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Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN) has recently become an important field due to the importance of underwater exploration. The unique characteristics of underwater environment make the designing of routing protocol a challenging task. It is difficult to replace the batteries, therefore, it is very important to design a routing protocol that gives maximum network lifetime. Depth Based Routing (DBR) and Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing (EEDBR) are two such routing protocols which give very good performance in underwater environment. In DBR and EEDBR while forwarding the data all the neighboring nodes receive the data. In our work by limiting the number of forwarding nodes, we have extended the network lifetime and energy consumption of DBR and EEDBR. Extensive simulations have been conducted in which show considerable improvement in terms of network lifetime and energy consumption. c ⃝ 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Elhadi M. Shakshuki.
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... ifficult to recharge in harsh aqueous environment. So, energy must be efficiently utilized to have full coverage of area for maximum duration of time. The balanced use of energy contributes to higher network throughput, stability period and lifetime. In literature, many depth-based routing protocols for UASNs like DBR (Yan, H., et. al, 2008), CDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014), EEDBR (Wahid, A., and Kim, D., 2012), CEEDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014) are proposed. However, energy consumption needs to be improved. EEDBR put great effort to attain longer network lifetime, nevertheless due to unnecessary data forwarding and rapid energy depletion, nodes start dying rapidly. All the nodes having same residual ener ...
... ciently utilized to have full coverage of area for maximum duration of time. The balanced use of energy contributes to higher network throughput, stability period and lifetime. In literature, many depth-based routing protocols for UASNs like DBR (Yan, H., et. al, 2008), CDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014), EEDBR (Wahid, A., and Kim, D., 2012), CEEDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014) are proposed. However, energy consumption needs to be improved. EEDBR put great effort to attain longer network lifetime, nevertheless due to unnecessary data forwarding and rapid energy depletion, nodes start dying rapidly. All the nodes having same residual energy and depth level becomes eligible forwarders, thus all such nodes transm ...
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are deemed to facilitate monitoring tasks in aquatic environment. The unique characteristics of UASNs attracted the research community to explore different aspects of these networks. However, battery resource limitation of sensor nodes leads to shorter network lifetime. Routing being the most important and challenging function; impacts energy efficiency of UASNs. Therefore, energy efficient data communication is needed for longevity of sensor nodes battery timing. This work presents new routing protocols for efficient and balanced energy consumption in UASNs; Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing (IEEDBR), Interference-Aware EEDBR (IA-EEDBR), Interference-Aware Inverse EEDBR (IA-IEEDBR), an Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) and Enhanced EBET (EEBET). All the variants of EEDBR protocol provide energy efficiency along with interference minimization phenomenon. Unlike EEDBR, IEEDBR protocol uses depth and minimum residual energy information for selecting data forwarder. Hence, network throughput is increased and network remains alive for longer time. The IA-EEDBR takes minimum number of neighbors for forwarder selection. This protocol minimizes interference and improves result in terms of longer stability period, network lifetime and high network throughput. IA-IEEDBR considers depth, minimum residual energy along with minimum number of neighbors for selection of forwarder. This protocol improves packet drop, transmission loss and path loss. The last two protocols EBET and EEBET works for balancing energy consumption in the network. The EBET protocol avoids direct transmission over long distance to save sufficient amount of energy consumed in the routing process. The EEBET protocol overcomes the deficiencies in both Balanced Transmission Mechanism (BTM) and EBET techniques. EBET selects relay node on the basis of optimal distance threshold which leads to network lifetime prolongation. The initial energy of each sensor node is divided into energy levels for balanced energy consumption. Selection of high energy level node within transmission range avoids long distance direct data transmission. The EEBET incorporates depth threshold to minimize the number of hops between source node and sink while eradicating backward data transmissions. The EBET technique balances energy consumption within successive ring sectors, while, EEBET balances energy consumption of the entire network. In EEBET, optimum number of energy levels is also calculated to further enhance the network lifetime. Effectiveness of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations where these are compared with two existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, transmission loss, and throughput. The simulations are conducted under different network radii and varied number of nodes.
... In , authors have proposed Delay-Sensitive Depth-Based Routing (DSDBR), Delay-Sensitive Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing (DSEEDBR) and Delay-Sensitive Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Depth-based routing (DSAMCTD) protocols. In , authors have extended the DBR protocol by limiting the number of forwarding nodes and have extended the network lifetime and energy consumption of the DBR. In , the authors have identified the confinements of various routing algorithms used for UWSNs and the design issues for efficient routing algorithm were also discussed. ...
... These problems are resolved by the authors of . They proposed an efficient routing protocol named constraint based depth based routing protocol (CDBR). ...
... Forwarding of data is based on sensor nodes distance with its sink. Author in  works on energy balancing by working on sensor nodes depth and residual energy by proposing an energy efficient routing algorithm. ...
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks are considered to provide efficient monitoring tasks in aquatic environment but due to limited battery resource of sensor nodes, network lifetime collapses. Energy balancing is the major issue in low network lifetime. High energy consumption creates energy holes and ultimately leads to shorter network lifetime. Therefore, energy consumption must be balanced to increase network life time. To overcome these concerns a technique should be designed that minimizes the energy consumption and prolong network lifetime. This paper presents a Dual Sink Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (DSEBET) for UASNs. DSEBET overcomes the problem of limited network lifetime and high energy consumption over long distance. Dual sinks underwater model is established. DSEBET first establishes links between nodes on the basis of their optimum distance value and then picks relay nodes on the basis of their minimum distance " N j " value for the transmission of data. In the data transmission phase every nodes have equal energy levels numbers (ELNs). Long distance nodes from one sink will share their data to other sink if come in range of sink otherwise they will establish a multi hop path for transmission of data to the respective sink.
... DBR protocol uses the depth is only for creating a routing path and does not require the full location information. In ,a routing protocol called (Constraint Depth Based Routing Protocol) and (Constraint Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing), in CDBR and CEEDBR the authors proposed two protocols to solve the problem of power unbalance and redundant transmissions in the DBR protocol by limiting the number of data forwarding nodes, energy consumption can be reduced. In , a routing protocol called (Intelligence Depth Based Routing Protocol) IDBR was proposed, In IDBR protocol the authors proposed a routing protocol to solve the problem of energy holes in the EEDBR protocol through an assignment more energy for nodes near the surface of the water due to frequent use of nodes near the sink node. ...
Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) has recently become an important area due to the importance of underwater exploration. The unique characteristics of the underwater environment make designing routing protocols a difficult task. Optimal use of energy in UWSNs is very challenging and an active field of research. The replacing of the energy sources in such an environment is very costly. In this paper, we have proposed a routing protocol using the ant colony optimization algorithm which base on the swarm intelligence. Our simulation was performed using AquaSim which is an underwater simulator based on NS2 simulator. The evaluation results show that the proposed multi metric DBR protocol performs better than the original DBR protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio, saving energy and increasing network life.
... Efficient routing protocols have been developed for UWSN. Such protocols are constraint depth-based routing (CDBR), which is an extension of (DBR) , and constraint energy-efficient depth-based routing (CEEDBR) extended from (EEDBR) . There are four types of UWSN applications: scientific, industrial, military, and security. ...
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are considered producers of large amounts of rich data. Four types of data-driven models that correspond with various applications are identified as WSNs: query-driven, event-driven, time-driven, and hybrid-driven. The aim of the classification of data-driven models is to get real-time applications of specific data. Many challenges occur during data collection. Therefore, the main objective of these data-driven models is to save the WSN’s energy for processing and functioning during the data collection of any application. In this survey article, the recent advancement of data-driven models and application types for WSNs is presented in detail. Each type of WSN is elaborated with the help of its routing protocols, related applications, and issues. Furthermore, each data model is described in detail according to current studies. The open issues of each data model are highlighted with their challenges in order to encourage and give directions for further recommendation.
... In , the authors first performed theoretical analysis to obtain the expected value of nodes in the network. Next, they divided the network into irregular clusters. ...
Energy-efficient management and highly reliable communication and transmission mechanisms are major issues in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) due to the limited battery power of UWSN nodes within an harsh underwater environment. In this paper, we integrate the three main techniques that have been used for managing Transmission Power-based Sparsity-conscious Energy-Efficient Clustering (CTP-SEEC) in UWSNs. These incorporate the adaptive power control mechanism that converts to a suitable Transmission Power Level (TPL), and deploys collaboration mobile sinks or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) to gather information locally to achieve energy and data management efficiency (Security) in the WSN. The proposed protocol is rigorously evaluated through extensive simulations and is validated by comparing it with state-of-the-art UWSN protocols. The simulation results are based on the static environmental condition, which shows that the proposed protocol performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delivery, and throughput.
... An extension of Depth-Based Routing protocol (DBR) and Energy-Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (EEDBR) is provided in , to improve the energy-efficiency and network life time. The proposed schemes, Constraint-based DBR (CDBR) and Constraint-based EEDBR (CEEDBR) imposes a limit on the number of forwarder nodes by providing a depth threshold parameter along with depth information for selecting data forwarder. ...
The unique characteristics of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) attracted the research community to explore different aspects of these networks. Routing is one of the most important and challenging function in UWSNs, for efficient data communication and longevity of sensor node's battery timing. Sensor nodes have energy constraint because replacing the batteries of sensor nodes is an expensive and tough task in harsh aqueous environment. Also interference is a major performance influencing factor. Providing solutions for interference-free communication are also essential. In this paper, we propose three energy-efficient and interference-aware routing protocols named as Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IEEDBR), Interference-Aware Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-EEDBR) and Interference-Aware Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-IEEDBR). Unlike EEDBR, IEEDBR protocol uses depth and minimum residual energy information for selecting data for-warder. While IA-EEDBR takes minimum number of neighbors for forwarder selection. IA-IEEDBR considers depth, minimum residual energy along with minimum number of neighbors for selection of forwarder. Our proposed schemes are validated through simulation and the results demonstrate better performance in terms of improved network lifetime, maximized throughput and reduced path loss.
... • Unnecessary information sending. These deficiencies are evacuated by the authors of . They proposed an expansion form of DBR called constraint based depth based routing protocol (CDBR). ...
underwater wireless sensor networks have found many applications in today's world as they are used in medical applications, sea exploration, military applications and many more. With the advancement in the underwater wireless sensor networks technology, new research challenges are found that are to be resolved like how efficient routing can be done without sacrificing energy consumption of the sensor nodes, how the deployment of the sensor nodes should be done and so on. Due to the movement of sensor nodes with the water currents, the deployment and routing becomes a difficult task. In this paper, various routing protocols like Information Carrying routing protocol, Depth Based routing protocol, Constraint Based Depth based routing protocol, Directional flooding routing protocol are discussed and a comparative analysis of these routing protocols on the basis of various parameters like localization information, network topology, and use of control packets, network architecture used is presented.
... S. Mehmood et. al  extended the Depth-Based Routing protocol (DBR)  and Energy-Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (EEDBR)  to improve the network life time and energy-efficiency. Their proposed schemes limit the number of forwarder nodes using depth threshold parameter. ...
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are deemed to facilitate monitoring tasks in aquatic environment. However, battery resource limitation of sensor nodes leads to shorter network lifetime. Also, unbalanced energy consumption which contributes to limited network lifetime needs to be addressed. Therefore, data transmission technique should be designed to overcome energy dissipation and to optimize network lifetime. This paper presents an Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) for UASNs. EBET provision solution for the problems of direct transmission energy consumption over long distance. EBET initially establishes communication links between nodes on the basis of optimal distance threshold. The initial energy of sensor nodes is divided into Energy Level Numbers (ELNs) for balanced energy consumption. Then in data transmission phase, appropriate transmission mechanism is chosen on the basis of specified energy level numbers of sensor nodes. The sensor nodes choose data relay type in accordance to the difference in energy level numbers. Long distance direct data transmission is avoided by selecting high ELN node within transmission range. The effectiveness of EBET is validated through simulations.
... A Constraint based Depth Based Routing (CDBR) protocol and Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing (CEEDBR) protocol are proposed by Mahmood et al.  which maximizes the network lifetime, results in better performance and energy consumption. This is achieved by minimizing the forwarding number of nodes because all neighboring nodes obtain the data while forwarding. ...
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are growing rapidly in various fields of commerce, medicine, industrial, agriculture, research, meteorology, etc. that eases complicated tasks. The most active and recent research areas in wireless sensor networks are deployment strategies, energy efficiency and coverage. Besides energy harvesting, network lifetime of the sensors can be increased by decreasing the consumption of energy. This becomes the most challenging areas of utilizing wireless sensor network in practical applications. Deployment in WSNs directly influence the performance of the networks. The usage of sensor nodes in large quantity in the random deployment improves concerns in reliability and scalability. Coverage in wireless sensor networks measures how long the physical space is monitored by the sensors. Barrier coverage is an issue in wireless sensor networks, which is used for security application aims in intruder detection of the protected area. Several ongoing research work focuses on energy efficiency and coverage in wireless sensor networks and numerous schemes, algorithms, methods and architectures have been proposed. Still, there is no comprehensive solution applicable universally. Hence,this work provides with a state-of-the-art of the classification of wireless sensor networks based on different dimensions, such as, types of sensors, deployment strategies, sensing models, coverage and energy efficiency.
... In another work , a routing algorithm with efficient energy consumption was proposed based on the sensors' distance and the residual energy. Mahmood et al.  extended DBR and EEDBR, improving the network lifetime. Shen et al.  proposed a new energy-efficient centroid-based routing protocol (EECRP) to improve the energy performance of the network, which requires a long lifetime round and base stations located in the network. ...
Considering the insufficient global energy consumption optimization of the existing routing algorithms for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN), a new algorithm, named improved energy-balanced routing (IEBR), is designed in this paper for UWSN. The algorithm includes two stages: routing establishment and data transmission. During the first stage, a mathematical model is constructed for transmission distance to find the neighbors at the optimal distances and the underwater network links are established. In addition, IEBR will select relays based on the depth of the neighbors, minimize the hops in a link based on the depth threshold, and solve the problem of data transmission loop. During the second stage, the links built in the first stage are dynamically changed based on the energy level (EL) differences between the neighboring nodes in the links, so as to achieve energy balance of the entire network and extend the network lifetime significantly. Simulation results show that compared with other typical energy-balanced routing algorithms, IEBR presents superior performance in network lifetime, transmission loss, and data throughput.
... Energy efficiency of RDBF is approximate to the VBF. Mahmood , proposed two protocols Constraint based Depth Based Routing (CDBR) and Constraint based Energy Efficient DBR (CEEDBR) to expand network lifespan and energy utilization of DBR and EEDBR by specifying some restrictions. It was suggested that primarily based upon depth criteria in underwater, confining forwarding nodes leads to reduced energy utilization and extended network lifetime. ...
... The time-based routing protocol specifies the prediction of relay selection upon time-related variables such as interval, contact duration, meeting time, contact time, etc. Rapid  introduces DTN routing as a resource allocation problem and focuses on optimizing delivery delay in the network. CDBR  contact time-based routing protocols and SEDUM  multi-copy distributed routing protocols based on social network-based tools fall into this category. ...
Maintaining desirable connections in discrete mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is complicated in critical situations. MANETs are often integrated with delay-tolerant networks (viz. DTNs) to achieve an optimal routing method for efficient information distribution. Since it is essential to minimize the message delivery delay rate in critical situations, this study reflects on some parameters to reduce delivery time and increase the message delivery ratio in MANET–DTN routing. Utilizing proper parameters can thus help choose a suitable relay node in the proposed routing method. Selecting a good relay is also performed based on the latest information regarding the current speed changes, the movement direction of the nodes, buffer’s free space, estimated delay, and prior knowledge of sending messages. The routing method employs a simulated annealing algorithm to optimize sending messages in the network. Besides, typical performance benchmarks, such as delivery ratio, average delivery delay, overhead, and dropped messages number, are recruited to investigate the model performance. It is concluded that the suggested routing method has better efficiency than other MANET–DTN routing protocols.
... In , the authors improve DBR by choosing depth and residual energy based forwarder nodes (Energy-Efficient DBR (EEDBR) protocol). Mehmood et al.  extended DBR and EEDBR  to further improve the network lifetime. Their proposed technique limits the number of forwarder nodes using depth threshold parameter. ...
This paper presents two new energy balanced routing protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs); Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) and Enhanced EBET (EEBET). The first proposed protocol avoids direct transmission over long distance to save sufficient amount of energy consumed in the routing process. The second protocol overcomes the deficiencies in both Balanced Transmission Mechanism (BTM) and EBET techniques. EBET selects relay node on the basis of optimal distance threshold which leads to network lifetime prolongation. The initial energy of each sensor node is divided into energy levels for balanced energy consumption. Selection of high energy level node within transmission range avoids long distance direct data transmission. The EEBET incorporates depth threshold to minimize the number of hops between source node and sink while eradicating backward data transmissions. The EBET technique balances energy consumption within successive ring sectors, while, EEBET balances energy consumption of the entire network. In EEBET, optimum number of energy levels are also calculated to further enhance the network lifetime. Effectiveness of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations where these are compared with two existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, transmission loss, and throughput. The simulations are conducted under different network radii and varied number of nodes.
The underwater wireless sensor networks have been receiving a great attention towards the ocean monitoring systems in the past couple of years. They have different characteristics comparing with the territorial WSN, including the constrained bandwidth and limited power supply. Though, more work has been completed for developing protocols and models based on the terrestrial networks. These applications can rarely be applied for the applications and the products based on the underwater wireless sensor networks. Major works have been placed on the designing of the standard protocol with considerations of the underwater communication characteristics. With the use of the sensor nodes, more energy can be saved. The proposed system is based on the process of depth based routing protocol and it will be the basic idea of the proposed paper. The depth routing protocol is adapted into the process of checking the depth of sensor nodes. The cluster based routing protocol, is used in this paper for minimizing the consumption ratio of the energy and distributing the nodes equally to all the functions. The nodes may be damaged due to high load in the current system.
The main issue will be faced is, constructing a standard clustering algorithm. In this paper, the underwater wireless sensor networks context term will be clustering and it will contribute the purpose of efficient use of the energy resources. The energy that is consumed by each node will be processed with equal probability for the selection of cluster head. Based on this type of processing, the stable time period of the network will be improved in the depth base routing (DBR). The cluster depth routing protocol will be used for forwarding the packets. By using this, it will maximize the overall performance of the network. The comparison is done on the various types of protocols used in it.
The paper has a proposal of new compressive sensing and fusion based protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks(UWSNs). The offered protocol has the ability to reduce the amount of data which is going to be transmitted. The reduction in packet size would be done by removing the redundant data using the data fusion at intra and inter level i.e. on sensors as well as on acoustic nodes. However further reduction would also be done using the LZW based compression. The reduction in packet size would improve the QoS parameters of UWSNs as it will not cause congestion at any stage.
Mission critical applications impose the requirements of reliability and network
efficiency on Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). Many cooperative
communication protocols are developed investigating physical and Media Access Control
(MAC) layer aspects to improve link efficiency, however, at network layer, it is still
largely un-explored. In this thesis, we propose a cooperative diversity routing protocol for
UWSNs to enhance network performance. Cooperation is employed at network layer in
existing non-cooperative routing protocol, Depth Based Routing (DBR), to increase its
reliability and throughput. Potential relays are selected on the basis of depth information.
Data from source node is cooperatively forwarded to the destination by relay nodes.
Simulation results show that Cooperative DBR (CoDBR) gives more throughput, more
packet acceptance ratio and less packet drop as compared to non-cooperative scheme.
Additionally, in this thesis, incremental relaying cooperative diversity with
retransmissions for UWSN is also studied and two routing protocols, based on
incremental relaying with cooperative retransmissions, are also proposed to enhance
reliability and throughput of the network. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism
indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there
is no need of relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, relays retransmit the
signal one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Furthermore,
mathematical expression for the number of available relays along with closed-form
expression for outage probability is determined. Results show that the incremental
relaying with cooperative retransmissions can achieve less outage and more throughput
as compared to regular cooperative diversity networks.
Recently, applications of underwater wireless sensor networks like environment monitoring, underwater life imaging, tactical surveillance, ocean floor monitoring demand a persistent network period. However, underwater wireless sensor networks face many design challenges like unreliable link, high packet drop rate, inadequate bandwidth, restricted battery power, high attenuation, etc. Therefore, to prolong the network lifespan, energy efficient as well as energy balanced both types of approach is equally demanded. An energy-balanced hybrid transmission approach is proposed in this article, which uses depth information in place of location to transmit data packets. It uses some parameters like depth of the sensor nodes, residual energy of the node, and reliability of the link to select the relay node to forward data packets. In the proposal network divided into the slices of the same width, to control the hop-count as well as to balance the energy consumption of the sensor nodes participating in data transmission, and also prolonging the network lifespan. The effectiveness of the proposal is validated through extensive simulation and results show that the EBH-DBR outperforms its counterpart techniques in terms of network lifespan, energy consumption, throughput, and transmission loss.
Recently, underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have attracted much research attention from both academia and industry, in order to explore the vast underwater environment. UWSNs have peculiar characteristics; that is, they have large propagation delay, high error rate, low bandwidth, and limited energy. Therefore, designing network/routing protocols for UWSNs is very challenging. Also, in UWSNs, improving the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues since the replacement of the batteries of underwater sensor nodes is very expensive due to the unpleasant underwater environment. In this paper, we therefore propose an energy efficient routing protocol, named (energy-efficient depth-based routing protocol) EEDBR for UWSNs. EEDBR utilizes the depth of sensor nodes for forwarding data packets. Furthermore, the residual energy of sensor nodes is also taken into account in order to improve the network lifetime. Based on the comprehensive simulation using NS2, we observe that EEDBR contributes to the performance improvements in terms of the network lifetime, energy consumption, and end-to-end delay. A previous version of this paper was accepted in AST-2011 conference.
In dense underwater sensor networks (UWSN), the major confronts are high
error probability, incessant variation in topology of sensor nodes, and much
energy consumption for data transmission. However, there are some remarkable
applications of UWSN such as management of seabed and oil reservoirs,
exploration of deep sea situation and prevention of aqueous disasters. In order
to accomplish these applications, ignorance of the limitations of acoustic
communications such as high delay and low bandwidth is not feasible. In this
paper, we propose Adaptive mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized
Depth-based routing (AMCTD), exploring the proficient amendments in depth
threshold and implementing the optimal weight function to achieve longer
network lifetime. We segregate our scheme in 3 major phases of weight updating,
depth threshold variation and adaptive mobility of courier nodes. During data
forwarding, we provide the framework for alterations in threshold to cope with
the sparse condition of network. We ultimately perform detailed simulations to
scrutinize the performance of our proposed scheme and its comparison with other
two notable routing protocols in term of network lifetime and other essential
parameters. The simulations results verify that our scheme performs better than
the other techniques and near to optimal in the field of UWSN.
We study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes, in terms of their energy, in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. In these networks some of the nodes become cluster heads, aggregate the data of their cluster members and transmit it to the sink. We assume that a percentage of the population of sensor nodes is equipped with additional energy resources—this is a source of heterogeneity which may result from the initial setting or as the operation of the network evolves. We also assume that the sensors are randomly (uniformly) distributed and are not mobile, the coordinates of the sink and the dimensions of the sensor field are known. We show that the behavior of such sensor networks becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. Classical clustering protocols assume that all the nodes are equipped with the same amount of energy and as a result, they can not take full advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity. We propose SEP, a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period), which is crucial for many applications where the feedback from the sensor network must be reliable. SEP is based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become cluster head according to the remaining energy in each node. We show by simulation that SEP always prolongs the stability period compared to (and that the average throughput is greater than) the one obtained using current clustering protocols. We conclude by studying the sensitivity of our SEP protocol to heterogeneity parameters capturing energy imbalance in the network. We found that SEP yields longer stability region for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.
In order to prolong the network lifetime, energy-efficient protocols should be designed to adapt the characteristic of wireless sensor networks. Clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper studies the performance of clustering algorithm in saving energy for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. A new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed and evaluated. In the new clustering scheme, cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of node and the average energy of network. The high initial and residual energy nodes will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the low energy nodes. Simulational results show that the clustering scheme provides longer lifetime and higher throughput than the current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have distinctive characteristics due to the use of acoustic signals as its physical medium for communications, including high propagation delay, limited bandwidth and high error rates. Hence, designing communication protocols, particularly, an efficient routing protocol for UWSNs is a challenging issue. Routing protocols can take advantage of the localization of sensor nodes. However, the localization itself is not impeccable in UWSNs. In this paper, we therefore propose a localization-free routing protocol named MRP (multi-layered routing protocol) for UWSNs. MRP utilizes super nodes in order to eliminate the need of localization. MRP works in two phases: Layering phase and Data forwarding phase. During layering phase, different layers are formed around the super nodes. In data forwarding phase, data packets are forwarded based on these layers. Through simulation study using NS-2 simulator, we proved that MRP contributes significant performance improvements against representative routing protocols.
Recently, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have attracted much research attention from both academia and industry,
in order to explore the vast underwater environment. However, designing network protocols is challenging in UWSNs since UWSNs
have peculiar characteristics of large propagation delay, high error rate, low bandwidth and limited energy. In UWSNs, improving
the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues since the replacement of the batteries of such nodes is very expensive
due to harsh underwater environment. Hence, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient routing protocol, named EEDBR (Energy-Efficient
Depth Based Routing protocol) for UWSNs. Our proposed protocol utilizes the depth of the sensor nodes for forwarding the data
packets. Furthermore, the residual energy of the sensor nodes is also taken into account in order to improve the network life-time.
Based on the comprehensive simulation using NS2, we observe that our proposed routing protocol contributes to the performance
improvements in terms of the network lifetime, energy consumption and end-to-end delay.
KeywordsUnderwater wireless sensor networks–routing–network life-time–residual energy
In this paper, we investigate the use of cooperative communications for high performance data dissemination in dense wireless
sensor networks. We first identify the limitations of existing cooperative schemes. While we previously proposed a multi-hop
cooperative data dissemination scheme, REER, to address these limitations, the construction of such structure relies on a
pre-established reference path. The partially centralized approach makes REER unscalable when encountering network dynamics.
To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel distributed multi-hop cooperative communication scheme (DMC), which is
fully distributed and consists of two operation phases: (1) cooperative mesh structure (CMS) construction, and (2) CMS-based
data dissemination, which includes random value-based scheme and distance-based scheme for forwarding node selection. Simulation
results show that DMC performs well in terms of a number of QoS metrics, and fits well in large-scale networks and highly dynamic environments.
KeywordsCooperative communication–Wireless sensor networks–Data dissemination
Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.
The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
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