.8–3.6, width 1.7–2.1, height 1.9–2.3, length of micropylar plate 0.9–1.0.
Comments: The systematic position of this species has been a problem since it was originally described.
Westwood (1859: 155) described Necroscia cyllarus from a and from Jamaica in BMNH and provided
very accurate illustrations of both sexes (pls. 13: 2 & 14: 5). Kirby (1904: 411) transferred it to Pseudophasma
Kirby, 1896 and Rehn (1904: 99) recorded a from Kingston (Jamaica) in USNM and already quoted a
rather aberrant position of N. cyllarus in the genus Pseudophasma Kirby. Redtenbacher (1906: 127) listed it as
„species incertae sedis“ in his tribe Phasmini, section Phasmata. Finally, Conle & Hennemann (2002: 49) rec-
ognized its close relation to Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906 and consequently placed N. cyllarus in
Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906. These authors furthermore designated a lectotype and provided descriptions and
illustrations of both sexes and the eggs of M. cyllarus. Zompro (2004: 148) surprisingly doubted the generic
placement of M. cyllarus and stated that the eggs “differ considerably” without having seen eggs of the type
species.
Although Phasma graveolens King, 1867 was described from Jamaica Caudell (1909: 111) synonymised
this species with the continental American Anisomorpha buprestoides (Stoll, 1813). This is obviously not cor-
rect, since King (1867 78) described his graveolens to have well developed alae, which is not true for any
member of Anisomorpha Gray. The original description by King and type-locality (Belmont in the Santa Cruz
Mountains of Jamaica) do instead match very well with M. cyllarus and show King’s species to be a synonym
of M. cyllarus (Westwood, 1859) (n. syn.).
Along with the description of Phasma graveolens King (1867: 79) provided some interesting information
on the native food-plant, biology and behaviour of M. cyllarus in Jamaica. King stated it to be apparently
numerous near Belmont (Santa Cruz Mountains) from May to July and that several hundred adult couples are
frequently found at night almost exclusively on shrubs of Bignonia chinensis (Bignoniaceae), which is the
CONLE ET AL.
22 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
preferred food in that locality. During the day King (1867: 79) reported the nymphs and adults to hide in the
holes of trees, amongst brushwood where it is sufficiently dense to exclude the light, and also in the cellars
and behind the boarding of houses.
This species is frequently reared in captivity in Europe since the late 1990’s from a stock collected in cen-
tral Jamaica by Pat & Tony James (England). As alternative food-plants various sorts of privet (Ligustrum
spp., Oleaceae) are readily accepted by European cultures. It is contained on the “Phasmid Study Group” cul-
ture-list as culture No. 220.
TABLE 3. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha cyllarus (Westwood, 1859).
Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp.
(Figs. 21–25, 85)
HT, : Furcy, Haiti, VI.1944, Anthony Curtis!, Pseudophasma spinicollis (Burm.) det. C. F. Moxey,
26.I.1971 (ANSP).
PT, 2 , 2 : Furcy, Haiti, VI.1944, Anthony Curtis! (ANSP).
PT, 6 , 2 : Dominican Republic, RD-045, Paso de la Perra, nr. La Ciénaga, La Vega Prov.,
19°04.576’N 70°49.632’W, 16.VII.2002, D.Perez, B.Hierro, R.Bastardo, S. Mediano, H. Takizawa (USNM).
PT, 1 : Dominican Republic, RD-164, Trail to Loma de las Tayotas, Rio Limpio, Elias Piña Prov.,
19°13.333’N 71°31.220’W, 840m, 24.VII.2003, D.Perez, R.Bastardo, B.Hierro, (n) (USNM).
PT, 1 : Dominican Republic, RD-140, -1km SE caseta no.1, Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco, Inde-
pendencia Prov., 18°15.771’N 71°32.233’W, 1153m, 4.VII.2003, D.Perez, R.Bastardo, B.Hierro, (day/night)
(USNM).
PT, 1 : Dominican Republic, La Vega Province, 5.1km N. Manabao, 5-VI-1994, Coll. M.C. Thomas
(USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, Prov. Elias Piñas, Rio Limpio, 26-26.IV.2000, 2400ft., blacklight trap,
RE Woodruff, TJ Henry (USNM).
PT, 1 , 2 : Dominican Republic, Parque Nac. J.A. Bermúdez, Mata Grande, 910m, night, bosque
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha cyllarus
LT, (BMNH) PLT, (BMNH) (OC) (OC)
Body: 34.2 65.0 33.0–40.0 57.0–64.0
Pronotum: 2.7 5.1 2.9–3.2 4.8–5.2
Mesonotum: 3.8 6.3 4.2–4.5 6.1–6.7
Metanotum: 2.6 6.3 2.8–2.9 5.2–5.4
Median segment: 3.5 6.1 3.0–3.1 5.6–5.8
Tegmina: 2.6 7.0 3.0–3.5 5.7–5.8
Alae: 22.1 48.6 20.0–23.0 37.0–41.0
Profemora: 8.6 15.5 8.6–8.9 13.0–14.2
Mesofemora: 5.8 11.3 6.0–6.5 9.7–10.5
Metafemora: 8.6 16.5 8.6–9.1 13.4–14.1
Protibiae: 8.0 13.7 7.9–8.3 14.0–15.0
Mesotibiae: 5.6 9.9 5.7–6.1 9.9–10.1
Metatibiae: 8.4 13.9 8.4–8.5 13.5–13.9
Antennae: >12.0 47.3 25.0–28.0 49–55.0
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 23
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
ribereño, 21.IV.1999, R.Bastardo (USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, RD-127, 1km E Diferencia, PNAB, Santiago Prov., 750m,
19°16.080’N 71°02.763’W, 8.IV.2003, D.Perez, R.Bastardo, B.Hierro, (night) (USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, 13km S. Loma de Cabrera, ca.400m, 20–22. May 1973, Don &
Mignon Davis (USNM).
PT, 3 : Dominican Republic, Pedernales, Sierra de Bahoruco, Aceitillar, 25.2km ENE Pedernales, 18-
05-29N, 71-31-16W, 1272m, 14. June 2003, C. Young, J. Rawlins, C. Nunez, R. Davidson, P. Acevedo, M. de
la Cruz dense broadleaf forest, pine, UV light, Sample 42212 (CMNH).
PT, 1 : Dominican Republic, Pedernales, Sierra de Bahoruco, Aceitillar, 25.4km ENE Pedernales, 18-
05-27N, 71-31-08W, 1270m, 14. June 2003, C. Young, J. Rawlins, C. Nunez, R. Davidson, P. Acevedo, M. de
la Cruz dense broadleaf seasonal forest, pine, UV light, Sample 42312 (CMNH);
Distribution: Hispaniola. Central Haiti (Furcy) and Dominican Republic (La Vega; Elias Piña; Indepen-
dencia; Santiago & Pedernales provinces).
Etymology: Named after the type-locality, the island of Hispaniola.
Differentiation: Similar to the other two species which have fully developed alae in both sexes: M.spini-
collis (Burmeister, 1838) from Hispaniola and M. cyllarus (Westwood, 1859) from Jamaica. It however differs
from both by the considerably longer alae, which project over the apex of the abdomen, relatively longer
abdomen of both sexes and serrate vomer of . From the first it furthermore differs by: the smaller size;
much more slender body and legs; paler colouration and less prominently speckled body and legs. From M.
cyllarus it may additionally be distinguished by the more slender and elongate body and legs.
are also similar to those of the Cuban M. poeyi (Saussure, 1868) but differ by the smaller size, more
robust body, considerably longer alae, which project over the apex of the abdomen as well as the serrate
vomer.
Description: (Figs. 21 & 85): Medium sized (body length 44.0–60.0 mm), slender for the genus with
a rather cylindrical abdomen. Tegmina and alae present. Alae distinctly projecting apex of abdomen. Legs
slender and not very long, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae long and slen-
der, nearly reaching to posterior margin of anal segment. Body surface minutely tuberculose and rugulose, not
shiny except dorsal surface of abdomen; mesonotum bearing several minute tubercles roughly arranged in two
longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Basic colouration of body and legs brown to pale brown, overlaid with
many minute dark brown speckles and broken lines. A prominent, dark longitudinal dorsomedian line runs
along the complete dorsal surface of the head and thorax. Tegmina and costal region of alae pale brown with
black radial vein and other darker veins and fine dark longitudinal lines. Anal region of alae translucent. Head
with several indistinct, pale and dark brown longitudinal dorsolateral lines and dark brown postocular line.
Antennae dark brown with irregular yellowish bands, the antennomeres irregularly coloured. Eyes pale
brown. Legs brown with indistinct yellowish and dark brown mottling and minute spots.
Head: Slightly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally. Vertex smooth.
Ocelli present. Eyes large, roughly circular, distinctly projecting hemispherical, their length contained 1.6–
1.8x in that of cheek. Antennae nearly reaching to posterior margin of anal segment. Scapus 1.5x longer than
wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus as long as wide, dis-
tinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than following antennomeres. Third antennomere
elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus combined, IV distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres
increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Nearly round in cross-section. Prothorax parallel-sided, meso- and metathorax slightly broadened
towards the posterior. Pronotum as long and as wide as the head, as long as wide, parallel-sided. Anterolateral
angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median depression indis-
tinct and slightly displaced towards anterior third of segment. Median line slightly impressed. Mesonotum
hardly wider and almost 1.2x longer than pronotum, 1.5x longer than wide and broadened towards the poste-
CONLE ET AL.
24 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
rior. Bearing several minute tubercles roughly arranged in two dorsolateral longitudinal rows in the anterior
half. Metanotum and median segment wider than mesonotum and combined longer than mesonotum. Metano-
tum and median segment combined longer than wide, parallel-sided, smooth and shiny, covered by the teg-
mina and alae. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median segment very distinct. Meso-,
metaepisternum and pro-, meso- and metasternum simple and smooth. Tegmina short and oval, strongly con-
vex, bearing fine veins, reaching towards the posterior margin of metanotum. Alae very long, projecting the
abdomen very distinctly.
Abdomen: 1.9x longer than head and complete thorax combined, slender and gently gradually tapered
towards the apex. Surface smooth, dorsal area covered by the closed alae, shiny. Median segment slightly
longer than metanotum, wider than long, rectangular. Tergites parallel-sided. Tergites II–VI slightly longer
than wide; VIII to X wider than long. As the tergites of the types in ANSP are covered by the prominent alae,
no further description of these can be provided here. Anal segment slightly constricted towards apex, about
1.5x wider than long, with an indistinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral margins with a faint concave exca-
vation near the bases of the cerci. Sternites II–VI simple and smooth, VII bearing a sclerotized and roughly
structured praeopercular organ. Supraanal plate very small with angulate apex just visible. Subgenital plate
boat-shaped, reaching the posterior marging of anal segment; minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci small,
short, gradually constricted towards the pointed apex; finely bristled.
FIGURES 2125. Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp. 21) PT (USNM), 22) PT (USNM), 23) apex of abdomen in
lateral view, 24) vomer, 25) apex of abdomen in lateral view.
Legs: Rather slender and not very long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bris-
tled. Profemora at least 2.5x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching to the centre of abdominal tergite
IV, hind legs do not project over apex of abdomen. Profemora indistinctly compressed and curved basally.
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 25
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Basitarsus 2x longer than second tarsomere.
(Figs. 22 & 85): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 27.0–36.5 mm),
abdominal segments II–VII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but mesonotum 1.5x longer than pronotum. Mesosternum bearing a moderate longitu-
dinal carina.
Abdomen: Cylindrical in cross section, about 1.9x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface as in
. Tergites II–VII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior and broader than previous.
III–VII are the longest and narrowest, IX is the shortest, X is the widest. II–VII 1.5 – 2x longer than wide, VIII
& IX 1.3–2.0x wider than long, anal segment broader than previous tergites, about 2x wider than long. Poste-
rior margin rounded with two lateral apices and a small median indentation. Sternites II–VII simple and
smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and flat, spoon-like, reaching towards the centre of tergite IX. Poste-
rior margin rounded with minute pointed apex medially. Vomer longer than wide, triangular, at the posterior
tip only very indistinctly rounded, bearing several small teeth at the outer margin.
Legs: As in .
Comments:The specimens in USNM and CMNH all originate from various locations in the Dominican
Republic and are remarkable for being considerably larger than the specimens from Furcy, Haiti. The smaller
specimens from Furcy (Haiti) in ANSP, MCZ and USNM were misidentified as Pseudolcyphides spinicollis
(Burmeister, 1838) by Moxey (1972). Eggs unknown.
TABLE 4. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp.
Malacomorpha jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906)
(Figs. 26–33, 86)
Anisomorpha jamaicana Redtenbacher, 1906: 94. LT, ‚: Coll. Br. v. W., Jamaica, Burr; Brunner det.
Anisomorpha jamaicana (NHMW, No. 132); PLT, 2 ‚: Coll. Br. v. W., Jamaica, Burr; Brunner det.
Anisomorpha jamaicana (NHMW, No. 132); PLT, ·: Jamaica (ISNB). [examined]
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha hispaniola n. sp.
HT, (ANSP) PT, (ANSP) PT, (ANSP) PT,
(USNM, CMNH) PT,
(USNM)
Body: 30.0 27.0–30.0 44.0–48.0 32.0–36.5 50.0–60.0
Pronotum: 2.2 2.3 3.0–3.1 2.2–2.7 3.2–3.4
Mesonotum: 3.5 3.4 3.8 2.9–3.6 3.6–4.1
Metanotum: – - - -
Median segment: - - - - -
Tegmina: 2.6 2.8 4.1 2.7–3.0 4.2–4.9
Alae: 29.0 27.0–29.0 44.0–47.0 29.0–32.0 47.0–54.0
Profemora: 8.2 8.1 9.7–9.9 8.0–8.9 9.5–10.6
Mesofemora: 6.0 6.1 7.2–7.4 5.9–6.6 6.7–7.4
Metafemora: 8.4 8.3 10.8–11.1 8.2–9.6 10.1–11.4
Protibiae: 9.2 9.1 10.9–11.2 7.9–9.3 9.5–11.3
Mesotibiae: 6.0 5.9 7.0–7.3 5.9–6.1 6.6–7.3
Metatibiae: 9.6 9.5 11.7–11.9 8.7–10.3 11.3–13.5
Antennae: > 26.0 > 20.0 > 30.0 > 34.0 > 33.0
CONLE ET AL.
26 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Vanschuytbroeck & Cools, 1981: 25.
Langlois & Lelong, 1996: 22.
Brock, 1998: 37.
Malacomorpha jamaicana, Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 51, pl. 5: 50–51 ( , ), pl. 12: 115–116 (genitalia), pl. 16: 175–
176 (egg), pl. 18: 190 (head of ) & 197 (antenna), pl.19: 206 (live couple). [Designation of lectotype]
Zompro, 2004: 147, figs. 9: 3 & 85a.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 392.
[Not: Anisomorpha jamaicana ?, Wolcott, 1936: 35. Misidentification = Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp.]
[Not: Anisomorpha jamaicana ?, Wolcott, 1948: 50. Misidentification = Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp.]
[Not: Anisomorpha jamaicana ?, Wolcott, 1951: 50. Misidentification = Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp.]
Material examined [78 , 76 , 8 nymphs, eggs]: 1 : Bacillus squalidus Gray (OXUM); 1 : M.Burr
Collection, Pres. 1903 by M.B. (OXUM); 2 , 2 , 1 (nymph): Main Range, Blue Mts., 5-7388 ft., Aug.
17.–19., Jamaica, 1934, Darlington, Ansp., Anisomorpha jamaicana Redt. Moxey det., 1972 (ANSP); 3 , 1
: Cinchona, Jamaica, Feb. 26. 1911, ANSP, Anisomorpha jamaicana Redt. Moxey det., 1972 (ANSP); 1 , 1
, 1 (nymph): Pleasant Hill, 3700–4400ft., Blue Mountains, Jamaica (R.), VIII. 29. 1923 (ANSP); 1 :
Between Pleasant Hill & St. Helens Gap, Blue Mountains, Jamaica (R.), 4400–4780ft., VIII. 12. 1923. WO
310, ANSP, Anisomorpha jamaicana Redt. Moxey det., 1972 (ANSP); 6 , 12 : ex Zucht O. Conle 2001
(MNHU); 1 : Jamaica, Green Hills, 13.–20.XI.66, A.B. Gurney (USNM); 2 : Jamaica, Catherine´s Peak,
4600–5000ft., 16.XI.1966, A.B. Gurney (USNM); 1 , 1 : Clydesdale, Jam., July ’41, W.G. Lynn, USMNH,
Anisomorpha jamaicana Redt. det. C.F. Moxey 1972 (USNM); 1 : Clydesdale, Jam., July ’41, W.G. Lynn,
0311, USMNH, Anisomorpha jamaicana Redt. det. C.F. Moxey 1972 (USNM); 2 , 2 : Clydesdale,
Jam., July ’41, W.G. Lynn (USNM); 2 , 1 , 1 (nymph): Clydesdale, Jamaica, 7.7.36, W.G. Lynn
(USNM); 1 : Chester Vale, Jamaica, 7.36, W.G. Lynn (USNM); 1 , 1 : Sugar Loaf Mt., Jamaica, 7.13.36,
W.G. Lynn (USNM); 1 , 1 : Trail to Blue Mt. Peak, Jamaica, under stone, Febr. 1932, W.G. Lynn (USNM);
1: Chinchona, Jamaica, Feb. 26, 1911, Anisomorpha jamaicana Redt, , det. Hebard 1922 (USNM). 7 /
(in copula), 21 , 18 , 5 nymphs, eggs: ex Zucht F. Hennemann, urspr. Jamaika, 2000-2002 (FH,
No’s 0490-1 to 38, E & ED); 1 : Jamaika (OC); 25 , 25 : ex Zucht 2000–2002, Zuchtstamm aus
Jamaika (OC).
Distribution: East Jamaica (Blue Mountains: Pleasant Hill & St. Helen’s Gap; Green Hills: Clydesdale;
St. Andrew: Chinchona; Darlington; Portland: Hardwar Gap [Moxey, 1972: 32] & St. Thomas [Moxey, 1972:
32]).
Differentiation: Similar to Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp., but easily distinguished by the much more
distinct posteromedian humps of the abdominal tergites and the distribution (restricted to Jamaica), which also
easily separates the species from the other wingless species.
The eggs are similar to the eggs with circular or oval micropylar plates of Malacomorpha multipunctata
n. sp., Malacomorpha cyllarus (Westwood, 1859), Malacomorpha obscura n. sp., Malacomorpha sanchezi n.
sp., and Malacomorpha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838).
From Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp. it differs by: the broader capsule with much more scabrous sur-
face and many blunt humps. From Malacomorpha cyllarus (Westwood, 1859) it differs by: the surface of the
capsule being much more scabrous and bearing many blunt humps; and the circular micropylar plate. From
Malacomorpha obscura n. sp. it differs by: the surface of the capsule being much more scabrous and bearing
many blunt humps; the circular micropylar plate; the much shorter median line and the distinct impression at
the polar-area (seen laterally). From Malacomorpha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838) it differs by: the surface of
the capsule being much more scabrous and bearing many blunt humps. From Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp. it
differs by: the more scabrous surface of capsule and the distinctly shorter median line.
Description: The colouration is described from live specimens.
(Figs. 26 & 86): Medium sized (body length 45.060.0 mm), robust for the genus with a rather bulgy
abdomen. Rudiments of tegmina and alae usually lacking (only one female with small rudiments of alae and
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 27
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
tegmina is known from NHMW). Legs stout and not very long, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with
minute setae. Antennae long and relatively slender, nearly reaching towards the posterior margin of anal seg-
ment. Body surface tuberculose and rugulose, not shiny; mesonotum bearing several tubercles roughly
arranged in four longitudinal rows. Basic colouration of body and legs brown to dark brown, overlaid with
many minute yellowish to pale brown speckles, broken lines and patches. A prominent, dark longitudinal dor-
somedian line runs along the complete dorsal surface of the head and body. Head with several indistinct, pale
and dark brown longitudinal dorsolateral lines and a dark postocular line. Antennae irregularly brown and yel-
low annulated. Eyes marbled in black and mid brown. Transverse median depression of pronotum yellowish.
Metaepisternum cream to pale beige. Legs pale to dark brown with indistinct yellowish mottling.
Head: Small in relation to the body, hardly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened
dorsally. Vertex very minutely granulated, very small rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes roughly circular, pro-
jecting hemispherical, their length contained 2x in that of cheek. Antennae nearly reaching to posterior margin
of anal segment. Scapus almost 2x longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and
slightly carinated. Pedicellus hardly longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about half as long as scapus, but
wider than following antennomeres. Third antennomere elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus
combined, IV distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Pro-, meso- and metathorax slightly broadened towards the posterior.
Pronotum a little longer than wide, longer and as wide as the head, broadened towards the posterior. Antero-
lateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median depression
V- or W-shaped, placed in the centre of segment. Median line slightly impressed. Mesonotum wider and about
1.9x longer than pronotum, 1.5x longer than wide and gently broadening towards the posterior, the increase in
width being continuous with that of the pronotum. Bearing several tubercles roughly arranged in two dorsolat-
eral and two lateral longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Metanotum and median segment as wide as poste-
rior of mesonotum and combined a little shorter in length. Metanotum and median segment combined hardly
1.5x longer than wide, slightly broadened towards posterior end. Metanotum transverse, wider than long and
as long as median segment. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median segment distinct and slightly
rounded. Rudiments of tegmina and alae are usually absent, but are recorded from one single specimen
(NHMW). Mesoepisternum rugulose, metaepisternum smooth. Pro-, meso- and metasternum simple and very
gently rugulose or even smooth.
Abdomen: 1.5x longer than head and complete thorax combined, bulgy and gradually tapered towards the
apex. Surface smooth to slightly rugulose. Segments parallel sided. Median segment as long as metanotum,
wider than long, rectangular. Tergites IIVI widest and longest, VIIIIX narrowest, X shortest. IIVII trans-
verse, being 23x wider than long, VIIIIX transverse, being 2x wider than long. Tergites IIX each with a
prominent faint posteromedian tubercle or hump. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. Anal segment tapered
towards apex, narrower than IX, about 1.5x wider than long, with an indistinct longitudinal median carina.
Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with
angulate apex just visible. Subgenital plate boat-shaped, reaching towards the posterior margin of anal seg-
ment, minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci small, short, slightly incurving, and gradually constricted
towards the apex, which is slightly thickened and club-like; finely bristled.
Legs: Rather slender but relatively short, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bris-
tled. Profemora 1.5x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching towards the centre of abdominal tergite V,
hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally.
Basitarsus 2x longer than second tarsomere.
(Figs. 27 & 86): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 30.039.0 mm),
abdominal segments IIVII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but pro-, meso- and metathorax less distinctly broadened towards the posterior.
CONLE ET AL.
28 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Mesonotum a little more than 1.5x longer than pronotum, at least 2x longer than wide. Metanotum and median
segment combined more than 1.5x longer than wide. Mesoepisternum granulated at the lateral margin. Mesos-
ternum bearing a moderate longitudinal carina.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.5x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface
and granulation as in . Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior and
broader than previous. II slightly transverse, IIIVII longest and roughly quadrate, IX the shortest. VIII and
IX 1.52.0x wider than long. Anal segment broader than previous tergites, about 2x wider than long. Posterior
margin rounded, swollen and laterally expanded, with a small median indentation. Sternites IIVII simple and
smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and rather flat, slightly spoon-like, reaching the posterior margin of
tergite IX. Posterior margin rounded, with a small triangular incision medially. Vomer longer than wide, paral-
lel-sided basally, with apex broadly rounded; outer margin swollen.
Legs: As in .
Eggs (Figs. 3133): As in other species of the genus, the eggs have considerable variation in size, colour
and capsule sculpturing. Average eggs served for the descriptions provided below.
FIGURES 2633. Malacomorpha jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906). 26) (OC), 27) (OC), 28) apex of abdomen in
lateral view, 29) vomer, 30) apex of abdomen in lateral view, 31) egg in dorsal view, 32) egg in lateral view, 33)
internal micropylar plate.
Moderately sized to large for the genus. Capsule barrel-shaped, 1.61.8x longer than wide, oval in cross-
section, lateral surfaces gently convex. In lateral view, the capsule becomes wider towards the posterior end
and the polar-area has a very wide but distinct impression. Anterior margin of capsule set with several small,
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 29
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
pointed humps. Surface of capsule strongly rugose and covered with irregular hump-like structures or swell-
ings; rugulae becoming increasingly more numerous and distinct in the portion around micropylar plate. Two
indistinct dorsal longitudinal rows of humps or irregular bulges reaching from the anterior end of the micropy-
lar plate to the anterior margin of the capsule. Micropylar plate very small, almost circular with the anterior
margin very gently truncate, its length contained about 4.5x in that of capsule; surface slightly concave and
almost smooth. Micropylar cup small and positioned close to the posterior margin of micropylar plate. Median
line indistinct, fine and almost reaching to polar-area. Operculum oval, very indistinctly convex and with a
small, blunt hump in the centre; otherwise very minutely rugulose. General colouration varying from plain
pale green over pale to mid brown, more rarely moss-coloured or beige. Micropylar plate of the same colour
as capsule, sometimes darker brown, outer margin of micropylar plate cream.
Measurements [mm]: length: 3.43.8, width: 2.0, height: 2.02.3, length of micropylar plate: 0.7.
Comments: Redtenbacher (1906: 94) described Anisomorpha jamaicana from both sexes and cited type-
material to be deposited only in ISNB. There are however three in NHMW, which match very well with
the original description and obviously all represent type-specimens. It therefore appears as if they have been
retained in NHMW after publication of the monograph of Brunner v. Wattenwyl & Redtenbacher (1906
1908). One of these was designated as the lectotype by Conle & Hennemann (2002: 51). According to Otte &
Brock (2005: 392) a PLT is present in ISNB, but it could not be traced during an investigation of the ISNB
collection by the two first authors in 1998. Vanschuytbroeck & Cools (1981: 25) as well did not mention a
of M. jamaicana to be present in their type catalogue of ISNB. Therefore, the measurements of the PLT in
table 5 below are taken from Redtenbacher (1906: 94). One PLT in NHMW is remarkable for having small
rudimentary wings, but is otherwise identical to typical M. jamaicana. Conle & Hennemann (2002: 51) recog-
nized the close relation to Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906 and consequently placed M. jamaicana in
Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906, providing descriptions and illustrations of both sexes and eggs.
This species is being frequently reared in captivity in Europe since the late 1990’s from a stock collected
in central Jamaica by Pat & Tony James (England). It has proven pretty easy to maintain in culture and readily
accepts various sorts of privet (Ligustrum spp., Oleaceae) as an alternative food-plant. It is contained on the
“Phasmid Study Group” culture-list as culture No. 213.
TABLE 5. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906).
* according to Redtenbacher, 1906
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha jamaicana
LT & PLT, (NHMW) PLT, * (OC) (OC)
Body: 46.0–53.0 32.0 30.0–39.0 45.0–60.0
Pronotum: 4.0–5.0 2.8–3.0 3.9–4.3
Mesonotum: 7.0–9.0 5.5 4.9–5.3 7.9–8.2
Metanotum: 7.0–8.0 (+ m.seg.) 5.0 (+ m.seg.) 2.8–2.9 3.7–4.2
Median segment: 3.0–3.4 4.3–4.8
Profemora: 10.0–12.5 8.8 8.0–8.9 11.4–12.2
Mesofemora: 9.0–10.0 5.5–6.9 9.3–9.9
Metafemora: 11.0–14.0 9.0 9.1–10.0 12.1–12.6
Protibiae: 11.5–13.0 8.0–9.1 12.0–12.2
Mesotibiae: 9.0–10.5 6.1–6.8 8.4–9.2
Metatibiae: 12.5–15.0 9.0–10.0 12.0–13.8
Antennae: 30.0–35.0 38.0–45.0
CONLE ET AL.
30 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Malacomorpha longipennis (Redtenbacher, 1906)
(Figs. 3438)
Anisomorpha longipennis Redtenbacher, 1906: 92. HT, (nymph): Museum Paris, Cuba, Mayari (Baie de Nipe),
Chaper, 1883 (MNHN). [examined]
Langlois & Lelong, 1996: 20.
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 105.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 390.
Malacomorpha longipennis, Zompro, 2004: 147.
Material examined [1 , 1 ]: 1 : L.C. Scaramazza, Jaronú, Camagüey, X-30-34, Feeding on “Jagua”, ,
E.E.A. Cuba, Ento. No. 10657, ANSP, Anisomorpha poeyi (Sauss.) det. Moxey 1972 (ANSP); 1 : L.C. Scar-
amazza, Jaronú, Camagüey, X-30-34, Feeding on “Jagua”, , E.E.A. Cuba, Ento. No. 10657, ANSP, Aniso-
morpha poeyi (Sauss.) det. Moxey 1972 (ANSP).
Distribution: Cuba (Holguin: Mayari & Camagüey: Jaronú).
Differentiation: Similar to M. cyllarus (Westwood, 1859) from Jamaica and M. spinicollis (Burmeister,
1838) from Hispaniola, but distinguished from these as well as from all other species of the genus by: the very
short mesonotum of both sexes, which is hardly longer than wide; half-sized alae of which reach no fur-
ther than to the anterior margin of abdominal tergite III and shortened alae of which merely reach the pos-
terior margin of tergite VI.
Description: (Fig. 34): Large (body length 66.0 mm), robust for the genus with a rather cylindrical
abdomen. Short tegmina and alae present. Alae reaching towards anterior margin of tergite III. Legs robust
and long, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae long and slender, reaching
towards posterior third of abdomen. Body surface minutely tuberculose and rugulose, not shiny except dorsal
surface of abdomen; head and pronotum bearing several indistinct rows of small granules, mesonotum bearing
several very distinct granules and little spines, roughly arranged in four longitudinal rows in the anterior half.
Basic colouration of body brown to dark brown, overlaid with several dark speckles and broken lines. A
prominent, dark longitudinal dorsomedian line runs along the complete dorsal surface of the head and thorax,
becoming more indistinct or even absent towards the end of the abdomen. Tegmina dark brown with fine
brown veins; costal region of alae dark-brown with brown veins, partly scattered with dark brown and pale-
brown patches, anal region translucent. Head with several indistinct, dark brown longitudinal dorsolateral
lines and dark brown postocular line. Eyes brown. Antennae uniformly brown to very indistinctly brown and
yellow annulated. Legs brown to dark brown overlaid with many minute yellowish speckles.
Head: Slightly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally. Vertex granulated,
very small rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes roughly circular, projecting hemispherical, their length contained
22.5x in that of cheek. Antennae reaching towards the posterior third of abdomen. Scapus 1.5x longer than
wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus hardly longer than
wide, distinctly narrower and about half as long as scapus, but wider than following antennomeres. Third
antennomere elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus combined, IV distinctly shorter. Remaining
antennomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Strongly granulated, especially mesonotum bearing some very prominent
rows of tubercles. Pro-, meso- and metathorax slightly broadened towards the posterior. Pronotum as wide as
but 1.2x longer than head, 1.2x longer than wide, parallel-sided. Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous,
rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median depression slightly displaced towards ante-
rior third of segment. Median line slightly impressed. Mesonotum wider but only 1.1x longer than pronotum,
hardly longer than wide and posterior moderately broadened. Bearing several prominent tubercles roughly
arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Metanotum and median
segment wider than mesonotum and combined 2x longer than mesonotum. Metanotum and median segment
combined hardly 1.8x longer than wide, parallel-sided, smooth and shiny, covered by the tegmina and alae.
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 31
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Metanotum transverse, wider than long and shorter than median segment. Slightly impressed median line con-
tinued from the mesonotum. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median segment very distinct and
almost straight. Meso-, metaepisternum and pro-, meso- and metasternum simple and smooth. Tegmina very
short and nearly circular, strongly convex, bearing fine veins, reaching towards the centre of the metanotum.
Alae reaching towards the anterior margin of tergite III, costal region of same structure as tegmina, anal
region translucent.
FIGURES 3438. Malacomorpha longipennis (Redtenbacher, 1906). 34) (ANSP), 35) (ANSP), 36) apex of abdo-
men in lateral view, 37) vomer, 38) apex of abdomen in lateral view.
Abdomen: Nearly 1.9x longer than head and complete thorax combined, round in cross-section, robust
and gently gradually tapered towards the apex. Surface smooth, dorsal area covered by the closed alae, shiny.
Median segment longer than metanotum, as wide as long, rectangular with transverse impressed fissure in the
centre. Tergites parallel-sided. IVI widest and longest, VIIIX narrowest and VIII shortest. IIVII transverse
slightly wider than long, VIII & IX roughly quadrate. Tergites IIX each with a minute faint posteromedian
tubercle or hump (sometimes almost absent). Sternites IIVI simple and smooth, VII bearing a small black
praeopercular organ. Anal segment constricted towards apex, narrower than IX, about as wide as long, with an
indistinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the
CONLE ET AL.
32 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate apex not visible. Subgenital plate flat, with faint ventromedian
longitudinal impression; hardly reaching the posterior marging of anal segment; minutely setose and apex
pointed. Cerci small, short, gradually constricted towards the apex, which is slightly pointed; finely bristled.
Legs: Rather robust and long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled. Pro-
femora 2.4x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching towards the centre of abdominal tergite V, hind
legs not projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora considerably compressed and curved basally. Basitarsus
2x longer than second tarsomere.
(Fig. 35): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 36.0 mm), abdominal seg-
ments IIVII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but mesosternum with moderate longitudinal ventromedian carina. Alae reaching the
posterior margin of tergite VIII.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.9x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface
and granulation as in . Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior and
broader than previous. IIVIII longest and narrowest, 1.11.3x longer than wide, IX shortest, transverse and
1.5x wider than long. Anal segment broader than previous tergites, about 1.51.8x wider than long. Posterior
margin rounded, posteriorly constricted with a small median indentation. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth.
Cerci as in . Poculum small, slightly spoon-like, reaching the posterior margin of tergite IX. Posterior mar-
gin rounded, with posteromedially pointed apex. Vomer longer than wide, parallel-sided basally, with apex
broadly rounded; outer margin swollen.
Legs: As in .
TABLE 6. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha longipennis (Redtenbacher, 1906).
Comments: Redtenbacher (1906: 92) described Anisomorpha longipennis based on a unique nymph
in MNHN which was confirmed by examination of the specimen. Conle & Henneman (2002: 105) listed it as
“species incertae” because the HT could not be examined before publication of their revision of the tribe Ani-
somorphini. Zompro (2004: 147) transferred A. longipennis to Malacomorpha Rehn which was confirmed by
detailed examination of the holotype by the authors in 2002.
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha longipennis
HT, nymph (MNHN) (ANSP) (ANSP)
Body: 40.3 36.0 66.0
Pronotum: 4.7 3.2 5.6
Mesonotum: 4.9 3.5 6.4
Metanotum: 7.5 (+ m.seg.) 3.6 5.5
Median segment: - 4.0 6.8
Tegmina: 1.7 3.1 4.9
Alae: 3.0 24.0 17.5
Profemora: 9.5 - 15.3
Mesofemora: 7.0 6.1 11.0
Metafemora: 9.4 10.2 15.8
Protibiae: 8.8 - 15.2
Mesotibiae: 6.7 6.2 10.3
Metatibiae: 9.6 9.8 16.5
Antennae: > 17.0 > 15.0 45.0
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 33
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Examination of the material of Malacomorpha contained in ANSP revealed an adult couple of M. lon-
gipennis, which represent the only known adult specimens of this species and served for the description pro-
vided above. The HT nymph in MNHN has all characters with the adult in ANSP in common, except for
the posteromedian hump of the abdominal tergites being slightly more defined and the wings rudimentary.
However, in Malacomorpha the humps of the tergites are usually more prominent in nymphs than in adults,
which was confirmed by captive breeding of M. jamaicana (Redtenbacher, 1906) and M. cyllarus (Westwood,
1859). Eggs unknown.
Malacomorpha macaya n. sp.
(Figs. 3943, 87)
HT, : Haiti, Camino a Pic le Ciele, 1484m, 60°32'89''mE, 20°28'515'mN, 7.II.2006, Bajo piedra y tronco
podrido, leg. R. Bastardo (ZSMC).
PT, 3 , 5 , 2 nymphs: Haiti, Camino a Pic le Ciele, 1484m, 60°32'89''mE, 20°28'515'mN, 7.II.2006,
Bajo piedra y tronco podrido,leg. R. Bastardo (USNM).
PT, 2 , 2 : Haiti, Camino a Pic le Ciele, 1484m, 60°32'89''mE, 20°28'515'mN, 7.II.2006, Bajo pie-
dra y tronco podrido,leg. R. Bastardo (OC).
Distribution: Hispaniola, Haiti (Pic Le Ciele). Known only from the type-locality.
Etymology: Named after the type-locality Parc National Pic Macaya.
Differentiation: Easily recognized and distinguished from all other known species in the genus by the
plain yellow tibiae which only have the base and apex brown. Otherwise similar to M. minima n. sp. from
Hispaniola and M. sanchezi n. sp. from Puerto Rico.
Description: (Figs. 39 & 87): Small (body length 37.041.0mm), typical for the genus with a rather
bulgy abdomen. Legs slender and relatively long in comparison to the body, distinctly carinated; all carinae
and tarsi covered with minute setae. Antennae slender but short, reaching abdominal tergite IV. Body surface
smooth and shiny, except mesonotum bearing several tubercles roughly arranged in four longitudinal rows.
Ventral surface of thorax and abdomen smooth and shiny. Basic colouration of body pale brown to greyish
with a prominent, black longitudinal dorsomedian line running along the complete dorsal surface of the head
and body. Ventral side of thorax bearing a yellow longitudinal dorsomedian line running along the prosternum
to the metasternum. Praeopercular organ of sternite VII black. Head coloured as the body, but showing some
further longitudinal cream and dark lines as well as a dark postocular line. Basal quarter of antennae black,
remaining parts yellowish. Eyes brown to greyish with yellow marbling. Mandibles, maxillas, clypeus and
labrum yellowish to reddish. Femorae and tarsi dark brown, indistinctly overlaid with a few paler spots and
patches. Tibiae black in the first eight at the base, then pale yellowish for the next six eights and black again in
the last eight at the apical end.
Head: Large, hardly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally, smooth.
Minute rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes small, roughly circular, projecting hemispherical, their length con-
tained 2x in that of cheek. Antennae slender and short, reaching to abdominal tergite IV. Scapus 1.3x longer
than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus 1.2x longer than
wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than following antennomeres. Third
antennomere as long as scapus, IV distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres increasing in length towards
apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Pronotum shorter and more slender than the head, 1.2x longer than wide,
parallel-sided. Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Trans-
verse median depression distinct and displaced to anterior third of segment. Mesonotum wider and 1.81.9x
longer than pronotum, 1.51.6x longer than wide, broadened towards the posterior. Bearing several tubercles
CONLE ET AL.
34 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Metanotum and
median segment as wide as posterior of mesonotum and combined about the same length. Metanotum rectan-
gular, 1.72x wider than long, as long as median segment. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median
segment distinct and almost straight. Pro-, meso- and metasternum and pro-, meso- and metaepisternum sim-
ple and smooth.
FIGURES 3943. Malacomorpha macaya n. sp. 39) PT (OC), 40) PT (OC), 41) apex of abdomen in lateral view,
42) vomer, 43) apex of abdomen in lateral view.
Abdomen: 1.4x longer than head and complete thorax combined, bulgy and gradually tapered towards the
apex. Median segment as long as metanotum, about 1.72x wider than long, rectangular and slightly longer
than the following segments. Tergites IIIV widest, VVII longest, X narrowest and shortest. IIX transverse,
increasing in length towards tergite VII, IIV 4x, VIVII 2.53x, VIIIIX 2x, anal segment 1.2x wider than
long. Anal segment tapered towards apex, narrower than IX, with a distinct longitudinal median carina. Lat-
eral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angu-
late apex not visible. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. VII bearing a small apically rounded praeopercular
organ. Subgenital plate relatively small and spoon-shaped, not reaching to posterior margin of tergite X,
smooth except for minute setae, apex pointed. Cerci small, straight, cylindrical, gradually constricted towards
the apex, slightly broadened at the base and finely bristled.
Legs: Rather slender and long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled. Pro-
femora slightly longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching to posterior margin of abdominal tergite V, and
hind legs considerably projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora rather indistinctly compressed and curved
basally. Basitarsus 2x longer than second tarsomere.
(Figs. 40 & 87): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 24.127.0 mm),
abdominal segments IIVII parallel-sided. General body surface and coloration as in .
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 35
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Head: Generally as in but antennae reaching over abdominal tergite V.
Thorax: As in , but mesonotum 1.8x longer than wide and metanotum 1.2x wider than long.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.5x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface
and granulation as in . Median segment 1.2 x wider than long. Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX
broadening towards the posterior and broader than previous. IIIX transverse to rectangular, IIIII 1.5x wider
than long, IVVII rectangular, VIIIIX 1.51.8x wider than long. Anal segment broader than previous terg-
ites, about 2x wider than long. Posterior margin rounded, laterally constricted. Sternites IIVII simple and
smooth. Cerci as in .
Poculum small and rather flat, slightly spoon-like and hardly projecting the posterior margin of tergite IX,
posterior margin rounded with a distinct median indentation. Vomer 1.5x longer than wide, hardly constricted
towards apex, nearly parallel-sided, tip of apex rounded.
Legs: Generally as in .
Comments: Eggs unknown.
TABLE 7. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha macaya n. sp.
Malacomorpha minima n. sp.
(Figs. 4448)
HT, : Haiti, Dept. Sud-Oueste, Parc Nat’ l la Visite, depression 1km. W. park hdqtrs., 1850m, 11-V-1984,
M.C. Thomas, under rocks (CMNH).
PT, 3 , 3 : Haiti, Dept. Sud-Oueste, Parc Nat’ l la Visite, depression 1km. W. park hdqtrs., 1850m,
11-V-1984, M.C. Thomas, under rocks (CMNH).
PT, 1 : Haiti, Dept. Sud-Oueste, Parc National la Visite, vicinity park hdqtrs., 1880m, 9-V-1984, Coll.
M.C. Thomas (CMNH).
Distribution: Hispaniola, Haiti (Department Sud-Oueste: Parc National la Visite). Only known from the
type-locality.
Etymology: The name (minimus lat. = small) refers to the size, the smallest species in the genus.
Differentiation: Similar to the other apterous species from Hispaniola: Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp.,
Malacomorpha obscura n. sp. & Malacomorpha macaya n. sp..
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha macaya n. sp.
HT, (ZSMC) PT, PT,
Body: 24.2 24.1–27.0 37.0–41.0
Pronotum: 2.3 2.2–2.3 3.4–3.6
Mesonotum: 4.1 4.2–4.5 6.4–6.8
Metanotum: 2.1 2.3–2.5 3.3–3.5
Median segment: 2.0 1.9–2.4 2.7–3.2
Profemora: 6.2 5.9–6.1 7.9–9.3
Mesofemora: 5.0 5.0–5.1 6.8–8.0
Metafemora: 7.1 6.7–7.3 9.3–10.0
Protibiae: 6.1 6.0–6.1 8.6–8.9
Mesotibiae: 5.2 4.5–5.2 6.6–7.8
Metatibiae: 7.3 7.4–7.6 9.5–10.2
Antennae: >16.0 17.0 22.0–23.0
CONLE ET AL.
36 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
From Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp. it differs by: the smaller size; and the paler colouration of both
sexes. From Malacomorpha obscura n. sp. it differs by: the more slender body; more slender and longer legs
and antennae and different colouration of both sexes; laterally expanded anal segment of . From Malaco-
morpha macaya n. sp. it differs by: the slightly smaller size; relatively longer antennae; different colouration
of body and speckled tibiae of both sexes.
Description: (Fig. 44): Very small (body length 33.537.0mm) for the genus with a rather bulgy
abdomen. Legs slender and rather long, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae
long and slender, reaching towards the posterior margin of anal segment. Body surface only very minutely
rugulose, partly shiny; mesonotum bearing several tubercles roughly arranged in four irregular longitudinal
rows. No rudiments of wings present. Basic colouration of body brown to dark brown, overlaid with a few
pale brown speckles and patches. A prominent, dark longitudinal dorsomedian line runs along the complete
dorsal surface of the head and body. Head with several indistinct, pale and dark brown longitudinal dorsolat-
eral lines and a dark postocular line. Antennae dark brown at the base, becoming yellow with small brown
annulation at the apical end of the antennomeres towards the apical half. Eyes marbled in black and brown.
Legs brown to dark brown, overlaid with many small yellow speckles.
Head: Very small for the genus and in relation to the body, hardly longer than wide, oval in cross-section
and slightly flattened dorsally. Vertex smooth, very small rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes oval, projecting
hemispherical, their length contained 2.53x in that of cheek. Antennae reaching to posterior margin of anal
segment. Scapus 1.5x longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly cari-
nated. Pedicellus hardly longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than
following antennomeres. Third antennomere elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus combined, IV
distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Pro- and mesothorax slightly broadened towards the posterior. Pronotum
1.2x longer than wide, longer and as wide as the head, slightly broadened towards the posterior. Anterolateral
angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median depression indis-
tinct and displaced to anterior third of segment. Mesonotum wider and 1.71.8x longer than pronotum, 1.4
1.5x longer than wide and gently broadened towards the posterior, the increase in width being continuous with
that of the pronotum. Bearing several tubercles roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudi-
nal rows in the anterior half. Metanotum and median segment as wide as posterior of mesonotum and com-
bined 0.8x as long as mesonotum. Metanotum and median segment combined hardly 1.3x longer than wide,
parallel-sided. 1.8x wider than long, as long as median segment, rectangular. Transverse fissure between met-
anotum and median segment indistinct. No rudiments of tegmina and alae present. Pro-, meso- and metaepis-
ternum simple and gently rugulose. Meso- and metasternum smooth. Mesosternum with blunt longitudinal
median carina.
Abdomen: 1.31.5x longer than head and complete thorax combined, rather bulgy and gradually tapered
towards the apex. Surface almost smooth and partly shiny. Segments parallel-sided; posteromedian tubercle or
hump on tergites very small or even absent. Median segment as long as metanotum, about 1.8x wider than
long, rectangular. Tergites IIVI are the widest and longest, VIII to X are the narrowest and shortest. IIVI
3.54.5x, VII 3x, VII and IX 2x wider than long. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. Anal segment tapered
towards apex, posterior margin rounded, narrower than IX, wider than long, and with an indistinct longitudi-
nal median carina. Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate
very small with angulate apex, not visible from dorsal. Subgenital plate flat, at best reaching 2/3 of the way
along tergite X, smooth except for minute setae, apex pointed. Cerci small, short and very slender, slightly
curved, gradually constricted towards the apex, slightly broadened at the base and finely bristled.
Legs: Slender and rather long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled. Pro-
femora 1.41.5x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching towards the centre of abdominal tergite V,
hind legs distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora very indistinctly compressed and curved
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 37
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
basally. Basitarsus 2.5x longer than second tarsomere.
(Fig. 45): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 21.023.5 mm), abdominal
segments IIVII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but pro- and mesothorax more gently broadened towards the posterior. Pronotum
slightly more slender but longer than head. Mesonotum 1.7x longer than wide. Metanotum and median seg-
ment combined 1.5x longer than wide. Metanotum 1.5x wider than long.
FIGURES 4448. Malacomorpha minima n. sp. 44) PT (CMNH), 45) HT (CMNH), 46) apex of abdomen in lat-
eral view, 47) vomer, 48) apex of abdomen in lateral view.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.31.4x longer than head and thorax combined. Sur-
face and granulation as in . Median segment 1.5x wider than long. Tergites VIII and IX gently broadened
towards the posterior. IIVII are the longest and most slender, IX is the shortest, IIVII almost rectangular,
VIII and IX transverse 1.51.8x wider than long. Anal segment broader than previous tergites, about 1.8x
wider than long. Posterior margin rounded but not laterally expanded and without median indentation. Sterni-
tes IIVII simple and smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and flat, slightly spoon-like, reaching the ante-
rior margin of anal segment, posterior margin rounded. Vomer as long as wide, triangular, with apex broadly
rounded.
CONLE ET AL.
38 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Legs: As in , but profemora 1.61.7x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching towards the centre
of abdominal tergite VII.
Comments: Eggs unknown.
TABLE 8. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha minima n. sp.
Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp.
(Figs. 4955, 88)
HT, : Dominican Republic, RD-135 ~7 km on way to Caseta no. 1, Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco,
Independencia Prov., 18°17.711’N 71°34.335’W, 777 m, 3.vii.2003, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro, (day)
(USNM).
PT, 1 , 4 eggs: Dominican Republic, RD-135 ~7 km on way to Caseta no. 1, Parque Nacional Sierra de
Bahoruco, Independencia Prov., 18°17.711’N 71°34.335’W, 777 m, 3.vii.2003, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B.
Hierro, (day) (USNM).
PT, 3 , 1 , 5 eggs: Dominican Republic, RD-153 La Poza de Agua Nueva, El Curro, Sierra Martín
García, Azua Prov., 18°18.324’N 70°57.176’W, ~800 m, 1516.vii.2003, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro.
(day/night) (USNM).
PT, 1 : Dominican Republic, RD-271 4 5 km S Puerto Escondido, on trail to Caseta 1, P N Sierra de
Bahoruco, Independencia prov., ~950 m, 14.vii.2004, D. Perez (d) (USNM).
PT, 2 nymphs: Dominican Republic, RD-217 ~5 km S Cabral, near road to Polo, Barahona prov., 411 m,
18º11.273’N 71º14.970’W, 9.iv.2004, D. Perez, B. Hierro, R. Bastardo. (d) (USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, Puerto Escondido, Independencia Prov., 18°19.6’N 71°55’W, 777 m,
24.III.1999, D. E. Perez (USNM).
PT, 1 , 13 nymphs: Dominican Republic, 2 km N. Puerto Escondido, Independencia Prov., 18°19.6’N
71°55’W, 777 m, 24.III.1999, D. E. Perez (USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 , several eggs: Dominican Republic, Independencia Prov., Puerto Escondido, 427 m,
12.viii.2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro (USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 , several eggs: Dominican Republic, Independencia Prov., Puerto Escondido, 18°19.372’N
71°34.014’W, 427 m, 12.viii.2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro (USNM).
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha minima n. sp.
HT, (CMNH) PT, (CMNH) PT, (CMNH)
Body: 23.5 21.0–23.2 33.5–37.0
Pronotum: 2.3 2.2–2.4 3.2–3.5
Mesonotum: 4.3 4.4–4.5 6.0–6.9
Metanotum: 1.8 2.0–2.2 3.0–3.1
Median segment: 1.8 2.1–2.2 2.9–3.0
Profemora: 6.7 6.7–7.2 9.1–9.5
Mesofemora: 6.1 5.9–6.3 7.7–8.1
Metafemora: 8.3 7.3–8.0 10.0–10.7
Protibiae: 7.4 7.2–7.5 8.7–9.5
Mesotibiae: 6.3 5.7–5.9 7.4–7.7
Metatibiae: 9.1 8.7–8.8 10.9–11.8
Antennae: >22.0 >10.0 >20.0
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 39
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Distribution: Hispaniola, Dominican Republic (Independencia Province; Azua Province & Barahona
Province).
Etymology: The name “multipunctata” is a combination of the two latin words “multi” (= many) and
punctatus” (= punctured) and refers to the numerous small, pale spots and speckles found on body and legs
of this new species.
Differentiation: Well characterized and differing from all other species of the genus by: the very short,
vestigial alae, which are at best as long as mesonotum and project only slightly over the posterior margin of
the metanotum, and numerous white spots and speckles of the body and legs of both sexes.
Otherwise very similar to M. spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838), but differing by: the slightly shorter legs in
comparisson to the body; the very short alae being at best as long as mesonotum, only slightly projecting the
posterior margin of metanotum; and different coloration of both sexes.
The eggs are characteristic for their small size, very elongate capsule (> 2x longer than wide) and plain
colouration. The eggs are similar to the eggs of Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp. and Malacomorpha spinicollis
(Burmeister, 1838). From Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp. they differ by: the stronger venation of the capsule,
the nearly circular micropylar plate and the distinctly shorter median line. From Malacomorpha spinicollis
(Burmeister, 1838) they differ by: the more slender and less bulgy capsule.
Description: (Figs. 49 & 88): Medium sized to large (body length 41.060.0 mm), robust with a
moderately bulgy abdomen. Very small rudiments of tegmina and small elongate alae, at best as long as met-
anotum, present. Legs slender and long, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae
long and slender, reaching towards posterior end of abdomen. Body surface minutely tuberculose and rugu-
lose, not shiny except dorsal surface of abdomen; pronotum bearing a few minute and indistinct small gran-
ules in the posterior half, mesonotum bearing several more distinct granules and little spines, roughly
arranged in four longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Basic colouration of body varying a lot intraspecifi-
cally, in general brown to dark brown, overlaid with many cream to whitish speckles, spots and broken longi-
tudinal lines. In some specimens an indistinct, dark longitudinal dorsomedian line runs along the complete
dorsal surface of the head and body. Head coloured as the body, but within some specimens showing many
longitudinal cream lines. Antennae irregularly annulated, the antennomeres being yellowish drab basally and
brown apically. Eyes marbled in black and mid brown. Costal region of small alae brown, anal region translu-
cent. Legs brown to dark-brown overlaid with many small yellow to cream speckles.
Head: Hardly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally, smooth. Minute rudi-
ments of ocelli present. Eyes roughly circular, projecting hemispherical, their length contained 1.51.8x in
that of cheek. Antennae long and slender, reaching towards posterior end of abdomen. Scapus almost 1.5x
longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus hardly
longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than following antenno-
meres. Third antennomere elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus combined, IV distinctly shorter.
Remaining antennomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Prothorax slightly, meso- and metathorax distinctly broadened towards the
posterior. Pronotum longer and more slender than head, 1.5x longer than wide, and slightly broadened
towards the posterior. Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands.
Bearing several small tubercles and granules in the posterior half. Transverse median depression indistinct and
slightly displaced towards anterior third of segment. Median line slightly impressed. Mesonotum wider and
about 1.5x longer than pronotum, 1.4x longer than wide and very distinctly broadening towards the posterior.
Bearing several tubercles and spines roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal rows in
the anterior half. Metanotum and median segment combined slightly longer and wider than mesonotum. Met-
anotum and median segment combined hardly 1.5x longer than wide, broadened towards posterior end. Met-
anotum transverse, 2x wider than long and 0.7x as long as median segment. Slightly impressed median line
continued from the mesonotum. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median segment distinct and
CONLE ET AL.
40 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
almost straight. Very small rudiments of tegmina and very small alae present. Alae at best as long as mesono-
tum, slightly projecting the posterior margin of metanotum, 34x longer than wide. Pro-, meso- and metaster-
num and pro- meso- and metaepisternum simple and gently rugulose.
Abdomen: 1.61.8x longer than head and complete thorax combined, moderately bulgy and gradually
tapered towards the apex. Surface smooth and partly shiny. Median segment slightly longer than metanotum,
slightly wider than long, transverse. Tergites parallel-sided. IIVII the widest and longest, VIIIX the most
slender and VIII & IX the shortest. IIVII rectangular to transverse 11.5x wider than long, VIIIIX 1.51.8x
wider than long. Tergites IIX each with a minute faint posteromedian tubercle or hump. Sternites IIVI sim-
ple and smooth, except VII bearing a small black praeopercular organ. Anal segment constricted towards
apex, slightly narrower than IX, about as wide as long, with an indistinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral
margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate
apex not visible. Subgenital plate boat-shaped, with faint ventromedian longitudinal impression, reaching
towards the posterior margin of anal segment, minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci small, short, posteri-
orly constricted and pointed, slightly broadened at the base; finely bristled.
FIGURES 4955. Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp. 49) PT (USNM), 50) HT (USNM), 51) apex of abdomen
in lateral view, 52) vomer, 53) apex of abdomen in lateral view, 54) egg in dorsal view, 55) egg in lateral view.
Legs: Slender and long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profemora 2x
longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching towards the anterior third of abdominal tergite VI, hind legs
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 41
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
distinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora very indistinctly compressed and curved basally. Basi-
tarsus 2.53.0x longer than second tarsomere.
(Figs. 50 & 88): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 30.237.7 mm),
abdominal segments IIVII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but pro-, meso- and metathorax less distinctly broadened towards the posterior. Prono-
tum parallel-sided. Metanotum 1.5 x wider than long. Mesosternum bearing a longitudinal carina.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.61.8x longer than head and thorax combined. Sur-
face and granulation as in . Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior
and broader than previous. IIVII are the longest and narrowest, 1.21.4x longer than wide, VIII 2.0x wider
than long, IX the is shortest, 2.0x wider than long. Anal segment broader than previous tergites, about 1.5x
wider than long. Posterior margin rounded, swollen and laterally expanded, with a small median indentation.
Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and rather flat, slightly spoon-like, reach-
ing the posterior margin of tergite IX. Posterior margin rounded, with a small triangular incision medially.
Vomer longer than wide, parallel-sided basally, with apex broadly rounded; outer margin swollen.
Legs: As in .
Eggs (Figs. 5455): Rather small and conspicuously elongate for the genus. Capsule barrel-shaped, 2.0
2.2x longer than wide, almost circular in cross-section. Polar-area with a distinct impression if seen in lateral
aspect. Anterior margin of capsule unarmed. Surface of capsule minutely granulose and overlaid by irregular,
raised net-like structures and ridges. Two very shallow and irregular dorsal longitudinal bulges reach from the
anterior end of the micropylar plate to the anterior margin of the capsule. Micropylar plate small, almost circu-
lar and about 1/5 the length of capsule; surface smooth and flat. Micropylar cup small, elongate and posi-
tioned at posterior margin of micropylar plate. Median line short and hardly visible. Operculum oval, slightly
convex and with a small, blunt hump in the centre; otherwise sculptured like capsule but sculpturing less dis-
tinct. General colouration plain yellowish pale brown to mid brown or beige. Some eggs with a dark longitu-
dinal median line along the ventral surface. Micropylar plate of the same colour as capsule.
Measurements [mm]: length 2.83.2, width 1.6, height 1.41.8, length of micropylar plate 0.60.7.
TABLE 9. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp.
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp.
HT, (ANSP) PT, (USNM) PT, (USNM)
Body: 34.0 30.2–37.7 41.0–60.0
Pronotum: 3.2 3.2–3.7 4.1–5.1
Mesonotum: 4.6 4.2–5.0 5.7–7.5
Metanotum: 2.5 2.0–3.0 3.5–4.6
Median segment: 3.5 2.8–3.6 4.3–5.5
Tegmina: - - -
Alae: 2.6 2.1–3.2 3.3–3.8
Profemora: 9.9 8.4–9.6 11.9–14.3
Mesofemora: 7.1 6.9–7.4 9.2–11.6
Metafemora: 10.8 10.1–10.8 13.1–17.8
Protibiae: 9.9 8.9–10.3 13.3–15.4
Mesotibiae: 7.9 6.7–8.1 10.2–12.2
Metatibiae: 11.9 10.8–12.0 14.6–18.7
Antennae: 35.0 30.0–38.0 >38.0–58.0
CONLE ET AL.
42 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Comments: The specimens from Poza de Agua Nueva, Sierra Martin Garcia were collected on the plant
Chiococca alba (Rubiaceae). At Caseta no. 1 phasmids were found at night on the ground, on the outer walls
of the house and on the plants Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) and Exostena spp. (Rubiaceae).
Malacomorpha obscura n. sp.
(Figs. 5662, 89)
HT, : Dominican Republic, Pedernales, 9.7km NE Los Arroyos, 18-16N, 71-44W, 2070m, 1516 July 1990,
J.E. Rawlins, C.W. Young, S.A.Thompson (CMNH).
PT, 9 , 8 : Dominican Republic, Pedernales, 9.7km NE Los Arroyos, 18-16N, 71-44W, 2070m, 15
16 July 1990, J.E. Rawlins, C.W. Young, S.A.Thompson (CMNH).
PT, 2 , 3 : Dominican Republic, La Independencia, 15km NE Los Arroyos (Pedernales), summit of
Sierra de Bahoruco, 2260m, 19 July 1987, R. Davidson, J. Rawlins (CMNH).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, Independencia, 3km ESE El´Aguacate, north slope Sierra de Baho-
ruco, 1980m, 18-18N, 71-42W, 28.29. September 1991, J. Rawlins, R. Davidson, C. Young, S. Thompson,
Pine woodland (CMNH).
PT, 2 , 2 : Dominican Republic, Pedernales, 5km NE Los Arroyos, 1680m, 18-15N, 71-45W,
30.September 1991, R. Davidson, C. Young, S. Thompson, J. Rawlins (CMNH).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, Pedernales, 8km NE Los Arroyos, 18-16N, 71-44W, 1940m, 14 July
1990, J. Rawlins, C.W. Young, S.A.Thompson (CMNH).
PT, 1 (nymph): Dominican Republic, Pedernales, Cabo Rojo, 17-55N, 71-39W, 10m, 20 July 1990,
C.W. Young, J.E.Rawlins, S. Thompson (CMNH).
PT, 1 : Dominican Republic, Pedernales, La Abeja, 38km NNW Cabo Rojo, (18-09N, 71-38W, 1250m,
15 July 1987, J.Rawlins, R. Davidson (CMNH).
PT, 2 , 1 , 1 egg: Dominican Republic, Pedernales, La Abeja, 38km NNW Cabo Rojo, (18-09N, 71-
38W, 1160m, 13 July 1987, J.Rawlins, R. Davidson (CMNH).
PT, 2 , 1 , 1 (nymph): Dominican Republic, La Independencia, Sierra de Bahoruco, Loma del Toro,
18-17-16N, 71-42-46W, 2310m, 7.8. Nov. 2002, W.A. Zanol, C.W. Young, C. Staresinic, J. Rawlins,
meadow in the pine woods, hand collected, Sample 40149 (CMNH).
PT, 4 nymphs: Dominican Republic, La Independencia, Sierra de Bahoruco, Loma del Toro, 5.3km SW
El Aguacate, 18-17-16N, 71-42-46W, 2316m, 29.30. Mar. 2004, C. Young, R. Davidson, J. Rawlins, Pinus,
Garrya montane forest, hand collected, Sample 43243 (CMNH).
PT, 1 , 1 : Dominican Republic, La Independencia, Sierra de Bahoruco, north slope, 13.3km SE Puerto
Escondido, 18-12-33N, 71-30-47W, 1812m, 24.25. Nov. 2004, J. Rawlins, C.W. Young, C. Nunez, V. Verde-
cia, W. Zanol, Pinus, Rubus, Garrya open, hand collected, Sample 41345 (CMNH).
PT, 2 , 2 : Dominican Republic, La Altagracia, Parque del Este, 2.9km SW Boca de Yuma, 18-21-
51N, 68-37-05W, 11m, 28. May 2004, J. Rawlins, C. Young, C. Nunez, J. Fetzner, semihumid dry forest,
limestone, UV light, Sample 52114 (CMNH).
PT, 7 , 2 , 1 (nymph): Dominican Republic, Independencia Prov., Loma del Toro, Caseta 5 of
P.N. Sierra de Bahoruco, 18°19.270’N 71°40.576’W, 2357m, 12.viii.2006, D. Perez, R. Bastardo, B. Hierro
(USNM).
Distribution: Hispaniola, Dominican Republic (Pedernales; La Independencia & La Altagracia).
Etymology: The name (obscurus lat. = dark) refers to the dark colouration of this new species.
Differentiation: Similar to Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906, Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp.,
and Malacomorpha minima n. sp.. Easily separated from all these species by the laterally constricted anal seg-
ment of .
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 43
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
From the first it additionally differs by: the more slender femora, longer cerci and different colouration of
body and antennae in both sexes; and the more spoon-shaped subgenital plate of .
From Malacomorpha bastardoae n. sp. it may also be distinguished by: the more robust body, more
robust and shorter legs and antennae and paler colouration of both sexes; and more slender vomer of .
From Malacomorpha minima n. sp. it also differs by: the more robust body; more robust and shorter legs
and antennae and different colouration of both sexes.
The ovoid egg capsule resembles M. bastardoae n. sp. but the very small, oval micropylar plate clearly
distinguish the eggs from those of this species.
Description: (Figs. 56 & 89): Small (body length 33.549.5 mm), very robust for the genus with a
rather bulgy abdomen. Legs stout and short, distinctly carinated; all carinae and tarsi covered with minute
setae. Antennae slender and relatively long, reaching abdominal tergite VII. Body surface smooth but wrin-
kled, except mesonotum bearing several minute tubercles roughly arranged in two to four longitudinal rows.
Ventral surface of thorax and abdomen densely covered with minute setae. Basic colouration of body dark
brown. Only a very few specimen bearing some minute yellowish markings on the thorax. Basal quarter of
antennae black, remaining parts yellowish. Eyes brown to dark brown. Yellow postocular line present within a
very few specimens. Mandibles, maxillas, clypeus and labrum yellowish to reddish. Legs dark brown, indis-
tinctly overlaid with a few paler spots and patches. Tarsi reddish-brown to yellowish-brown.
Head: Large, hardly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally, smooth.
Minute rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes small, roughly circular, slightly projecting hemispherical, their
length contained 2.53x in that of cheek. Antennae slender and long, reaching to abdominal tergite VII. Sca-
pus 1.3x longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus
1.5x longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than following antenno-
meres. Third antennomere as long as pedicellus, IV slightly shorter. Remaining antennomeres increasing in
length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Round in cross-section. Pronotum as wide and as long as the head, 1.11.2x longer than wide,
broadened towards the posterior. Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defen-
sive glands. Transverse median depression distinct and displaced to anterior third of segment. Mesonotum
wider and 1.51.7x longer than pronotum, 1.41.5x longer than wide, parallel-sided. Bearing several tubercles
roughly arranged in two dorsolateral and two lateral longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Metanotum and
median segment as wide as posterior of mesonotum and combined about 0.8x as long. Metanotum rectangular,
almost 2.5x wider than long and longer than median segment. Transverse fissure between metanotum and
median segment distinct and almost straight. Pro-, meso- and metasternum and pro-, meso- and metaepister-
num simple and very gently rugulose.
Abdomen: 1.3x longer than head and complete thorax combined, bulgy and gradually tapered towards the
apex. Median segment slightly shorter than metanotum, about 3x wider than long, rectangular and as long as
the following segments. Tergites IIIV widest, VVII longest, X narrowest and shortest. IIX transverse,
increasing in length towards tergite VII, IIVI 45x, VII 4x, VIIIIX 3x, anal segment 2x wider than long.
Anal segment tapered towards apex, narrower than IX, with a distinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral
margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate
apex not visible. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. Subgenital plate relatively large and spoon-shaped,
hardly reaching to posterior margin of tergite X, smooth except for minute setae, apex pointed, ventrally with
a faint longitudinal groove. Cerci small, straight, cylindrical, gradually constricted towards the apex, slightly
broadened at the base and finely bristled.
Legs: Rather short and robust, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled. Pro-
femora slightly longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching to posterior margin of abdominal tergite IVV,
and hind legs considerably projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora very indistinctly compressed and
curved basally. Basitarsus 2.02.5x longer than second tarsomere.
CONLE ET AL.
44 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
(Figs. 57 & 89): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 22.029.7 mm),
abdominal segments IIVII parallel-sided. General body surface and coloration as in .
Head: Generally as in but antennae reaching to abdominal tergite X.
Thorax: As in , but metanotum 2.0x wider than long.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.11.3x longer than head and thorax combined. Sur-
face and granulation as in . Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior
and broader than previous. IIIX transverse, IIIV 3x, VIX 2x wider than long. Anal segment broader than
previous tergites, about 2x wider than long. Posterior margin rounded, laterally constricted. Sternites IIVII
simple and smooth. Cerci as in .
Poculum small and rather flat, slightly spoon-like and hardly projecting the posterior margin of tergite IX,
posterior margin rounded. Vomer basally as wide as long, triangular and with the apex strongly constricted but
rounded at the tip.
FIGURES 5662. Malacomorpha obscura n. sp. 56) PT (CMNH), 57) HT (CMNH), 58) apex of abdomen in lat-
eral view, 59) vomer, 60) apex of abdomen in lateral view, 61) egg in dorsal view, 62) egg in lateral view.
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 45
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Legs: Generally as in .
Eggs (Figs. 6162): Of moderate size for the genus. Capsule ovoid, 1.6x longer than wide and almost cir-
cular in cross-section. Polar-area very indistinctly flattened, anterior margin of capsule simple. Surface of cap-
sule minutely granulose and covered with small humps which become more numerous towards the micropylar
plate. Micropylar plate very small, oval, about 1.4x longer than wide and about 1/6 the length of capsule;
almost smooth and flat. Micropylar cup very small and positioned close to the posterior margin of micropylar
plate. Median line hardly visible. Operculum oval, flat and structured like capsule. General colouration pale
creamish brown with a few shallow darker markings. Micropylar plate coloured like capsule.
Measurements [mm]: length 2.9, width 1.7, height 1.8, length of micropylar plate 0.6.
TABLE 10. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha obscura n. sp.
Malacomorpha poeyi (Saussure, 1868) n. comb.
(Figs. 6367)
Anophelepis poeyi Saussure, 1868: 67. LT, : Cuba, acheté a M. Poey (MHNG); PLT, : Cuba, acheté a M. Poey
(MHNG). [examined]
Saussure, 1870: 171, pl. 4: 18 & 18a ( ).
Stal, 1875: 56.
Agathemera (?) poeyi, Kirby, 1904: 402.
Alloeophasma poeyi, Redtenbacher, 1906: 126.
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 18, pl. 5: 5253 ( , ), pl. 12: 119120 (genitalia). [Designation of lectotype]
Zompro & Brock, 2003: 19, figs. 58 ( ) & 59 ( ). [Unnecessary lectotype designation]
Zompro, 2004: 142, figs. 81a ( ) & 81b ( ).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 388.
Anisomorpha poeyi, Bolivar, 1888: 141.
Langlois & Lelong, 1996: 20.
Phasma cubensis Saussure, 1868: 69. LT, : Cuba, acheté a M. Poey (MHNG); PLT, : Cuba, acheté a M. Poey
(MHNG); PLT, 2 : Cuba, M. H. de Saussure (MHNG). [Synonymised by Redtenbacher, 1906: 126] [examined]
Saussure, 1870: 195, pl. 4: 23 ( ).
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 18, pl. 5: 53 ( PLT) & pl. 12: 120 ( genitalia). [Designation of lectotype]
Zompro & Brock, 2003: 10, fig. 59 ( LT).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 389.
Phasma cubense, Bolivar, 1888: 141.
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha obscura n. sp.
HT, (CMNH) PT, (CMNH) PT, (CMNH)
Body: 24.3 22.0–29.7 33.5–49.5
Pronotum: 2.5 2.3–3.5 4.0–5.3
Mesonotum: 4.6 4.4–5.3 6.5–8.7
Metanotum: 2.0 2.0–2.4 2.9–4.1
Median segment: 1.6 1.5–2.0 2.7–3.3
Profemora: 6.8 5.5–7.6 7.2–9.0
Mesofemora: 5.6 4.8–6.4 6.8–8.0
Metafemora: 7.5 6.5–8.9 8.7–10.3
Protibiae: 7.1 5.6–7.9 7.2–9.7
Mesotibiae: 6.2 5.4–6.6 6.5–8.5
Metatibiae: 8.7 6.9–9.8 9.3–11.9
Antennae: >23.0 25.0–28.0 25.0–35.0
CONLE ET AL.
46 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Zompro, 2004: 143, fig. 81a ( ).
Pseudophasma cubense, Kirby, 1904: 413.
Material examined [1 , 1 ]: 1 , 1 : Cuba, Trinidad, 15.II.1989, at night with lamps on limestone edge;
BMNH (E) 2005-98; Alloeophasma poeyi (Saussure, 1868), det. P.D.Brock 2005, BMHN (E) 2005-98
(BMNH).
Distribution: Cuba (Trinidad & Camagüey, Jaronú [Moxey, 1972: 34]).
Differentiation: From all other species of the genus it is distinguished by the extremely elongate body
and legs.
With Malacomorpha multipunctata n. sp. it shares the very short alae of the , but differs by: the
extremely elongate body and legs; the presence of small tegmina; the different coloration of both sexes; the
fully developed alae and tegmina in the .
Description: (Fig. 63): Large (body length 50.554.7 mm), very slender with elongate abdomen.
Small, roughly circular tegmina and small elongate alae, as long as metanotum, present. Legs slender and very
long for the genus, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae long and slender,
reaching towards posterior end of abdomen. Body surface minutely tuberculose and rugulose, not shiny;
mesonotum bearing several more distinct granules in the anterior half. Basic colouration of body brown to
dark brown, overlaid with several indistinct longitudinal dark or pale broken lines and many cream to whitish
speckles; indistinct, dark longitudinal dorsomedian line running along the complete dorsal surface of the head
and body. Indistinct, dark brown postocular line present. Antennae uniformly brown to mid-brown. Eyes mar-
bled in black and mid brown. Tegmina and alae in gerneral of same color as body, bearing cream veins. Legs
brown to dark-brown overlaid with drab yellowish speckles.
Head: 1.21.3x longer than wide, oval in cross-section and distinctly flattened dorsally, smooth. Minute
rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes roughly circular, projecting hemispherical, their length contained 2.53x in
that of cheek. Antennae long and slender, reaching towards posterior end of abdomen. Scapus almost 2x
longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus hardly
longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than following antenno-
meres. Third antennomere elongate, as long as scapus and pedicellus combined, IV distinctly shorter. Remain-
ing antennomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval to roughly circular in cross-section. More or less parallel-sided; mesothorax increasing in
height towards posterior. Pronotum longer and more slender than head, more than 1.5x longer than wide, and
parallel-sided. Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Trans-
verse median depression indistinct and slightly displaced towards anterior third of segment. Median line
slightly impressed. Mesonotum wider and at least 2x longer than pronotum, 2.53.0x longer than wide and
very slightly broadening from the posterior third towards the posterior end. Bearing several tubercles in the
anterior half. Metanotum and median segment combined as long as, but slightly wider than mesonotum; 2.5x
longer than wide, parallel-sided. Metanotum transverse, 1.5x wider than long and slightly shorter than median
segment. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median segment distinct and almost straight. Very small
rudiments of tegmina and very small alae present. Tegmina roughly circular. Alae about as long as mesono-
tum, reaching the posterior margin of metanotum, 34x longer than wide. Pro-, meso- and metasternum and
pro- meso- and metaepisternum simple and gently rugulose.
Abdomen: 2x longer than head and complete thorax combined; very slender and nearly cylindrical;
minutely tuberculose to smooth. Median segment slightly longer than metanotum, slightly longer than wide.
Tergites parallel-sided with a small pointed apex at the posterolateral angles. IIVI the widest and longest,
VIIIX the most slender and VIII & IX the shortest. IIVII 1.5x longer than wide, VIIIIX at least as wide as
long. Sternites IIVI simple and smooth, except VII bearing a small praeopercular organ. Anal segment con-
stricted towards apex, slightly narrower than IX, slightly longer than wide, with an indistinct longitudinal
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 47
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
median carina. Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate
very small with angulate apex hardly visible from dorsal view. Subgenital plate small, boat-shaped, reaching
towards the posterior margin of tergite IX, minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci small, short, posteriorly
constricted and pointed, slightly broadened at the base; finely bristled.
Legs: Slender and very long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled. Profem-
ora 1.82.2x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching towards the centre of abdominal tergite V, hind
legs not projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora very distinctly compressed and curved basally. Basitar-
sus 3.0x longer than second tarsomere.
FIGURES 6367. Malacomorpha poeyi (Saussure, 1868) n. comb. 63) (BMNH), 64) (BMNH), 65) apex of abdo-
men in lateral view, 66) vomer, 67) apex of abdomen in lateral view.
(Fig. 64): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 33.040.1mm), alae fully
developed, reaching towards tergite VIVII. General colouration as in . Tegmina and costal region of alae
pale brown with fine cream to dark longitudinal lines. Anal region of alae translucent.
Head: Generally as in , but eyes projecting more hemispherical.
Thorax: As in , but mesonotum at least 3x longer than wide, 2.5x longer than pronotum. Metanotum
and median segment combined moderately longer than wide and broader than mesonotum, shiny. Transverse
fissure between metanotum and median segment indistinct. Tegmina short and oval, strongly convex, bearing
fine veins, projecting the posterior margin of mesonotum. Alae reaching towards the posterior end of tergite
VIVII.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, nearly 2.5x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface
and granulation as in , but mesonotum with smoother surface. Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX
broadening towards the posterior and broader than previous. IIVII are the longest and narrowest, 3x longer
than wide, VIII & IX are the shortest, about as wide as long. Anal segment broader than previous tergites,
about as wide as long. Posterior margin swollen and laterally expanded with two very distinct posterolateral
CONLE ET AL.
48 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
apices, pointed towards the posterior. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and
very flat, reaching to the posterior margin of tergite IX. Posterior margin rounded, with a small pointed apex
medially. Vomer longer than wide, parallel-sided basally, with apex broadly rounded; outer margin swollen.
Legs: As in .
Comments: Saussure (1868: 67 & 69) described his two new Cuban species Anophelepis poeyi from the
and Phasma cubensis from the being not aware they were the opposite sexes of the same species. Redten-
bacher (1906: 126) recognized the conspecifity of these two taxa, synonymised Phasma cubensis with Anoph-
elepis poeyi, and established the new genus Alloeophasma to contain A. poeyi (Saussure). Alloeophasma
Redtenbacher is here shown to be a synonym of Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 (n. syn.). Lectotypes were desig-
nated for both species by Conle & Hennemann (2002: 19) who furthermore presented detailed descriptions
and illustrations of both sexes. Hence, the designation of a LT for A. poeyi by Zompro & Brock (2003: 19)
was unnecessary and is invalid. The lectotype label attached to one of the 4 syntypes of A. poeyi in
MHNG was not published and is therefore invalid. Illustrations of the lectotypes of A. poeyi and P. cubensis
were provided by Zompro & Brock (2003) and Zompro (2004). Eggs unknown.
TABLE 11. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha poeyi (Saussure, 1868).
Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp.
(Figs. 6874, 90)
Anisomorpha jamaicana ?, Wolcott, 1936: 35.
Wolcott, 1948: 50.
Wolcott, 1951: 50.
HT, : Puerto Rico, Guanica State Forest, 1.5 km from the coastline, Vereda de Ballenas, 100m, under tree
bark and inside rotting wood, including Bursera simaruba and Bucida buceras, 2.2006, leg. A. Sanchez
(ZSMC).
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha poeyi
, LT
(MHNG) , PLT
(MHNG) , LT of
Ph.cubensis
(MHNG)
, PLT of
Ph.cubensis
(MHNG)
(BMNH)
(BMNH)
Body: 50.5 54.7 37.2 33.0–40.1 54.3 33.6
Pronotum: 3.8 4.1 2.3 2.6–2.3 3.9 2.1
Mesonotum: 7.3 7.8 5.0 5.0–5.1 5.9 4.3
Metanotum: 3.9 3.6 2.6 2.5–2.9 5.3 -
Median segment: 5.3 5.3 4.0 3.8–4.1 3.8 -
Tegmina: 2.3 2.0 2.4 1.8–2.6 3.0 2.0
Alae: 4.1 4.3 22.4 20.3–25.7 4.4 18.8
Profemora: 12.8 13.5 - 8.7–11.0 12.8 8.8
Mesofemora: 8.5 10.5 7.0 5.6–7.3 9.1 6.1
Metafemora: 13.1 14.5 10.4 8.1–11.2 13.0 9.1
Protibiae: 12.4 14.2 - 8.9–11.0 13.1 8.9
Mesotibiae: 8.6 10.6 6.5 5.6–6.8 9.5 5.6
Metatibiae: 12.9 14.9 10.2 8.8–11.3 14.1 8.7
Antennae: >20.0 >40.0 - - >38.0 >25.0
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 49
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
PT, 1 : Puerto Rico, Guanica State Forest, 1.5 km from the coastline, Vereda de Ballenas, 100m, under
tree bark and inside rotting wood, including Bursera simaruba and Bucida buceras, 2.2006, leg. A. Sanchez
(ZSMC).
PT, 3 , 1 , 5 nymphs: Puerto Rico, Guanica State Forest, 1.5 km from the coastline, Vereda de Balle-
nas, 100m, under tree bark and inside rotting wood, including Bursera simaruba and Bucida buceras, 2.2006,
leg. A. Sanchez (USNM).
PT, 1 , 1 , 1 egg: Puerto Rico, Guanica State Forest, 1.5 km from the coastline, Vereda de Ballenas,
100m, under tree bark and inside rotting wood, including Bursera simaruba and Bucida buceras, 2.2006, leg.
A. Sanchez (OC).
Distribution: Puerto Rico (Guanica State Forest). Only known from the type-locality.
Etymology: The species is dedicated to father Alejandro Sánchez (Puerto Rico), for kindly collecting and
providing the type-specimens and taking photographs of the live insects.
Differentiation: The only species of the genus found in Puerto Rico, which geographically separates it
from the other species of the genus. The species is similar to Malacomorpha macaya n. sp. & Malacomorpha
minima n. sp., with which it has the shiny body surface in common, although it is easily distinguished from
these by the obviously larger and more robust body shape and the different colouration.
The eggs differ from the other eggs with an oval micropylar plate, by the very long and prominent median
line, which almost reaches the polar-area.
Description: The colouration is described from photos of live specimens.
(Figs. 68 & 90): Medium sized (body length 48.049.5 mm), rather robust for the genus with a rather
bulgy abdomen. Rudiments of tegmina and alae lacking. Legs stout and not very long, distinctly carinated;
very smooth, hardly any setae present. Antennae slender but not very long, hardly reaching towards the anal
segment. Body surface completely smooth and shiny; only mesonotum bearing a few minute tubercles
roughly arranged in two longitudinal rows. Basic colouration of body and legs lurid pale brown, overlaid with
many minute dark brown speckles, broken lines and patches. A prominent, black longitudinal dorsomedian
line runs along the complete dorsal surface of the head and body. In some specimens this line can be inter-
rupted on the abdomen and only the faint posteromedian tubercles or humps on the tergites show a black
marking. Head with several indistinct, pale and dark brown longitudinal dorsolateral lines and a dark postocu-
lar line. Antennae irregularly brown and yellow annulated. Eyes marbled in black and pale brown. Metaepis-
ternum cream to pale beige. Legs pale to dark brown with indistinct yellowish mottling.
Head: Small in relation to the body, slightly longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened
dorsally. Vertex very minutely granulated, very small rudiments of ocelli present. Eyes large, roughly circular,
projecting hemispherical, their length contained 1.72.0x in that of cheek. Antennae hardly reaching the anal
segment. Scapus 1.5x longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly cari-
nated. Pedicellus hardly longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than
following antennomeres. Third antennomere elongate, almost as long as scapus and pedicellus combined, IV
distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres increasing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Oval in cross-section. Pro-, meso- and metathorax slightly broadened towards the posterior.
Pronotum 1.21.4x longer than wide, longer and as wide as the head, slightly broadened towards the posterior.
Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median
depression V- or W-shaped, placed in the centre of segment. Median line slightly impressed. Mesonotum
wider and about 1.7x longer than pronotum, 1.5x longer than wide and gently broadening towards the poste-
rior, the increase in width being continuous with that of the pronotum. Bearing very minute tubercles roughly
arranged in two dorsolateral longitudinal rows in the anterior half. Metanotum and median segment as wide as
posterior of mesonotum and combined of equal length. Metanotum and median segment combined hardly
1.31.4x longer than wide, slightly broadened towards posterior end. Metanotum transverse, wider than long
and as long as median segment. Transverse fissure between metanotum and median segment distinct and
CONLE ET AL.
50 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
straight. Rudiments of tegmina and alae absent. Meso- and metaepisternum smooth. Pro-, meso- and metaster-
num simple, smooth and shiny.
Abdomen: 1.41.5x longer than head and complete thorax combined, bulgy and gradually tapered
towards the apex. Surface smooth and shiny. Segments parallel sided. Median segment as long as metanotum,
wider than long, rectangular. Tergites IIVI widest and longest, X narrowest and shortest. IIVII transverse,
being 34x wider than long, VIIIIX transverse, being 22.5x wider than long. Tergites IIX each with a
small faint posteromedian tubercle or hump. Sternites IIVI simple and smooth, VII bearing a small black
praeopercular organ. Anal segment tapered towards apex, narrower than IX, about 1.5x wider than long, with
a very indistinct longitudinal median carina. Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the bases of
the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate apex just visible. Subgenital plate boat-shaped, hardly
reaching towards the posterior margin of anal segment, apex pointed. Cerci small, short, slightly incurving,
and gradually constricted towards the apex, which is slightly thickened and club-like; finely bristled.
Legs: Stout and relatively short, distinctly carinated, unarmed and smooth. Profemora 1.21.3x longer
than mesothorax, metafemora reaching towards the posterior margin of abdominal tergite V, hind legs dis-
tinctly projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora indistinctly compressed and curved basally. Basitarsus
2.5x longer than second tarsomere.
(Figs. 69 & 90): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 30.032.9 mm),
abdominal segments IIVII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
Thorax: As in , but pro-, meso- and metathorax less distinctly broadened towards the posterior.
Mesonotum 1.71.9 x longer than pronotum, at least 2x longer than wide. Metanotum and median segment
combined more than 1.5x longer than wide.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.5x longer than head and thorax combined. Surface
and granulation as in . Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior and
broader than previous. II transverse and 1.5x wider than long, IIIVII longest and roughly quadrate, IX the
shortest. VIII and IX 1.52.0x wider than long. IX broadest, slightly broader than anal segment. Anal segment
about 2x wider than long. Posterior margin rounded, swollen and laterally expanded, with a small faint
median indentation. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and rather flat,
slightly spoon-like, reaching the posterior margin of tergite IX. Posterior margin rounded, with a small trian-
gular incision medially. Vomer longer than wide, slightly triangular, tapered towards the apex, with apex
broadly rounded; outer margin swollen.
Legs: As in .
Eggs (Figs. 7374): Of average size for the genus. Capsule barrel-shaped, about 2x longer than wide and
oval in cross-section. Lateral surfaces very gently convex. If seen in lateral aspect, polar-area with a distinct
median impression and swollen posteroventrally. Anterior margin of capsule slightly raised and simple. Sur-
face of capsule irregularly granulose and tuberculose, the sculpturing become increasingly prominent towards
the polar end of capsule. Micropylar plate small, oval, 1.21.3x longer than wide and about ¼ the length of
capsule. Surface gently convex and granulose. Micropylar cup small, elongate and positioned close to the pos-
terior margin of micropylar plate. Median line very prominent, almost reaching to polar-area and 1.5x longer
than micropylar plate. Operculum oval, very slightly convex and with a small, flat hump in the centre; surface
structured like capsule. General colouration pale greyish brown. Portion around micropylar plate brown.
Measurements [mm]: length 3.4, width 1.7, height 2.0, length of micropylar plate 0.8.
Comments: With doubt Wolcott (1936: 35, 1948: 50 & 1951: 50) recorded Anisomorpha jamaicana
Redtenbacher, 1906 from Puerto Rico but in fact the specimens this author had at hand most probably repre-
sented this new species.
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 51
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
FIGURES 6874. Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp. 68) PT (OC), 69) PT (OC), 70) apex of abdomen in lateral view,
71) vomer, 72) apex of abdomen in lateral view, 73) egg in dorsal view, 74) egg in lateral view.
TABLE 12. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp.
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha sanchezi n. sp.
HT, (ZSMC) PT, PT,
Body: 30.0 30.1–32.9 48.0–49.5
Pronotum: 2.9 2.8–3.1 4.5–4.7
Mesonotum: 4.8 4.8–5.7 7.8–8.0
Metanotum: 2.8 2.8–2.9 3.9–4.1
Median segment: 2.2 2.3–2.7 3.1–4.0
Profemora: 7.3 7.0–7.3 9.5–9.8
Mesofemora: 5.4 5.2–5.4 7.3–7.6
Metafemora: 7.7 6.9–7.7 10.2–10.9
Protibiae: 6.9 6.9–7.0 10.0–10.2
Mesotibiae: 5.2 5.1–5.2 7.7–7.9
Metatibiae: 7.9 7.9–8.0 11.7–11.9
Antennae: >21.0 >24.0 >33.0
CONLE ET AL.
52 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Malacomorpha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838) n. comb.
(Figs. 75–81)
Phasma spinicollis Burmeister 1838: 585. LT, [by present designation]: Port au Prince, Ehrbg.; spinicollis Burm*,
West.*, Phasma spinicollis Burmeister 1838; Lectotypus det. O. Zompro, IX.2001 (MNHU); PLT, : Phasma spin-
icollis Burmeister 1838; Paralectotypus det. O.
Zompro, IX.2001 (MNHU); PLT, 5 eggs: Phasma spinicollis Burmeister 1838, ex Abdomen;
Paralectotypus det. O. Zompro, IX.2001 (MNHU). [examined]
De Haan, 1842: 123.
Westwood, 1859: 123.
Pseudophasma spinicollis, Kirby, 1904: 412.
Olcyphides spinicollis, Redtenbacher, 1906: 108, pl. 4: 13 ( ).
Langlois & Lelong, 1996: 22.
Pseudolcyphides spinicollis, Karny, 1923: 234.
Conle & Hennemann, 2002: 103, pl. 4: 3536, pl. 11: 106107.
Zompro, 2004: 142, figs. 80a ( ) & 80b ( ), fig. 8: 14 (egg).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 397.
Zompro, 2005: 282.
Material examined [7 , 5 , 21 nymphs, eggs]: 1 : St. Domingo, Port au Prince, Sommer, Coll. Brun-
ner v. Wattenwyl, det. Redt. (NHMW); 1 , 1 Nymph: St. Domingo, Port au Prince, Sommer, 764.8, det.
Redt., P. phtysica Degeer, linearis Umbretta (NHMW) ; 20 nymphs : Dominican Republic, RD-017, 19.I.02,
Near km 8, Rd. Cabo Rojo-Aceitillar, Pedernales Prov., dry forest, 230m, 220678 mE 1998601 mN, RB,
BH, SM, DO, DP (USNM); 2 , 2 : Dominican Republic, RD-037, Km 17 Rd. Cabo Rojo-Aceitillar,
Pedernales Prov., 1400 ft., 18°04.362’N 71°39.108’W, 6.VII.2002, B.Hierro, R.Bastardo, D.Perez (USNM); 2
, 1 : Dominican Republic, RD-216, 10 km on trail to Carlitos, Parque National Jaragua, Pedernales Prov.,
172m, 17°47.892’N 71°28.965’W, 7.8.IV.2004, D.Perez, B.Hierro, R.Bastardo (USNM); 1 , 1 egg ex abdo-
men: Dominican Republic, Prov. of Pedernales, 15km N. Cabo Rojo, 21.June 1999, Woodruff & Baranowski,
“beating at night” (FSCA); 1 : Dominican Republic, 15km N. Cabo Rojo, 21.VI.1999, R.E.Woodruff &
R.M.Baranowski (FSCA); 1 : St. Domingo (RMNH).
Distribution: Hispaniola. Haiti (Port au Prince) & Dominican Republic (Pedernales Province).
Differentiation: Similar to the other two species in the genus which have fully developed alae in both
sexes: M. hispaniola n. sp. also from Hispaniola and the Jamaican M. cyllarus (Westwood, 1859). further-
more share the well developed alae with M. poeyi (Saussure, 1868) from Cuba, but obviously differ by the
much more robust body and legs; relatively shorter body segments; spinose mesonotum and longer alae,
which almost reach to the apex of the abdomen. From M. hispaniola n. sp. it differs by: the larger size; more
robust body and legs; relatively shorter abdomen; more distinct spines of the mesonotum; conspicuously
shorter alae which do not reach the apex of the abdomen; darker general colouration and distinctly spotted
body and legs of both sexes; as well as the simple, not unarmed vomer of , which has the apex broadly
rounded. From M. cyllarus it can be distinguished by: the more robust body and legs; more distinct spines of
the mesonotum; darker general colouration; slightly shiny body surface and distinctly spotted body and legs
of both sexes.
Another obviously closely related species is M. multipunctata n. sp. also from Hispaniola, but this at once
differs from M. spinicollis by lacking tegmina and only having vestigial alae, as well as the distinctly punc-
tured body and legs of both sexes.
The eggs are similar to the ones of M. multipunctata n. sp., with which they have the circular micropylar plate
in common. They differ by the more bulgy and shorter capsule (in comparison to their length).
Description: (Fig. 75): Large (body length 58.766.0 mm) and slender for the genus with a long and
rather cylindrical abdomen. Tegmina and alae present. Alae reaching the posterior margin of tergite IX or anal
segment. Legs slender and long, distinctly carinated; all carinae covered with minute setae. Antennae long and
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 53
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
slender, reaching to posterior margin of anal segment. Body surface smooth and partly shiny, except mesono-
tum bearing several spines roughly arranged in four dorsal and two lateral longitudinal rows in the anterior
half. Basic colouration of body and legs brown to pale brown, overlaid with many minute dark brown speck-
les and broken lines. A prominent, dark longitudinal dorsomedian line runs along the complete dorsal surface
of the head and thorax; In some specimens this line can be continued less distinctly on the dorsal surface of
the abdomen. Tegmina and costal region of alae pale brown to brown with fine, dark brown veins; Anal region
of alae translucent. Head with several indistinct, pale and dark brown longitudinal dorsolateral lines and dark
brown postocular line. Antennae dark brown with irregular yellowish bands, the antennomeres irregularly
coloured. Eyes brown. Legs dark brown with yellowish mottling and spots.
Head: Longer than wide, oval in cross-section and slightly flattened dorsally. Vertex smooth. Fully devel-
oped ocelli present. Eyes very large, roughly circular, distinctly projecting hemispherical, their length con-
tained 1.21.5x in that of cheek. Antennae reaching to posterior margin of anal segment. Scapus 1.52x
longer than wide, compressed dorsoventrally, roughly rectangular and slightly carinated. Pedicellus slightly
longer than wide, distinctly narrower and about 0.7x as long as scapus, but wider than following antenno-
meres. Third antennomere slightly longer than scapus, IV distinctly shorter. Remaining antennomeres increas-
ing in length towards apices of antennae.
Thorax: Nearly round in cross-section. Prothorax parallel-sided, meso- and metathorax slightly broadened
towards the posterior. Pronotum as long but more slender than the head, 1.5x longer than wide, parallel-sided.
Anterolateral angles with a conspicuous, rounded excavation for the defensive glands. Transverse median
depression indistinct and slightly displaced towards anterior third of segment. Median line slightly impressed.
Mesonotum hardly wider and 1.3x longer than pronotum, 2x longer than wide and moderately broadened
towards the posterior; Bearing several spines roughly arranged in four dorsal and two lateral longitudinal rows
in the anterior half. Metanotum and median segment wider than mesonotum and combined longer than
mesonotum. Metanotum and median segment combined 1.8x longer than wide, parallel-sided, smooth and
shiny, covered by the tegmina and alae. Metanotum wider than long, shorter than median segment. Transverse
fissure between metanotum and median segment very distinct. Mesoepisternum smooth and shiny except
some very minute granules at the ventral margin. Metaepisternum and metasternum smooth and shiny. Mesos-
ternum with ventromedian longitudinal carina. Tegmina short and oval, strongly convex, bearing fine veins,
reaching towards the posterior margin of metanotum. Alae reaching towards the posterior margin of tergite IX
or anal segment.
Abdomen: Nearly 1.8x longer than head and complete thorax combined, slender and gently gradually
tapered towards the apex. Surface smooth and shiny. Median segment longer than metanotum, gently longer
than wide. Tergites parallel-sided. IIVI widest and longest, VIIIX narrowest, VIII shortest. IIVII 1.52x
longer than wide, VIII & IX roughly quadrate. Sternites IIVI simple and smooth, VII bearing a small black
praeopercular organ. Anal segment slightly constricted towards apex, narrower than IX, about as wide as long,
longitudinal median carina very faint and indistinct. Lateral margins with a faint concave excavation near the
bases of the cerci. Supraanal plate very small with angulate apex just visible. Subgenital plate boat-shaped,
reaching the posterior marging of anal segment; minutely setose and apex pointed. Cerci small, short, slightly
incurving, and gradually constricted towards the apex, which is slightly thickened and club-like; finely bris-
tled.Legs: Rather slender and long, distinctly carinated, unarmed and with all carinae minutely bristled, partly
shiny. Profemora 2.5x longer than mesothorax, metafemora reaching to posterior margin of abdominal tergite
V, hind legs hardly projecting over apex of abdomen. Profemora very indistinctly compressed and curved
basally. Basitarsus 2.5x longer than second tarsomere.
(Fig. 76): Similar to , but smaller and much more slender (body length 36.542.0 mm), abdominal
segments IIVII parallel-sided.
Head: Generally as in .
CONLE ET AL.
54 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 7581. Malacomorpha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838) n. comb. 75) (USNM), 76) (USNM), 77) apex of
abdomen in lateral view, 78) vomer, 79) apex of abdomen in lateral view, 80) egg in dorsal view, 81) egg in lateral
view.
Thorax: As in , but alae at least reaching to the posterior margin of tergite IX.
Abdomen: Sub-cylindrical in cross section, about 1.61.8x longer than head and thorax combined. Sur-
face and granulation as in . Tergites IIVII parallel-sided, VIII and IX broadening towards the posterior
and slightly broader than previous. IIIVII are the longest and narrowest, IX is the shortest, X is the widest.
IIVII 2x longer than wide, VIII & IX 1.52.0x wider than long, anal segment broader than previous tergites,
about 1.52x wider than long. Posterior margin rounded, very moderately laterally expanded, with a faint con-
cave indentation. Sternites IIVII simple and smooth. Cerci as in . Poculum small and flat, spoon-like,
reaching towards the posterior margin of tergite IX. Posterior margin rounded. Vomer longer than wide, paral-
lel-sided basally, with apex broadly rounded; outer margin swollen.
Legs: As in .
Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 55
REVISION OF THE GENUS MALACOMORPHA REHN
Eggs (Figs. 8081): Small for the genus. Capsule barrel-shaped, 1.51.7x longer than wide, oval in cross-
section, lateral surfaces convex. Polar-area flattened and with a very shallow impression. Anterior margin of
capsule raised and covered with tubercles or tooth-like structures. Surface of capsule all over covered with
irregularly raised net-like structures and ridges. Two distinct longitudinal, sub-parallel bulges reaching from
the anterior end of the micropylar plate to the anterior margin of capsule. Micropylar plate small, almost circu-
lar and less than 1/4 the length of capsule; surface smooth, flat and the outer margin conspicuously raised.
Micropylar cup small, lanceolate and positioned close to posterior margin of micropylar plate. Median line
distinct, raised, very fine and reaching as far as to the polar-area. Operculum oval, slightly convex, surface
prominently scabrous and tuberculose with the structures becoming more distinct and forming a cluster in the
centre. General colouration straw to pale brown, the raised net-like structures mid to dark brown. Dorsal sur-
face of capsule with a broad, longitudinal brown median stripe between the two bulges anterior of the micro-
pylar plate and with two elongate brown markings below the micropylar plate. Micropylar plate straw to pale
yellowish.
Measurements [mm]: length 2.52.6, width 1.6, height 1.7, length of micropylar plate 0.7.
TABLE 13. Measurements [mm] of Malacomorpha spinicollis (Burmeister, 1838) .
Comments: The systematic position of this species has been problematic since its first description. Bur-
meister (1838: 585) originally described Phasma spinicollis based on a and From Port au Prince, Haiti in
MNHU (the lacks a locality label). Kirby (1904: 412) transferred it to the genus Pseudophasma Kirby,
1896. Redtenbacher (1906: 108, pl. 4: 13) transferred it to Olcyphides Griffini, 1898 and provided a nice illus-
tration of the . Karny (1923: 234) recognized generic differences of Burmeister’s species and established the
new genus Pseudolcyphides for which he designated P. spinicollis as the type. The genus has since remained
monotypic and the combination was taken over by most subsequent authors including Conle & Hennemann
(2002), Zompro (2004) and Otte & Brock (2005). No author has so far selected a lectotype and therefore the
in MNUH is here designated as the lectotype of P. spinicollis.
The genus Pseudolcyphides Karny, 1923 is here shown to be a synonym of Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906 (n.
syn.). Although Pseuolcyphides is obviously synonymic with Malacomorpha, Zompro (2004) placed these
Measurements [mm] Malacomorpha spinicollis
LT,
(MNHU) PLT,
(MNHU) (NHMW)
(NHMW) (USNM,
FSCA) (USNM,
FSCA)
Body: 42.0 66.0 41.2 63.5 36.5–42.0 58.7–62.0
Pronotum: 3.0 5.2 3.5 4.7 3.1–3.9 4.6–4.8
Mesonotum: 4.8 5.9 5.0 6.3 3.8–4.0 5.8–6.0
Metanotum &:
Median segment: 7.0 12.0 7.5 13.0 6.3 10.0–11.5
Tegmina: 4.4 6.6 – – 3.2–4.2 6.0–6.5
Alae: 31.8 48.0 – – 25.0–30.0 43.0–48.0
Profemora: 10.1 15.6 10.2 15.4 8.2–9.6 13.2–14.6
Mesofemora: 7.5 11.7 8.5 11.7 6.8–8.0 10.3–11.1
Metafemora: 11.0 17.2 10.9 17.4 9.0–10.4 15.3–16.8
Protibiae: 10.8 15.9 16.5 8.0–10.7 14.1–15.5
Mesotibiae: 7.2 11.4 7.3 12.0 6.6–8.0 10.3–11.3
Metatibiae: 11.3 17.3 11.4 18.6 8.2–10.6 16.8–17.8
Antennae: > 35.0 60.0 57.0 35.0–40.0 55.0–62.0
CONLE ET AL.
56 · Zootaxa 1748 © 2008 Magnolia Press
genera in two distinct tribes, Pseudolcyphides in Pseudophasmatini and Malacomorpha in the Anisomorphini.
Even if Zompro very briefly characterized and figured eggs (fig. 8: 14) which had been extracted from the
abdomen of the PLT in MNUH he did not recognize the close relation to Malacomorpha. Zompro’s charac-
terization (2004: 142) merely states: “In the egg, ventral and dorsal areas of capsule subparallel”. This feature
is of poor and very questionable taxonomic use and at best serves for the distincion at the species level.
It may be mentioned that in this species regenerated legs bear decidedly less distinct and less numerous
pale spots than fully developed legs.
The specimen collected on the trail to Carlitos was found on Exostena spp. (Rubiaceae).
Biogeography
From the study of the Phasmatodea of the West Indies, it appears evident that almost all species are restricted
to a single island or to a cluster of islands. It is therefore of great importance for genera definition and species
distinction to relate the distribution patterns to the geology of the West Indies.
The West Indies are a group of differently sized tropical islands in the Caribbean Sea east of Central
America. They form a fringing archipel