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In this paper, design and development of a ubiquitous tracking system is proposed, in which vehicles are tracked and controlled us-ing the prevailing cellular technologies. The system contains a GPS receiver and a GSM modem interfaced with a microcontroller. To track any vehicle, the vehicle's owner has to send an SMS to the tracking system installed inside the vehicle. Upon receiving the SMS, the microcontroller takes the current location's longitude and latitude coordinates from GPS receiver, packs it into an SMS and sends it to the owner and on a web server using GSM modem. When the web server receives the SMS containing vehicles coordinates, it will show location of the vehicle on Google Maps. For android users, the location is also displayed on an android application. In case of vehicle theft, the owner is able to turn off the main ignition switch, check status and speed of the vehicle simply by sending an SMS. The system is also equipped with a special security button for parked vehicles. By turning the button ON, the system will come in ACTIVE mode and will keep a special check on the vehicle's movement meanwhile performing the normal tasks. If the system senses any movement of vehicle during the ACTIVE mode, it will turn the main ignition OFF and will inform the owner immediately be sending 5 SMSs. Record of the vehicle's movement will be continuously managed on the web server where each owner will have vehicle's account. We have used a wide number of technologies including, but not limited to, Global Positioning System (GPS), Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Microcontroller. c ⃝ 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Elhadi M. Shakshuki.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... Official vehicle management systems usually have a global positioning system (GPS) and tracking system . The system also uses various technologies related to networking and online cloud services. ...
... Their system integrated an LCD screen in the onboard unit for users to find the exact location of a vehicle and estimate its arrival time. Behzad et al.  used infrared sensing technology to detect and send short messages about a stranger's ...
Companies have official vehicles for the convenience and time efficiency of employees to carry out official duties. However, private uses, false reports of fuel consumption, and excessive use by users may harm the company’s finance and reputation. Moreover, it is difficult to quantify and manage the use of official vehicles as they are used by different groups in the company. Locating vehicles also is a problem that is caused by inappropriate management. To solve these problems, an online monitoring and management system of official vehicles is proposed in this study. The system includes a set-top box (STB), key cabinet unit, line bot, and backstage management system in four major units with GPS and moving path tracking functions. The STB functions include GPS mobile tracking, power management, and Wi-Fi communication. The key cabinet unit manages key storage for the STB and detects the location of the set-top box. The backstage management system stores general information and GPS locations of vehicles. Line Bot allows online management, and the backstage management system provides administrators with information on official vehicle uses. The test result of the system shows successful monitoring of the vehicles on identifying moving paths, mileage, and locations with an accuracy of 5 m. The system prevents doubled reservations and informs the exact location of the vehicles. It helps the administrator of the official vehicles monitor and analyze the data of uses of the vehicles to improve the management efficiency and prevent misuse of the vehicles. The system also provides a solution for sharing economy of vehicles.
... In terms of energy harvesting, vibration based -  and stress based , -  mechanisms arouse many research interests. In particular, Tolentino et al. designed a selfsustained vehicular tracking system by absorbing energy from vehicle motor vibrations via the PEH . ...
... In terms of energy harvesting, vibration based -  and stress based , -  mechanisms arouse many research interests. In particular, Tolentino et al. designed a selfsustained vehicular tracking system by absorbing energy from vehicle motor vibrations via the PEH . Huang et al.  proposed a shoe based battery-free wearable sensing platform where the power comes from the two feet when people are walking. ...
Piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH), which converts ambient motion, stress, and vibrations into usable electricity, may help combat battery issues in a growing number of
industrial and wearable Internet of things (IoTs). Recently, many works have convincingly demonstrated that PEH can also act as a self-powered sensor for detecting a wide range of machine and human contexts. These developments suggest that the same PEH hardware could be potentially used for simultaneous energy harvesting and sensing (SEHS), offering a new design space for low cost and low power IoT devices. Unfortunately, realization of SEHS is challenging as the energy harvesting process distorts
the sensing signal. To achieve high quality sensing from PEH, the state-of-the-art uses separate PEHs for sensing and energy harvesting, which increases system complexity, form factor, and cost. In this paper, we propose a novel SEHS architecture, which combines energy harvesting and sensing in the same piece of PEH, and minimizes distortion in the sensing signal by applying a special filtering algorithm. We prototype the SEHS concept in the form factor of a shoe, and evaluate its energy harvesting as well
as sensing performance with 20 subjects using gait recognition as a case study. We demonstrate that the SEHS prototype harvests up to 127% more energy and detects human gait with 8% higher accuracy while consuming 35% less power compared to the state-of-the-art.
... The authorized person or owner can stop the moving vehicle if in motion or can send the password to start the ignition . If the vehicle in motion has been stopped by the user, we can track the position of the vehicle by, the tracker system installed in the car, getting its altitude, latitude and longitude .Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver is a very useful device to identify vehicle theft. When receiver stops receiving the signal from transmitter, an SMS will be sent to authorized person/ owner . ...
Worldwide road accidents are a major issue of concern. Even with so many modern devices present in the field of vehicle design, road lane design and heavy traffic control accidents do occur at a large scale. Every year worldwide, more than 1.25 million people are pronounced dead in road accidents. Most of the time, it happens that the death is caused due to the unavailability of the essential medical services at the moment of emergency situations. In most accidents, people lose their lives as no medical facility is reached there at proper time and place.To reduce this risk factor automatic accident detection system leads important role.Due to this device immediate action with respect to critical health care of victims can be taken care of.Accident detection device installed in a vehicles when meets with an accident will send SMS/ messages to the pre-install numbers of the drivers family members, police station, ambulance and nearest hospital.This embedded system is useful for tracking and retrieving the exact position of any vehicle which has met with an accident by using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). This system notifies all the important numbers such as the police station, ambulance and the hospitals whenever an accident takes place and also provides the exact location on the map using the GPS. When an accident takes place, the shocks trigger the sensors leading them into concluding the mishap that has occurred and thus resulting into sending messages to the nearest helpline. For this, Renessa's micro-controller is used and is serially interfaced to a GSM modem and GPS receiver. The GSM Modem sends the position of the driver which is provided by the GPS and the same data is send to the nearest Police Station, Emergency Facilities, and other per-registered Emergency Contacts.
... The owner of the vehicle send the password to start the ignition . We can track the position of the vehicle by getting its altitude, latitude and longitude after deactivating the ignition . Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver can be used to identify vehicle theft. ...
As more and more people migrates from village to urban area; the urban lifestyle is becoming more complex. The condition of the road is also become worse due to heavy traffic and high ratio of vehicles on roads. Every year, more than 1.25 million people are pronounced dead in accident in all over the world. Most of the time, it is realized that one of the major factor of the death is the unavailability of the essential medical services at the moment of emergency situations. In most accidents, people lose their lives due to unavailability of proper medical facility at that time and place. Today, most of the companies keep track of their vehicles and their mechanical conditions using various preinstalled smart sensing system in order to provide the more profiled services to their precious customers as well as provided an essential smart recommendation that help their customers to drive the vehicle with safety. By using all these preinstalled smart sensing equipment, we extend the safety of the individual by analyzing their position on the go and keep track of the vehicles by sending SMS. The position of the vehicle is send by GSM modem as a SMS. In case of any accident, our system will sense it and inform passenger's relatives, nearest Police Station and Medical Facility for performing required emergency action. To inform the accident and request for emergency action, GSM technology will be used to provide the essential information to the emergency services. In order to implement this system, an electronic device will be installed in respective vehicle which will track the vehicular GPS information that the Emergency Services will be received when that vehicle would meet an accident. This technology continuously track the vehicle and report whenever is asked and send rescue alert message after any emergency situation such as collision of vehicle take place. For this, we use Renessa's microcontroller and serially interfacing it to GSM modem and GPS receiver. GSM Modem sends the position of the driver which is provided by the GPS and the same data is send to the nearest Police Station, Emergency Facilities, and other per-registered Emergency Contacts.
... First through an Initial Planning, that includes an assessment of the status of the transportation system in Butuan City and neighboring municipalities and regions incorporating vehicles coming from Davao and Cagayan de Oro areas and came up with monitoring and tracking vehicle movement through the latest technology like mobile applications, GPS and GSM modems, including the web. The study also integrates Google API (Behzad et al., 2014;Pitogo, 2019) maps to visualize the routing buses and web users to view and locate moving vehicles. ...
An efficient vehicle tracking system using Android-based application and web-based platform for monitoring and viewing dispatching buses in real-time. Global Positioning System (GPS) identifies the location of the vehicle, while maps through web GIS permits the commuters to monitor routing fleet. We developed the mobile application for two different users: (a) within the dispatching bus and (b) for the riding public to search or locate the bus. The mobile application used by the conductor within the bus transmits signal and locations unobtrusively into the server establishing a push technology communication that makes the commuters able to grab the possible estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a bus in designated stations or terminals. Riding public without the mobile application can also use the web-based application to view any of the routing buses. The methodology used in the development follows the Iterative Life Cycle Model that is the best fitting for this study for its simplified implementation towards progressing cycle. Also, the integration of a business model into the system allows any passenger to book tickets and reserve a seat. By this, the riding public has easy access for monitoring bus's arrivals and departures that aids travelers in any possible preparation and other travel options in case the bus does not suit the commuter's travel preferences. We conduct Survey using System Usability Scale (SUS) to test the usability of the system, and the point average of 124 respondents is 70. 01. This result within the range of 60.0 – 80.30 showed that the system is suitable for use.
... GPS merupakan perangkat yang sangat efisien dalam kegiatan penelitian ilmiah dan sistem pelacakan . GPS merupakan komponen utama untuk mendapatkan koordinat pelacakan . GPS menggunakan proses trilateration untuk menghitung posisi suatu objek . ...
The feasibility of a home for family residence is the basis for growing and developing a better family life. The roof, floor, and walls are data on the indicator of the feasibility of the house at the time of the survey. The need for a system that can display RTLH locations in the Web Geographic Information System (WebGIS) accompanied by detailed RTLH data and photos. This study explains how the system tracks the location of RTLH survey data officers using Android GPS, then represents it on WebGIS. The tracking method starts when the clerk fills out the home data input form via the Android application. Location coordinates in the form of latitude and longitude will be detected automatically and become input parameters accompanied by photos and RTLH data details. Offline data will be stored in SQLite then sent to MySQL via database synchronization while online. The purpose of this research is to establish a location tracking system for RTLH survey officers to facilitate the validation process of data suitability between data and facts in the field. This system managed to track the location of RTLH survey officers by being marked by the appearance of markers on the Google Map on the WebGIS application. From a total of 14,949 houses in Kota Solok in December 2018, there were 938 RTLH. From 938 RTLH, the coordinates of the location of latitude and longitude are 100%.
... Android is a Linux based open source operating system which was founded by Andy Rubin, et al . There are some important features that make android different from other operating systems . These are as follows: ...
In this dynamic life, everybody is in an urgency to reach their destinations. In this case, waiting for the buses is not feasible. People who depend on the public transport system should know about the location of the bus for which they are looking for. With the advancement of technology, android smartphones have become universal and affordable for all. Smartphones have vast capabilities to provide rich user experiences with interactive facilities. In this paper, we propose a real-time bus tracking system for the students using Android smartphones which can be used for tracking and positioning of the buses by using Global Positioning System (GPS). This android based real time application enables the students to find out the exact location of the buses so that they will not get late or will not arrive at the bus stop too early. It provides the exact location of the student's respective buses which can be viewed on the google map. In addition, this application also gives the information like bus details, driver details, contact numbers, routes, etc. Therefore, our developed application saves the student's time to wait for the buses as they can know their current location of the buses updated every moment in the form of latitude and longitude on Google maps.
... The development of such networks demands extensive planning strategy along with superior tactical approaches for its working capabilities. This effective development motivates the existence of many real-time application scenarios such as environmental control , underwater networks , battlefield surveillance , medical and health-care systems [5,6], and many more . ...
In this paper, we propose a novel framework for performance optimization in Internet of Things (IoT)-based next-generation wireless sensor networks. In particular, a computationally-convenient system is presented to combat two major research problems in sensor networks. First is the conventionally-tackled resource optimization problem which triggers the drainage of battery at a faster rate within a network. Such drainage promotes inefficient resource usage thereby causing sudden death of the network. The second main bottleneck for such networks is that of data degradation. This is because the nodes in such networks communicate via a wireless channel, where the inevitable presence of noise corrupts the data making it unsuitable for practical applications. Therefore, we present a layer-adaptive method via 3-tier communication mechanism to ensure the efficient use of resources. This is supported with a mathematical coverage model that deals with the formation of coverage holes. We also present a transform-domain based robust algorithm to effectively remove the unwanted components from the data. Our proposed framework offers a handy algorithm that enjoys desirable complexity for real-time applications as shown by the extensive simulation results.
... Later the owner of the vehicle sends password then the ignition will start . After deactivating the ignition we can track the position of the vehicle by get latitude and longitude position of the vehicle . Vehicle theft can also be identified by using RF transmitter and receiver in the vehicle. ...
As urban living environment is becoming more and more complex; the road condition is becoming worse because of heavy traffic, increase of traffic accidents and high ratio of empty vehicles. It increases the cost of transportation and wastes time of vehicle movement. In highly populated Countries like India, during accidents, people lose their lives due to unavailability of proper medical facilities at the right time. This project senses any accident in the vehicle and intimates pre-programmed numbers like family members of the rider, ambulance, police station and nearest hospital etc. The GSM technology is used to send the position of the vehicle as a SMS to those numbers. And also the position of the vehicle can be obtained. Most of the companies want to keep track of their vehicles, with this equipment we can keep track of the vehicle by periodically sending SMS and the position of the vehicle is sent by the GSM modem as a SMS to the user. In this project an electronic device is installed in a vehicle and helmet to enable the hospital (ambulance-108), police station and relative of the driver to track him if he has been met with an accident and get immediate hospitalization. It is an embedded system which is used for tracking and positioning of any vehicle which is met with an accident by using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). This design will continuously monitor a moving vehicle along with rider wearing the helmet and report the status on demand and will send rescue message when met with an accident. For doing so a Renesas microcontroller is interfaced serially to a GSM Modem and GPS Receiver. A GSM Modem is used to send the position (latitude and longitude) of the rider. The GPS modem will continuously give the data i.e. the latitude and longitude indicating the position of the rider. The same data is sent to the mobile numbers and 108.
... It can also be used in tracking the distance travelled on a trip, vehicle mileage, and speed.  Due to the increasing need of vehicle tracking, many systems have been proposed, designed and implemented. This section discusses some of the basic features that previous systems provided. ...
In today's fast moving life GPS based tracking system has very much importance in everyone's life where loved ones, vehicles, mobile phones and other devices can be located with a touch of a button. Different quality parameters that are followed in GPS tracking systems are reported in this literature that helps in improving the quality of the tracking systems. This research paper is the survey based analysis of how GPS based tracking systems assures their quality in different applications. After analysis of the quality parameters, it has been explored that most of the GPS based tracking system are user friendly, cost effective, reliable and can be easily validated through different experiments and simulations. Most of the techniques are used for security and safety purpose and lack reusability factor. In future, we can work on the reusability of different techniques.
The problems faced by ice transporting entrepreneurs are the behavior of truck drivers in driving off the specified route and unnecessarily opening the freezing container door. Consequently, the dropping temperature inside the container of the ice truck damaged the frozen food transportation. For this reason, rotten frozen food because of transportation ruins the customer’s trust. This research aims to present the design of location tracking, opening-closing container door counting system, and temperature monitoring system for ice trucks using Internet of Things (IoT) techniques. The real-time information is visualized via a web application for tracking and monitoring ice trucks.
In this paper, we propose a novel framework for performance optimization in Internet of Things (IoT)-based next-generation wireless sensor networks. In particular, a computationally-convenient system is presented to combat two major research problems in sensor networks. First is the conventionally-tackled resource optimization problem which triggers the drainage of battery at a faster rate within a network. Such drainage promotes inefficient resource usage thereby causing sudden death of the network. The second main bottleneck for such networks is the data degradation. This is because the nodes in such networks communicate via a wireless channel, where the inevitable presence of noise corrupts the data making it unsuitable for practical applications. Therefore, we present a layer-adaptive method via 3-tier communication mechanism to ensure the efficient use of resources. This is supported with a mathematical coverage model that deals with the formation of coverage holes. We also present a transform-domain based robust algorithm to effectively remove the unwanted components from the data. Our proposed framework offers a handy algorithm that enjoys desirable complexity for real-time applications as shown by the extensive simulation results.
Currently almost of the public having an own vehicle, theft is happening on parking and sometimes driving insecurity places. The safe of vehicles is extremely essential for public vehicles. Vehicle tracking and locking system installed in the vehicle, to track the place and locking engine motor. The place of the vehicle identified using Global Positioning system (GPS) and Global system mobile communication (GSM). These systems constantly watch a moving Vehicle and report the status on demand. When the theft identified, the responsible person send SMS to the microcontroller, then microcontroller issue the control signals to stop the engine motor. Authorized person need to send the password to controller to restart the vehicle and open the door. This is more secured, reliable and low cost.
Global Positioning System (GPS) is becoming widely used for tracking and monitoring vehicles. Many systems have been created to provide such services which make them popular and needed more than ever before. In this paper a “GPS vehicle tracking system” is proposed. This system is useful for fleet operators in monitoring driving behavior of employees or parents monitoring their teen drivers. Moreover, this system can be used in theft prevention as a retrieval device in addition of working as a security system combined with car alarms. The main contribution of this paper is providing two types of end user applications, a web application and a mobile application. This way the proposed system provides a ubiquitous vehicle tracking system with maximum accessibility for the user anytime and anywhere. The system's tracking services includes acquiring the location and ground speed of a given vehicle in the current moment or on any previous date. It also monitors the vehicle by setting speed and geographical limits and therefore receiving SMS alerts when the vehicle exceeds these pre-defined limits. Additionally, all the movements and stops of a given vehicle can also be monitored. Tracking vehicles in our system uses a wide range of new technologies and communication networks including General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), the Internet or the World Wide Web and Global Positioning System (GPS).
Stand alone global positioning system receivers are widely used nowadays to accurately locating one's position. By using stand alone GPS receivers the distance between two locations on earth can also be measured. This project is aim to design and implement a low cost Global Positioning System suitable to be used for hiking, climbing and sailing activities. The function of the GPS is to locate the position of user. The effects of line of sights in relation to different experimented locations are also studied. In this project, the hardware used is PIC18F4520 integrated with GPS receiver typed FV-M8. The GPS modules will generate the coordinates of latitude and longitude as well as the bearing angles between two positions. The algorithm to calculate the distance between two positions was developed by using PIC C Compiler. The written algorithm extracted the data from the GPS receiver via the RS232 communication. Microcontroller is used to parse the NMEA data sentences and execute the algorithm. Finally, the output is displayed to a LCD display unit. System testing conducted showed that for a few chosen different locations, geographical view and weather conditions, overall results give an average of 10 % different compared with ideal theoretical calculated results.
Every year, and for five days, about three million pilgrims gather in the small city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, to perform the rituals of Hajj (Pilgrimage). Tracking the movement of such a large number of people is crucial to the pilgrims themselves and the authorities managing the whole event. This letter reports a real-time pilgrim tracking system that has been designed and implemented. The system relies on a dedicated delay-tolerant wireless sensor network (WSN). This WSN is interfaced to the Internet through gateway(s) available from an internet service provider (ISP). Energy efficiency, robustness, and reliability are key factors in the design of the system. Each pilgrim is given a mobile sensor unit which includes a GPS chip, a microcontroller, and antennas. A network of fixed units is installed in the Holy area for receiving and forwarding data. Periodically, each mobile unit sends its user identification (UID), latitude, longitude, and a time stamp. A central server maps the latitude and longitude information on a geographical information system (GIS). The developed system can be used to track a specific or a group of pilgrims. The developed system was tested during the last two pilgrim seasons. The pilot system was able to successfully track all pilgrims who participated in the experiment.
This paper proposes and implements a low-cost GPS tracking system using GPS and GPRS on cheap mobile phone devices. The proposed system allows a user to view real time positioning and recorded tracks of a mobile phone adapted for the system. It reads the current GPS location of the mobile phone device using a GPS Receiver which may be external to or integrated in the device and sends data to a GSM network via GPRS where the data is forwarded to a main server database. A web application has been developed using PHP and MySQL and the free version of Google Maps APIs is used for the location visualization. The system also use the free email-text messaging attribute of the two major mobile network operators in Mauritius namely Orange and Emtel, to send Geofence alerts to the users if in case an adapted mobile phone device has reached a restricted zone set through the web application. This system has also been built in an intelligent way to send data to the server at the lowest cost possible. It is very useful for fleet management, family monitoring, and can be adapted to the needs of any user. The system meets its objective of being low-cost and is even the cheapest system developed with many functionalities of all existing tracking systems investigated.
This paper presents the design and development of an on-demand low-cost positioning and tracking (P&T) system for large environments based on standard mobile phones and Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices, which allows the position of a terminal to be tracked by exchanging text or multimedia messages using short message service (SMS) and/or multimedia message service (MMS). In contrast with other works in the state of the art, the presented method and system do not require an intermediate server or an intermediation center (location-based service (LBS) providers) since communication is performed, following a peer-to-peer (P2P) paradigm. The P2P communication established between two devices with means of access to the mobile network is carried out, guaranteeing the privacy, security, and anonymity in their use and avoiding third-party intervention. Moreover, the proposed procedure protects the user from unwanted tracking through exchange of specific information, following a predefined protocol. In addition, the confidentiality of the information exchanged is guaranteed, in part, by the underlying wireless communication protocols that encrypt the messages swapped. The presented method and system represent an improvement with respect to the state-of-the-art P&T devices since it runs on standard mobile platforms, avoiding the need for a specific hardware and guaranteeing the universalization of the service. Another major advantage with respect to existing devices is that one peer can track multiple users, and each user can be tracked by multiple peers with no third-party intervention.
The ability to track vehicles is useful in many applications including security of personal vehicles, public transportation systems, fleet management and others. Furthermore, the number of vehicles on the road globally is also expected to increase rapidly. Therefore, the development of vehicle tracking system using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modem is undertaken with the aim of enabling users to locate their vehicles with ease and in a convenient manner. The system will provide users with the capability to track vehicle remotely through the mobile network. This paper presents the development of the vehicle tracking system's hardware prototype. Specifically, the system will utilize GPS to obtain a vehicle's coordinate and transmit it using GSM modem to the user's phone through the mobile network. The main hardware components of the system are u-blox NEO-6Q GPS receiver module, u-blox LEON-G100 GSM module and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The developed vehicle tracking system demonstrates the feasibility of near real-time tracking of vehicles and improved customizability, global operability and cost when compared to existing solutions.
We describe the design, development, and evaluation of a self-powered tracking system for vehicle security. 3 piezoelectric generators (PG) in cantilever beam configuration were tuned to the dominant frequency of a test vehicle. Voltage doublers were used to rectify the piezoelectric outputs and to isolate the PGs. The harvester designed is not a perturb-and-observe type but directly uses the rectified piezoelectric signals to track the maximum power point. With 30% deviation from the nominal vibration magnitude and 1Hz deviation from the nominal frequency, the harvester is able to maintain its operation within 6% of the MPP. The harvester is able to operate with up to 70.86% efficiency and output 19.8mW of power while consuming a maximum of 200uW. A 2-tank energy storage unit composed of a supercapacitor and an 860 mAh Li-Ion battery stores harvested energy and ensures continuous operation of the harvester. The stored energy is used to power the harvester circuitry, control unit, GPS and GSM modules. The tracking unit was tested by attaching it to the rear axle of the test vehicle. The operation and performance of the overall system were evaluated using the actual vibration profiles of the test vehicle.
In the past decades, the GPS (Global Positioning System) tracking systems play an import role in the position-aware applications. For the cost issue, most of these systems uses the Google MAP to display the track. However, the Google MAP API does not provide the accuracy location information of each street. Therefore, the display track from the original Longitude and latitude GPS information does not match the road track in the Google MAP preciously. In this article, we discuss the impact of the sampling period of GPS and propose a track modified algorithm to correct the track. We implement a tracking system to demonstrate the effect of the modification. The results show the proposed algorithm can enhance the accuracy of GPS track in Google MAP while the report interval is 10 seconds.
The test statistics is given by the Kalman filter residual based on the ultra-tight filter. A rate detector configuration is used in integrity monitoring process based on the ultra-tight configuration. In the end of this paper, the simulated high dynamic flight test results of ultra-tight integration based on the Kalman filter are presented, and the results showed that this algorithm can get better performance in integrity monitoring.
Technology achieves success only when it meets every stratum of people. Apart from the various GPS tracking devices this paper introduces a first of its kind vehicle tracking system that works only using GSM technology, which would be the cheapest source of vehicle tracking anti-theft system. It is a small kit that consists of a GSM module and several other components. The sys- tem can be switched ON by an SMS from the owner, which in turn instructs the microcontroller to turn OFF the vehicle, receive in- formation about the vehicle's current location or more. Once this is done, the microcontroller stimulates the GSM module to forward the details of the nearest Base Station to the owner's mobile via text message. The microcontroller which receives the delivery messages through the GSM module evaluates the time gap between succes- sive messages to determine the exact location of the vehicle in a given area. The enviable advantage of this system is that it helps the owner in tracking the vehicle at a greater pace, and reduces the complexities comparing other system, besides being a cheapest alternative for anti-theft system as well.
This paper describes a novel light-sensor-based information transmission system for indoor positioning and navigation with particular benefits for mobile and wearable computers. It can seamlessly extend outdoor GPS tracking to the indoor environment. In a novel manner, fluorescent light is used as the medium to transmit information, which is encoded by using a pulse-frequency modulation technique. The user receives the encoded light information through a photoreceiver. The information is passed into the wearable or mobile computer after the data are decoded. This information allows positioning information to be given to indoor mobile and wearable computers. We design an economical transmitter circuit by adding a few components to a commercial electronic ballast circuit for fluorescent lamps with a price of less than 10 USD. The proposed system can be used in indoor guidance and navigation applications. Exemplary applications are included in the paper, with experimented results detailed.
Vehicle tracking system using various technologies has required a vast amount of Research and development. This paper presents a vehicle tracking system using Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Digital mapping, i.e., the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and the Internet. Comparing all the technologies based on operational methodology and cost effectiveness we have selected this technology to present in the paper wherein the system is designed to manage and track a large fleet of vehicles. The key features of the system are an open-source GIS platform, real-time location information update, and a web-based user interface. The system consists of GSM-based vehicle tracking devices, a communications server, a web-server, a database server, and a map server. The tracking devices mounted in the vehicles collect location information in real-time via the GSM and transfer's it continuously through GPRS or SMS (Short Message Service) to a central database. The users are able to view the current location of the vehicles on a digital map. This paper briefly explains the basics of the GSM system and concludes with a short presentation on the future vehicle tracking system, which largely builds on the design of GSM.
Due to the heterogeneity involved in smart interconnected devices, cellular applications, and surrounding (GPS-aware) environments there is a need to develop a realistic approach to track mobile assets. Current tracking systems are costly and inefficient over wireless data transmission systems where cost is based on the rate of data being sent. Our aim is to develop an efficient and improved geographical asset tracking solution and conserve valuable mobile resources by dynamically adapting the tracking scheme by means of context-aware personalized route learning techniques. We intend to perform this tracking by proactively monitoring the context information in a distributed, efficient, and scalable fashion. Context profiles, which indicate the characteristics of a route based on environmental conditions, are utilized to dynamically represent the values of the asset's properties. We designed and implemented an adaptive learning based scheme that makes an optimized judgment of data transmission. This manuscript is complemented with theoretical and practical evaluations that prove that significant costs can be saved and operational efficiency can be achieved.
The positioning systems based on GPS alone face great problems in the so called urban canyon environments where the GPS signals are often blocked by high buildings and there are not enough available satellites signals to estimate the positioning information of a fix. To solve the problem, a constrained method is presented by approximately modeling the path of the vehicle in the urban canyon environments as pieces of lines. By adding this constraint, the minimum number of available satellites reduces to two, which is satisfied in many urban canyon environments. Then, a state-augmentation method is proposed and the extended Kalman filtering technique is adopted to simultaneously estimate the positions of the GPS receiver and the parameters of the line. Simulation results show that this approach can solve the urban canyon problems successfully.
Machine learning techniques are applied to the task of context
awareness, or inferring aspects of the user's state given a stream of
inputs from sensors worn by the person. We focus on the task of indoor
navigation and show that, by integrating information from
accelerometers, magnetometers and temperature and light sensors, we can
collect enough information to infer the user's location. However, our
navigation algorithm performs very poorly, with almost a 50% error rate,
if we use only the raw sensor signals. Instead, we introduce a
“data cooking” module that computes appropriate high-level
features from the raw sensor data. By introducing these high-level
features, we are able to reduce the error rate to 2% in our example
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in land vehicle navigation applications. However, the positioning systems based on GPS alone face great problems in the so-called urban canyon environments, where the GPS signals are often blocked by high-rise buildings and there are not enough available satellite signals to estimate the positioning information of a fix. To solve the problem, a constrained method is presented by approximately modeling the path of the vehicle in the urban canyon environments as pieces of lines. By adding this constraint, the minimum number of available satellites reduces to two, which is satisfied in many urban canyon environments. Then, different approaches using the constrained method are systematically developed. In addition, a state-augmentation method is proposed to simultaneously estimate the positions of the GPS receiver and the parameters of the line. Furthermore, the interacting multiple model method is used to determine the correct path which the vehicle follows after passing an intersection of roads. Simulation results show that this approach can solve the urban canyon problems successfully.
GPS EM406-A Datasheet Online Available at: www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/GPS/EM406A_User_Manual.PDF 21. GSM SIM900-D Datasheet Online available at: www.simcom.us/act_admin/supportfile/SIM900_HD_V1.01(091226).pdf 22. Microcontroller ATmega-16 Datasheet Online available at: www.atmel.com/images/2466s.pdf
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M R Talampas
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