Effect of processing on the flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of Citrus hystrix leaf. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1:1-13

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.21). 08/2009; 60 Suppl 2(s2):162-74. DOI: 10.1080/09637480903018816
Source: PubMed


The objective of the present study was to compare fresh (F) use and the effects of boiling (B) and deep-fat frying (DF) on the leaf of Citrus hystrix on total phenolic content, the types and amounts of flavonoids and their total antioxidant capacities (TAC), as measured by three different assays: oxygen radical absorption capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and scavenging effect on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Boiling decreased TAC values on the three assays. The amount of total flavonoids calculated as aglycone equivalents of eight identified flavonoids (cyanidin, myricetin, peonidin, quercetin, luteolin, hesperetin, apigenin and isorhamnetin) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography was 1,129 (DF), 1,104 (F) and 549 (B) mg/100 g freeze-dried weight (dry matter exclude fat). Hesperetin was the predominant flavonoid. The total phenolic content expressed as grams of gallic acid equivalents/100 grams fresh weight (excluding fat) was 2.0, 1.9 and 1.8 in F, DF and B samples, respectively. These results suggest that method of processing can significantly affect the content of flavonoids and their TAC values.

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    • "Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC, Rutaceae) is a Southeast Asian citrus plant with very strong fragrance [1]. Kaffir lime leaves and fruits are frequently used as a condiment in various Thai and Malaysian recipes to add a tangy flavor to soups and curries [2]. They are also useful for treatment of colds, congestion, and cough. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fresh Thai kaffir lime leaves were subjected to extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide yielding yellow clear oils which were then analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique (GC-MS). The conditions of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE); pressure, temperature, extraction time, and type and percentage of modifier which gave the highest yield of the oil were 3,000 psi, 55oC, 15 min, and 10% isopropanol, respectively. Results from GC-MS analysis revealed 21 identified terpenoids which were classified in the groups of monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, each having the number of 3, 5, 9, and 4, respectively. Citronellic acid (4.5%), nerolidol (2.14%), δ-cadinene (1.49%), citronellal (1.41%) and citronellol (1.39%) were found as the major constituents in this SFE extract of fresh kaffir lime leaves.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Chiang Mai Journal of Science
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to examine fresh and processed (boiled or fried) leaves of Citrus hystrix in terms of total phenolic content, malondialdehyde content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, the baseline levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in HepG2 cells. The results indicated that fresh C. hystrix leaves possess the higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (22 mg/ml). Pretreatment of C. hystrix leaf extracts decreases GST, SOD, or catalase activity induced by H 2 O 2 , rendering them unsuitable for cancer chemoprevention, superoxide scavenging, or hydrogen peroxide detoxification. A linear relation between the total phenolic content and DPPH or hydroxyl radical activities of the extract was not observed. This study showed that C. hystrix leaf may exert its antioxidative stress by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation that causes oxidative damage to HepG2 cells.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · ScienceAsia
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    ABSTRACT: The extraction of phenolics from Citrus hystrix leaf was carried out using supercritical fluid extraction and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of CO2 flow rate, extraction pressure and extraction temperature on yield, total phenolic content and diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl-IC50 were evaluated and compared with ethanol extraction. The extraction pressure was the most significant factor affecting the yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 of the extracts, followed by CO2 flow rate and the extraction temperature. The optimum conditions of pressure, CO2 flow rate and temperature were at 267 bars, 18 g/min and 50oC, respectively. The yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 obtained were 5.06%, 116.53 mg GAE/g extract and IC50 of 0.063 mg/ml, respectively. These values were not significantly different (p<0.05) to their predicted values. Better inhibition and TPC were obtained using SFE method whereas higher yield and phenolic acids were obtained in the ethanol extracts.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011
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