Distribution of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China
National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, P.O. Box 5, 102206, Changping, Beijing, China. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
(Impact Factor: 2.67).
08/2009; 28(10):1237-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10096-009-0773-x
Yersinia enterocolitica (1,295 strains) was isolated from diarrhea patients, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment. They were studied for epidemiology distribution using bacterial biochemical metabolism tests, their virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) sub-typing. The data showed that 416 of the 1,295 strains were pathogenic, where the pathogenic Chinese isolates were of serotypes O:3 and O:9. These two serotypes were found in livestock and poultry, with swine serving as the major reservoir. The geographic distribution of pathogenic isolates was significantly different, where most of the strains were isolated from the cold northern areas, whereas some serotype O:3 strains were recovered from the warm southern areas. By the analysis of the data of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, we find the phenomenon of 'concentric circle distribution' around animal reservoirs and human habitation. The clustering of PFGE showed that the patterns of the pathogenic strains isolated from diarrhea patients were identical compared to those from the animals in the same area, thus, suggesting that the human infection originated from the animals.
Available from: Huaiqi Jing
- "We chose 150 pathogenic and 148 biotype 1A Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from China; 16 pathogenic reference strains from Europe, United States, and Japan; and four pathogenic complete-genome-sequenced strains (Table
4). The serotypes of these strains were determined as previously described
[1,34-36], and the biotypes of strains were identified using the scheme reviewed by Bottone
. The pathogenic strains were positive for all genes (ail+, ystA+, virF+, and yadA+); however, some pathogenic strains lost the plasmid virulence genes for virF and yadA, but still had ail and ystA genes located on the chromosome, the non-pathogenic strain was negative for all these genes. "
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ABSTRACT: Yersinia enterocolitica outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is one of the major outer membrane proteins with high immunogenicity. We performed the polymorphism analysis for the outer membrane protein A and putative outer membrane protein A (p-ompA) family protein gene of 318 Y. enterocolitica strains.
The data showed all the pathogenic strains and biotype 1A strains harboring ystB gene carried both ompA and p-ompA genes; parts of the biotype 1A strains not harboring ystB gene carried either ompA or p-ompA gene. In non-pathogenic strains (biotype 1A), distribution of the two genes and ystB were highly correlated, showing genetic polymorphism. The pathogenic and non-pathogenic, highly and weakly pathogenic strains were divided into different groups based on sequence analysis of two genes. Although the variations of the sequences, the translated proteins and predicted secondary or tertiary structures of OmpA and P-OmpA were similar.
OmpA and p-ompA gene were highly conserved for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The distributions of two genes were correlated with ystB for biotype 1A strains. The polymorphism analysis results of the two genes probably due to different bio-serotypes of the strains, and reflected the dissemination of different bio-serotype clones of Y. enterocolitica.
Available from: Juraj Bosak
- "Y. enterocolitica is often found in aquatic environments and in various animal reservoirs, with swine being a major reservoir of human pathogenic strains. The most frequently isolated human strains belong to bioserotypes 1B/O:8, 2/O:5,27, 2/O:9, and 4/O:3, with 4/O:3 being the most common and typical for Europe –. "
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ABSTRACT: Colicin Fy is a plasmid encoded toxin that recognizes a yersinia-specific outer membrane protein (YiuR) as a receptor molecule. We have previously shown that the activity spectrum of colicin Fy comprises strains of the genus Yersinia. In this study, we analyzed the activity of colicin Fy against 110 Yersinia enterocolitica isolates differing in geographical origin and source. All isolates were characterized through analysis of 16S rRNA genes, serotyping, biotyping, restriction profiling of genomic DNA, detection of virulence markers and susceptibility to antibiotics. This confirmed the broad variability of the collection, in which all 110 Y. enterocolitica isolates, representing 77 various strains, were inhibited by colicin FY. Although isolates showed variable levels of susceptibility to colicin Fy, it was not associated with any strain characteristic. The universal susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica strains to colicin Fy together with the absence of activity towards strains outside the Yersinia genus suggests potential therapeutic applications for colicin Fy.
Available from: Hannu Korkeala
- "In addition, a higher prevalence of Y. pseudotuberculosis was also associated with a large number of pests and pets, which was implicated in the spread of infection on organic farms in Finland (Laukkanen et al., 2008). Although recent reports suggest that transmission from pigs to rodents rather than from rodents to pigs is more likely (Wang et al., 2009; Backhans et al., 2010). The higher genetic diversity of Y. enterocolitica isolates found on farm D in comparison to the other sampled farms may also be associated with the low biosecurity level found on this farm. "
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in relation to potential farming risk factors in Lithuania was examined. Pig faeces and carcase swab samples from 11 farms were studied at slaughterhouses. Nine of the 11 farms were visited again 3-5months later, and pooled feacal samples and environmental samples were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 64% and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in 45% of the sampled pig farms. All obtained isolates belonged to bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:3, respectively. Low biosecurity level was associated with a high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on farms. Characterization with PFGE of 64 Y. enterocolitica and 27 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates revealed seven and two different genotypes, respectively. Dominant enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. genotypes were obtained in both pig feacal and carcase samples. The high contamination of pig carcases (25%) with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. may be an important factor contributing to the high incidence of human yersiniosis in Lithuania.
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