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Accepted by B. Mantovani: 3 Sept. 2007; published: 11 Feb. 2008
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2008 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1701: 40–62 (2008)
Descriptions of a new genus and three new species of Phasmatodea from
Southwest China (Insecta: Phasmatodea)
FRANK H. HENNEMANN1, OSKAR V. CONLE2, WEIWEI ZHANG3 & YE LIU4
1Kirchdell 24, 67661 KL-Hohenecken, Germany. E-mail: email@example.com
2Goldbachweg 24, 87538 87538 Bolsterlang, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3P.O.Box 4680, Chongqing 400015, China. E-mail: email@example.com
4Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The genus Parastheneboea Redtenbacher, 1908 is recorded for the first time from the Yunnan Province and Chongqing
municipality, China. Two new species are described and illustrated: P. foliculata n. sp. from Yunnan based on the female
and eggs, and P. simianshanensis n. sp. from Chongqing based on the male alone. The systematics of Parastheneboea
Brunner v. Wattenwyl are briefly discussed with a list of species provided.
Andropromachus Carl, 1913 is represented in China by only one species, A. guangxiense (Chen & He, 2000). The
genus is briefly discussed and shown to be closely related to Neohirasea Rehn, 1904. An English translation of the orig-
inal Chinese description of A. guangxiense (Chen & He) is provided.
A re-description, a brief review, comments and a key to the species of Pericentrus Redtenbacher, 1908 are provided.
The genus is shown to belong in the subfamily Lonchodinae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 and to be related to Menexenus
Stål, 1875. Pericentrus appendiculatus Redtenbacher, 1908 is transferred to the genus Trychopeplus Shelford, 1919 (n.
comb.) and the type-locality “Central-Java” shown to be wrong. Pericentrus Redtenbacher has so far not been recorded
from China but is very likely to be present in South Xizang (= Tibet).
The new genus Cnipsomorpha n. gen. is described for three highly mountainous species from Yunnan Province,
Cnipsus apteris Liu & Cai, 1992, Cnipsus colorantis Chen & He, 1996 and Cnipsomorpha erinacea n. sp., of which the
latter is designated as the type-species. All three species are only known from the females. The egg of C. erinacea n. sp.
is the only one known from the genus and briefly described and illustrated. The new genus is related to Parapachymor-
pha Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, and hence provisionally attributed to Phasmatidae: Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini. A key
is provided to distinguish between the species of Cnipsomorpha n. gen.. English translations of the original Chinese
descriptions of Cnipsus apteris Liu & Cai, 1992 and Cnipsus colorantis Chen & He, 1996 are presented.
Type-specimens of new taxa are deposited in IZCAS, INCA and the collections of the authors.
Key words: Phasmatodea; Parastheneboea; Andropromachus; Pericentrus; Cnipsomorpha n. gen.; China; Paras-
theneboea foliculata n. sp.; Parastheneboea simianshanensis n. sp.; Cnipsomorpha erinacea n. sp.; new genus; new
species; keys; re-descriptions
The phasmid fauna of China is apparently rich and since the late 1980’s Chinese workers, amongst them Chen
Shuchun, He Yunheng, Cai Baoling or Liu Shengli, have described more than 150 different species new to sci-
ence. Several species have been reported to occur as pests and cause considerable damage to forests and plan-
tations, hence having become of ecological and agricultural importance. Still new species and even genera are
frequently found, some of which are described below. So far, no comprehensive work has been published
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 41
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
about Chinese Phasmatodea but a complete catalogue, also containing information on the faunistic relation-
ships and ecology of phasmids in China, will soon be available (Hennemann, Conle & Zhang, in prep.).
The material studied for the present work was collected by the two latter authors in the Yunnan Province
and Chongqing municipality (formerly part of Sichuan Province). Examination showed this to contain three
species new to science and one genus newly recorded for China. One of the new species proved to require the
establishment of a new genus, which also includes two highly specialized species, described from the moun-
tainous regions of Yunnan Province.
Material and methods
Descriptions of egg features follow the standard terminology by Clark-Sellick (1997). The body armature is
described using a modified version of the acanthotaxy used by Rehn & Rehn (1939) for Philippine Heterop-
BMNH Natural History Museum, London / England.
CAU China Agricultural University, Beijing / China.
INCA Insects collection of Inca Science Ltd., Chongqing / China.
ISNB Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles / Belgium.
IZCAS Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing / China
MHNG Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva / Switzerland.
MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencas Naturales, Madrid / Spain.
MNHN Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris / France
MNHU Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin / Germany.
FH Private collection of Frank H. Hennemann, Kaiserslautern / Germany.
LY Private collection of Liu Ye, Beijing / China.
Subfamily Necrosciinae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893
Parastheneboea Redtenbacher, 1908
Type-species: Parastheneboea insignis Redtenbacher, 1908: 474 [= Apora laetior Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907], by
Parastheneboea Redtenbacher, 1908: 474.
Bragg, 2001: 593.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 255.
Apora Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 241. Type-species: Apora laetior Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907: 242, by subsequent
designation of Bragg, 1993: 34. [Preoccupied by Apora Gunnerus, 1768 (Echinodermata)]
Echinoclonia Carl, 1913: 43. Type-species: Echinoclonia borneensis Carl, 1913: 44, pl. 1: 4 & 5 ( ) [= Apora laetior
Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907], by monotypy. [Synonymised by Günther, 1932: 260]
Comments. As presently treated the genus appears to contain two distinct generic units. The genotype P.
laetior laetior (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and all other Bornean taxa, except P. exotica (Brunner v. Watten-
wyl, 1907), have a rather elongate, roughly parallel-sided head, flat vertex, a rather slender and parallel-sided
HENNEMANN ET AL.
42 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
body, unarmed ventral body surface and distinctly basally curved and compressed profemora. possess an
appendicular ovipositor and have the anal segment broad, with the posterior margin rounded or truncate. The
anal segment of has the posterior margin rounded and slightly indented medially. The second unit is
formed by P. yehi Brock, 1999 from Peninsular Malaysia and the two newly described Chinese species. These
have the head indistinctly longer than wide, strongly convex and armed with spines, the profemora only very
gently curved and compressed basally, the basitarsi longer than the remaining tarsomeres combined and the
thorax ± broadened. have the abdomen broadened basally, possess conspicuous paired lobes on the abdom-
inal sternites and have the anal segment tapered towards a rather narrow, indented apex but lack an appendic-
ular ovipositor. in contrast have the posterolateral angles of the anal segment considerably elevated. In
several aspects the Bornean P. exotica (Brunner v. Wattenwyl) represents an intermediate between these two
groups. The conically elevated vertex, broadened thorax and just indistinctly basally curved and compressed
profemora, as well as the basally broadened abdomen and distinct posterolateral lobes of the abdominal terg-
ites of of P. ex oti ca (Brunner v. Wattenwyl) resemble P. yehi Brock and P. foliculata n. sp., whereas the
unarmed ventral body surface and appendicular ovipositor of , lack of posterolateral lobes of the abdomi-
nal tergites of and the bullet-shaped eggs resemble the other Bornean species in the genus.
Unfortunately, eggs of the genotype P. laetior laetior (Brunner v. Wattenwyl) are not known but the first
author’s collection (coll. FH, No. 0343-E) contains a sample of eggs of P. imponens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl,
1907) from Mount Kinabalu, Sabah. They are bullet-shaped, almost 3.5x longer than wide, cylindrical and
have the polar-are distinctly conically pointed and tri-carinate; the micropylar plate is lanceolate and pointed
anteriorly. Despite these, the eggs of P. exo ti ca (Brunner v. Wattenwyl) and P. foliculata n. sp. are the only
ones of the genus that have so far been sufficiently described and illustrated. They do however show striking
morphological differences which again indicate the genus to consist of two distinct generic units. Eggs of P.
exotica (Brunner v. Wattenwyl) are similar to those of P. imponens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl). They are elongate,
cylindrical, bullet-shaped and have the polar end conical with four distinct, converging ridges; as in P. impon-
ens the operculum is surrounded by a collar of setae. Eggs of this type of shape are usually associated with
taxa in which have an appendicular ovipositor and are laid into soil, moss or crevices of bark. They are
widely distributed throughout the subfamily Necrosciinae (e.g. Pseudodiacantha Redtenbacher, 1908, Centro-
phasma Redtenbacher, 1908 or Orxines Stål, 1875). Eggs of P. foliculata n. sp. are of a very distinct shape and
glued to a surface by the flattened ventral surface of the capsule. They are oval in cross-section, have the
polar-area rounded and the anterior margin without an opercular collar of setae (Figs. 5 & 6), thus resembling
the eggs of e.g. Marmessoidea Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 or Sipyloidea Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 (both
Necrosciinae). Both features of the insects and eggs indicate the second unit, formed by P. y eh i Brock and the
two newly described Chinese species, to represent a new as yet unrecognised genus. However, any broader
discussion or splitting of the genus should be part of a detailed revisional study of Parastheneboea Redten-
bacher and in particular requires knowledge of the eggs of the genotype P. laetior laetior (Brunner v. Watten-
The Bornean species of Parastheneboea Redtenbacher, with the exception of P. ex oti ca (Brunner v. Wat-
tenwyl), appear to be closely related to Galactea Redtenbacher, 1908. The first author’s collection (coll. FH,
No’s 0343-4 & 5) contains the so far undescribed of P. imponens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl). They are rather
untypical for Parastheneboea Redtenbacher having scale-like tegmina and fully developed alae.
Another genus supposedly closely related to Parastheneboea Redtenbacher is the Chinese Acantho-
phasma Chen & He, 2000 (Type-species: Oxyartes varia Chen & He, 1992). This was originally placed in
close relation to Oxyartes Stål, 1875 (subfamily Necrosciinae), which is most certainly not the case. Henne-
mann (2007: 24) suggested possible relationship to Andropromachus Carl, 1913 (subfamily Lonchodinae) but
the presence of small, squamiform alae rather affiliates it with Necrosciinae. Any confirmed positioning of
Acanthophasma Chen & He requires knowledge of the still unknown and eggs.
Distribution. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia and SW-China (Chongqing & Yunnan).
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 43
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
Species and subspecies included
1. Parastheneboea exotica (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) [Promachus]. [Borneo]
2. Parastheneboea imponens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) [Apora]. [Borneo: Sabah]
3. Parastheneboea foliculata n. sp. (Figs. 1–6) [SW-China: Yunnan]
4. Parastheneboea laetior laetior (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) [Apora]. [Borneo: Sabah]
5. Parastheneboea laetior monticola (Günther, 1944) [Apora]. [Borneo: Sarawak]
6. Parastheneboea laeviventris (Redtenbacher, 1908) [Cnipsus]. [Borneo: Sabah]
7. Parastheneboea montisrajae (Günther, 1932) [Apora]. [Borneo: Kalimantan]
8. Parastheneboea neglecta (Günther, 1943) [Apora]. [Borneo: Kalimantan]
9. Parastheneboea simianshanensis n. sp. (Figs. 7–9) [SW-China: Chongqing]
10. Parastheneboea yehi Brock, 1999. [Penin. Malaysia: Tapah Hills]
Parastheneboea foliculata n. sp.
HT, : SW-China, Yunnan Province, Gongshan County, Dulongjiang Xiang, Village Maku, 1814 m, 30.VIII.2006, leg.
Liu Ye (IZCAS, in alcohol).
PT, 7 eggs (laid by HT) [in alcohol]: same data as HT (deposited as follows): 1 egg (IZCAS); 2 eggs (INCA); 2 eggs
(coll. FH, No. 0623-E); 2 eggs (coll. LY).
Etymology. The name (lat. foliculus = small leaf) refers to the conspicuous paired foliaceous appendages of
the abdominal sternites IV–VII of . Feminine.
Differentiation. Closely related to P. y ehi Brock, 1999 from Peninsular Malaysia with which it shares the
conspicuous paired, foliacous lobes of the abdominal sternites. It is however distinguished by: the longer and
more slender mesothorax which is about 4x longer than the pronotum (2.75x in yehi); less spiny thorax; dis-
tinctly apically tapered anal segment; shorter subgenital plate which does not extend over the apex of the
abdomen and much less distinct lobes of the femora.
Description. The colouration is described from photos of the live HT taken at the type-locality. Provi-
sional conservation in alcohol has discoloured all green parts of the body to dull yellow.
(Figs. 1 & 2). Rather small (body length 55.0 mm) and robust for the genus, with the median portion of
the mesothorax and base of the abdomen considerably swollen. General colouration of head, body and legs
green. All-over furnished with many irregular pale green, straw or brown markings and speckles, giving the
insect a moss or lichen-like appearance. Head with three indistinct and very faint longitudinal brown postocu-
lar lines. Between the eyes with a distinct, semi-circular white line, which is anteriorly and posteriorly accom-
panied by a bold, roughly triangular marking; the posterior ones broader and each with a small pale spot in the
centre. Section between the bases of the antennae dark blackish brown. Anterior portion of mesonotum with a
fine longitudinal straw median line which widens to a bold longitudinal staw median stripe in posterior por-
tion of that segment and metanotum. This stripe continued and even broader on abdominal tergites II–V, on
these segments medially divided by a very fine, longitudinal brown line. A pale oval spot in the anterolateral
angles of the mertanotum. Median segment with a distinct and well defined, slender and oval, straw marking
at lateral margins, interiorly accompanied by a weakly defined, bold brown patch. Abdominal tergites II–VII
laterally with a large roughly semi-circular, bright pale green marking, which is interiorly defined and bor-
dered by a fin a black line. V–VII dorsally with four ± defined blackish spots. Posterolateral expansions of
tergites II–VII dark brown. Some of the larger spines of the meso- and metasternum with whitish tips. Legs
irregularly annulated and marmorated with brown and pale green. Scapus, pedicellus and basal half of 3rd seg-
ment of antennae dark brown, remaining straw basally and gradually becoming mid brown towards the apex.
HENNEMANN ET AL.
44 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
FIGURES 1–6. Parastheneboea foliculata n. sp. 1. Habitus of HT, lateral view. 2. Habitus of HT, dorsal view. 3.
Apex of abdomen, lateral view ( HT). 4. Apex of abdomen, ventral view ( HT). 5. Egg, dorsal view [scale = 1 mm]. 6.
Egg, lateral view [scale = 1 mm].
Head: Slightly longer than wide and globose with the vertex prominently swollen and convex. Between
the eyes with a slight semi-circular transverse carina marked by a white line. Vertex armed with ten prominent
paired occipital spines; six medial ones and two on each side of these, being directed laterally. Cheeks with a
very few small tubercles. Eyes of moderate size, circular and projecting hemispherically; length contained
about 2x in that of cheek. Antennae long and filiform, about as long as body and almost reaching to tip of
abdomen (53.0 mm). Scapus and pedicellus cylindrical in cross-section, length of pedicellus almost contained
1.5x in that of scapus. III elongate, considerably more slender but slightly longer than pedicellus. IV about
half the length of III, following first gradually increasing, then decreasing in length towards apex of antennae.
Thorax: Pronotum somewhat shorter and considerably narrower than the head, anterior margin slightly
deflexed, about 1.3x longer than wide. Transverse median depression distinct, very weakly curved and almost
reaching lateral margins of segment. Surface set with a pair of rather distinct anterior pronotals just in front
and a very small pair of medial tubercles just behind the transverse median depression; a pair of inter-posterior
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 45
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
pronotals present close to posterior margin of pronotum, but very indistinct. Mesothorax about 4x longer than
pronotum constricted in anterior 1/3, then suddenly widened, very gently constricted and finally weakly wid-
ened towards the posterior margin. Mesonotum strongly swollen and convex pre-medially. This portion armed
with four paired spines in the centre, the anterior pair very prominent and composite being accompanied by
several small spines at their bases, the posterior pair considerably smaller and simple. Laterally of these with a
prominent spine and a cluster of three small tubercles. Posterior portion of mesonotum with a very prominent,
composite pair of post-median mesonotal spines and a considerably smaller and simple pair of inter-posterior
mesonotal spines. Just in front of the swelling with a prominent pair of pointed but simple pre-median
mesonotals, these directed cephalad. Lateral surface between these two pairs of these with a single prominent
spine. Postero-lateral mesonotals small. Close to lateral margins of mesonotum some spine-like tubercles and
a pointed spine roughly in the middle, which are arranged in an irregular longitudinal line. Metanotum
roughly quadrate and gently constricted medially, its length contained 4x in that of mesonotum. Set with a
small pair of antero-lateral metanotal spines and a more distinct pair of inter-posterior spines. Meso- and
metapleurae with a few tubercles and one pointed, supra-coxal spine posteriorly. Meso- and metasternum
armed with several paired tubercles and blunt spines, along lateral margins with a longitudinal row of more
decided, but short conical spines.
Abdomen: As long as head and complete thorax combined. Median segment roughly equal in length to
metanotum, slightly wider than long, anterior margin gently rounded, surface set with a rather distinct pair of
posterior spines and a few small paired tubercles in anterior portion. Segments II–IV conspicuously broad-
ened and broader than thorax, III widest; V–VII gently narrowing. II 1.5x longer than median segment,
roughly quadrate and longer than remaining segments; III–VI wider than long, VII as wide as long. Tergites
II–VII gently constricted medially and with the posterolateral angles considerably elevated to form a distinct
rounded triangular lobe. II–IV each with a prominent pair of median posterior spines and a smaller pair of
posterolateral spines, anterior portion with a few small tubercles; V–X unarmed. Sternites set with a few
tubercles a variable sizes, II and III close to posterior margin armed with a pair of prominent blunt spines. On
IV–VII these are increasingly enlarged, laterally compressed and leaf-like. Praeopercular organ formed by
such a pair of foliacous lobes on a common basis (Fig. 4). Tergite VIII as long as but narrower than VII, about
1.3x longer than wide and slightly deflexed towards the posterior; dorsally with a distinct longitudinal median
carina. IX 2/3 the length of VIII, wider than long, rectangular and with a distinct median keel. Anal segment
indistinctly longer than IX, keeled dorsally and strongly tapered towards a blunt tip; roughly triangular in dor-
sal aspect. Each posterolateral angle of apex expanded into a small, rounded lobe (Fig. 3). Cerci elongate,
club-like with a rounded apex and slightly longer than anal segment, projecting considerably over its apex;
bristled. Subgenital plate slightly convex, impressed basally and reaching 2/3 the way along anal segment;
apex obtuse with a median notch (Fig. 4) and the outer margins thickened and angled upward. Lateral surfaces
with a distinct, ledge-like longitudinal keel.
Legs: All very long and moderately slender, profemora about as long as pronotum and mesonotum com-
bined, mesofemora reaching to posterior margin of abdominal segment III and metafemora reaching half way
along segment VII; hind legs prominently projecting over apex of abdomen. All femora and tibiae trapezoidal
in cross-section. Profemora curved and compressed basally. Posteroventral carina of profemora and both outer
ventral carinae of meso- and metafemora with a few very faint and flat, roughly triangular elevations; dorsal
carinae unarmed. Medioventral carina fine and apically armed with 3 minute spines. Tibiae completely
unarmed. Tarsi very elongate and more than half the length of corresponding tibia. Basitarsus longer than fol-
lowing three tarsomeres combined; all bristled.
Measurements in table 1.
Eggs (Figs. 5 & 6)
The following description is based on eggs that were laid by the HT and thus fully developed.
Medium-sized, capsule oval, almost 2x longer than wide and ventral surface with a large, oval and well-
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46 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
defined flattened area. Operculum inserted with an angle of about +30°. Surface of capsule very minutely
granulose and shiny. Operculum circular, slightly convex and with a slight, circular central impression. Micro-
pylar plate weakly defined, elongate, the anterior end almost touching the outer margin of the operculum;
length contained almost 2x in total length of capsule. Central portion roundly elevated, anterior end club-like.
Micropylar cup small and placed close to posterior end of capsule. No median line.
General colouration pale yellowish with conspicuous brown markings and speckles which form a flower-
like structure to surround the micropylar plate on the dorsal egg surface. Lateral surfaces furnished with more
decided and numerous brown speckles, which are towards the dorsal surface well separated by a “3-shaped”
brown line. Central portion of micropylar plate brown, lower part of median elevation pale straw; outer mar-
gin broadly yellowish. Most portions of operculum brown, except for the circular central impression and a
bold trapezoidal marking anteriorly; these pale yellowish.
Measurements [mm]: length 2.75, width 1.75, height 1.60, length of micropylar plate. 1.75.
Comments. So far only known from the type specimens. unknown.
Parastheneboea simianshanensis n. sp.
HT, : China, Chongqing, Jiangjin District, Mt. Simianshan 935 m, 19.VIII.2006, leg. Zhang Weiwei (INCA).
Etymology. Named after the type-locality, Mount Simianshan, in the Jiangjin district of Chongqing munici-
Differentiation. Related to P. foliculata n. sp. from Yunnan Province and P. y ehi Brock, 1999 from Penin-
sular Malaysia. The of the first species are not known but there are considerable differences concerning to
the number and position of the spines of the head and body; they are more numerous and also present on
abdominal tergites VI–IX in P. simianshanensis n. sp.. From P. yehi Brock it differs by: the larger size; more
elongate mesothorax; only six spines on the vertex (at least 10 in yehi); four instead of only posterior spines of
the abdominal tergites; shorter, in-curving cerci and considerably less distinct teeth of the femora.
Description. The colouration is described from photos of the live HT. Provisional conservation in alcohol
has discoloured all green parts of the body of the dried HT to dull yellow.
. Rather small (body length 44.0 mm) and moderately slender for the genus with the median portion of
the mesothorax considerably swollen. General colouration of head, body and legs dull green, all over fur-
nished with numerous irregular brown to blackish markings and speckles. Pronotum greenish straw laterally
with the median portion broadly black. A faint straw longitudinal median lines runs from the median portion
of the mesonotum towards the apex of the abdomen. The base of the posterior cluster of spines on the mesono-
tum is marked by a bold blackish spot and the median line of the metanotum and median segment is laterally
accompanied by a bold blackish brown stripe. All sternites more less plain mid brown. Posterolateral angles
of anal segment and cerci black. Three basal antennomeres pale brown, all following with the basal half pale
yellowish. Teeth on the ventral carinae of the femora each marked by a greenish straw spot.
Head: Slightly longer than wide, globose with the vertex moderately swollen and convex. Vertex armed
with four prominent paired occipital spines roughly arranged in a quadrangle. Two prominent supra-orbital
spines present in front of the four coronals, directed laterally. Between the bases of the antennae with a minute
pair of supra-antennal spines. Cheeks smooth except for a single minute tubercle. Eyes of moderate size, cir-
cular and projecting hemispherically; length contained about 2x in that of cheek. Antennae long and filiform,
about as long as the body (45.0 mm). Scapus elliptical in cross-section, the lateral margis slightly carinate,
parallel-sided and about 1.5x longer than wide. Pedicellus cylindrical, 2/3 the length of scapus and conspicu-
ously club-like with the base constricted. III very elongate, much more slender than pedicellus and longer than
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 47
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
scapus and pedicellus combined. IV less than half the length of III, following first gradually increasing, then
decreasing in length towards apex of antennae.
Thorax: Pronotum of similar dimension like head, rectangular and about 1.3x longer than wide. Lateral
margins in anterior half with a shallow concave excavation. Transverse median depression distinct, almost
straight and reaching to lateral margins of segment. Anterior margin armed with two prominent, elongate
spines. Posterior half behind the transverse depression set with a prominent pair of median spines, close to
posterior margin with a small pair of inter-posterior spines and a slightly more decided postero-lateral spine at
each angle. Mesothorax almost 3x longer than pronotum constricted in anterior 1/3, then gradually widened
towards the posterior margin. Mesonotum strongly swollen and convex in the medial portion which is armed
with six prominent spines in the centre; the anterior two not paired, the posterior pair largest and the outer pair
directed laterad. Lateral surfaces of the swelling each armed with two further, prominent spines. Just in front
of the swelling with a distinct pair of long and pointed pre-median mesonotals. Posterior portion of mesono-
tum with a prominent pair of post-median mesonotal spines and a minute pair of inter-posterior mesonotal
spines, the latter positioned close to posterior margin. Lateral margins in posterior half armed with three dis-
tinct and elongate spines, the anterior half set with a few small tubercles. Metanotum roughly rectangular and
about 12.4x longer than wide, its length contained about 3x in that of mesonotum. In the centre armed with
four prominent spines on a common base, lateral margins each with a single but prominent median spines, and
the posterior margin with four small tubercles interiorly and a small spine in each outer angle. Mesopleurae
with a few small tubercles and two rather distinct meso-pleural spines. Metapleurae with two supra-coxal
spines on a common base, the posterior one considerably smaller. Prosternum with a short longitudinal carina
close to lateral margins, set with two small, blunt tubercles. Meso- and metasternum set with a very few small
tubercles; the mesosternum with a pair of conspicuous rough, wart-like structures just in front of the coxae
(these may represent sensory-areas or alike).
FIGURES 7–9. Parastheneboea simianshanensis n. sp. ( HT). 7. Habitus. 8. Apex of abdomen, lateral view. 9. Apex of
abdomen, dorsal view.
Abdomen: Median segment slightly shorter than metanotum, roughly rectangular and about 1.3x longer
than wide; dorsally armed with median pair of distinct, pointed spines. Segments II–X together about as long
as head and complete thorax combined; narrower than metathorax. II–IV parallel-sided, V–VII very gently
tapering, 1.2–1.3x longer than wide. II–IV slightly decreasing in length, V and VI equal in length, VII shorter
HENNEMANN ET AL.
48 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
than previous. Tergites II–VII with the posterolateral angles deflexed to form an acute triangular tooth, which
may extend by as much as 1/3 of the body width (indistinct on II). Posterior portion of II–VII dorso-medially
armed with four prominent spines; the two anterior ones decidedly larger, the posterior ones in a wider dis-
tance to each other, placed very close to posterior margin and conspicuously directed posteriad. These spines
gradually decrease in size from II–VII, the posterior pair being only represented as pointed tubercles on VII.
Sternites II–VII smooth except for a median pair of tubercles near posterior margin. Tergites VIII and IX both
with the lateral margins increasingly deflexed towards the posterior and terminating in a rounded triangular
lobe, which is much less acute than the posterolateral lobes seen on II–VII. Both with a conspicuous longitu-
dinal median carina and set with four small spines along the posterior margin, the median pair being rather
more decided than the outer pair. VIII about ¾ the length of VII and widened towards the posterior, IX
slightly longer than VIII and roughly rectangular (lateral expansions excluded). Anal segment 1.4x longer
than IX, somewhat more slender, slightly tectiform and with a well decided median keel. Posterior margin
with a broad triangular median excavation, the outer angles roundly deflexed and swollen (Fig. 9); ventral sur-
faces armed with several minute, in-curving black teeth. Vomer well developed and sclerotised, rather broad,
strongly flattened, rounded triangular in ventral aspect and terminating in a single, straight hook of moderate
length. Cerci of moderate size and a banana-like appearance, being distinctly up-curved and bearing a con-
spicuous longitudinal keel ventrally; hidden underneath anal segment. Poculum bulgy, cup-like with the pos-
terior margin gently flattened, deflexed and indented medially. Posterior portion covered with several
tubercles and granules, in basal half with a conspicuous transverse carina (Fig. 8).
Legs: All very long and moderately sender, profemora about as long as combined length of pro- and
mesonotum, mesofemora projecting over posterior margin of abdominal segment III, metafemora reaching to
tergite VIII and the metatibiae greatly projecting over apex of abdomen. All femora and tibiae trapezoidal in
cross-section, the medioventral carina of the femora well decided and in the two posterior pairs set with a few
small granules. Profemora slightly compressed interobasally. Posteroventral carina of profemora and both
outer ventral carinae of meso- and metafemora each armed with four flat triangular teeth which strongly
decrease towards the base of the femur. Dorsal carinae of all femora and complete tibiae unarmed. Tarsi slen-
der and moderately elongate, about 1/3 the length of corresponding tibia. Basitarsus slightly longer than fol-
lowing three tarsomeres combined.
Measurements in table 1.
Comments. So far only known from the HT. and eggs unknown.
TABLE 1. Measurements of Parastheneboea spp. [mm]
foliculata n. sp.
, HT (IZCAS) simianshanensis n. sp.
, HT (INCA)
Body 55.0 44.0
Pronotum 3.0 3.0
Mesonotum 13.6 10.1
Metanotum 3.4 3.4
Median segment 2.8 2.0
Profemora 17.8 15.5
Mesofemora 14.1 12.9
Metafemora 19.2 17.0
Protibiae 18.0 16.0
Mesotibiae 14.0 13.5
Metatibiae 19.0 17.0
Antennae 53.0 45.0
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 49
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
Subfamily Lonchodinae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893
The following two genera are very similar in general appearance to the two new Chinese species of Paras-
theneboea Redtenbacher, 1908 described herein and may easily be confused. Pericentrus Redtenbacher, 1908
is shown to belong in the subfamily Lonchodinae but has not yet been recorded from China, although quite
likely to be present in the southern portions of Xizang (= Tibet). Andropromachus Carl, 1913 is so far only
known to be represented in SW-China by one species, P. guangxiense (Chen & He, 2000). Brief discussions of
both genera are provided below.
Andropromachus Carl, 1913
Type-species: Andropromachus scutatus Carl, 1913: 49, pl. 1: 1 & 3 ( ), by subsequent designation of Zompro, 2002:
Zompro, 2002: 68.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 46.
Hennemann, 2007: 16, figs. 1-3.
Promachus (?), Kirby, 1904: 377.
Promachus, Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907: 292 (in part - not Stål, 1875).
Spiniphasma Chen & He, 2000: 32, fig. 7–2 ( ). Type-species: Spiniphasma guangxiense Chen & He, 2000: 32, by orig-
inal designation. [Synonymised by Hennemann, 2007: 16]
Comments. A re-description and review of Andropromachus Carl, 1913 (= Spiniphasma Chen & He, 2000)
along with a list of species and a key to the genera of the “Neohirasea-complex”, to which belongs Andropro-
machus Carl, was provided by Hennemann (2007: 16 ff.).
As pointed out by Hennemann (2007: 16) this genus is related to Spinohirasea Zompro, 2002 (Type-spe-
cies: Spinohirasea crassithorax Zompro, 2002: 67, = Menexenus bengalensis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907)
but close relation to Neohirasea Rehn, 1904 (Type-species: Phasma (Acanthoderus) japonicum de Haan,
1842: 135, pl. 12: 4) is even more obvious. Detailed subsequent examination of taxa of both genera has left no
more features than the convex and spinose vertex, swollen mesothorax and triangular posterolateral tooth of
the abdominal tergites to distinguish Andropromachus Carl from Neohirasea Rehn. The latter two features
however only match with the genotype A. scutatus Carl and A. guangxiense (Chen & He), but are not true for
A. bicolor (Kirby). This latter species shows striking similarity to Neohirasea maerens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl,
1907) also from N-Vietnam but solely differs by the convex and spinose vertex, thus clearly emphasising the
close relation between these two genera. Unfortunately, no eggs of Andropromachus Carl have become known
so far. The shape of the genitalia and close relation to Neohirasea Rehn however, suggest the eggs to be
dropped to the ground singularly.
The spinose vertex shows relation to the Chinese Qiongphasma Chen, He & Li, 2002, but this genus dif-
fers by the flat head, slender mesothorax and differently structured genitalia of .
Distribution. SW-China (Guangxi) and N-Vietnam (Than-Moi).
1. Andropromachus bicolor (Kirby, 1904: 377) [Promachus (?)]. [N-Vietnam]
= Menexenus modificatus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907: 245 ( ).
2. Andropromachus guangxiense (Chen & He, 2000: 32, fig. 7–2 ( )) [Spiniphasma]. [SW-China: Guangxi]
3. Andropromachus scutatus Carl, 1913: 49, pl. 1: 1 & 3 ( ). [N-Vietnam]
4. Andropromachus tonkinensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907: 300) [Promachus]. *[N-Vietnam]
HENNEMANN ET AL.
50 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
* This species is a possible synonym of Andropromachus bicolor (Kirby), but as the HT is not traced the syn-
onymy can not be confirmed.
Andropromachus guangxiense (Chen & He, 2000)
Spiniphasma guangxiense Chen & He, 2000c: 32, fig. 7–2 ( ). HT, : China, Guangxi Aut. Reg., Wuming, Mt. Daming-
shan, 23.V.1963 leg. Yang Chikun (CAU); PT, : China, Guangxi Aut. Reg., Huaping, Hongtan, 12.VI.1963, leg.
Yang Chikun (CAU).
Andropromachus guangxiense, Hennemann, 2007: 16.
Differentiation. Distinguished from all other species in the genus by the much smaller size (body length of
other species > 60 mm) and minutely denticulate carinae of the femora.
Description. The following is a translation of the original Chinese description, partly supplemented by
the illustrations provided by Chen & He (2000). The type specimens in CAU could unfortunately not be
examined for the present study.
. Small (body length 36.0 mm) and rather robust for the genus with a prominently swollen mesothorax
and minutely denticulate carinae of the femora. Body surface unevenly wrinkled, the head and complete dor-
sal body surface heavily spinose. General colouration brown.
Head: Indistinctly longer than wide, globose and vertex gently rounded. Between the eyes with a pair of
long supra-orbital spines, the vertex armed with three distinct pairs of occipital spines. Eyes small, their length
contained about 3.5x in that of cheek. Antennae much longer than profemora and distinctly segmented; with
more than 20 antennomeres.
Thorax: Pronotum slightly shorter and narrower than the head, roughly rectangular and indistinctly longer
than wide. Dorsal surface with four pairs of spines of variable size; two in front and two behind the transverse
median depression. Mesothorax a little more than 4x the length of pronotum and 2x longer than metanotum
and median segment combined, strongly widened and swollen with the anterior portion conspicuously con-
stricted. Mesonotum armed with 7 pairs of distinct spines along the median line and four spines along the lat-
eral margins. Median portion conspicuously swollen and convex, the six median mesonotal spines more
prominent than the remainder. Metanotum roughly quadrate and armed with four prominent median metanotal
spines arranged in a transverse row; a smaller pair of inter-posterior spines present close to posterior margin.
Both, meso- and metanotum otherwise irregularly set with a few further much more minute spines.
Abdomen: Slightly oval in cross-section, complete dorsal surface with a faint longitudinal median carina.
Median segment about ¼ the length of metanotum, distinctly wider than long. Dorsally armed with two mod-
erately sized pairs of spines. Segments II–VIII parallel-sided and of uniform width, all slightly wider than
long and of almost equal length. Tergites II–IX each with a conspicuous, triangular posterolateral lobe. II–V
armed with two pairs of spines, the inter-posterior pair decidedly larger than the median pair. VI–IX only with
a pair of inter-posterior spines. Sternites II–VII unarmed. Terhite IX a little broader than previous. Anal seg-
ment about as long and broad as IX, slightly wider than long and with a fine longitudinal median carina; pos-
terior margin truncate, straight and with a minute median indention. Cerci small, oval in cross-section and
tapered towards a narrow apex. Subgenital plate scoop-shaped with the posterior margin rounded and not pro-
jecting over apex of abdomen.
Legs: All rather long and slender. Profemora about as long as pro- and mesothorax combined, mesofem-
ora indistinctly shorter than profemora, metafemora as long as profemora and hind legs slightly projecting
over apex of abdomen. Profemora gently compressed and curved basally. All femora distinctly carinated with
all outer carinae irregularly and minutely denticulate. Medioventral carina of femora distinct but unarmed.
Tarsi short, about 2/5 the length of corresponding tibiae. Basitarsus about as long as following three tarsom-
eres combined; minutely denticulate.
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 51
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
Measurements according to Chen & He, 2000: 33 [mm]: body length 36.0, mesonotum 8.0, metanotum
3.0, median segment 1.0, profemora 10.0, mesofemora 9.4, metafemora 10.0.
Pericentrus Redtenbacher, 1908
Type-species: Pericentrus moewisi Redtenbacher, 1908: 351 [= Phasma (Acanthodera) bicoronata Westwood, 1848], by
subsequent designation of Hebard, 1923: 359.
Pericentrus Redtenbacher, 1908: 351 (in part – only Indian species, No’s 1 & 2).
Hebard, 1923: 359.
Günther, 1938: 130 ff.
Otte & Brock, 2005: 259 (in part).
Description. , : Small to moderately sized and robust Lonchodinae (body lengths: 39.0–47.0 mm,
47.0–51.0 mm), with an extremely spinose head and body, conspicuously swollen mesothorax ( in par-
ticular) and prominently dentate or lobate legs. Spines of the head and body often composite, aggregated in
clusters, or forming spinose crest-like structures. Colouration green and brown, lichen- or moss-like. Thorax
and most of abdomen with a fine longitudinal median carina dorsally ( fm in particular). Head indistinctly
longer than wide and globose, vertex convex, ± conical and strongly spinose. A pair of supra-orbital spines
present. No ocelli. Eyes small, circular and projecting hemispherically. Antennae filiform and > 2/3 the length
of body; consisting of > 25 segments. Antennomeres elongate, increasing in length towards apex of antennae
and club-like apically. Pronotum slightly shorter and narrower than the head, rectangular and spinose dorsally.
Mesothorax of conspicuously swollen medially and constricted anteriorly, of almost parallel-sided
with median swelling very faint; at least 2.5x longer than prothorax (comparatively longer in ). Mesono-
tum covered with numerous prominent and composite spines; central portion in convex and usually armed
with a prominent cluster of spines. Metathorax rectangular and slightly constricted medially. Metanotum
about as wide as long ( ) to slightly longer than wide ( ) and armed with several prominent spines. Meso-
and metapleurae with a longitudinal row of spine-like tubercles and each with a distinct, composite supra-
coxal spine. Sterna sparsely granulose or tuberculose. Abdomen including median segment longer than com-
bined length of head and complete thorax. Median segment less than half the length of metanotum, quadrate
to wider than long and spinose. Abdominal segments II–VII of of uniform width and longer than wide; of
quadrate or wider than long and ± decidedly gradually narrowing towards the posterior with II or III the
vwidest segments. Posterior margin of tergites II–IX each with ± prominent paired spines ( ), composite
spines or dentate, crest-like structures ( ). Posterolateral angles of tergites II–IX with a ± distinct triangular
tooth ( ) or foliaceous, dentate lobes ( ). Sternites tuberculose and with a ± distinct posterior pair of
spines. with a distinct praeopercular organ on sternite VII formed by a prominently raised, ± semi-circular
posteromedian lobe. Anal segment of slightly tectiform, laterally compressed, split and consisting of two
semi-tergites. Apices of semi-tergites ± elongated and dentate interiorly. Cerci small, rather elongate, dors-
oventrally flattened and carinate. Vomer of strongly reduced. Poculum of small and distinctly cup-like,
subgenital plate of very prominently keeled and boat-shaped, with the longitudinal median keel conspicu-
ously, roundly elevated medially; apex acute and slightly projecting over posterior margin of anal segment.
Legs very long and moderately slender; profemora about as long as pro- and mesonotum combined; mesofe-
moa a little longer then mesothorax and hind legs projecting considerably beyond apex of abdomen. Profem-
ora very weakly compressed basally, not conspicuously curved. All femora and tibiae trapezoidal in cross-
section; femora considerably broader than corresponding tibiae. Medioventral carina of femora distinct and
midways on ventral surface of femur, unarmed. Coxae dentate. Basitarsi elongate, about as long as following
three tarsomeres combined; all unarmed.
HENNEMANN ET AL.
52 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Comments. Sensu Redtenbacher (1908: 351) the genus Pericentrus was highly polyphyletic and included
five distinct generic units. Only the two Indian species contained by Redtenbacher, Pericentrus moewisi
Redtenbacher, 1908 and P. pinnatus Redtenbacher, 1908, actually belong in the genus. Shelford (1909: 354)
established Trychopeplus, based on a manuscript name of Brunner v. Wattenwyl, for the two Central Ameri-
can species that Redtenbacher (1908: 351) included, P. multilobatus Redtenbacher, 1908 (= Ceroys laciniatus
Westwood, 1874) and P. spinoso-lobatus Redtenbacher, 1908. Examination of the holotype nymph of P.
appendiculatus Redtenbacher, 1908 in MNCN with the doubtful locality “Central Java” has proven this also
to belong in the genus Trychopeplus Shelford, and therefore to originate from Central or South America and
not from Java as erroneously stated by Redtenbacher (1908: 353). Thus, the valid name is Trychopeplus
appendiculatus (Redtenbacher) (n. comb.). The fourth New World species contained by Redtenbacher, P.
restrictus Redtenbacher, 1908 from Puerto Rico, was transferred to Antillophilus Carl, 1913 of Cladomorphi-
nae: Hesperophasmatini by Rehn & Hebard (1938: 39). Antillophilus was synonymised with Lamponius Stål,
1875 by Moxey (1971: 69), therefore the valid name being Lamponius restrictus (Redtenbacher). The
Bornean Pericentrus nudipes Redtenbacher, 1908 was shown to be a synonym of Parastheneboea exotica
(Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907), a member of the subfamily Necrosciinae, by Günther (1932: 261). Finally, P.
tripinnatus Redtenbacher, 1908 from Sulawesi is remarkable for the bird-beak like ovipositor of , which
indicates relation to the Papuan and Melanesian subfamily Eurycanthinae, and in several aspects shows strik-
ing similarity to certain members of Neopromachus Giglio-Tos, 1912.
Hebard (1923: 359) designated P. m oew isi Redtenbacher, 1908 from Sikkim (northern India), the only
species that Redtenbacher (1908, pl. 16: 10) illustrated, as the type-species of Pericentrus. P. moewisi Redten-
bacher is obviously identical to Phasma (Acanthodera) bicoronata Westwood, 1848 and was synonymised by
Günther (1938: 130). Pericentrus pinnatus Redtenbacher, 1908 from Bhoutan, is the only species which is
certainly congeneric with P. m oe wisi , and thus also a member of Pericentrus. Günther (1938: 130ff.) provided
detailed descriptions of the newly discovered of P. bicoronata (Westwood) and P. pinnatus Redtenbacher.
Eggs of both species are as yet unknown.
Redtenbacher (1908: 351) placed Pericentrus in his tribe Eurycanthini, but subsequent authors regarded
the systematic position of the genus as questionable. Günther (1953: 556) listed it in Eurycanthinae with doubt
and correctly recognized the two Indian species to be related to Menexenus Stål, 1875 (subfamily Lonchodi-
nae). Zompro (2001: 21) excluded Pericentrus from Eurycanthinae, but without reasoning and left it without a
sub-familiar affiliation. The long antennae and structures of the genitalia confirm Günther’s presumption and
clearly place Pericentrus in Lonchodinae. Indeed, the strongly keeled, ventrally elevated subgenital pate and
prominent lobe-like praeopercular organ of , and distinctly split anal segment of which consists of two
separate, ± elongate semi-tergites show Pericentrus to be closely related to Menexenus Stål. The strongly con-
vex head which is armed with prominent crest-like lobes and spines, generally much more prominent arma-
ture of the body and legs, distinct posterolateral lobes of the abdominal tergites, elongate laterally compressed
cerci and just very weakly basally compressed not curved profemora appear to distinguish Pericentrus from
Menexenus. However, any broader discussion on the relation between these two genera requires knowledge of
the so far unknown eggs of Pericentrus.
Distribution. Northern India (Sikkim & Assam) and Bhutan.
1. Pericentrus bicoronatus (Westwood, 1848: 125, pl. 7: 2 ( )) [Phasma (Acanthodera)]. (Figs. 10 & 11)
HT, : W; Himalayas, Harrington; Type, Phasma (Acanthodera) bicoronata, Westwood, Cab. Orient. Ent., p. 15, pl.
7, f. 2 (OXUM, No. 555).
= Pericentrus moewisi Redtenbacher, 1908: 352, pl. 16: 10 ( ). HT, : Sikkim, Möwis S.; 118 (MNHU).
[Synonymised by Günther, 1938: 130]
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 53
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
2. Pericentrus pinnatus Redtenbacher, 1908: 352.
HT, : Museum Paris, Bhoutan, Maria Bas´´, M. Duael, R. Oberthur 1898; Type; Pericentrus pinnatus Redt. Type !
Keys to the species of Pericentrus Redtenbacher
1. Mesonotum 3.1x longer than pronotum; spines of the head strongly composite and crest-like;lateral
expansions of abdominal tergites extending by less than 1/3 the width of body ....................... bicoronatus
- Mesonotum 2.7x longer than pronotum; spines of the head not composite; lateral expansions of abdominal
tergites foliaceous and extending by almost ½ of body width .........................................................pinnatus
1. Vertex with 6 distinct coronal spines; semi-tergites of anal segment with apices strongly elongated, in-
curving, finger like and pointed apically....................................................................................bicoronatus
- Vertex with 8 distinct coronal spines; semi-tergites of anal segment with apices short and acutely triangu-
FIGURES 10–11. Pericentrus bicoronatus (Westwood, 1848). 10. , N-India: Boorang (MNCN). 11. , N-India: Sik-
kim, Katapahar (NHMW).
HENNEMANN ET AL.
54 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Subfamily Pachymorphinae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893
Cnipsomorpha n. gen
Type-species: Cnipsomorpha erinacea n. sp., by present designation.
Cnipsus, Liu & Cai, 1992: 61, figs. 3a & b (Not Redtenbacher, 1908).
Chen & He, 1996: 286, figs. 1 & 2 (Not Redtenbacher, 1908).
Description. . Small to very small (body length < 5 cm), moderately slender to rather broad, strikingly spi-
nose Pachymorphinae. Entire dorsal body surface ± prominently set with tubercles, spines or spine-like pro-
jections, some of which may be composite; armature considerably less distinct on ventral surface. A fine
longitudinal median carina running along complete dorsal body surface except on head and pronotum. Anten-
nae short, at best indistinctly longer than head and pronotum combined; consisting of 13–15 segments. Scapus
dorsoventrally flattened with lateral margins decidedly elevated. 3rd antennomere strongly constricted basally.
Head rounded, indistinctly longer than wide with the vertex convex, rounded and spinose. A distinct pair of
spines between the eyes. No ocelli. Mesothorax > 2x longer than pronotum, constricted anteriorly and ±
decidedly swollen medially. Abdomen as long as or longer than combined length of head and complete thorax.
Median segment less than half the length of metanotum. Abdominal segments II–VII indistinctly longer than
wide, all with posterolateral angles elevated triangularly. Tergite IX with median carina terminating in a ±
prominent spine or leaf-like extension. Sternite VII with a praeopercular organ. Cerci prominent, ± lanceolate,
dorsoventrally compressed and carinate laterally. Subgenital plate small, scoop-shaped, pointed posteriorly
and at best reaching half way along anal segment. Legs long and slender, profemora about as long as com-
bined length of head, pro- and mesonotum, hind legs projecting considerably over apex of abdomen. All dis-
tinctly carinate and trapezoidal in cross-section. Medioventral carina of femora conspicuous but unarmed.
Profemora straight but gently impressed interobasally. All ± distinctly dentate or lobate; tibiae may be
unarmed. Tarsi elongate and more than 1/3 the length of corresponding tibia. Basitarsus longer than following
three tarsomeres combined.
Eggs. Very small (length < 2 mm), slightly longer than high and oval in cross-section, polar-area gently
impressed. Capsule surface covered with a bold, slightly raised and net-like and structure, otherwise very
minutely granulose. Micropylar plate oval and slightly less than half of the capsule length; outer margin con-
spicuously raised. Interior portion of micropylar plate low with a raised, longitudinal ridge, posterior end with
a very short median-line. Operculum oval, slightly concave and smooth except for a rim of minute hair-like
structures along outer margin. Raised structures of the capsule of a conspicuously paler colour than lower por-
Differentiation. Closely related to Parapachymorpha Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 but are easily dis-
tinguished by: the rounded and convex vertex; shortened, strongly basally constricted antennomere III; rela-
tively shorter, medially swollen mesothorax; triangular posterolateral expansions of the abdominal tergites;
smaller subgenital plate; longer, lanceolate cerci which are triangular in cross-section; basally straight profem-
ora; more decidedly furnished legs, and in general considerably more developed body armature. The very
similar eggs confirm close relation to Parapachymorpha but differ by the more slender and elongate micropy-
lar plate, and much less structured surface of the operculum.
The general habitus and overall appearance of this new genus shows astonishing similarity and conver-
gence to the New Caledonian Cnipsus Redtenbacher, 1908. This could have been caused by adaption to simi-
lar mountainous habitats and convergent specialization to host plants of the family Polypodiaceae (ferns).
Etymology. The generic name mirrors the striking habitual similarity to the New Caledonian genus Cnip-
sus Redtenbacher, 1908 (currently attributed to Xeroderinae with doubt), meaning “Cnipsus-like”. Feminine.
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 55
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
Comments. Photos of a C. colorantis (Chen & He) in Mai (2004) and Yang et al.(2005), as well as pic-
tures of the live HT of C. erinacea n. sp. show members of this genus to exhibit an interesting resting-position
rather different from those of most Phasmatodea or the related Parapachymorpha Brunner v. Wattenwyl,
1893. The apical half of the abdomen is curled upwards and the legs are held strongly angled with the hinder
pair of legs directed forward. The anterior legs in particular or often held angled backward to cover the
mesothorax, similar to the position seen in fig. 10.
Distribution. Mountainous regions of Southwest China (Yunnan Province). So far recorded from alti-
tudes between 1500 and 2500 m. Species of this genus are highly specialized and restricted to mountainous
biotopes. They appear to feed predominantly on ferns (Polypodiaceae).
1. Cnipsomorpha apteris (Liu & Cai, 1992: 61, figs. 3a & b ( )) [Cnipsus]. n. comb.
2. Cnipsomorpha colorantis (Chen & He, 1996b: 286, figs. 1 & 2 ( )) [Cnipsus]. n. comb.
3. Cnipsomorpha erinacea n. sp. (Figs. 12–17)
Key to of Cnipsomorpha n. gen.
1. Abdomen slender and ± parallel-sided; femora dentate dorsally ................................................................2
- Abdomen conspicuously swollen medially; femora unarmed dorsally................................. erinacea n. sp.
2. Pronotum with a distinct pair of anterior spines; tibiae unarmed; antennae with 14 segments.......... apteris
- Pronotum without anterior spines; tibiae dentate; antennae with 13 segments...............................olorantis
Cnipsomorpha apteris (Liu & Cai, 1992) n. comb.
Cnipsus apteris Liu & Cai, 1992: 62, figs. 3a & b ( ). HT, : China, Yunnan Province, Lushui County, Yaojaping 2500
m, 2.VI.1981, leg. Wang Shuyong (IZCAS); PT, : Yunnan Province, Lushui County,Pianma (IZCAS).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 109.
Differentiation. Distinguished from C. colorantis (Chen & He) by: the slightly larger size; more slender and
elongate body; relatively longer body segments; 14-jointed antennae; presence of an anterior pair of spines on
the pronotum; less numerous spines of the mesonotum; decidedly more prominent posterior lobes of abdomi-
nal tergite IX; more prominent praeopercular organ; shape of the anal segment; apically pointed subgenital
plate and unarmed tibiae. From C. erinacea n. sp. it differs by: the smaller size; considerably more slender
and elongate body; relatively longer body segments; parallel-sided abdomen; 14-jointed antennae; four
instead of six distinct spines and less prominent posterolateral lobes of the abdominal tergites II–VII; differ-
ently shaped anal segment and subgenital plate.
Description. The following is a translation of the original Chinese description, partly supplemented by
the illustrations provided by Liu & Cai (1992). The type specimens in IZCAS could unfortunately not be
examined for the present study.
. Of moderate size for the genus (body length 34.0 mm), comparatively slender and elongate. Dorsal
body surface furnished with numerous prominent spines and tubercles of variable size and a distinctly raised,
longitudinal median carina. General colouration yellowish brown with irregular darker brown stripes and
markings on most portions of the body.
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56 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Head: Oval, slightly longer than wide, vertex convex and rounded. Between the eyes with a pair of short
spines, followed by six much more decided spines on the frons, four prominent spines on the vertex and two
small spines close to posterior margin. Antennae rather broad, distinctly segmented, 14-jointed and consider-
ably shorter than profemora; all antennomeres densely setose. Third antennomere very short and constricted
Thorax: Pronotum slightly trapezoidal, tuberculose, with a few small spines in anterior half and four dis-
tinct spines behind the transverse median depression. Mesothorax about 2.6x longer than pronotum and gently
swollen medially. Mesonotum armed with four prominent, paired spines in the centre; a pair of small spines
close to anterior margin and two moderately distinct spines pre-posteriorly. Lateral margins with several
spines of variable size, the median ones decidedly larger than remaining. Metanotum a little more than half the
length of mesonotum and armed with two conspicuous pairs of spines, the posterior one being decidedly
larger than the rather slender anterior pair. Mesosternum unarmed.
Abdomen: Median segment roughly half the length of metanotum, in posterior half with a pair of moder-
ately sized spines. Segments II–VII roughly of equal width, all slightly longer than wide. Tergites II–VII
slightly elevated posteriorly, the posterolateral angles each forming a small triangular tooth, the posterior mar-
gin serrate. II–V each armed with four paired spines, the anterior ones small, the posterior ones very promi-
nent. VI with with two serrate lobes, VII with a short pair of spines, VIII with a distinct, longitudinal median
keel. Tergite IX considerably shorter than VIII, wider than long and in the centre rising into a very large, leaf-
like, 4-dentate lobe. Anal segment longer than IX with a conspicuous medina carina, the posterior margin
truncate and roughly dentate. Sternites II–VI with an irregularely wrinkles, longitudinal median carina and
two longitudinal spines close to posterior margin which are broadened apically; posterior margin slightly
raised and serrate. Praeopercular organ formed by a prominent, raised and angled hump close to posterior
margin of sternite VII. Subgenital plate short, scoop-shaped, slightly keeled and apex slightly projecting over
posterior margin of tergite IX; apex tapered and posterolateral angles each with a small, blunt tooth. Cerci of
moderate size, slightly triangular in cross-section and projecting over apex of anal segment.
Legs: All rather long and slender, profemora about as long as head, pro- and mesonotum combined,
mesofemora slightly projecting over posterior margin of abdominal tergite III, metatibiae exceeding apex of
abdomen. Anterodorsal and posteroventral carinae of profemora very gently wave-like, other carinae
unarmed. Both dorsal and ventral carinae of meso- and metafemora furnished with several prominent, triangu-
lar teeth of variable sizes. Tibiae without conspicuous armature. Basitarsus longer than following three tar-
Measurements in table 2.
Comments. So far only known from the two types.
Cnipsomorpha colorantis (Chen & He 1996) n. comb.
Cnipsus colorantis Chen & He, 1996: 286, figs. 1 & 2 ( ). HT, : China, Yunnan Province, Xishuanganna, Mengsong,
Menglong 1600 m, 26.IV.1958, leg. Hong Chuipei (IZCAS).
Otte & Brock, 2005: 109.
Differentiation. Easily distinguished from the other two members of the genus by: the very small size; 13-
jointed antennae; lack of anterior spines on the pronotum; more numerous spines of the mesonotum and pres-
ence of a sub-basal spine-like appendage of the lateral surfaces of the subgenital plate.
Description. The following is a translation of the original Chinese description, supplemented by the illus-
trations provided by Chen & He (1996) and photos of a live specimen in Mai (2004) & Yang et al.( 2005). The
HT in IZCAS could unfortunately not be examined for the present study.
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NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
. Very small (body length 28.4 mm) and moderately slender for the genus. Dorsal body surface furnished
with numerous spines and tubercles of variable size and a slight longitudinal median carina. Ventral body sur-
face more sparingly and much less decidedly tuberculose and spinose. General colouration of body and legs
green with numerous brown and blackish speckles and markings; the legs irregularly but decidedly annulated.
Each dorsal body segment with a short, curved green line laterally. Head with a V-shaped brown marking
between the eyes. Eyes brown, antennae blackish brown. Longitudinal median carina on thorax yellow. Chen
& He (1996) described the preserved HT as yellowish brown, which was certainly discoloured by a provi-
sional storage in ethanol.
Head: Globose, indistinctly longer than wide, vertex convex and rounded. Between the eyes furnished
with a pair of small spines; just behind the eyes with a further pair of spines, which is slightly larger and in
greater distance to another. Vertex armed with 10 spines of variable sizes; centre with four prominent coronal
spines, the anterior pair being larger; close to posterior margin another pair of enlarged spines. Antennae very
short, rather broad, consisting of 13 segments and considerably shorter than profemora; all antennomeres
densely setose. Scapus dorsoventrally flattened and slightly dilated laterally, pedicellus much shorter and
cylindrical. Third antennomere very short and constricted basally.
Thorax: Pronotum shorter and slightly narrower than the head, roughly trapezoidal; in posterior half
armed with a pair of moderately sized spines. Prosternum flat. Mesothorax more than 2.5x longer than prono-
tum, constricted anteriorly, decidedly swollen medially and gently narrowing towards the posterior margin.
Swollen and convex median portion of the mesonotum set with 16 rather symmetrically paired spines, two
pairs of spines in posterior portion, the posterior ones being distinctly smaller. Lateral margins armed with two
conspicuous spines pre-medially, the posterior one decidedly larger. Metanotum about 2/3 the length of
mesonotum, dorsally armed with three pairs of rather prominent spines and a further, much smaller pair of
spines towards posterior margin. Two rather decided, spine-like median tubercles on lateral margins. Meso-
and metasternum sparingly tuberculose.
Abdomen: Median segment contained almost 4.5x in length of metanotum; posteromedially with a small
pair of spines. Segments II–VII narrower than thorax and of approximately equal length and width, VIII–X
broader; II–VII slightly longer than wide, all longer than median segment. Posterolateral angles of tergites II–
VII elevated triangularly, posterior margins each armed with three prominent spines, the median ones largest
and formed by the longitudinal median carina, the lateral ones slightly smaller. Dorsal surface of II–V with
four medium spines, roughly arranged in a quadrate; these indistinct and tubercle-like on VI and VII. Sternites
II–VII each with two pairs of spine-like, whitish tubercles; the posterior ones more prominent. Tergites VIII–
X with a distinct longitudinal carina laterally. Longitudinal median carina of VIII and IX terminating in a
spine-like protuberance, which is considerably larger and leaf-like on IX. Anal segment longer than IX, with a
distinct and medially elevated longitudinal median keel, posterior margin with outer angles each elevated in a
rounded lobe; posteromedian portion indented. Cerci prominent, almost as long as anal segment, elongate,
dorsoventrally flattened lanceolate with the apex decidedly pointed. Subgenital plate small, scoop-shaped,
slightly keeled and more convex in the apical half and tapered towards the pointed tip, which almost reaches
half way along anal segment. Lateral surfaces with a conspicuous spine-like appendage in basal portion, pro-
duced by the longitudinal lateral carina.
Legs: All long and moderately slender; profemora about as long as head, pro- and mesonotum combined,
metafemora reaching about half way along abdominal segment VI, hind legs projecting considerably over
apex of abdomen. All femora decidedly carinate, medioventral carina of femora conspicuous but unarmed. All
four carinae of all femora armed with several distinct, triangular teeth of variable sizes. Dorsal carinae of tib-
iae each with a few small, triangular teeth; ventral carinae unarmed. Tarsi setose.
Measurements in table 2.
Comments. So far only known from the unique HT. Photos of a live specimen in Mai (2004) and Yang
et al.( 2005) were taken at Tengchong County, Yunnan Province taken by Mai Guoqing.
HENNEMANN ET AL.
58 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Cnipsomorpha erinacea n. sp.
HT, : SW-China, Yunnan Province, Gongshan County, Bingzhongluo Village, Mt. Niwalo, 1500–2000 m,
18.VIII.2006, leg. Liu Ye [in alcohol] (IZCAS).
PT, 1 egg (removed from the abdomen of the HT) [in alcohol]: same data as HT (IZCAS)
Etymology. The name (lat. erinaceus = hedgehog) refers to the strongly spinose head and body of this new
Differentiation. This new species is easily distinguished from the two other members of the genus by: the
considerably larger size; gently broadened and sub-basally swollen abdomen; 16-jointed antennae and
tapered, apically pointed anal segment. From C. apteris (Liu & Cai) it furthermore differs by: the much
broader and robust body; relatively shorter body segment; relatively longer legs; six instead of four prominent
spines and more prominent posterolateral lobes of the abdominal tergites II–VII. In addition to the characters
mentioned it is distinguished from C. colorantis (Chen & He) by: presence of a small anterior pair of spines
on the pronotum; less numerous spines of the mesothorax; lack of a sub-basal lateral spine-like appendage on
the subgenital plate, and the unarmed tibiae.
Description. The colouration is described from photos of the live HT taken by Liu Ye. Provisional con-
servation in alcohol has discoloured all green parts of the body to pale yellow.
(Figs. 12 & 13). Large (body length 42.0 mm) rather broad and robust for the genus; abdomen gently
swollen sub-basally with segments III and IV broadest. Entire dorsal surface of head and body armed with
tubercles and spines of variable sizes. General colouration of head, body and legs reddish mid brown,
although a little darker on the abdomen. Pronotum with two faint dark brown, longitudinal median markings
and greenish in between. Mesonotum laterally with two rather short, strongly winded green lines; one in ante-
rior half and one in posterior half. The anterior line broader and both interiorly accompanied by a broad
weakly defined black marking. Two similar structure on lateral surfaces of metanotum, one at anterior margin
and one one sub-posteriorly; one such structure on lateral surfaces of abdominal tergite II. Tergites III–VII
each with a conspicuous, semi-circular bright green marking, interiorly bordered by a broad but rather unde-
cided black line. Tergite VIII with the lateral green marking less defined but considerably larger. Lateral sur-
faces of tergites IX–X slightly greenish. Meso- and metapleurae pale yellowish green, pro-, meso- and
metasternum mid brown, the two latter with a greenish line along lateral margins. Metasternum with a weakly
defined greenish median marking near posterior margin. Abdominal sternites brown with some very faint,
irregular pale green markings and speckles; the more lateral spines white. All femora and tibiae with indistinct
and irregular darker brown markings and annulations.
Head: Globose, 1.3x longer than wide, vertex strongly convex and rounded. Between the eyes with a pair
of rather prominent, blunt supra-antennal spines, these slightly directed towards the posterior. Vertex armed
with eight prominent spines. Six paired median occipitals roughly arranged in two parallel longitudinal rows,
the anterior pair largest. A further prominent supra-orbital spine positioned anterolaterally of the occipital
spines (Fig. 15). Eyes small, circular and projecting hemispherically; length contained 3.5x in that of cheek.
Antennae moderately broad, about as long as head and pronotum combined and consisting of 16 segments; all
minutely setose. Scapus dorsoventrally compressed and dilated with the lateral margins gently rounded.
Pedicelus cylindrical, much narrower and its length contained 3x in that of scapus. III strongly constricted
basally. Apical antennomere longest and slightly club-like (Fig. 15).
Thorax: Pronotum about as long and slightly narrower than head; roughly rectangular with the lateral margins
weakly convex. Transverse median depression indistinct and short, not reaching to lateral margins of segment.
Longitudinal median line decidedly impressed. Two small antero-median tubercles present, two even smaller
medial-pronotals, just before transverse median depression, and close to posterior margin armed with two
moderately distinct inter-posterior pronotal spines. Mesothorax more than 3x longer than pronotum, anterior
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 59
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
1/3 constricted, medial portion considerably broadened and swollen, lateral margins of posterior 1/3 roughly
parallel-sided; posterior margin almost 2x broader than anterior margin. Convex and swollen median portion
of mesonotum armed with twelve prominent median-mesonotal spines, three pairs dorsally and two slightly
smaller spines on each lateral surface. A pair of distinct and pointed post-median spines present and followed
by a pair of much smaller, blunt inter-posterior spines at posterior margin. Lateral margins with a row of sev-
eral small spines and two considerably larger medio-lateral spines in the median portion, the anterior one
larger. Otherwise set with several minute spines or tubercles. Mesopleurae with a longitudinal row of 6–7
small, blunt spines. Metanotum slightly more than half the length of mesonotum, rectangular and about 1.3x
longer than wide. Dorsally armed with three prominent pairs of spines, one small anterior pair, a slightly more
FIGURES 12–17. Cnipsomorpha erinacea n. gen. n. sp. 12. Habitus of HT, lateral view. 13. Habitus of HT, dorsal
view. 14. Apex of abdomen, lateral view. 15. Head, lateral view. 16. Egg, dorsal view. 17. Egg, lateral view.
HENNEMANN ET AL.
60 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
decided pair close to posterior margin and a considerably more prominent pair medially; another distinct spine
close to posterolateral angles of metanotum. Lateral margins with two moderately sized, conical spines in
anterior half. Surface otherwise set with several small tubercles or spines. Metapleurae structured like
mesopleurae. Meso- and metasternum set with some flat tubercles, the lateral margins slightly raised. Both
with a conspicuous conical and strongly shiny median hump just before coxae, which may represent a senso-
rial area or similar.
Abdomen: Slightly longer than head and complete thorax combined. Median segment less than ¼ the
length of metanotum, wider than long, the anterior margin gently rounded; armed with two prominent spines
medially and a further, much smaller spine on each lateral surface. Segments II–VII roughly of equal length;
III slightly longer. II and III very slightly widening towards the posterior, IV–VII slightly tapering; III and IV
widest. Tergite VIII almost 1.5x longer than VII. Tergites II–VII each with the posterolateral angle strongly
elevated to form a prominent triangular, apically pointed lobe, which laterally extends by almost as much as 1/
3 the width of the corresponding segment; indistinct on II and most prominent on III and IV. II–VIII each
armed with six prominent spines; four spines posteromedially which roughly form a quadrangle and a further,
strong posterior pair close to posterior margin; these most prominent on III and IV. The posteriors towards the
anterior terminating in a decreasing and diverging blunt carina. Close to anterior margin with a further pair of
small spines or tubercles. Sternites II–VII each with an irregular longitudinal carina close to lateral margins,
which is set with 2–3 ± distinct, blunt spine-like expansions. Praeopercular organ formed by a blunt median
tubercle close to posterior margin of VII. Posterior median spines on VIII strongly enlarged to form a distinct
triangular tooth. On IX these form two very large, triangular lobes, which dorsally extend by more than half
the height of segment (Fig. 14). IX about 3/45 the length of VIII. Anal segment slightly longer than IX, dis-
tinctly carinate and tapered towards a pointed apex; roughly triangular in dorsal aspect. Anterolaterally with a
prominent, flat tubercle. Supraanal plate very small and entirely hidden underneath apical extension of anal
segment. Cerci about ¾ the length of anal segment and projecting over its apex; slightly lanceolate, triangular
in cross-section and finely setose. Lower gonapophyses filiform and slightly projecting over posterior margin
of subgenital plate. Subgenital plate rather small, scoop-shaped, flat in the basal portion and gently convex in
apical portion; lateral surfaces in basal half with a prominent, ledge-like longitudinal keel. Apex rounded with
a very minute median incision and reaching about half way along anal segment.
Legs: All long and moderately slender, profemora slightly longer than combined length of head, pro- and
mesonotum, mesofemora reaching half way along abdominal tergite III, and metafemora reaching to posterior
margin of tergite VII. All femora and tibiae trapezoidal in cross-section, femora decidedly carinate. Antero-
and posteroventral carinae of profemora each armed with 7–9 blunt triangular teeth which increase in size
towards apex of femur; remaining carinae unarmed. Both ventral carinae of meso- and metafemora set with
three triangular teeth which increase in size towards the apex of femur. Dorsal carinae with a faint, tooth-like
sub-basal elevation, otherwise unarmed. Medioventral carina of all femora fine and set with a longitudinal
row of minute, white granules. Tibiae unarmed. Tarsi elongate, protarsi slightly more than 1/3 the length,
meso- and metatarsi almost half the length of corresponding tibia. Probasitarsus longer than remaining tar-
someres combined, mesobasitarsus slightly shorter, metabasitarsus about equal to combined length remaining
Measurements in table 2.
Eggs (Figs. 16 & 17). One egg was removed from the abdomen of the HT and is briefly described below.
However, care must be taken due to certain structures may not be fully developed although the egg appears to
have been close to being laid.
Very small, capsule slightly longer than high and slightly oval in cross-section. Polar-area gently
impressed if seen in lateral aspect. Capsule surface covered with a bold, slightly raised and net-like and struc-
ture, otherwise very minutely granulose. Micropylar plate oval and being slightly less than half of the capsule
length; outer margin conspicuously raised. Interior portion of micropylar plate low with a raised, longitudinal
Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 61
NEW GENUS, NEW SPECIES OF PHASMATODEA
ridge, posterior end with a very short median-line, externally formed by an elevation of the outer margin.
Micropylar cup placed close to posterior end of plate. Operculum oval, shallowly concave, outer margin with
a rim of minute hair-like structures; otherwise smooth. General colouration of capsule orange mid brown, all
raised structures, including those of the micropylar plate, straw to pale greyish. Operculum mid grey.
Measurements [mm]: length 1.60, width 1.44, height 1.50, length of micropylar plate. 0.70.
Comments. Only known from the unique HT.
TABLE 2. Measurements of Cnipsomorpha n. gen. spp. [mm]
* after Liu & Cai (1992)
** after Chen & He (1996)
The authors would like to express their thanks to the following curators for access to the corresponding collec-
tions and assistance: Dr. C. Amedegnato & Mr. S. Poulain (MNHN), Dr. G. Beccaloni & Mrs. J. Marshall
(BMNH), Dr. I. Izquierdo (MNCN), Prof. V. Mahnert & Dr. B. Hauser (MHNG) and Dr. M. Ohl & Mrs. U.
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, HT (IZCAS)* colorantis
, HT (IZCAS)** erinacea n. sp.
, HT (IZCAS)
Body 34.0 28.4 42.0
Pronotum 2.2 2.0 3.1
Mesonotum 5.8 5.2 8.5
Metanotum 3.04 2.8 3.8
Median segment 1.44 0.8 1.8
Profemora 12.5 10.2 17.2
Mesofemora 8.2 6.0 13.1
Metafemora 10.6 8.2 16.1
Protibiae - - 16.0
Mesotibiae - - 12.0
Metatibiae - - 16.0
Antennae - - 7.0
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62 · Zootaxa 1701 © 2008 Magnolia Press
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