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Gender-linked differences in human skin

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Abstract

The physiology of body organs can be affected by gender. Skin and skin appendages are influenced by sex hormones. This review work has been undertaken to point out the most conspicuous physiological differences observed between men's and women's skin. The literature has been searched and relevant results have been gathered. Men's and women's skins differ in hormone metabolism, hair growth, sweat rate, sebum production, surface pH, fat accumulation, serum leptins, etc. Examples of differences in the proneness to cutaneous diseases and skin cancer are quoted. The knowledge of gender-linked cutaneous differences might help in preparing male-specific products for more appropriate dermatological treatments or cosmetic interventions.
... Men are known to be more prone to skin malignancies [6]. Historically, increased sun exposure in males has been implicated; however, more recently, gender-specific differences in human skin have been increasingly recognized [11]. Ultraviolet radiation is known to induce immunosuppression in human skin, and this effect has been shown to be more significant in men [12]. ...
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Gender differences exist throughout the medical field and significant progress has been made in understanding the effects of gender in many aspects of healthcare. The field of cardio-oncology is diverse and dynamic with new oncologic and cardiovascular therapies approved each year; however, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of gender within cardio-oncology, particularly the impact of gender on cardiotoxicities. The relationship between gender and cardio-oncology is unique in that gender likely affects not only the biological underpinnings of cancer susceptibility, but also the response to both oncologic and cardiovascular therapies. Furthermore, gender has significant socioeconomic and psychosocial implications which may impact cancer and cardiovascular risk factor profiles, cancer susceptibility, and the delivery of healthcare. In this review, we summarize the effects of gender on susceptibility of cancer, response to cardiovascular and cancer therapies, delivery of healthcare, and highlight the need for further gender specific studies regarding the cardiovascular effects of current and future oncological treatments.
... Due to skin microbiome compositional changes being associated with age, gender, BMI, and other factors (Giacomoni et al., 2009;Zhai et al., 2018;Michael et al., 2019), we explored the additional effects of demographic and clinical parameters on the skin microbiota. In univariate analyses based on the Pearson's and Kendall's tau correlations, the Shannon diversity index was positively associated with marital status (p = 0.013), BMI categories (p = 0.038), age at onset (p = 0.046), PASI (p < 0.001), and BSA (p = 0.007), but was not associated with age, gender, and the other variables (Supplementary Table 3). ...
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Psoriasis can be provoked or exacerbated by environmental exposures such as certain microbiomes. The distinction between plaque psoriasis (PP) and guttate psoriasis (GP) in the skin or pharyngeal microbiota is not yet clear. High-throughput sequencing using Illumina MiSeq was used in this study to characterize skin and pharyngeal microbial composition in patients with PP [large PP (LPP, n = 62), small PP (SPP, n = 41)] and GP (n = 14). The alpha- and beta-diversity of skin microbiota LPP was similar to that of the SPP group, but different from the GP group. There were no differences in pharyngeal microbiota among the groups. According to linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Enhydrobacter, Brevundimonas, and Allorhizobium–Neorhizobium–Pararhizobium–Rhizobium were the dominant genera of skin microbiota in PP. Diversity of skin microbiota correlated with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Moderate-to-severe psoriasis and mild psoriasis have different microbiota compositions. The skin microbiota may be related to the pharyngeal microbiota. Furthermore, two microbiota-based models could distinguish psoriasis subtypes with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.935 and 0.836, respectively. In conclusion, the skin microbiota in patients with LPP is similar to that in patients with SPP, but displays variations compared to that of GP, no differences are noted between subtypes in pharyngeal microbiota. Skin microbiota diversity correlated with PASI.
... Sebum production increases after puberty, promoting the growth of lipophilic bacteria on the skin.Ultimately, the composition of microbial flora changes according to the differences in physiological and anatomical variations in male and female skin microenvironments such as sweat, sebum and hormone production (Marples, 1982;Giacomoni et al., 2009). (Oyeka and Ugwu, 2002). ...
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Skin diseases come in a variety of forms and frequently affect individuals of all ages. The skin acts as a physical barrier, preventing foreign pathogens from invading. However, certain microorganisms that live in the superficial skin layers of humans are referred to as the skin Microbiota or Dermatophytes. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, archaea, and fungi. These Dermatophytes are restricted to hair, nails, and superficial skin because they require keratin for growth (Keratinophilic microflora). These dermatophytes grow rapidly and become infectious under certain conditions, but not under others. Summer in Dakshina Kannada district is notorious for skin infections due to the high temperatures (nearly 35-400C), which result in increased sweating. Sweat conditions are conducive to the development of a variety of skin diseases, including rashes, boils, ringworm, nail infection, herpes, yeast infection, and skin itching. The majority of skin diseases in the district have been effectively treated by traditional healers through the use of ethno-medicinal plants. In this chapter, we discuss (we have discussed) various ethno-medicinal plants that are used by traditional healers in Dakshina Kannada to treat various types of skin diseases.
... Identified fungi, the incidence in this study, localization, and pathogenicity were listed. www.nature.com/scientificreports/ that may contribute to the gender difference in the bacterial colony counts, the potential factors include the higher facial temperature in males 24 and the gender difference in sweat and sebum 25 . There were several limitations in this study. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led people to wear face masks daily in public. Although the effectiveness of face masks against viral transmission has been extensively studied, there have been few reports on potential hygiene issues due to bacteria and fungi attached to the face masks. We aimed to (1) quantify and identify the bacteria and fungi attaching to the masks, and (2) investigate whether the mask-attached microbes could be associated with the types and usage of the masks and individual lifestyles. We surveyed 109 volunteers on their mask usage and lifestyles, and cultured bacteria and fungi from either the face-side or outer-side of their masks. The bacterial colony numbers were greater on the face-side than the outer-side; the fungal colony numbers were fewer on the face-side than the outer-side. A longer mask usage significantly increased the fungal colony numbers but not the bacterial colony numbers. Although most identified microbes were non-pathogenic in humans; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Cladosporium, we found several pathogenic microbes; Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Aspergillus, and Microsporum. We also found no associations of mask-attached microbes with the transportation methods or gargling. We propose that immunocompromised people should avoid repeated use of masks to prevent microbial infection.
... Microbiota colonization begins at birth and its composition is influenced by the route of delivery (Grice and Segre, 2011;Chu et al., 2017). Afterward, the composition is determined by several intrinsic (skin site, intra-and interpersonal variability, ethnicity, gender, and age) and extrinsic (lifestyle, hygiene routine, cosmetic use, antibiotics, geographical location, climate, and seasonality) factors (Giacomoni et al., 2009;Ursell et al., 2012;Sanford and Gallo, 2013;Pinto et al., 2021). ...
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The human skin harbors a wide variety of microbes that, together with their genetic information and host interactions, form the human skin microbiome. The role of the human microbiome in the development of various diseases has lately gained interest. According to several studies, changes in the cutaneous microbiota are involved in the pathophysiology of several dermatoses. A better delineation of the human microbiome and its interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems could lead to a better understanding of these diseases, as well as the opportunity to achieve new therapeutic modalities. The present review centers on the most recent knowledge on skin microbiome and its participation in the pathogenesis of several skin disorders: atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis and acne.
... Some have suggested that these changes in rates may be in part androgen driven [86][87][88], linked to increased time in the sun for occupational and recreational exposures, and decreased personal protective behaviors [89]. Other hypotheses include the structural and biological differences of skin, including the potential heightened capacity of DNA damage repair in females [90,91]. Findings using simulated UVR data revealed that the doses required to elicit a similar immunosuppression response following UVR exposure in men were 3 times lower than those in women [92]. ...
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We report on the lactate biosensor with linear calibration range from 0.5 to 100 mM, which encircles possible levels of this metabolite concentration in both human sweat and blood. The linear calibration range at high analyte concentrations, which exceeds the Michaelis constant of lactate oxidase by several orders of magnitude, is provided by an additional perfluorosulfonated ionomer diffusion membrane. In contrast to the known lactate biosensors, which retain their response within less than a couple of hours, the reported system displays 100% response for dozens of hours even upon high analyte concentrations. The biosensors with an additional diffusion-limiting membrane have been validated for lactate detection both in human blood serum and in undiluted human sweat shortly after its secretion. Both linear response in the entire range of blood and sweat lactate concentrations and ultrahigh operational stability would provide the use of the elaborated biosensor in wearable devices for the monitoring of hypoxia.
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