Comparison of analgesic efficacy between bilateral superficial and combined (superficial and deep) cervical plexus block administered before thyroid surgery
Department of General Surgery, Saint Vincent Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea. European Journal of Anaesthesiology
(Impact Factor: 2.94).
07/2009; 26(12):1043-7. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e32832d6913
To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block and combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block for incision pain, headache and posterior neck pain after thyroidectomy.
Ninety patients were divided into a control group (group C, n = 30), a bilateral superficial cervical plexus group (group S, n = 30) and a bilateral combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block group (group CO, n = 30). Before general anaesthesia, we performed bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (18 ml) and combined superficial (14 ml) and deep (4 ml) cervical plexus block with 0.25% bupivacaine. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol-remifentanil-N2O-O2.
The average concentration of remifentanil was significantly reduced in group S compared with group C and group CO (1.1 +/- 0.3, 1.8 +/- 0.4, 1.8 +/- 0.7 ng ml, respectively; P < 0.05). The incision pain at rest and on swallowing were significantly reduced at 0, 2 and 4 h in group S compared with group C (P < 0.05). Headache showed a tendency to be reduced in group S and group CO, but the posterior neck pain was not different among the three groups. After surgery, the opioid and nonopioid requirement was significantly reduced in group S (P < 0.05). There were fewer side effects and greater patients' satisfaction in group S.
Superficial cervical plexus block is a more effective technique than combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block to reduce the pain during and immediately after thyroidectomy.
Available from: Ming-Lang Shih
- "Eti et al. used a two-point injection with 0.25% bupivacaine 15 ml . In addition to BSCPB, Suh, Inabnet, and Pintaric [16–18] used combined (superficial and deep) cervical plexus block. Levobupivacaine is the S(−)-enantiomer of the racemic local anesthetic bupivacaine. "
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the analgesic efficacy of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block in patients undergoing thyroidectomy and to determine whether it reduces the adverse effects of general anesthesia.
We prospectively recruited 162 patients who underwent elective thyroid operations from March 2006 to October 2007. They were randomly assigned to receive a bilateral superficial cervical block (12 ml per side) with isotonic saline (group A; n = 56), bupivacaine 0.5% (group B; n = 52), or levobupivacaine 0.5% (group C; n = 54) after induction of general anesthesia. The analgesic efficacy of the block was assessed with: intraoperative anesthetics (desflurane), numbers of patients needing postoperative analgesics, the time to the first analgesics required, and pain intensity by visual analog scale (VAS). Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for 24 h were also assessed by the "PONV grade." We also compared hospital stay, operative time, and discomfort in swallowing.
There were no significant differences in patient characteristics. Each average end-tidal desflurane concentration was 5.8, 3.9, and 3.8% in groups A, B, and C, respectively (p < 0.001). Fewer patients in groups B and C required analgesics (A: B: C = 33:8:7; p < 0.001), and it took longer before the first analgesic dose was needed postoperatively (group A: B: C = 82.1:360.8:410.1 min; p < 0.001). Postoperative pain VAS were lower in groups B and C for the first 24 h postoperatively (p < 0.001). Incidences of overall and severe PONV were lower, however, there were not sufficient numbers of patients to detect differences in PONV among the three groups. Hospital stay was shorter in group B and group C (p = 0.011). There was no significant difference in operative time and postoperative swallowing pain among the three groups.
Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block reduces general anesthetics required during thyroidectomy. It also significantly lowers the severity of postoperative pain during the first 24 h and shortens the hospital stay.
Available from: Allan M Cyna
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ABSTRACT: Placebos play a vital role in clinical research, but their invasive use in the context of local anaesthetic blocks is controversial. We assessed whether recently published randomised controlled trials of local anaesthetic blocks risked harming control group patients in contravention of the Declaration of Helsinki. We developed the 'SHAM' (Serious Harm and Morbidity) scale to assess risk: grade 0 = no risk (no intervention); grade 1 = minimal risk (for example, skin allergy to dressing); grade 2 = minor risk (for example, subcutaneous haematoma, infection); grade 3 = moderate risk (with or without placebo injection) (for example, neuropraxia); and grade 4 = major risk (such as blindness, pneumothorax, or liver laceration). Placebo interventions of the 59 included trials were given a SHAM grade. Nine hundred and nineteen patients in 31 studies, including six studies with 183 children, received an invasive placebo assessed as SHAM grade ≥ 3. A high level of agreement (78%, κ = 0.80, p < 0.001) for SHAM grades 0-4 increased to 100% following discussion between assessors. More than half of the randomised controlled study designs subjected patients in control groups to risks of serious or irreversible harm. A debate on whether it is justifiable to expose control group patients to risks of serious harm is overdue.
Available from: Martin W Besser
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ABSTRACT: Platelet dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to microvascular bleeding and is associated with blood transfusion and resternotomy. Platelet count can be readily performed, but currently there are no standardised, reproducible, rapidly available platelet function tests. We studied platelet function as measured by multiple electrode platelet aggregometery (multiplate) and light transmission aggregometry in 44 patients undergoing routine coronary artery surgery. Platelet aggregation as measured by multiplate was reduced during and after cardiopulmonary bypass compared with baseline with evidence of partial recovery by the time of transfer to ITU. In patients transfused blood, platelet aggregation measured by multiplate was reduced during chest closure with adenosine diphosphate (18 U vs 29 U, p = 0.01) and thrombin receptor agonist peptide-6 agonist (65 U vs 88 U, p = 0.01) compared with patients not transfused. This suggests that multiplate, a new point of care analyser, can detect platelet dysfunction in this setting.
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