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Abstract

Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSN) has recently become an important field due to the importance of underwater exploration. The unique characteristics of underwater environment make the designing of routing protocol a challenging task. It is difficult to replace the batteries, therefore, it is very important to design a routing protocol that gives maximum network lifetime. Depth Based Routing (DBR) and Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing (EEDBR) are two such routing protocols which give very good performance in underwater environment. In DBR and EEDBR while forwarding the data all the neighboring nodes receive the data. In our work by limiting the number of forwarding nodes, we have extended the network lifetime and energy consumption of DBR and EEDBR. Extensive simulations have been conducted in which show considerable improvement in terms of network lifetime and energy consumption. c ⃝ 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Elhadi M. Shakshuki.

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... ifficult to recharge in harsh aqueous environment. So, energy must be efficiently utilized to have full coverage of area for maximum duration of time. The balanced use of energy contributes to higher network throughput, stability period and lifetime. In literature, many depth-based routing protocols for UASNs like DBR (Yan, H., et. al, 2008), CDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014), EEDBR (Wahid, A., and Kim, D., 2012), CEEDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014) are proposed. However, energy consumption needs to be improved. EEDBR put great effort to attain longer network lifetime, nevertheless due to unnecessary data forwarding and rapid energy depletion, nodes start dying rapidly. All the nodes having same residual ener ...
... ciently utilized to have full coverage of area for maximum duration of time. The balanced use of energy contributes to higher network throughput, stability period and lifetime. In literature, many depth-based routing protocols for UASNs like DBR (Yan, H., et. al, 2008), CDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014), EEDBR (Wahid, A., and Kim, D., 2012), CEEDBR (Mahmood, S., et. al, 2014) are proposed. However, energy consumption needs to be improved. EEDBR put great effort to attain longer network lifetime, nevertheless due to unnecessary data forwarding and rapid energy depletion, nodes start dying rapidly. All the nodes having same residual energy and depth level becomes eligible forwarders, thus all such nodes transm ...
Thesis
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Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are deemed to facilitate monitoring tasks in aquatic environment. The unique characteristics of UASNs attracted the research community to explore different aspects of these networks. However, battery resource limitation of sensor nodes leads to shorter network lifetime. Routing being the most important and challenging function; impacts energy efficiency of UASNs. Therefore, energy efficient data communication is needed for longevity of sensor nodes battery timing. This work presents new routing protocols for efficient and balanced energy consumption in UASNs; Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing (IEEDBR), Interference-Aware EEDBR (IA-EEDBR), Interference-Aware Inverse EEDBR (IA-IEEDBR), an Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) and Enhanced EBET (EEBET). All the variants of EEDBR protocol provide energy efficiency along with interference minimization phenomenon. Unlike EEDBR, IEEDBR protocol uses depth and minimum residual energy information for selecting data forwarder. Hence, network throughput is increased and network remains alive for longer time. The IA-EEDBR takes minimum number of neighbors for forwarder selection. This protocol minimizes interference and improves result in terms of longer stability period, network lifetime and high network throughput. IA-IEEDBR considers depth, minimum residual energy along with minimum number of neighbors for selection of forwarder. This protocol improves packet drop, transmission loss and path loss. The last two protocols EBET and EEBET works for balancing energy consumption in the network. The EBET protocol avoids direct transmission over long distance to save sufficient amount of energy consumed in the routing process. The EEBET protocol overcomes the deficiencies in both Balanced Transmission Mechanism (BTM) and EBET techniques. EBET selects relay node on the basis of optimal distance threshold which leads to network lifetime prolongation. The initial energy of each sensor node is divided into energy levels for balanced energy consumption. Selection of high energy level node within transmission range avoids long distance direct data transmission. The EEBET incorporates depth threshold to minimize the number of hops between source node and sink while eradicating backward data transmissions. The EBET technique balances energy consumption within successive ring sectors, while, EEBET balances energy consumption of the entire network. In EEBET, optimum number of energy levels is also calculated to further enhance the network lifetime. Effectiveness of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations where these are compared with two existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, transmission loss, and throughput. The simulations are conducted under different network radii and varied number of nodes.
... In [8], authors have proposed Delay-Sensitive Depth-Based Routing (DSDBR), Delay-Sensitive Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing (DSEEDBR) and Delay-Sensitive Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Depth-based routing (DSAMCTD) protocols. In [9], authors have extended the DBR protocol by limiting the number of forwarding nodes and have extended the network lifetime and energy consumption of the DBR. In [10], the authors have identified the confinements of various routing algorithms used for UWSNs and the design issues for efficient routing algorithm were also discussed. ...
... These problems are resolved by the authors of [9]. They proposed an efficient routing protocol named constraint based depth based routing protocol (CDBR). ...
... Forwarding of data is based on sensor nodes distance with its sink. Author in [10] works on energy balancing by working on sensor nodes depth and residual energy by proposing an energy efficient routing algorithm. ...
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Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks are considered to provide efficient monitoring tasks in aquatic environment but due to limited battery resource of sensor nodes, network lifetime collapses. Energy balancing is the major issue in low network lifetime. High energy consumption creates energy holes and ultimately leads to shorter network lifetime. Therefore, energy consumption must be balanced to increase network life time. To overcome these concerns a technique should be designed that minimizes the energy consumption and prolong network lifetime. This paper presents a Dual Sink Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (DSEBET) for UASNs. DSEBET overcomes the problem of limited network lifetime and high energy consumption over long distance. Dual sinks underwater model is established. DSEBET first establishes links between nodes on the basis of their optimum distance value and then picks relay nodes on the basis of their minimum distance " N j " value for the transmission of data. In the data transmission phase every nodes have equal energy levels numbers (ELNs). Long distance nodes from one sink will share their data to other sink if come in range of sink otherwise they will establish a multi hop path for transmission of data to the respective sink.
... DBR protocol uses the depth is only for creating a routing path and does not require the full location information. In [6],a routing protocol called (Constraint Depth Based Routing Protocol) and (Constraint Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing), in CDBR and CEEDBR the authors proposed two protocols to solve the problem of power unbalance and redundant transmissions in the DBR protocol by limiting the number of data forwarding nodes, energy consumption can be reduced. In [7], a routing protocol called (Intelligence Depth Based Routing Protocol) IDBR was proposed, In IDBR protocol the authors proposed a routing protocol to solve the problem of energy holes in the EEDBR protocol through an assignment more energy for nodes near the surface of the water due to frequent use of nodes near the sink node. ...
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) has recently become an important area due to the importance of underwater exploration. The unique characteristics of the underwater environment make designing routing protocols a difficult task. Optimal use of energy in UWSNs is very challenging and an active field of research. The replacing of the energy sources in such an environment is very costly. In this paper, we have proposed a routing protocol using the ant colony optimization algorithm which base on the swarm intelligence. Our simulation was performed using AquaSim which is an underwater simulator based on NS2 simulator. The evaluation results show that the proposed multi metric DBR protocol performs better than the original DBR protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio, saving energy and increasing network life.
... Efficient routing protocols have been developed for UWSN. Such protocols are constraint depth-based routing (CDBR), which is an extension of (DBR) [51], and constraint energy-efficient depth-based routing (CEEDBR) extended from (EEDBR) [52]. There are four types of UWSN applications: scientific, industrial, military, and security. ...
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are considered producers of large amounts of rich data. Four types of data-driven models that correspond with various applications are identified as WSNs: query-driven, event-driven, time-driven, and hybrid-driven. The aim of the classification of data-driven models is to get real-time applications of specific data. Many challenges occur during data collection. Therefore, the main objective of these data-driven models is to save the WSN’s energy for processing and functioning during the data collection of any application. In this survey article, the recent advancement of data-driven models and application types for WSNs is presented in detail. Each type of WSN is elaborated with the help of its routing protocols, related applications, and issues. Furthermore, each data model is described in detail according to current studies. The open issues of each data model are highlighted with their challenges in order to encourage and give directions for further recommendation.
... In [28], the authors first performed theoretical analysis to obtain the expected value of nodes in the network. Next, they divided the network into irregular clusters. ...
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Energy-efficient management and highly reliable communication and transmission mechanisms are major issues in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) due to the limited battery power of UWSN nodes within an harsh underwater environment. In this paper, we integrate the three main techniques that have been used for managing Transmission Power-based Sparsity-conscious Energy-Efficient Clustering (CTP-SEEC) in UWSNs. These incorporate the adaptive power control mechanism that converts to a suitable Transmission Power Level (TPL), and deploys collaboration mobile sinks or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) to gather information locally to achieve energy and data management efficiency (Security) in the WSN. The proposed protocol is rigorously evaluated through extensive simulations and is validated by comparing it with state-of-the-art UWSN protocols. The simulation results are based on the static environmental condition, which shows that the proposed protocol performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delivery, and throughput.
... An extension of Depth-Based Routing protocol (DBR) and Energy-Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (EEDBR) is provided in [6], to improve the energy-efficiency and network life time. The proposed schemes, Constraint-based DBR (CDBR) and Constraint-based EEDBR (CEEDBR) imposes a limit on the number of forwarder nodes by providing a depth threshold parameter along with depth information for selecting data forwarder. ...
Conference Paper
The unique characteristics of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) attracted the research community to explore different aspects of these networks. Routing is one of the most important and challenging function in UWSNs, for efficient data communication and longevity of sensor node's battery timing. Sensor nodes have energy constraint because replacing the batteries of sensor nodes is an expensive and tough task in harsh aqueous environment. Also interference is a major performance influencing factor. Providing solutions for interference-free communication are also essential. In this paper, we propose three energy-efficient and interference-aware routing protocols named as Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IEEDBR), Interference-Aware Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-EEDBR) and Interference-Aware Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-IEEDBR). Unlike EEDBR, IEEDBR protocol uses depth and minimum residual energy information for selecting data for-warder. While IA-EEDBR takes minimum number of neighbors for forwarder selection. IA-IEEDBR considers depth, minimum residual energy along with minimum number of neighbors for selection of forwarder. Our proposed schemes are validated through simulation and the results demonstrate better performance in terms of improved network lifetime, maximized throughput and reduced path loss.
... • Unnecessary information sending. These deficiencies are evacuated by the authors of [11]. They proposed an expansion form of DBR called constraint based depth based routing protocol (CDBR). ...
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underwater wireless sensor networks have found many applications in today's world as they are used in medical applications, sea exploration, military applications and many more. With the advancement in the underwater wireless sensor networks technology, new research challenges are found that are to be resolved like how efficient routing can be done without sacrificing energy consumption of the sensor nodes, how the deployment of the sensor nodes should be done and so on. Due to the movement of sensor nodes with the water currents, the deployment and routing becomes a difficult task. In this paper, various routing protocols like Information Carrying routing protocol, Depth Based routing protocol, Constraint Based Depth based routing protocol, Directional flooding routing protocol are discussed and a comparative analysis of these routing protocols on the basis of various parameters like localization information, network topology, and use of control packets, network architecture used is presented.
... S. Mehmood et. al [15] extended the Depth-Based Routing protocol (DBR) [16] and Energy-Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (EEDBR) [17] to improve the network life time and energy-efficiency. Their proposed schemes limit the number of forwarder nodes using depth threshold parameter. ...
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Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are deemed to facilitate monitoring tasks in aquatic environment. However, battery resource limitation of sensor nodes leads to shorter network lifetime. Also, unbalanced energy consumption which contributes to limited network lifetime needs to be addressed. Therefore, data transmission technique should be designed to overcome energy dissipation and to optimize network lifetime. This paper presents an Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) for UASNs. EBET provision solution for the problems of direct transmission energy consumption over long distance. EBET initially establishes communication links between nodes on the basis of optimal distance threshold. The initial energy of sensor nodes is divided into Energy Level Numbers (ELNs) for balanced energy consumption. Then in data transmission phase, appropriate transmission mechanism is chosen on the basis of specified energy level numbers of sensor nodes. The sensor nodes choose data relay type in accordance to the difference in energy level numbers. Long distance direct data transmission is avoided by selecting high ELN node within transmission range. The effectiveness of EBET is validated through simulations.
... A Constraint based Depth Based Routing (CDBR) protocol and Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing (CEEDBR) protocol are proposed by Mahmood et al. [11] which maximizes the network lifetime, results in better performance and energy consumption. This is achieved by minimizing the forwarding number of nodes because all neighboring nodes obtain the data while forwarding. ...
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are growing rapidly in various fields of commerce, medicine, industrial, agriculture, research, meteorology, etc. that eases complicated tasks. The most active and recent research areas in wireless sensor networks are deployment strategies, energy efficiency and coverage. Besides energy harvesting, network lifetime of the sensors can be increased by decreasing the consumption of energy. This becomes the most challenging areas of utilizing wireless sensor network in practical applications. Deployment in WSNs directly influence the performance of the networks. The usage of sensor nodes in large quantity in the random deployment improves concerns in reliability and scalability. Coverage in wireless sensor networks measures how long the physical space is monitored by the sensors. Barrier coverage is an issue in wireless sensor networks, which is used for security application aims in intruder detection of the protected area. Several ongoing research work focuses on energy efficiency and coverage in wireless sensor networks and numerous schemes, algorithms, methods and architectures have been proposed. Still, there is no comprehensive solution applicable universally. Hence,this work provides with a state-of-the-art of the classification of wireless sensor networks based on different dimensions, such as, types of sensors, deployment strategies, sensing models, coverage and energy efficiency.
... In another work [22], a routing algorithm with efficient energy consumption was proposed based on the sensors' distance and the residual energy. Mahmood et al. [23] extended DBR and EEDBR, improving the network lifetime. Shen et al. [24] proposed a new energy-efficient centroid-based routing protocol (EECRP) to improve the energy performance of the network, which requires a long lifetime round and base stations located in the network. ...
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Considering the insufficient global energy consumption optimization of the existing routing algorithms for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN), a new algorithm, named improved energy-balanced routing (IEBR), is designed in this paper for UWSN. The algorithm includes two stages: routing establishment and data transmission. During the first stage, a mathematical model is constructed for transmission distance to find the neighbors at the optimal distances and the underwater network links are established. In addition, IEBR will select relays based on the depth of the neighbors, minimize the hops in a link based on the depth threshold, and solve the problem of data transmission loop. During the second stage, the links built in the first stage are dynamically changed based on the energy level (EL) differences between the neighboring nodes in the links, so as to achieve energy balance of the entire network and extend the network lifetime significantly. Simulation results show that compared with other typical energy-balanced routing algorithms, IEBR presents superior performance in network lifetime, transmission loss, and data throughput.
... Energy efficiency of RDBF is approximate to the VBF. Mahmood [7], proposed two protocols Constraint based Depth Based Routing (CDBR) and Constraint based Energy Efficient DBR (CEEDBR) to expand network lifespan and energy utilization of DBR and EEDBR by specifying some restrictions. It was suggested that primarily based upon depth criteria in underwater, confining forwarding nodes leads to reduced energy utilization and extended network lifetime. ...
... The time-based routing protocol specifies the prediction of relay selection upon time-related variables such as interval, contact duration, meeting time, contact time, etc. Rapid [19] introduces DTN routing as a resource allocation problem and focuses on optimizing delivery delay in the network. CDBR [20] contact time-based routing protocols and SEDUM [21] multi-copy distributed routing protocols based on social network-based tools fall into this category. ...
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... In [5], the authors improve DBR by choosing depth and residual energy based forwarder nodes (Energy-Efficient DBR (EEDBR) protocol). Mehmood et al. [17] extended DBR and EEDBR [5] to further improve the network lifetime. Their proposed technique limits the number of forwarder nodes using depth threshold parameter. ...
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Thesis
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SUMMARY Recently, underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have attracted much research attention to support various applications for pollution monitoring, tsunami warnings, offshore exploration, tactical surveillance, etc. However, because of the peculiar characteristics of UWSNs, designing communication protocols for UWSNs is a challenging task. Particularly, designing a routing protocol is of the most importance for successful data transmissions between sensors and the sink. In this paper, we propose a reliable and energy-efficient routing protocol, named R-ERP2R (Reliable Energy-efficient Routing Protocol based on physical distance and residual energy). The main idea behind R-ERP2R is to utilize physical distance as a routing metric and to balance energy consumption among sensors. Furthermore, during the selection of forwarding nodes, link quality towards the forwarding nodes is also considered to provide reliability and the residual energy of the forwarding nodes to prolong network lifetime. Using the NS-2 simulator, R-ERP2R is compared against a well-known routing protocol (i.e. depth-based routing) in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption, end-to-end delay and delivery ratio. The simulation results proved that R-ERP2R performs better in UWSNs.Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chapter
Recently, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have attracted much research attention from both academia and industry, in order to explore the vast underwater environment. However, designing network protocols is challenging in UWSNs since UWSNs have peculiar characteristics of large propagation delay, high error rate, low bandwidth and limited energy. In UWSNs, improving the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues since the replacement of the batteries of such nodes is very expensive due to harsh underwater environment. Hence, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient routing protocol, named EEDBR (Energy-Efficient Depth Based Routing protocol) for UWSNs. Our proposed protocol utilizes the depth of the sensor nodes for forwarding the data packets. Furthermore, the residual energy of the sensor nodes is also taken into account in order to improve the network life-time. Based on the comprehensive simulation using NS2, we observe that our proposed routing protocol contributes to the performance improvements in terms of the network lifetime, energy consumption and end-to-end delay. KeywordsUnderwater wireless sensor networks–routing–network life-time–residual energy
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Article
The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks.NETWORKING Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet
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Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks
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