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3D Printing device adaptable to Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

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This article presents the development of a 3D printing device for the additive manufacturing adapted to a CNC machining. The application involves the integration of a specific printing head. Additive manufacturing technology is most commonly used for modeling, prototyping, tooling through an exclusive machine or 3D printer. A global review and analysis of technologies show the additive manufacturing presents little independent solutions [6][9]. The problem studied especially the additive manufacturing limits to produce of ecological product with materials from biomass. The motivation for this work was to develop a new 3d printing device with a solution for formatting pulp or powder materials. Some problems require enslavement to the CNC controller and programming building of model. An implementation on a machine is presented along with some application examples used for its development.
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3D Printing device adaptable to Computer Numerical
Control (CNC)
Julien Gardan, F. Danesi, Lionel Roucoules, A. Schneider
To cite this version:
Julien Gardan, F. Danesi, Lionel Roucoules, A. Schneider. 3D Printing device adaptable to
Computer Numerical Control (CNC). 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping and Man-
ufacturing 2014, Jun 2014, Paris, France. pp.10, 2014. <hal-01178701>
HAL Id: hal-01178701
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01178701
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Julien GARDAN, Frédéric DANESI, Lionel ROUCOULES, A SCHNEIDER - 3D Printing device
adaptable to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) - In: 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping
and Manufacturing 2014, France, 2014-06-24 - AEFA - 2014
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Proceedings of AEFA’14, 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing
Paris, France, 24-26 June 2014
Page 1 sur 6
3D Printing device adaptable to
Computer Numerical Control
(CNC)
J.Gardan a*, F. Danesi b, L. Roucoules c, A.
Schneider d
a. Aztech, Research laboratory, www.aztech-
innovation.com, julien.gardan@epf.fr
EPF, Engineering school, Troyes, France
b. DINCCS, Micado, France
c. Arts et Métiers Paris Tech, CNRS, LSIS, 2 cours
des Arts et Métiers, 13 617 Aix-En-Provence,
France
d. URCA, IFTS/CReSTIC, France
Abstract
This article presents the development of a 3D
printing device for the additive manufacturing
adapted to a CNC machining. The application
involves the integration of a specific printing
head. Additive manufacturing technology is
most commonly used for modeling,
prototyping, tooling through an exclusive
machine or 3D printer. A global review and
analysis of technologies show the additive
manufacturing presents little independent
solutions [6][9]. The problem studied
especially the additive manufacturing limits to
produce of ecological product with materials
from biomass. The motivation for this work
was to develop a new 3d printing device with a
solution for formatting pulp or powder
materials. Some problems require enslavement
to the CNC controller and programming
building of model. An implementation on a
machine is presented along with some
application examples used for its development.
Key words: Additive manufacturing, rapid
prototyping, CNC machining, wood pulp,
wood powder, green manufacturing.
1. Introduction
Since the appearance of rapid prototyping
different technologies have arrived in the
market [11]. The layers manufacturing stay the
same and the additive manufacturing or 3D
printing gets developed to propose several
synthetic materials which have an
environmental impact. Usually, the
professional rapid prototyping systems are
improved as a complete unit. These
professional machines are expensive and very
dependent of manufacturer. Demand for
additive manufacturing is increasingly growing
since 90’s [12] and the essential factor is its
flexibility and adaptability to product
development requirements with its reduction
time. Due to the evolution of rapid prototyping
technologies, it has become possible today to
obtain parts representative of mass production
within a very short time [1].
Today, the research of the best compromise
between ecologic materials, economic process
and mechanical behaviors is very important to
respect the functional product specifications
[8]. The use of non-renewable materials and
locking additive manufacturing technologies
are really problematic to develop more
efficient products. These products are related
to design methods which, while remaining
within the philosophy of concurrent
engineering, have their own particularity [10].
The notion of "sustainable" products leads to
the use of materials and manufacturing
processes compatible with respect of the
environment throughout the product
lifecycle. Wood can be of critical importance
to primary and secondary wood using industry,
scientists, ecology, forestry, and wood
technology [5]. The wood lifecycle includes
some compounds which involve the wood
processed as main base such as plywood,
particle board, fiber, etc. The interest of these
products is based on their economic, technical
and commercial assets.
Proceedings of AEFA’14, 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing
Paris, France, 24-26 June 2014
Page 2 sur 6
We suggest integrating primary wood
products, such as the wood flour from specific
species, into additive manufacturing processes
to answer to ecological and economical
constraints, and mainly create reconstituted
wood products. This approach requires the
development of wood pulp material.
First of all, the work presents the first
technological approach to integrate wood
materials into rapid manufacturing machines.
Specimens were characterized to obtain and to
optimize the mechanical behaviors of material
through a Design of Experiments (DOE) [4].
Manufacturing is approached through a first
semi-automated tool. Obviously, this first
application has limitations which were treated
during to a second development.
Secondly, we describe the device development
which is fitted on a CNC machining for the
wood pulp depositing and we explain the
importance of using the manufacturing process
about additive manufacturing. The authors
describe the solutions which allowed solving
the problems by pulp extrusion, to have a rapid
manufacturing tool mobile and independent,
and to treat the manufacturing control. The
approach presented here is cut in four parts
between the device design and the control of
the equipment:
-The device design and its depositing system;
-The integration of wood material;
-The development of software enslavement
and control;
-The tests of a functional prototype set up in a
CNC.
The origin of application provided of a first
Phd work supported from 2008 to 2011 [3]
which led on a new development with several
technologies implemented from 2011 to 2013
(Fig 1).
Fig 1. Overview of technologies implemented:
a. Fused depositing; b. Piston depositing; c.
Screw depositing.
2. Additive manufacturing
The first form of creating a three-dimensional
object layer by layer using computer-aided
design (CAD) was rapid prototyping,
developed in the 1980’s for creating models
and prototype parts. Additive manufacturing
allows fast, cost-efficient production, reduces
material usage and part counts, and shortens
design cycles. This technology was created to
help the realization of what engineers have in
design mind. It allows the creation of printed
parts, not just models. Among the major
advances that this process presented to product
development are the time and cost reduction,
human interaction, and consequently the
product development cycle [1], also the
possibility to create almost any shape that
could be very difficult to machine to validate
functionality and aestheticism. Nowadays,
these technologies have other names like the
3D printing or the rapid manufacturing, and so
forth, but they all have the origins of rapid
prototyping. The complex geometries which
need a manufacturing held are maintained by
support material. This material can to maintain
the external and internal surfaces of a part. In
most cases, the support material is cleaned
during to the finishing or trapped into the
model. The cost of consumables is often
Proceedings of AEFA’14, 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing
Paris, France, 24-26 June 2014
Page 3 sur 6
expensive and the loss of material isn’t
considered. Environment impact is not
negligible for materials made from resin and it
isn’t compatible with the Eco design thematic.
Study is built around several observations. The
rapid prototyping machines are often sold in a
complete unit. The second observation is based
on size prototype feasibility: manufacturing
dimensions are limited. The last is the use of
not green material which has an environmental
impact with interest to use bio-based material
like the wood. We present the achievement of
a prototyping device answering these
constraints with a functional prototype and
associated software.
3. Piston depositing toward 3D printing
head
In this section, we give an overview of two
ways used to assess the scientific and
technologic problems. After describing some
approaches and methods, we tried to integrate
wood in the form of powder (wood flour, wood
powder).
A first experimentation was tested thought a
beech floor with a binders projection in 3D
printing through a ZCorp
1
printer. A post-
treatment was therefore considered by dipping
a form in industrial wax to increase our
required forms (we also tested a natural wax).
Without immersing the piece in the molten
wax bath, we introduced the model in surface.
The wax rises up by capillary action. The part
was intact on the top surface, but its base is
degraded by the soaking support. It can be
manually manipulated after solidification. We
have realized different mechanical tests to
obtain the wood model behaviors through
specimens [4].
The second experimentation used a syringe to
deposit a wood pulp based on wood floor and
starch (fig 2). A Design Of Experiment (DOE)
1
http://www.3dsystems.com/
has been implementing to reduce the number
of tests, and study a large number of factors,
but also to detect possible interactions between
factors [2]. We optimized the composition of
the material through a parameter design
optimization [4, 13]. This syringe has been
adapting on a CNC machine with an additive
scanning manufacture, but it was semi-
automatic at one extrusion.
Fig 2. Second syringe experimentation with a
wood pulp
We have realized different mechanical tests to
obtain the mechanical wood pulp behaviors
[4]. The behaviors were used to create a
product able to respond to use constraints.
These depositing applications briefly present
the first studies before presenting the following
work. The connection is very strong between
these two stages through the wood studies and
possible automation system. In order to work
and go further in the process, we have
developed an independent print head able to be
set on a CNC machine for extruding different
pulps.
3.1. 3D printing head for CNC
machining.
The aim was to automate the previous system
and offer an innovative and interchangeable
solution, like machining tools. We have
developed a printing head (Fig 3) to deposit the
wood pulp with the requirement to support the
geometry of model. Indeed, as all adding
processes, it must support the complex
geometries which require being held. It is for
this reason that the head contains two nozzles.
Proceedings of AEFA’14, 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing
Paris, France, 24-26 June 2014
Page 4 sur 6
Values added are the adaptation of CNC
without monopolizing a specific additive
machine and the opportunity to try different
pulp extruded.
Fig 3. 3D Printing head on CNC.
A prototype has been designed to answer the
problems of automation and we realized this
prototype in extruded polystyrene by
Stratoconception© method
2
. We have
identified a solution which integrates the CNC
machining spindle instead of the bur. This
solution has proven original compared to
existing solutions:
-It allows manufacturing of large prototype
thanks to board of the CNC machining;
-It is useful to assess some other pulps;
-It requires to simply changing the machining
tool (the bur).
We used an electronic card (Arduino®) and a
pneumatic switch connected to a compressor to
control a pneumatic cylinder (fig 3). We chose
a pneumatic solution instead of an electric
solution because it was cheaper, but it implies
a less good reactivity. The pneumatic cylinder
was sized to a pressure drop and a minimum
flow (cylinder Ø 40mm, cylinder stroke 200
mm, force 80 Newton for a pipe of Ø 4mm and
1 meter long). The piston is provided with a
valve and a container for the pulp. The
container is connected to the pipe until to the
2
http://www.stratoconception.com/
printing head and the nozzle. To use the
second nozzle and integrate a support material,
the piston depositing system must be
duplicated.
This additive depositing system is linked to a
manufacturing process which is defined
between the material behaviors and
manufacturing parameters. When we combine
use of wood pulp, the piston depositing and the
NC machining, all product parameters are
linked for the metier rules or constraints. To
control the whole, we must combine all the
parameters while driving the CNC machining
and the pneumatic depositing system through
specific software.
3.2. Specific additive manufacturing
software
The interoperability between all components is
controlled by specialized software. Recall that
the goal is not to physically change the
machine, beyond the existing the CNC
machining spindle. So we had to adapt the
native control system without using invasive
techniques for the CNC machining. We chose
to pilot this machine without modification, that
is to say, into believing it continues to operate
a standard machining. We needed to control
the CNC system and the extrusion system.
Dedicated computer software was developed to
generate a G Code understandable by all CNC
machining, corresponding to the course that
the machine must follow to manufacture a
model by material depositing. While the CNC
was able to move the nozzle along its
theoretical course, we had to synchronize the
pressure applied by the pneumatic cylinder to
actually deliver the wood along said course.
We developed software that was able to import
geometry (STL, CAD Import). Generating a
route for the CNC machine needed to take into
account the new production process. The CNC
is able to follow a path easily to remove
material, but using a depositing head, we had
Proceedings of AEFA’14, 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing
Paris, France, 24-26 June 2014
Page 5 sur 6
to carefully identify a relevant path for
additive-based solution (only one pass per
point, etc). That being said, such a path was
still not suitable enough to be followed
directly. We had to find a non-invasive
solution to synchronize to position of the CNC
over this path and the pneumatic pressure. This
synchronization is held by the rotary tool of the
CNC. A visual 3D simulator has been
developed to help us check the quality of the
path. Full software suite is visible on Fig 4.
All the material behaviors are encapsulated
into software controls which provide at the
device the properties material and method
necessary to make the manufacture by layers.
For example, the device is capable of working
with different materials which can be extruded
under pressure from a wire pulling. The proper
settings and configurations will be different for
each material and processed by the software.
They will also vary according to things such as
temperature, pressure, humidity, nozzle size,
etc. Therefore, you are self-sufficient and you
need to determine the proper settings yourself
depending on your material.
Fig 4. Additive manufacturing software for CNC
machining and piston depositing system.
3.3. Review of produced models
We formed some geometry after realizing the
mechanical characterization. Firstly, the
integration of wood powder in 3D printing
leads to brittle parts, but are hardened by
soaking in a wax. Secondly, we have
developed a wood pulp based on starch to
extrude it through a depositing system (fig 5).
These two approaches have an advantage and a
weakness, the material is durable but the
involvement of water induces a high shrinkage.
Due to hydrophobic materials used.
After making several models, we observed
some irregularities in their geometries. During
the scan of pulp depositing, the changing of
directions of tool generates protrusions mainly
due to poor control of the run extrusion.
Nevertheless, the shape of the model
corresponds to the initial geometry and the
manufacturing process has functioned
according to the approach. Subsequently,
internal tensions gradually deform the
geometry during the drying.
Fig 5. Review of models produced: wood
powder and wood pulp.
To measure these geometrical deformations,
we used a three-dimensional measuring
machine. The diameter of the circular hole has
a decreased high deviation in the range from -
0.034 mm to-0.414 mm for the wood powder
and wax specimen. The strain representation
and measures show that the hole is not circular
and is deformed toward the ends of the
workpiece.
Proceedings of AEFA’14, 19th European Forum on Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing
Paris, France, 24-26 June 2014
Page 6 sur 6
According to DFM approach, the data allow us
to consider the knowledge changes in early
CAD for a "functional geometry." Modeling
software can interpret such data by setting
model or creating design rules.
4. Conclusion and perspectives
The main purpose of this paper was to
development of a 3D printing device for the
additive manufacturing adapted to a CNC for
depositing of a wood pulp to produce
reconstituted wood product. Based on a first
application and model examples, we have
shown that many parameters, from different
components, are important. We have realized
mechanical tests to assess the mechanical
behaviors of wood pulp through a Design Of
Experiment. The research results then lead to
new applications of additive manufacturing
trough a piston depositing which required an
extrusion system. This piston depositing has
got a printing head which is interchangeable on
the NC machining instead of the machining
tools. The interoperability has been resolved
through specialized software. The cost is more
interesting with an interchangeable device than
with a single machine. The development of
rapid manufacturing machines with specific
business-oriented applications is primordial for
some sector. One demand for patent was filed
to secure the intellectual property.
5. Acknowledgements
This work has been partly funded by: Aztech,
NUM3D Platform, OSEO (Bpi France) and
Conseil General des Ardennes.
6. Bibliography
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[2] Condra, L. 2001. Reliability Improvement with
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Characterization of beech wood pulp towards
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[5] Handbook, W. 1999. Wood as an Engineering
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[9] Sells, E., Smith, Z., Bailard, S., Bowyer, A. and
Olliver, V. 2010. RepRap: The Replicating Rapid
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[10] Skander, A., Roucoules, L. and Klein Meyer, J.
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[11] Wang, H. and Zhang, H.G. 2012. State of the Art
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[12] WOHLER, T. 2012. Wohlers Report 2012.
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