Conference Paper

The development and testing of a new positive parenting measure- Parent Infant Play Observation code

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Abstract

The limited availability of a suitable observation tool that evaluates parental sensitivity to, and encouragement of, their infants prompted the development of a new positive parenting observation code. The Parent Infant Play Observation code (PIPOc) was developed and tested in a pilot study of a group intervention and mothers were filmed in their homes playing with their infants at two time points six months apart. This measure was designed to be developmentally appropriate for infants, brief and easy to code after training, and potentially suitable for clinical and research use. To assess validity and reliability, the six target behaviours within the PIPOc were correlated and inter-rater reliability was calculated on a subsample of the videos. Independently coded partial interval data were further analysed using exploratory Factor Analysis. Results yielded three positive parenting components: physical encouragement, sensitive parenting and verbal engagement. Concurrent validity of the three composite factors with subscale scores from the Home Environment Inventory items (IT HOME, Bradley & Caldwell, 1976; Caldwell & Bradley, 2003) will be discussed. The PIPOc shows promising psychometric properties and analysis comparing observations of intervention and control mothers interacting with their babies indicate that the code is sensitive to change over time in the first year.

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... The Parent Infant Play Observation code (PIPOc) (Jones et al. 2014) The PIPOc uses a 10-s interval partial time sampling technique to assess the six positive parent behaviours selected in line with the IYPB programme (defined in Table 2). The numbers of intervals when the behaviours were observed were totalled for the 10-min video recording of mothers' play with their infants. ...
... Inter-rater agreement was also strong to excellent (n = 37) ICC single = .7–.9. Finally, preliminary tests of concurrent validity between the PIPOc and subscales of the Infant– Toddler Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory (IT HOME, Caldwell and Bradley 2003), resulted in correlations at both time points (Jones et al. 2014). This parental self-report measure was developed to assess parenting confidence for parents of children aged 0–12 months. ...
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This paper reports on a quantitative evaluation of a group-based programme designed to promote parent-infant attachment and child development. Whilst group-based parenting programmes are recommended for treating and preventing conduct disorder in older children, there is, as yet, little evidence as to whether they have a positive effect on very young children and their carers’. Recent UK Government initiatives to support families and improve parenting skills in the first 2 years of children’s lives have increased the demand for the delivery and evaluation of community-based programmes. Eighty mother–child dyads were recruited from nine areas to intervention (n = 54) and control condition (n = 26). Baseline measures were collected in the children’s home when the infants were on average 3-months-old, and follow-up measures were collected 6 months post-baseline (N = 63). Mothers’ positive play behaviours were independently coded from video recordings taken in the home. Other measures included self-reported maternal confidence and mental well-being, assessed infant development and home environment. Socio-demographic data was collected once at baseline. After controlling for baseline scores, control mothers were observed to be significantly less sensitive during play with their baby at the 6 months follow-up with a significant increase in confidence. No differences were found between the groups on the other measures. This paper provides limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies group-based programme delivered in the first year of life. Further evaluation, particularly with parents at increased risk of poorer outcomes is needed to confirm and extend these results.
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Article
Parents' insecure representations of attachment are associated with lower parental sensitivity and insecure infant–parent attachment relationships, leading to less optimal conditions for the children's socio-emotional development. Therefore, two types of short-term intervention were implemented in a group of lower middle-class mothers with an insecure representation of attachment as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. In one group of mothers, the intervention efforts were directed at promoting maternal sensitivity by means of written information about sensitive parenting and personal video feedback. In the other group, additional discussions about the mothers' early attachment experiences took place, aiming at affecting the mothers' attachment representation. The interventions were implemented during four home visits between the 7th and the 10th month after the baby's birth. Preliminary results on 30 mothers pointed at an intervention effect: Mothers in both intervention groups were more sensitive at 13 months than mothers in a control group, t(28) = −2.3, effect size d = .87, p = .01. Mothers who were classified as insecure dismissing tended to profit most from video feedback, whereas mothers who were classified as insecure preoccupied tended to profit most from video feedback with additional discussions about their childhood attachment experiences, F(1,16) = 1.9, d = .65, p = .19. © 1998 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health
Article
To evaluate the extent to which infants and mothers are able to coordinate their behavior, the interactions of 54 mother-infant pairs--18 each at 3, 6, and 9 months of age--were videotaped. Coordination was evaluated with 2 measures: (1) matching--the extent to which mother and infant engage in the same behavior at the same time; and (2) synchrony--the extent to which mother and infant change their behavior with respect to one another. Mother-infant pairs increase their degree of coordination with infant age, but the proportion of time they are coordinated is small. Mother-son pairs spend more time in coordinated states than mother-daughter pairs. The results suggest that interactions be characterized in terms of their movement from coordinated to miscoordinated states rather than only in terms of their degree of coordination. The gender differences are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental differences in females and males.
Article
The present investigation examined the correspondence of teacher ratings and direct observations of classroom behavior. Teachers, extraclass raters, and observers completed standard rating scales and/or measures of overt classroom behaviors of psychiatric inpatient children (N = 32). The study assessed if the correspondence between ratings and direct observations was influenced by who evaluates the child (teachers, raters) and the assessment format (general ratings, discrete behaviors). The results indicated that (1) measures from different assessors correlated in the low to moderate range, (2) data from extraclass raters corresponded more closely with direct observations than with data from teachers, (3) teacher and rater estimates of overt child behavior did not correlate more highly with direct observations than did standard rating scales, and (4) teachers and raters viewed child behavior as more appropriate than direct observations indicated. Measures from teachers, raters, and observers readily distinguished attention deficit disorder children with hyperactivity from their peers. However, teacher evaluations delineated these children more sharply than other assessors.
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The Dyadic Parent–Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS) is a comprehensive observational system for conduct problem families. Ss were 22 families referred for treatment of a conduct problem child (2–7 yrs of age) and 22 normal families observed in the laboratory in child-directed and parent-directed interactions. The conduct problem children displayed higher rates of noncompliance than normal children, and their parents were more critical and directive than normal parents. Both the referred child and its sibling exhibited behavior problems in conduct problem families, but the referred child was deviant in a greater variety of situations than the sibling. The DPICS was a reliable, clinically practical, research instrument that correctly classified 94% of families and predicted 61% of the variance in parent report of home behavior problems. The effectiveness of this brief procedure may be attributable to the structure of the clinic observation situations, which varied in degree of parental control. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigated predictors of attachment security in a play context using a sample of 71 mothers and their 6-month-old infants. We sought to rethink the concept of maternal sensitivity by focusing on mothers' ability accurately to read the mental states governing infant behaviour. Five categories were devised to assess this ability, four of which were dependent on maternal responses to infant behaviours, such as object-directed activity. The fifth, mothers' Appropriate minded-related comments, assessed individual differences in mothers' proclivity to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states and processes. Higher scores in this fifth category related to a secure attachment relationship at 12 months. Maternal sensitivity and Appropriate mind-related comments were independent predictors of attachment security at 12 months, respectively accounting for 6.5% and 12.7% of its variance. We suggest that these findings are in line with current theorising on internal working models of attachment, and may help to explain security-related differences in mentalising abilities.
Article
The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) has been increasing at an alarming rate, paralleled by the prescription of highly effective psychostimulants whose developmental effects on growing brains remain inadequately characterized. One reason for the increasing incidence of ADHD may be the diminishing availability of opportunities for pre-school children to engage in natural self-generated social play. Pre-clinical work indicates that play can facilitate behavioral inhibition in growing animals, while psychostimulants reduce playfulness. The idea that intensive social play interventions, throughout early childhood, may alleviate ADHD symptoms remains to be evaluated. As an alternative to the use of play-reducing psychostimulants, society could establish play "sanctuaries" for at-risk children in order to facilitate frontal lobe maturation and the healthy development of pro-social minds.
Early intervention: The next steps
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Allen, G. (2011). Early intervention: The next steps. Report No. 404489/0111. Cabinet Office, London: Crown Copyright.
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