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Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health

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The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies—particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping,
Resilience and Mental Health
Christian T. Gloria
1
& Mary A. Steinhardt
2
*
1
Department of Health Sciences, Hawaii Pacic University, Kaneohe, HI, USA
2
Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA
Abstract
The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential
coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance ones resilience against stress. Studies have shown that
high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive
symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected
from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral
research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping
strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the inuence of
stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive
emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategiesparticularly
via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Although stress is unavoidable and its inuences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of
postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase
positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received 13 October 2013; Revised 7 April 2014; Accepted 11 May 2014
Keywords
stress; anxiety; depression; postdoc; mediation; moderation
*Correspondence
Mary A. Steinhardt, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, D3700, Austin,
TX 78712, USA.
Email: msteinhardt@austin.utexas.edu
This article was published online on 24 June 2014. Errors were subsequently identied. This notice is included in the online version to
indicate that it has been corrected [20 August 2014].
Published online 24 June 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/smi.2589
Introduction
Growing research guided by the broaden-and-build
theory of positive emotions continues to nd evidence
in support of the notion that positive emotions have
the ability to widen the range of potential coping
strategies that come to ones mind during times of
stress, consequently enhancing ones resilience against
present and future adversity (Folkman & Moskowitz,
2000; Fredrickson, 2004, 2005; Tugade, Fredrickson,
& Feldman Barrett, 2004). According to Fredrickson
(2001), the experience of positive emotions unlocks
the human cognition and encourages individuals to
think more freely, thoughtfully and creatively. These
effects, in turn, expand ones outlook and capacity to
see the world with a broader perspective. As a result,
those who experience greater frequencies of positive
emotions have an improved ability to recognize a wider
range of possible coping strategies when faced with
adversity; thus, they are able to tackle stress more
effectively and achieve higher levels of resilience (Cohn,
Fredrickson, Brown, Mikels, & Conway, 2009;
Fredrickson, 2009; Gloria, Faulk, & Steinhardt, 2013).
In their theory of stress and coping, Lazarus and
Folkman (1984) dene stress as a transactional process
between the person and the environment, whereby the
individual appraises the environmental demands as
outweighing his or her ability to meet those demands.
During stressful situations, the mind and body instinc-
tively trigger the ght-or-ight response in an effort to
diminish threat, harm or loss. This stress response
activates an array of physiological and psychological
reactions including increased heart rate, blood pressure
and respiration. In addition, ones mindset and world-
view dramatically narrows and sharply focuses toward
the triggering stressor (Kok, Catalino, & Fredrickson,
2008). These evolutionarily adaptive reactions serve
critical purposes for survival, particularly during
145Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
threatening and stressful situations (Fredrickson,
2001). Although the ght-or-ight response can be
benecial toward acute stressors, long-term and
chronic exposure is harmful to health. When individ-
uals are exposed to enduring forms of stress, the
physiological and psychological reactions of the ght-
or-ight response are likewise sustained over time. This
heightened and long-lasting state of stress beyond
homeostasis increases ones risks for a number of seri-
ous health problems including cardiovascular disease
(Iso et al., 2002; Jood, Redfors, Rosengren, Blomstrand,
& Jern, 2009), obesity (de Luca & Olefsky, 2006),
diabetes (Lloyd, Smith, & Weinger, 2005), immune dis-
ease (Kemeny & Schedlowski, 2007), burnout (Lloyd,
King, & Chenoweth, 2002), anxiety (Kleppa, Sanne, &
Tell, 2008) and depression (Nielsen, Kristensen,
Schnohr, & Grønbæk, 2008; Steinhardt, Smith Jaggars,
Faulk, & Gloria, 2011).
Anxiety and depressive symptoms are particular
concerns, considering their strong associations with
stress (Newbury-Birch & Kamali, 2001; Rawson,
Bloomer, & Kendall, 1994). Studies have shown that
high levels of stress signicantly contribute to the
development of subclinical symptoms of anxiety and
depression (Kleppa et al., 2008; Markou & Cryan,
2012; Melchior et al., 2007; Misra & McKean, 2000).
Anxiety and depressive symptoms can be debilitating,
not only harming the individual experiencing such
symptoms but also negatively impacting others. Those
who suffer from anxiety and depressive symptoms have
increased morbidity and mortality risks (Carney &
Freedland, 2003; Mykletun et al., 2007) and are likely
to have deteriorating interpersonal relationships (Insel
& Roth, 2012). They also have higher rates of absentee-
ism in tandem with decreased productivity at the work-
place (Stewart, Ricci, Chee, Hahn, & Morganstein, 2003).
However, there is evidence showing that individual
resilience can moderate the impact of stress on anxiety
and depressive symptoms (Aroian & Norris, 2000;
Pinquart, 2009; Wagnild, 2003; Wingo et al., 2010).
Studies found that stress had a weaker inuence toward
the health of individuals who possessed higher levels of
resilience. Researchers have also demonstrated that
positive emotions can improve ones ability to cope
with stress (Burns et al., 2008), and improved coping
subsequently enhances resilience (Tugade et al., 2004).
Cognitive-behavioural coping strategies focus on
identifying and changing the maladaptive thinking
and behaviour that create stress in an effort to prevent
or diminish threat, harm or loss (Lazarus, 1993;
Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Adaptive coping strategies
(e.g. active coping, planning and positive reframing)
are actions and behaviours used in response to stress,
which lead to improved outcomes. In contrast,
maladaptive coping strategies (e.g. denial, venting and
substance abuse) often result in undesirable conse-
quences (Brown, Westbrook, & Challagalla, 2005;
Carver, 1997; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996). Although
positive emotions can improve ones ability to cope
with stress, to our knowledge, no studies have investi-
gated how positive emotions inuence different types
of coping strategiesspecically, adaptive and
maladaptive. Furthermore, if ones coping strategies
mediate the relationship between positive emotions and
resilience, such that positive emotions are positively
related to adaptive coping strategies and resilience and
inversely related to maladaptive coping strategies, it
would provide support for the broaden-and-build theory
of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2004, 2005).
Although previous works in this eld have studied a
variety of highly stressed populations, including college
students (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, & Larkin,
2003), public school teachers (Steinhardt et al., 2011),
doctors (Newbury-Birch & Kamali, 2001) and military
spouses (Faulk, Gloria, Steinhardt, & Cance, 2012),
there is a lack of research toward a particularly high-
stressed populationnamely postdoctoral research fel-
lows (postdocs). Postdocs, ironically, are an overlooked
and understudied population. It has been reported that
the work and life conditions of postdocs in the United
States are inundated by chronic exposure to high levels
of stress (Smaglik, 2006; Small, 2012). Often character-
ized as neither a faculty member nor a student,
postdocs tend to fall in the cracks and consequently
receive neither the recognition nor the benets that they
feel are deserved (e.g. control over their work/funding
and health insurance for self and family; Aschwanden,
2006; Smaglik, 2006). They also often report feelings of
fear, uncertainty, pressure and lack of security due to
the impermanence of their employment, high work
expectations and extreme competitiveness of the job
market (i.e. low supply and high demand for ideal jobs
such as tenure-track professors/researchers; Kaplan,
2012; Woolston, 2002). Considering these points, it is
not surprising that postdocs describe their work and life
as extremely stressful and often lled with feelings of
anxiety and depression.
Therefore, using a sample of postdocs, the purpose
of the present study was to examine if (a) positive
emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b)
adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies mediated
the link between positive emotions and resilience and
(c) resilience moderated the inuence of stress on trait
anxiety and depressive symptoms (i.e. as levels of stress
increase, individuals with higher scores of resilience
will report lower levels of trait anxiety or depressive
symptoms as compared with those with lower
resilience). Importantly, this research aimed to broadly
observe and unobtrusively explore the general relation-
ships among positive emotions, coping strategies,
resilience, stress and mental health, as these variables
occurred and interacted in the natural world and lives
of postdoctoral research fellows. Thus, this work did
not intend to clinically evaluate or diagnose partici-
pants with regard to clinical anxiety and depression;
the investigators were instead interested in studying
Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt
146 Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
the participantsself-reported assessments of their own
qualities and mental health.
In the mediation analysis, it was hypothesized that
(a) positive emotions would have a positive direct effect
on adaptive coping strategies, (b) positive emotions
would have a negative direct effect on maladaptive
coping strategies, (c) positive emotions would have a
positive direct effect on resilience, (d) adaptive coping
strategies would have a positive direct effect on
resilience, (e) maladaptive coping strategies would have
a negative direct effect on resilience and (f) adaptive
and maladaptive coping strategies would mediate the
relationship between positive emotions and resilience.
It was also hypothesized that (g) the indirect effect
through adaptive coping strategies would be stronger
than through maladaptive coping strategies. As for the
moderation analysis, it was hypothesized that (a) stress
would have a positive direct effect on trait anxiety and
depressive symptoms, (b) resilience would have a
negative direct effect on trait anxiety and depressive
symptoms and (c) resilience would interact with stress
in such a manner that resilience would moderate the
effect of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Methods
Participants and procedures
Participants were recruited from a pool of postdocs
who were employed at a large research institution in
Texas. The email addresses of potential participants
(n= 523) were obtained from the institutions human
resources ofce, and recruitment letters were sent via
email inviting postdocs to voluntarily participate in a
Qualtrics online survey that required approximately
30 min to complete. The sample selection method did
not have exclusion criteria, except that participants
must be currently employed under a postdoctoral
research fellowship appointment during the time of
data collection.
In order to enhance the survey response rate, a
variety of incentive prizes were offered (Deutskens, de
Ruyter, Wetzels, & Oosterveld, 2004). Each participant
was compensated with a $5 Starbucks gift card, a deck
of inspirational quote cards ($2 value) and an Individ-
ual Feedback Prole document that provided a
condential report of the participants results as well as
an anonymous summary of the samples aggregate re-
sults. In addition, participants were entered into a lottery
drawing for a number of larger prizes (e.g. restaurant gift
cards valued from $10 to $50, iPod Shufes and Amazon
Touch Kindles); one prize was awarded for every
15 surveys completed. Informed consent was obtained
from the participants, and study procedures were
approved by the Institutional Review Board.
Instruments
The online survey assessed participantsdemographic char-
acteristics, positive emotions, adaptive and maladaptive
coping strategies, resilience, stress, trait anxiety and
depressive symptoms. Each of these variables is further
discussed in the following sections, and a copy of the
survey may be requested from the corresponding author.
Demographics
Participants were asked to report a variety of
personal characteristics including age, sex, race/
ethnicity, marital status, number of children, college/
school (i.e. location of employment), employment
length and nationality (i.e. country of origin). Because
these demographic characteristics may be related to
the dependent variables, the present study used them
as covariates in the regression analyses.
Positive emotions
The participantsexperienced positive emotions
were measured by the 10-item positive emotions
subscale of the Modied Differential Emotions Scale
(Fredrickson et al., 2003). Each item asked participants
to recall how often they have experienced particular
sets of positive emotions during the previous 2 weeks
(e.g. In the past two weeks, I have felt amused, fun-
loving, or silly.); response options ranged on a ve-
point scale from 0 (never)to4(most of the time). The
positive emotions score was calculated as the sum of
the 10 items; scores ranged from 0 to 40, with higher
scores indicating higher frequencies of experienced
positive emotions. Internal reliability for the positive
emotion scale was found to be acceptable in previous
research (α= 0.79; Fredrickson et al., 2003), and
reliability was very good in the present study (α= 0.87).
Coping strategies
The Brief Coping Orientations to Problems Experi-
enced scale was used to evaluate the participantsutility
of different coping strategies (Carver, 1997). For the
purposes of the present study, this measure included
six adaptive coping subscales (viz. active coping,
planning, positive reframing, acceptance, emotional
support and instrumental support) and six maladaptive
coping subscales (viz. self-distraction, denial, venting,
substance use, behavioural disengagement and self-
blame). Each subscale was measured by two items,
and participants were asked to report how often they
had used certain coping strategies during stressful
experiences, on a four-point response scale ranging
from 1 (not at all)to4(a lot).
Sample adaptive coping items include I concentrate
my efforts on doing something about the situation Im
in(active coping), I try to come up with a strategy
about what to do(planning) and I try to see it in a
different light, to make it seem more positive(positive
reframing). Sample maladaptive coping items include I
turn to other activities to take my mind off things
(self-distraction), I say to myself this isnt real”’
(denial) and I say things to let my unpleasant feelings
escape(venting). The scores for both the adaptive
C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health
147Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
and maladaptive coping strategies were calculated as
the sum of the 12 items (ranging from 12 to 48); higher
scores represent greater use of the particular set of
coping strategies. The present study recorded alpha
coefcients of 0.77 and 0.66 for the adaptive and
maladaptive subscales, respectively.
Resilience
Participant resilience was assessed using the six-item
Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008). On a ve-
point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree)to5
(strongly agree), respondents indicated the extent to
which they agreed with statements that evaluated
their personal resilience or ability to recover from stress
(e.g. I tend to bounce back quickly after hard times,It
does not take me long to recover from a stressful event
and I usually come through difcult times with little
trouble.). The resilience score was calculated as the
mean of the six items; scores ranged from 1 to 5, with
higher scores indicating higher levels of resilience. This
scale demonstrated good to excellent internal reliability
as reported by previous research with Cronbachs
alphas ranging from 0.80 to 0.91 (Smith et al., 2008);
the present study also found the scale to be reliable at
α= 0.89.
Stress
This variable was assessed using the 10-item
Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988),
which measured the appraised stressfulness of the
respondentslife situations. The scale items asked par-
ticipants to rate how often stressful events occurred
during the past month on a ve-point scale from
0(never)to4(very often). Sample items include How
often have you felt that you were unable to control
the important things in your life?and How often have
you felt difculties were piling up so high that you
could not overcome them?The stress score was calcu-
lated as the sum of the 10 items, ranging from 0 to 40,
with higher scores representing higher levels of
stress. Previous research found the internal reliability
of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale to range from
acceptable (α= 0.78) to excellent (α= 0.91; Cohen &
Janicki-Deverts, 2012), and the reliability from the
present study was estimated at α= 0.86.
Trait anxiety
The 20-item trait anxiety subscale of the State-Trait
Anxiety Inventory for Adults (Spielberger, Gorsuch,
Jacobs, Lushene, & Vagg, 1968, 1977) was used to mea-
sure the participantstendency to appraise stressful
events as threatening and thus respond with heightened
levels of state anxiety reactions (Spielberger, Gorsuch,
Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983). Using a four-point
scale ranging from 1 (almost never)to4(almost
always), participants responded to items including,
I feel nervous and restlessand I get in a state of
tension or turmoil as I think over my recent
concerns and interests. Scores for this variable were
calculated as the sum of the 20 items, ranging from
20 to 80, with higher scores representing higher
levels of trait anxiety. [Correction made here after
initial online publication.] The trait anxiety subscale
demonstrated very good to excellent internal reliability,
with Cronbachsalphasrangingfrom0.89to0.91
(Spielberger et al., 1983); the present study also
recorded an excellent reliability score at α= 0.91.
Depressive symptoms
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression
scale was used to assess the participantslevel of experi-
enced depressive symptoms (Radloff, 1977). Consisting
of 20 items, the instrument assessed how often respon-
dents felt a variety of depressive symptoms during the
previous week. Using a four-point scale ranging from
0(rarely or none of the time; less than 1 day)to3(most
or all of the time; 57 days), participants responded to
statements such as I was bothered by things that usu-
ally dontbothermeand I did not feel like eating;
my appetite was poor. The Center for Epidemio-
logic Studies Depression score was calculated as
the sum of the 20 items, ranging from 0 to 60, with
higher scores representing higher levels of experi-
enced depressive symptoms. A score of 16 or greater
is considered a moderately severe level of symptoms
and could be a marker for clinical depression
(Radloff, 1977). Previous research found the internal
consistency of the scale ranged from good to excel-
lent (α=0.850.90; Radloff, 1977), and the present
study also demonstrated very good reliability at
α=0.86.
Analyses
All analyses were completed using the Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software ver-
sion 21 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA).
Using the procedures detailed by Pallant (2010),
preliminary tests were performed to ensure that
the statistical assumptions of normality, linearity,
outliers, multicollinearity, independence and homo-
scedasticity were satised before the regression
analyses were conducted.
Descriptive statistics and correlations
Means, standard deviations and bivariate correla-
tions of all study variables were calculated using
descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations for continuous
variables, point-biserial correlations for continuous and
dichotomous variables and chi-square tests for pairs of
dichotomous variables.
Mediation analysis
In order to test the direct and indirect associations
among positive emotions, adaptive and maladaptive
coping strategies and resilience, path analysis was
performed with Preacher and Hayes(2008) Model
Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt
148 Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
INDIRECT script using bootstrap estimation. Demo-
graphic variables (viz. age, number of children, em-
ployment length, sex, marital status, college/school,
race/ethnicity and nationality) were also included in
the model as covariates.
As depicted in Figure 1, the relationship between
positive emotions and resilience was hypothesized to
be mediated by the two subscales of coping strategies
(viz. adaptive and maladaptive) while controlling for the
demographic variables. Therefore, this model examined
several types of effects: the direct effects of positive emo-
tions on resilience and each of the two subscales of coping
strategies, as well as the direct effects of the two subscales
of coping strategies on resilience; the specic indirect
effect of positive emotions on resilience through each
subscale of coping strategies (i.e. the unique mediating ef-
fect of each subscale of coping strategies while controlling
for the other subscale); the total indirect effect of positive
emotions on resilience (i.e. the sum of each of the two
specic indirect effects); and the total effect of positive
emotions on resilience (i.e. the sum of the direct and total
indirect effect). For indirect paths, this analysis produced
point estimates and three varieties of 9599% condence
intervals (viz. percentile, bias corrected and bias corrected
and accelerated) from 5000 bootstrap samples. Pairwise
comparison of the indirect effects was also performed to
determine if a particular mediator has a signicantly
stronger unique indirect effect than the other mediator.
Moderation analysis
Guided by Aiken and Wests interaction analysis
method (1991), hierarchical multiple regression was
used to examine the moderating effect of resilience on
the association between stress and the dependent
variables (viz. trait anxiety and depressive symptoms);
each of the dependent variables was tested individually
using separate models. Demographic variables (viz. age,
number of children, employment length, sex, marital
status, college/school, race/ethnicity and nationality)
were also included in each of the models as covariates.
Prior to analysis, values of all continuous predictors
were centred to prevent potential problems associated
with multicollinearity (Aiken & West, 1991). The
hierarchical model of the multiple regression analysis
consisted of three steps. In the rst step, the demo-
graphic covariates were entered in the regression of
the dependent variable. The second step involved the
addition of the focal predictors, namely stress and
resilience. In the third and nal step, the interaction term
between stress and resiliencestress × resiliencewas
entered into the model. This three-step process was
independently conducted for the regression of each of
the dependent variables (viz. trait anxiety and depressive
symptoms).
Results
Descriptive analysis
Data collection was conducted over a period of 2 weeks,
and the study obtained a sample size of n= 200 post-
docs (38% response rate). This response rate exceeded
expectations as previous studies with similar methods
recorded lower return rates ranging from 17% to
25% (Deutskens et al., 2004; Evans & Mathur, 2005;
Figure 1 Conceptual model of coping strategies partially mediating the relationship between positive emotions and resilience with
unstandardized (B) and standardized () coefcients (n= 196)
C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health
149Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sax, Gilmartin, & Bryant, 2003); a meta-analysis of
56 web-based surveys from 39 studies reported an
average response rate of 35% (Cook, Heath, &
Thompson, 2000). However, due to partially missing
demographic data (viz. age and college/school), four
of the participants were dropped from the analyses,
resulting in a nal sample size of n= 196; three
missing data points related to positive emotions and
one from depressive symptoms were replaced via
mean substitution.
Participants were primarily male (59.5%) with a
mean age of 32 years, ranging from 26 to 52 years. In
terms of race/ethnicity, 63.5% were non-Hispanic
White or Caucasian, 18% Asian or Pacic Islander,
8.5% Hispanic or Latino, 7% Indian or South Asian,
0.5% Black or African American and 2.5% other. The
majority were married (59.5%), 31% were single, 7%
were living with a partner and the remaining 2.5% were
either divorced or separated. Their family sizes ranged
from having zero to four children; 71% had no
children, 18.5% had one, 6% had two, 4% had three
and one participant had four children. The participants
were employed as postdocs for an average of 1.5 years
and ranged from 1 year to 6 years and 8 months. The
majority worked in the college of natural sciences
(48.5%), 20% in engineering, 7.5% in liberal arts,
5.5% in geosciences, 5% in pharmacy and the remain-
ing were in communication, education, public affairs,
social work or other. Most of the postdocs originated
from the United States (US) (50.5%), 10.5% China,
6.5% India, 4% South Korea, 3.5% United Kingdom,
3% Canada and the remaining were from 25 other
countries around the globe.
Prior to the regression analyses, multiple-category
demographic variables were collapsed into binary
variables to produce appropriately sized groups:
marital status (1 = married,0=unmarried), college/
school (1 = natural sciences,0=other), race/ethnicity
(1 = non-Hispanic White/Caucasian,0=other), and
nationality (1 = from US,0=other). Age, number of
children and employment length were retained as
continuous variables.
Table I displays the means, standard deviations and
correlations for all study variables. Positive emotions,
adaptive coping and maladaptive coping were moder-
ately correlated with resilience. Interestingly, adaptive
coping strategies were found to be unrelated to mal-
adaptive coping strategies, although previous research
has reported a moderate correlation (r= 0.30, p<0.01;
Meyer, 2001). The strongest correlations were among
stress, trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Among
the demographic control variables, on average, US
nationals used more maladaptive coping and were
more resilient than non-US nationals, women
reported greater use of adaptive coping, being married
or having children was negatively associated with
maladaptive coping and married postdocs reported
fewer depressive symptoms.
Mediation model
In terms of the direct effects shown in Figure 1, post-
docs who experienced higher degrees of positive emo-
tions used more adaptive coping (B= 0.35, p<0.001)
and less maladaptive coping strategies (B=0.09,
p<0.05). Adaptive coping was positively related
to resilience (B=0.05, p<0.001), whereas maladaptive
coping had a negative association with resilience
(B=0.05, p<0.001). After controlling for the two
constructs of coping strategies and the set of demo-
graphic covariates, the direct relationship between
positive emotions and resilience remained signicant
(B=0.03, p<0.01), indicating that coping strategies
did not completely mediate the link between positive
emotions and resilience. Among the control variables,
only employment length (B=0.09,p<0.05) and nation-
ality (B=0.21,p<0.05) had signicant associations with
resilience.
As for specic indirect effects, the indirect effects of
positive emotions on resilience were signicant
through both mediators: adaptive coping [B
boot
= 0.02,
Bias = 0.0001, standard error (SE) = 0.004, p<0.01
(99% bias corrected and accelerated condence interval
(CI): 0.01, 0.03)] and maladaptive coping [B
boot
=
0.004, Bias = 0.0000, SE = 0.002, p<0.05 (95% bias
corrected and accelerated CI: 0.0002, 0.01)]. Pairwise
comparison of the two indirect effects indicated that
the mediating path through adaptive coping was
signicantly stronger than through maladaptive coping
[B
boot
=0.01, Bias =0.0002, SE = 0.01, p<0.05
(95% bias corrected and accelerated CI: 0.02,
0.002)]. Combining together the direct and indirect
effects via coping strategies, the total effect of
positive emotions on resilience was estimated at
B= 0.05, p<0.001. The overall model accounted
for 34% of the total variance in resilience.
Moderation model
Trait anxiety
As displayed in Table II, the demographic control
variables were entered into Model 1, but they did
not signicantly account for any variance in trait
anxiety (F
8, 187
=1.21, p>0.05). Following the addi-
tion of stress and resilience in Model 2, the total var-
iance explained was estimated at 70% (F
10, 185
=42.92,
p<0.001). In the nal step, Model 3, both stress (B= 0.96,
p<0.001) and resilience (B=4.77, p<0.001) were
associated with trait anxiety. To determine the role of
resilience in moderating the association of stress on
trait anxiety, the interaction term (stress × resilience)
was also included in the nal model. The analysis
revealed a signicant interaction effect (B=0.31,
p<0.001), indicating that resilience moderated the
relationship between stress and trait anxiety. The
nal model explained an additional 2% and
accounted for a total of 72% of the variance in trait
anxiety (F
11, 184
= 43.53, p<0.001).
Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt
150 Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Table I. Means, standard deviations (SD) and bivariate correlations for all variables (n= 196)
Variable Mean SD PE AC MC R S TA DS A NC EL F M NS W US
Positive Emotions (PE) 24.23 6.02
Adaptive Coping (AC) 36.53 4.87 0.44***
Maladaptive Coping (MC) 21.41 3.83 0.15* 0.02
Resilience (R) 3.62 0.70 0.38*** 0.38*** 0.29***
Stress (S) 16.18 5.79 0.47*** 0.19** 0.34*** 0.45***
Trait Anxiety (TA) 39.74 9.14 0.53*** 0.38*** 0.46*** 0.61*** 0.77***
Depressive Symptoms (DS) 10.61 7.59 0.49*** 0.24** 0.44*** 0.42*** 0.72*** 0.75***
Control
Age (A) 32.08 3.71 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.01
Number of Children (NC) 0.44 0.82 0.09 0.05 0.18* 0.10 0.00 0.10 0.12 0.46***
Employment Length (EL) 1.49 1.23 0.13 0.14 0.07 0.13 0.04 0.09 0.04 0.26*** 0.16*
Female (F)
––0.02 0.22** 0.07 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.04 0.01 0.17*
Married (M)
––0.01 0.04 0.19** 0.13 0.06 0.13 0.18* 0.14 0.43*** 0.15* 0.04
Natural Sciences (NS)
––0.01 0.03 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.06 0.10 0.01 0.05 0.21** 0.00 0.12
White (W)
––0.05 0.07 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.09 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.02 0.09 0.07 0.05
US American (US)
––0.02 0.06 0.15* 0.16* 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.21** 0.03 0.02 0.48***
Sex (Female = 1, Male= 0); Marital Status (Married= 1, Unmarried = 0); College/School (Natural Sciences = 1, Other = 0); Race/Ethnicity (White = 1, Other = 0); Nationality (US= 1, Other = 0).
*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.
C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health
151Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Post hoc probing of the signicant interaction was
conducted according to the methods of Aiken and
West (1991). Plotting the interaction was performed
to illustrate the regression of trait anxiety on varying
degrees of stress and resilience. As shown in Figure 2,
levels of stress and resilience were estimated at one
standard deviation below and above their means as
recommended by Aiken and West. Results showed that
the simple slopes from all three levels of resilienceat
1 standard deviation (SD), mean and +1 SDwere
statistically signicant (p<0.001). The graph indi-
cated that increasing levels of stress were likewise
associated with increasing levels of trait anxiety. How-
ever, as suggested by the signicant interaction effect,
resilience appeared to have a moderating effect on the
link between stress and trait anxiety. In other words,
postdocs with higher levels of resilience seemed to be
protected from the impact of stress and thus explaining
their lower scores of trait anxiety as compared with
those with lower levels of resilience. The protective
role of resilience was apparent across all levels of stress,
but the degree of protection was largest when stress
levels were highest. [Correction made here after initial
online publication.]
Table II. Hierarchical regression of trait anxiety on controls, focal predictors and the interaction term (n= 196)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Variable BSE BBSE BBSE B
Age 0.11 0.20 0.04 0.05 0.12 0.02 0.01 0.11 0.01
Number of Children 0.39 0.99 0.04 0.79 0.56 0.07 0.64 0.54 0.06
Employment Length 1.10 0.57 0.15 0.88 0.33 0.12** 0.99 0.32 0.13**
Female
0.09 1.38 0.01 0.25 0.78 0.01 0.07 0.76 0.00
Married
2.34 1.49 0.13 0.74 0.85 0.04 0.59 0.82 0.03
Natural Sciences
1.50 1.34 0.08 0.33 0.76 0.02 0.29 0.74 0.02
White
2.16 1.56 0.11 0.67 0.89 0.04 0.92 0.85 0.05
US American
0.52 1.51 0.03 1.13 0.86 0.06 1.34 0.83 0.07
Stress 0.95 0.07 0.60*** 0.96 0.07 0.61***
Resilience 4.64 0.61 0.35*** 4.77 0.59 0.36***
Stress X Resilience 0.31 0.08 0.16***
Model R
2
0.05 0.70 0.72
Ffor change in R
2
1.21 199.44*** 15.65***
Sex (Female = 1, Male = 0); Marital Status (Married = 1, Unmarried = 0); College/School (Natural Sciences = 1, Other = 0); Race/Ethnicity
(White = 1, Other = 0); Nationality (US = 1, Other= 0).
*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.
Figure 2 The moderating effect of resilience on the relationship between stress and trait anxiety
Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt
152 Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Depressive symptoms
As displayed in Table III, the demographic control
variables were entered into Model 1, but they did
not signicantly account for any variance in depres-
sive symptoms (F
8, 187
= 1.49, p>0.05). Following
the addition of stress and resilience in Model 2, the
total variance explained was estimated at 58%
(F
10, 185
= 25.38, p<0.001). In the nal step, Model
3, both stress (B= 0.90, p<0.001) and resilience
(B=1.40, p<0.05) were associated with depres-
sive symptoms. To determine the role of resilience
in moderating the association of stress on depressive
symptoms, the interaction term (stress × resilience) was
also included in the nal model. The analysis revealed a
signicant interaction effect (B=0.28, p<0.001),
indicating that resilience moderated the relationship
between stress and depressive symptoms. The nal
model explained an additional 3% and accounted for a
total of 61% of the variance in depressive symptoms
(F
11, 184
= 25.81, p<0.001).
Post hoc probing of the signicant interaction was
conducted according to methods of Aiken and West
(1991). Plotting the interaction was performed to illus-
trate the regression of depressive symptoms on varying
levels of stress and resilience. As shown in Figure 3,
levels of stress and resilience were estimated at one
standard deviation below and above their means.
Results showed that the simple slopes from all three
levels of resilienceat 1 SD, mean and +1 SDwere
statistically signicant (p<0.001). The graph indicated
that increasing levels of stress were likewise associated
with increasing levels of depressive symptoms. How-
ever, as suggested by the signicant interaction effect,
resilience appeared to have a moderating effect on the
link between stress and depressive symptoms.
Particularly when stress levels are high, postdocs
with higher levels of resilience seemed to be
protected from the impact of stress and thus
explaining their lower scores of depressive symp-
toms as compared with those with lower levels of
resilience. However, the protective role of resilience
appeared to be unimportant when stress levels were
low, but the degree of protection became more
apparent as stress levels increased. Considering the
cutoff score of 16 or higher (suggesting moderately
severe level of symptoms and a possible marker for
clinical depression), results indicated that postdocs
with high levels of resilience remained below this
criterion even when stress levels were high.
Discussion
Using a sample of n= 200 postdocs, the present study
was conducted to (a) examine if positive emotions were
associated with greater resilience, (b) test whether
coping strategies mediated the link between positive
emotions and resilience and (c) investigate if resilience
moderated the inuence of stress on trait anxiety and
depressive symptoms, after controlling for a variety of
demographic variables. As hypothesized, there was a
positive association between positive emotions and
resilience, and coping strategies partially mediated the
link between positive emotions and resilience. Results
also indicated that resilience moderated the impact of
stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms.
With respect to the broaden-and-build theory of
positive emotions, ndings from the mediation analysis
provided further support for the theorys build hypoth-
esis (Fredrickson, 2004, 2005; Kok et al., 2008), as
Table III. Hierarchical regression of depressive symptoms on controls, focal predictors and the interaction term (n= 196)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Variable BSE BBSE BBSE B
Age 0.06 0.17 0.03 0.18 0.11 0.09 0.15 0.11 0.07
Number of Children 0.70 0.82 0.08 1.09 0.55 0.12 0.95 0.54 0.10
Employment Length 0.44 0.47 0.07 0.10 0.32 0.02 0.21 0.31 0.03
Female
1.21 1.14 0.08 1.52 0.77 0.10* 1.22 0.75 0.08
Married
2.29 1.23 0.15 1.25 0.83 0.08 1.12 0.81 0.07
Natural Sciences
1.50 1.11 0.10 0.13 0.75 0.01 0.17 0.73 0.01
White
0.54 1.29 0.03 0.59 0.87 0.04 0.36 0.84 0.02
US American
1.32 1.25 0.09 1.34 0.85 0.09 1.53 0.82 0.10
Stress 0.88 0.07 0.67*** 0.90 0.07 0.68***
Resilience 1.27 0.60 0.12* 1.40 0.59 0.13*
Stress × Resilience 0.28 0.08 0.17***
Model R
2
0.06 0.58 0.61
Ffor change in R
2
1.49 113.77*** 13.28***
Sex (Female = 1, Male = 0); Marital Status (Married = 1, Unmarried = 0); College/School (Natural Sciences = 1, Other = 0); Race/Ethnicity
(White = 1, Other = 0); Nationality (US = 1, Other= 0).
*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.
C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health
153Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
demonstrated by the signicant direct associations
of positive emotions with resilience and coping
strategies. Positive emotionspositive relationship
with adaptive coping strategies, and negative
relationship with maladaptive strategies, indicated
that positive emotions may have the ability to
enhanceadaptivecopingwhile minimizing maladap-
tive coping strategies. An increase in adaptive coping
in conjunction with a decrease in maladaptive
coping, in turn, would consequently have a building
inuence on resilience.
In addition, the direct association between positive
emotions and resilience indicates that positive emo-
tions may not only have the potential to increase
resilience, but that resilience may also have the ability
to increase positive emotions, supporting the theorys
hypothesis that a reciprocal relationship between
positive emotions and resilience could spark an
upward spiral toward increasing emotional well-being
(Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002); the same argument may
also apply for an upward spiral between positive
emotions and coping (Burns et al., 2008). Therefore,
in order to optimize resilience among postdocs, it is
important to implement programmes that would aim
to increase individual use of adaptive coping strategies,
decrease use of maladaptive coping strategies and
increase experiences of positive emotions. In turn,
enhanced levels of resilience would enable postdocs to
adapt more successfully when dealing with stressful
situations. From a practical standpoint, interventions
have been successful in eliciting enhanced positive
emotions and the accompanying resilience resources
(Emmons & McCullough, 2003; Seligman, Steen, &
Park, 2005).
As for the moderation analyses, results support
the buffering hypothesis of Fredricksonsbroaden-and-
build theory (Kok et al., 2008). In line with expectations,
resilience demonstrated a moderating role toward the
impact of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms,
as found in previous research (Aroian & Norris, 2000;
Pinquart, 2009; Wagnild, 2003). That is to say, as stress
levels increased, levels of trait anxiety and depressive
symptoms also increased; however, individuals with
higher levels of resilience exhibited some level of protec-
tion, as demonstrated by their lower scores of trait anxiety
or depressive symptoms, compared with other partici-
pants who possessed lower levels of resilience.
Regarding trait anxiety, postdocs with higher resil-
ience appeared to be protected across the full range of
stress; even when stress is low, postdocs with high resil-
ience already had lower scores on trait anxiety, and the
degree of protectionor the difference in trait anxiety
between low and high resiliencefurther increased as
stress magnied. In contrast, with respect to depressive
symptoms, ones level of resilience did not seem to be
important when stress levels are low; however, having
high levels of resilience protected postdocs from
increased depressive symptoms as stress levels increased.
Importantly, those with average or low levels of
resilience were projected to have depressive symptoms
that were above the tipping point for clinical levels of
depression (Radloff, 1977) [Correction made here after
initial online publication.]. Thus, enhancing the
resilience of postdocs may help prevent an increase in
the prevalence of mental health disorders. Although
stress is unavoidable and the associations among stress,
anxiety and depression are undeniable, the link be-
tween postdocs and whether they will develop anxiety
Figure 3 The moderating effect of resilience on the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms
Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt
154 Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
or depression may be ameliorated by implementing
programmes designed to increase their resilience,
adaptive coping and positive emotions.
With respect to the ndings regarding the partici-
pantsnationality, we found small but signicant
correlations between US postdocs and maladaptive
coping (r= 0.15, p<0.05), and between US postdocs
and resilience (r= 0.16, p<0.05). Although future
research is needed, it may be that some postdoc
stressors are not within ones control. Given this, mal-
adaptive coping strategies might actually help postdocs
manage their stress more effectively in certain
situations. Looking at the coping means, adaptive
coping is higher than maladaptive coping, and so on
balance, ones percentage of problem-focused coping
relative to total coping (adaptive + maladaptive) is
indicative of a healthy coping style. The small signi-
cant relationship between US postdocs and resilience
makes intuitive sense given they are at home, and
thus, it may be easier for them to manage their
stressors; furthermore, they may have more social/
instrumental/emotional support available to them
than postdocs whose country of origin is outside of the
United States. Importantly, we also point out that we
controlled for nationality in the regression analyses,
which enhances condence in our results.
Results from the present study should be considered
in light of the following limitations. The present study
used cross-sectional data, and thus, causality and
directionality cannot be determined from the found
associations among the variables. It is also possible that
the data may be vulnerable to inaccuracies due to
common-methods bias and the self-report nature of
the online survey instrument. The participants were
recruited from a pool of postdocs who were employed
at a large research institution in the state of Texas, USA.
There were no exclusion criteria, and all postdocs from
any college or department across the university were
allowed to participate. Due to this localized sampling,
results and implications may not be applicable to
postdocs from other institutions, locations or time. Ad-
ditional drawbacks of the present studys methods in-
clude an increased risk for a self-selected sample and
the voluntary nature of the study.
No specic clinical evaluation of anxiety and depres-
sion was available. Therefore, it is possible that a num-
ber of factors beyond the measures of this study could
have inuenced the participantsself-reported scores
(e.g. use of prescription drugs and unexpected event).
However, although such factors may affect ones self-
assessment, this effect would not have an unexpected
inuence on the relationships under examination. For
instance, if a participant were experiencing high levels
of stress and depressive symptoms, this positive corre-
lation between stress and depressive symptoms would
nonetheless remain the same even if the participant
were under the inuence of an anti-stress/depression
drug and consequently feeling low levels of stress and
depressive symptoms. Likewise, if a participant with
an anxiety disorder were functioning effectively with
medication, his or her data would reect this mindset.
Although prescription drugs may signicantly change
ones self-assessment, this effect should not have an
unexpected inuence on the relationships under
examination.
In conclusion, ndings from the present study
provide additional support for the build and buffering
hypotheses of the broaden-and-build theory of positive
emotions. Results suggested that positive emotions may
have the ability to fuel resilience directly, as well as
indirectly by promoting adaptive coping and demoting
maladaptive coping strategies. Although stress was
strongly associated with trait anxiety and depressive
symptoms, resilience could protect postdocs from
developing clinical levels of anxiety and depression. In
order to maintain and enhance the well-being of post-
docs, programmes should be implemented to increase
their positive emotions, adaptive coping and resilience.
Conict of interest
The authors have declared that there is no conict
of interest.
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Positive Emotions, Resilience and Health C. T. Gloria and M. A. Steinhardt
156 Stress and Health 32: 145156 (2016) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... The constructs extracted to date from the COPE and Brief COPE include adaptive and maladaptive coping (Dawson et al., 2014;Gloria & Steinhardt, 2016;Merrill & Thomas, 2013;Moore et al., 2011), but strategies have been combined into these categories based on assumptions and reliabilities alone, without performing CFA or EFA (Gloria & Steinhardt, 2016;Merrill & Thomas, 2013;Moore et al., 2011). Fortunately, adaptive/maladaptive coping has also been modeled using the CISS with structural equation modeling . ...
... The constructs extracted to date from the COPE and Brief COPE include adaptive and maladaptive coping (Dawson et al., 2014;Gloria & Steinhardt, 2016;Merrill & Thomas, 2013;Moore et al., 2011), but strategies have been combined into these categories based on assumptions and reliabilities alone, without performing CFA or EFA (Gloria & Steinhardt, 2016;Merrill & Thomas, 2013;Moore et al., 2011). Fortunately, adaptive/maladaptive coping has also been modeled using the CISS with structural equation modeling . ...
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The aim of the book to present the Coping Circumplex Model (CCM) designed to integrate various coping constructs. The monograph begins with a review of stress theories and coping models. After that, current problems in stress psychology are described. In an attempt to address some of the above issues, the CCM and its development is described. Finally, the book presents an empirical verification of the CCM and provides a discussion of the results. The CCM offers a new way of thinking about coping with stress. It integrates various coping categories, but it may also elucidate some contradictory findings about relationships between coping (e.g., different forms of problem avoidance) and distress depending on situation controllability. It may provide a suitable space for the integration of coping with other constructs (e.g., personality dimensions, dark triad, emotion regulation processes) and adjustment after trauma. The CCM may also foster the generation of new hypotheses in stress psychology and emotion regulation, (e.g., concerning the relationship between the continuum of reinterpretation and experienced emotions). The Coping Circumplex Model: A Theoretical Synthesis of Coping Constructs and Its Empirical Verification can be useful for psychology academics interested in coping and stress research, emotion regulation, personality psychology, for researchers in fields close to psychology, such as medicine or sociology, as well as for undergraduate and postgraduate psychology students.
... Mengurangi dampak kesehatan mental yang akan terjadi, maka perlu dilakukan upaya pencegahan, yaitu dengan strategi coping. Strategi coping dapat diartikan sebagai suatu metode yang dilakukan tiap individu untuk dapat mengendalikan dan mengatasi situasi ataupun tekanan yang dialami dan dianggap sebagai suatu ancaman, hambatan, tantangan yang dapat merugikan (Gloria & Steinhardt, 2016). ...
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... 20 The factors that affect college students' mental health are stress, emotion, and self-esteem at the individual dimension. 21,22 The family dimension is income, parenting style, and so on. 23,24 At the school dimension, there are factors such as physical exercise, interpersonal relationship, academic support, learning environment. ...
... Isso porque o estresse ativa uma série de reações fisiológicas incluindo aumento da frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial, problemas respiratórios, bem como psicológicas, como o incremento Vol. 13 | Nº 1 | 2023 | jan./abr. | p. 140 RASSI dos afetos negativos, transtornos de ansiedade, depressão que, em geral, são a causa subjacente da adoção de vários comportamentos não saudáveis (Gloria & Steinhardt, 2016;Jose Gustems-Carnicer et al., 2019;Roohafza et al., 2016;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2015;Zhu et al., 2020). ...
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Este estudo tem como objetivo testar um modelo de moderação dupla – coping e compaixão do líder – sobre o bem-estar e o desempenho do professor universitário diante a pandemia da Covid-19. A pesquisa empírica foi realizada com 251 docentes do Ensino Superior, de diferentes cursos e titulação. Os dados coletados foram analisados por meio de análise fatorial confirmatória (AFC) e regressões múltiplas. Os dados confirmam as hipóteses de moderação dupla – das estratégias de coping de reavaliação positiva e - da compaixão do líder – nessa relação. Os resultados sugerem que as estratégias de coping de reavaliação positiva e a compaixão do líder podem abafar os efeitos deletérios em decorrência dos estressores, mantendo os níveis de bem-estar estabilizados, proporcionando para o docente a possibilidade de cumprir com suas atividades diárias no trabalho. Conclui-se que as correlações exploradas neste estudo fornecem novas discussões teóricas e práticas que podem contribuir nos modelos já existentes, ampliando os estudos sobre os consequentes do bem-estar de professores de ensino superior. As descobertas contribuíram para a compreensão e a identificação de medidas que podem minimizar os impactos causados pela pandemia.
... While most successfully navigate associated challenges (Arnett, 1999) and emerge with a good general quality of life (Rapee et al., 2019), the overall prevalence of emotional distress increases significantly during this period (Cohen et al., 2018). If not managed successfully, this can increase the risk of mental illness (Gloria & Steinhardt, 2016). Mental health conditions are determined by strict diagnostic criteria, however, anyone can experience emotional distress. ...
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Causal attributions and help-seeking is not well explored among adolescents, despite evidence of perceived causes for difficulties influencing how adults engage with treatment and seek help. This study reviewed extant literature to understand what adolescents at increased risk of developing mental health difficulties and those with clinically significant symptoms perceive to be the cause of emotional distress; to determine the extent to which perceived cause influences help-seeking; and to identify potential differences/commonalities between these groups. A systematic review and qualitative thematic synthesis were conducted. 3,691 articles were identified, 18 were eligible to be included and were synthesized using thematic synthesis. Six main themes related to perceived cause are reported. Three of those themes were shared between the clinical and at-risk groups: (1) challenging social factors and perceived difference, (2) problematic family dynamics, and (3) cause is complex and multifaceted. Three themes were not: (4) unfairness and perceived lack of agency and (5) concern for self and others, were exclusive to the at-risk group, and (6) coping with a mental health difficulty was exclusive to the clinical group. Four main themes related to causal attributions and help-seeking were found, including: (1) cause and implications for self-preservation; (2) the degree of personal and wider knowledge and understanding of cause; (3) perceived extent of control in managing cause; and (4) cause having potential to affect others. The findings of this review demonstrate that perceived cause for emotional distress plays a role in help-seeking among adolescent groups and highlights likely differences in how adolescents at-risk of mental health difficulties and those with clinically significant symptoms attribute cause for their difficulties and subsequently seek help. This has important implications for how to support young people experiencing or at risk of mental health difficulties and presents a strong case for pursuing more research in this area.
... In the relevant literature, there are significant positive relationships between psychological resilience and the variables that support the self, such as gratitude, self-acceptance, selfefficacy, autonomy (Kardaş and Yalçın 2021), and self-esteem (Arslan 2019). Within the context of mental health, resilience has been negatively related to mental health difficulties (Hu et al. 2015, Gloria and Steinhardt 2016, Lereya et al. 2016). On the other hand, there is a positive relationship between resilience and life satisfaction (Arslan 2019), happiness (Lü et al. 2014), and satisfaction with life (Yıldırım and Belen 2019). ...
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The negative relationship between fear of COVID-19 and well-being has been revealed over the last years. However, the potential variables that affect this relationship need to be studied. This study examines the sequential mediating role of cognitive flexibility and psychological resilience in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and subjective well-being. Six hundred and eight participants (339 females and 269 males, aged between 18-79 years) completed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Brief Resilience Scale, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale online. The path analysis was conducted using PROCESS macro in the study. The sequential mediation analyses show that the control dimension of cognitive flexibility and psychological resilience fully mediate the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and subjective well-being. In other words, fear of COVID-19 indirectly affects subjective well-being via the control dimension of cognitive flexibility and psychological resilience. In order to restrain the adverse effects of COVID-19, individuals’ cognitive flexibility and psychological resilience levels should be increased to enhance their well-being.
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This chapter offers curriculum design guidelines for higher education coursework on the topic of resilience, tailored to pre-service emerging adult students in the fields of librarianship and primary and secondary school teaching. Professionals in these fields face stress and challenging work conditions exacerbated by global crises. These external conditions place increasing community-level demand on teachers and librarians for care-based service work, often without added funding resources. Resilience is a multi-disciplinary construct involving both adaptation to the realities of changing external conditions and constructive capacity-building in individuals to personally cope with and manage such pressures. The construct holds promise as a topical domain of study and focus for pre-service teachers and librarians who often serve as information and service referral guides to the public during crises. The chapter provides inter-disciplinary guidelines for resilience coursework emphasizing both a “learning about” and “learning to be” approach.KeywordsResilienceLibrariansTeachersPre-service education
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Resilient individuals are better able to cope with trauma, and overcome life’s adversities. Correctional officers are routinely exposed to workplace stressors that can be psychologically harmful. For these essential workers, resilience, therefore, offers a way to counteract the aversive conditions of their employment. In light of its importance in promoting mental wellness, studies have explored antecedents of resilience, yet few of which were conducted among correctional officers. To address this literature void, open-ended questionnaire data were collected from maximum-security corrections officers ( N = 193) working in a southeastern state to understand the factors they believe most crucial in developing resilience. Respondents identified seven key themes associated with resilience, including co-worker support, establishing purpose in life, individual characteristics, self-care, life balance, prayer/meditation, and finally, maintaining positive attitudes. Results are discussed in light of interventions targeted at improving correctional officer mental health.
Chapter
Resilience refers to the capacity to undergo and overcome stressors. While policies for diversity, equity, and inclusion are being prioritized in higher education institutions, Black males currently in administrative positions or in the leadership pipeline experience issues that may not be experienced by their White counterparts and other faculty of color. Resilience in these roles is necessary when navigating underrepresentation matters, microaggressions, and burnout to aid in job satisfaction and sustainability. For this context, stability is specific to the intrinsic and extrinsic constructs of finding meaning, purpose, and social support to promote overall well-being through the George Mason Resiliency Model framework. As institutions work to diversify the Black male leadership pipeline and ensure well-being, special consideration should be given to mentorship models and inclusive leadership training.
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There is a gap in the literature for how organizational and individual factors affect teachers’ adjustment. This study, focused on teachers, attempts to fill this lack by examining the extents to which psychological need satisfaction acts as a mediator between organizational justice, resilience, and teachers’ adjustment to work. We based this study on the predictive model of psychological health at work, psychological adjustment theory, and self-determination theory which argue that individuals have a sense of well-being at work if it promotes the satisfaction of their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. We tested our model in the education sector. Using a cross-sectional design, we asked French teachers (N = 393) to fill in a one-step self-report questionnaire. Mediation analyses showed that satisfaction of the three needs played a mediating role between organizational justice and job adjustment, and between resilience and job adjustment.
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Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks - gratitude, interest, love, and so forth - fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
Chapter
The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions stems from a set of twin hypotheses. First, the broaden hypothesis proposes that positive emotions momentarily expand our perception of the world in ways that facilitate global visual processing, better attentional flexibility, and larger thought-action repertoires. The build hypothesis purports that, over time, these fleeting experiences of expanded awareness that accompany positive emotions such as joy and excitement accumulate over time to facilitate growth of a person's social, cognitive, emotional, and physical resources. Empirical evidence supporting these hypotheses is discussed, as well as the theory's implications for behavior, psychological resilience, social interaction, and health.
Book
How much do we know about what makes people thrive and societies flourish? While a vast body of research has been dedicated to understanding problems and disorders, we know remarkably little about the positive aspects of life, the things that make life worth living. This volume heralds the emergence of a new field of science that endeavours to understand how individuals and societies thrive and flourish, and how this new knowledge can be applied to foster happiness, health and fulfillment, and institutions that encourage the development of these qualities. Taking a dynamic, cross-disciplinary approach, it sets out to explore the most promising routes to well-being, derived from the latest research in psychology, neuroscience, social science, economics, and the effects of our natural environment. The book provides an overview of the latest insights and strategies for enhancing our individual well-being, or the well-being of the communities in which we live and work.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.