Article

The Significance of Religious Ritual in Ancient Hawai‘i

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

A volume in honour of Patrick Kirch’s intellectual contribution to the archaeology of Hawai‘i would be incomplete without a discussion of his wide-ranging scholarship on the topic of traditional Hawaiian religion. In this paper, I focus on themes that we can see throughout his career. The first is the incorporation of the study of heiau (temples), shrines, and other sacred sites described in ethnohistory within the historical context of the development of Hawaiian society. The second is his contribution to the interpretation of architecture and ritual practices through close attention to details such as orientation, elaboration, and offerings. The final theme is best captured in the Hawaiian concept of mālama, meaning to take care of, preserve, or protect these sites. Finally, I summarise some of the future directions in research that are now possible thanks to Kirch’s contributions to the field.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The Hawaiian archipelago presents a unique opportunity for archaeologists to study religious authority, social cohesion and chiefly-regulated economies in one of the most isolated and diverse environments of the Pacific Islands (Kolb 1992(Kolb , 1994bKirch 2010;Hommon 2013;McCoy 2014). Between first settlement and European contact people living in the islands developed complex managerial systems set within highly constrained political economies (Earle 2000). ...
... Between first settlement and European contact people living in the islands developed complex managerial systems set within highly constrained political economies (Earle 2000). These developments were expressed not only in intensified agricultural practices and the associated division of increasingly territorial land units (Ladefoged & Graves 2006), but also in the construction of an array of religious structures, including a range of temples (heiau) (McCoy 2014). ...
... Heiau are places of religious significance that were often materialized with the construction of rock foundations, although not all heiau have culturally constructed expressions (Valeri 1985f;Cachola-Abad 1996;McCoy 2014). By the 15th century Ad, heiau were constructed to physically and visually manifest the power of elites (Kolb 1994b(Kolb , 1994aEarle 2000;Kolb 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Late pre-European contact Hawaiian society was agriculturally based with visible religious structures acting to legitimise and reinforce elite control and management of subsistence and surplus production. The dynamic materialization of elite management of agricultural production has been documented in the leeward Kohala field system (LKFS) by analysing the spatial distribution of agricultural alignments, trails, and the division and realignment of traditional community-based land units (ahupua‘a). Additional studies have documented the spatial expressions and significance of religious structures (heiau) in relation to these land-units. In this analysis we build on these previous studies by investigating the inter-visibility of heiau. We document shifts in the construction of heiau whereby decreases in the number of structures through time led to a concomitant increase in size and total viewshed breadth. Newly constructed heiau were built to command large viewsheds while taking into account the location and views of pre-existing religious features. These changing patterns reflect ideological shifts and the materialization of production management instrumental in chiefly and religious control.
... Polynesians have a long cultural tradition of land clearance and landscape transformation to establish agriculture (Kirch, 2006(Kirch, , 2017aKirch et al., 2011;Kirch et al., 2012Kirch et al., , 2017b. Stone and wood carving industries are well-developed in Eastern Polynesia and quarrying of stone resources probably commenced at Rapa Nui settlement (Skjølsvold, 1961;McCoy, 1976McCoy, , 2014Ayres et al., 1998). The Easter Island Statue Project (EISP) directed by Jo Anne Van Tilburg with Cristián Arévalo Pakarati conducted an island-wide inventory accounting to date for 1693 stone sculptural objects (monolithic, portable, and fragments) in the context of over 27,000 georeferenced sites, features, or objects recorded by multiple survey teams (McCoy, 1976;Cristino et al., 1981;Gonzalez et al., 1988;Van Tilburg, 1990;Bahamondez, 1994;Haoa Cardinali, 1998, Stevenson andHaoa Cardinali, 2008;Wozniak, 1998;Stevenson et al., 1999Stevenson et al., , 2018Vargas et al., 2006;Van Tilburg et al., 2016). ...
Article
This study centers on excavations in the inner region of Rano Raraku, the megalithic statue (moai) quarry of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). In Rano Raraku a transformed landscape is reconstructed based upon soil chemistry, micromorphology, and macro and micro-botanical data framed within a stratigraphic and radiocarbon informed Bayesian model that is the first for Rapa Nui. We focus on moai RR-0001-156, one of only three moai in the island-wide corpus known to be embellished with a dense suite of cohesive petroglyph motifs. Our results confirm a cultivated landscape present on the inner south and east slopes of Rano Raraku that included sweet potato and probably bottle gourd along with Polynesian transfers banana, taro, and paper mulberry from the 14th century AD continuing into the early 19th century AD. During this time of sociopolitical transformation and land use change across the island labor-intensive rock gardens were developed to increase productivity as soil fertility declined in the context of deforestation and perhaps drought while the pan-island center of ‘Oroŋo (Orongo) emerged at Rano Kau with an intensive ritual focus on fertility. Rano Raraku in sharp contrast had (and still has) extremely fertile soils that are the weathering byproduct of lapilli tuff sediments generated from the quarrying process and localized human activity. This study validates Rano Raraku as the major moai production center, establishes chronological parameters for the unique embellished statue and describes agricultural fertility to hypothesize a rich, multi-use landscape for Rano Raraku inner region that is unparalleled elsewhere on Rapa Nui.
... To some extent, this is seen in the localized nature of infrastructural improvements that do not span across individual political units. Over time, especially after AD 1650, there is an increase in the construction of heiau (elite temple complexes), taken by some as evidence of increased oversight , McCoy 2014, see also Phillips et al. 2015). This is met with more expansive construction of infrastructure that could be accomplished more efficiently through regional coordination (Allen 2004, Lincoln and. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hawaiian dryland agriculture is believed to have played an important role in the rise of archaic states and consolidation of political power. At the same time, the sensitivity of agricultural production in dryland field systems to temporal variability in climate would have had implications for economic and political relationships, both competitive and cooperative. In this study, we explore whether and how annual cycles of climate might have constrained seasonal cultivation and crop production in three rain-fed field systems on the Island of Hawaiʻi. We utilized a recently developed monthly gridded climate dataset for the Hawaiian Islands to compare the Kohala, Kona, and Kaʻū field systems in terms of mean annual climate and seasonality. We found that despite superficial similarities in elevation and annual rainfall, the field systems differ in climatic variables associated with evaporative water loss and in the timing of the rainy season. Aridity, a ratio of evaporative demand to rainfall, is strongly seasonal for Kohala and Kaʻū relative to Kona. When we imposed temperature and moisture criteria to visualize seasonal cultivation envelopes defined for sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), we found strong spatial patterns associated with the onset and length of the growing season, and these suggest seasonal complementarity in crop production within and between field systems. This complementarity indicates coordination both within and between field systems through consolidation, coercion, or increased cooperation could have alleviated periodic food stress and contributed to more stable political hierarchies, which may explain similarities in their respective chronologies of development. We suggest that our approach for characterizing seasonal constraints to dryland cultivation provides a useful tool for advancing continued restoration and research in these and other rain-fed dryland systems across Hawaiʻi and the tropics.
... He was also a pioneer of the use of photography in Hawaiian archaeology. Certainly Stokes deserves his place as an important figure in Hawaiian archaeology (Dye 1991: 20; Kirch 1985Baer 2015; Kirch 2010; Kolb 2006; McCoy et al. 2011; McCoy 2014; Mulrooney & Ladefoged 2005). Here again the data produced in Stokes's original surveys have been and continue to be extraordinarily useful. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the early 1900s, Australian-born archaeologist John F.G. Stokes was the first to extensively use modern surveying techniques and photography to document Hawaiian archaeological sites. Stokes carried out fieldwork for a Bishop Museum-based research program driven by interests in Polynesian origins and Hawaiian religious change, focusing specifically on the monumental temple sites called heiau in Hawaiian. Using a sample of the visual record of plan maps and photographs from Stokes's work, we examine how Stokes represented sacred sites, including the variable level of architectural detail offered. Stokes's reliance on Native Hawaiian informants is notable, as it may have played an important role in shaping his view of the archaeological landscape. Stokes's survey record provides an important dataset for understanding the paradigms at work in Polynesian archaeology in the early 20th century, and the influences of this work in subsequent approaches to monumentality in the archipelago and beyond.
... Explanations for these phenomena have generally focused on the legitimisation of power through religious means (e.g. Kirch 1990;McCoy 2014) as well as signs of sociopolitical competition and consolidation (e.g. Kolb 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The diverse islands of Oceania are ideal locations for the study of human ecology. Here, we argue that human behavioural ecology (HBE) provides a useful theoretical framework to approach a range of topics in Pacific prehistory, including, but not limited to, subsistence, territoriality, and monumentality. We further stress that the strength of this approach lies in the use of models as heuristic devices, and that HBE is not mutually exclusive from other explanatory frameworks, but complements larger research agendas in Pacific archaeology.
... Temples, or heiau, in the Hawaiian Islands were built in a wide range of architectural forms and for a variety of purposes (McCoy 2014). Those placed on a significant political boundary played an especially important role in the annual makahiki procession and were the locus of tax-collection rituals. ...
Article
Public architecture has proven its utility as a metric for the materialization of religious authority; however, archaeologists have been less successful at identifying how ideology is materialized outside formal ritual settings. Here we address the question of how religious laws that dictated separation of people and activities – known as the kapu system – influenced the way homes were built in pre-European contact era Hawai‘i. On the landscape scale, we consider three variables that could be correlated with the influence of religious authority: distance to a local temple marking a district boundary, the degree of daily interaction within the community and investment in household architecture. Our findings suggest religious authority was materialized with a high degree of ubiquity across all house sites without regard to any of these factors, a pattern consistent with pervasive religious authority across daily life.
Book
Over a span of 1000 years beginning around 800CE, the people of the Pacific Islands undertook a remarkable period of voyaging, political evolution, and cross-cultural interactions. Polynesian navigators encountered previously uninhabited lands, as well as already inhabited islands and the coast of the Americas. Island societies saw epic sagas of political competition and intrigue, documented through oral traditions and the monuments and artefacts recovered through archaeology. European entry into the region added a new episode of interaction with strange people from over the horizon. These histories provide an important cross-cultural perspective for the concept of 'the Middle Ages' from outside of the usual Old World focus.
Article
Over an approximately 1,000-year settlement history, the distribution of Native Hawaiian cultural sites across the landscape has been driven, in large part, by environmental factors. Through an exploration of the precontact ritual, residential, and agricultural sites of Kaupō, Maui, the ways soil nutrients and arable land resulted in discrete zones of production and power can be seen. With the arrival of American and British missionaries in the mid-1800s, however, these environmental influences carried forward in the differential selection of Hawaiian temple sites to be destroyed and rebuilt as Christian churches. As a result, Kaupō’s two churches (which remain functional today) can be best understood as a result of long-term ecological processes often overlooked in historical archaeology today.
Article
We analyzed limpets (‘opihi, Cellana spp.) deposited at a shrine and two habitation structures from a late prehistoric (post A.D. 1500) contemporaneous residential complex on Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands. Using criteria for defining luxury cuisine and high-status foods such as species, size, availability, and difficulty of capture, shrine limpets are inferred to have been of greater value than those found in nearby domestic contexts. Despite a rich ethnohistoric record, including detailed oral traditions on religion and ritual, there is little information on small family shrines during Hawaiian prehistory. Limpets are the most common mollusc remains at prehistoric coastal sites throughout the Hawaiian Islands, and some shrine offerings were identified by clusters of stacked limpet shells—evidence of discrete events. We demonstrate that shrine limpets of all three endemic species were significantly larger and of different proportions than nearby domestic deposits, thus providing new insights into ritual practices in late prehistoric Hawai‘i.
Article
Mana, māna, and mānā are words that potentially refer to the forces, relationships, metaphors, and embodied kaona held within the ontological and epistemological nets of Kanaka ʻŌiwi. Specifically, I examine these terms through Hawaiian language (ʻōSpec Hawaiʻi) archival resources overlooked since the 1800s and Native Hawaiian (Kanaka Maoli) scholarship. Since so much of what is ‘known’ about ‘Native Hawaiians’ has been framed by Euro-North American ontology, epistemology, and the English language, I speak to the limits of this approach. This preliminary work suggests that mana is held within nets of relationships and places and are connected to each other by a pattern not immediately obvious from simple definitions. This suggests a need to pay closer attention to ʻōonne Hawaiʻi sources and Kanaka Maoli scholarship, as well as modifying research protocols.
Article
Large celebrations in ancient societies, when viewed through the lens of political economy theory, were opportunities for economic redistribution, elite rivalry and social integration. Metrics to evaluate celebratory behaviour – such as festive gatherings, offerings at temples and shrines, games and memorials – remain underdeveloped. Here the author examines the archaeological and historical evidence for the Makahiki festival in the Hawaiian Islands. He takes a direct historical approach combining independent datasets to classify settings of celebrations and evaluate claims that the Makahiki festival originated, and was most elaborate, on Hawai’i Island, as well as that the festival was practised differently across the archipelago. The author finds that the relevant data collected over more than a century of archaeology are not sufficient to support these claims and that the distribution of tracks for the sledding sport (hōlua) might be a fruitful avenue for future research, especially when investigating elite rivalry. More speculatively, the author argues that it is possible to decipher choices in architectural design and location at royal centres that speak to attempts by the elite to artificially increase the density of crowds at low turn-out events while at the same time leaving enough room to accommodate high turn-out events.
Article
Full-text available
Patrick Kirch’s publication of Feathered Gods and Fishhooks in Feathered Gods and Fishhooks emphasized the value of sourcing stone tools to delineate precontact interaction spheres and the evolution of social complexity in Hawai‘i. Throughout the 1990s, however, published sourcing studies included just over 200 specimens, limiting our ability to generate well-substantiated conclusions related to stone tool production over nearly a millennium of Hawaiian prehistory. Recent geochemically based analyses of archaeological basalt and volcanic glass in Hawai‘i include over 21,000 samples of basalt and volcanic glass. We present a review of this expansive data set. Findings point to regionally divergent patterns in production and distribution, and other basalt sources that could rival the well-known Mauna Kea Adze Quarry in their extent of interisland distribution
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Pat Kirch's work throughout Oceania has been driven by the idea that islands lend themselves especially well to comparative analysis. Recently, Kirch has argued that the most elaborate forms of Oceanic socio-political hierarchy, ideological control, and agricultural intensification evolved in the Hawaiian archipelago, resulting in the emergence of archaic states. In Vanuatu, in contrast, elite power was much less institutionalized, and nothing state-like had emerged in the archipelago at the time of European contact. Starting from two very different forms of social organization, the colonial and post-colonial histories of Vanuatu and Hawai'i are markedly different as well. Archaeology has a useful role to play for understanding why this might be, especially since it can provide a perspective that reaches beyond the limited documentary sources available for people living on the peripheries of state power in the modern world. Materials from agents of the state living in non-state space, and inmates in a state institution are compared to explore the interpretive potential of a common thread of behavior, termed 'counterpower. '
Article
Full-text available
The Mauna Kea Adze Quarry Complex is the largest-known prehistoric quarry in the Pacific Basin. The main extraction areas are located at an extreme altitude (3,800 m), near the summit of Hawaii's tallest mountain. The Mauna Kea summit region and the quarry are considered by many Hawaiians to be a sacred landscape and archaeologists must consider the ethical tensions involved in conducting Western science in these areas. Although provenance studies of basalt adzes are integral to the examination of pre-contact Hawaiian economics, former studies of Hawaiian adze distribution have been limited in scope, and conventionally relied on destructive petrography and petrology for the analyses. Published geochemical data on the quarry are derived from only eight samples analyzed with destructive methods. In order to better define the variation within the quarry, and to develop a more culturally sensitive approach, we employed nondestructive energydispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) of whole-rock samples to characterize 820 flakes and 47 geological samples from the quarry complex. This study offers the first reliable estimation of the overall range of geochemical variability in the complex. These results suggest that nondestructive EDXRF can be used to differentiate Mauna Kea basalts from other known Hawaiian quarries, but more characterization of other quarries is necessary to confirm exclusive separation of sources. The results further demonstrate that EDXRF is capable of detecting intra-site geochemical variation in Mauna Kea quarry material.
Article
Full-text available
Hawaiian temple sites of the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries have diverse orientations previously thought to be random. Using precise measurements and nineteenth-century native Hawaiian sources, the author shows that the temples cluster into groups whose orientation was deliberate and likely to relate to a particular god.
Article
Full-text available
We report on the excavation of an upland habitation site in Kahikinui, Maui, interpreted as the residence of a priest (kahuna) in the traditional Hawaiian religious system. The site, consisting of a large stone terrace and walled house foundation, lies within a ceremonial precinct incorporating several temple (heiau) structures. Six radiocarbon dates bracket the period of occupation between AD 1650 and 1820, although the duration of use was probably shorter. Lithic analysis indicates that the house occupants worked both local and imported basalt; retouching of fine-grained basalt adzes within the house suggests wood-working activities. Some of the fine-grained basalt has an off-island origin traced to O'ahu Island. A cache of black and white pebbles may be either gaming pieces or stones used by a priest in divina-tion and disease diagnosis. The faunal assemblage reveals access to a wide variety of status foods, including the prized black-foot limpet, a variety of fishes, wild birds, and domestic pigs, dogs, and chickens. Some of the birds may have been taken for their black or yellow feathers, these colours being associated with Hawaiian deities. In total, the cultural assemblage from site KIP-117 provides a window into the daily life of a Hawaiian priestly household.
Article
Full-text available
A unique stone monument consisting of a notched, linear wall and associated features, situated at Hanamauloa in Kahikinui District, Maui Island, is interpreted as a probable pre-contact navigational structure. Ethnographic testimony refers to the structure as a pānānā or 'sighting wall'. Archaeological investigation revealed that the wall and associated cairn and upright are positioned so that the notch precisely frames the stars of the Southern Cross when the constellation is exactly positioned above the upright slab visible through the notch. In Hawaiian traditions, the Southern Cross is known as a guiding star to Kahiki, the ancestral homeland. Precise Uranium-series dating of branch coral associated with the cairn suggests an age of AD 1444 ± 4 for construction and/or use of the site. The broader geographical context of the monument is also discussed, including a suite of place names referring to ancestral Poynesian lands. Finally, it is suggested that the pānānā may relate to an important figure in Hawaiian oral traditions, the voyaging chief La'amaikahiki.
Article
Full-text available
Polynesia, with its rich ethnohistoric as well as archaeological materials pertaining to settlement landscapes, provides excellent opportunities for studying the role of monumental architecture in complex chiefdom societies. In this paper, the complex, highly stratified societies of Tonga and Hawaii are compared with respect to the forms, size ranges, spatial distribution, and function of monuments. While the specific forms and cultural associations of Tongan and Hawaiian monuments are seen to differ, there are also many similarities in monument hierarchy, size ranges, territorial distribution, and functions in these two Polynesian chiefdoms.
Article
Full-text available
Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lāna'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states.
Article
Full-text available
In proto-historic Hawaii (1500-1795 A.D.), as in many other evolving polities, temples functioned as centers for control over production and the extraction of surplus food and goods. Thorium-230 dates (uncertainty +/- approximately 10 years) on branch coral dedicatory offerings from temples in the Kahikinui district (Maui) indicate that its temple system was constructed within 60 years, far more rapidly than indicated by radiocarbon dating. Introduction of the temple system in 1580-1640 A.D. coincided with predatory expansion and consolidation of the Maui polity to form an incipient archaic state.
Book
In the early 1800s thousands of American and European traders arrived in Hawai'i to lay in supplies for the long trip east or to take on Hawaiian sandalwood, which commanded a high price in China. In response to this developing global economy in the Pacific, Russia expanded its trading outposts as far as western Kaua'i and together with Kaua'i chiefs began planning the construction of Fort Elisabeth in Waimea in 1816. A year later, the structure was abandoned by the Russians, but, as Peter Mills argues convincingly, a long and significant history of the fort remains to be told, even after its Russian one had ended. Seeking to redress the imbalance that exists between the colonized and the colonizers in Pacific historiography, Mills examines the fort and its place in the history of Kaua'i under paramount chief Kaumuali'i and in relation to the expanding kingdom of Kamehameha and his successors. His work exposes how Hawaiians have been ignored in their own history and challenges commonly held assumptions such as Kamehameha's unification of the Islands in 1810 and the victimization of Kaumuali'i by representatives of the Russian-American Company. Using hundreds of firsthand accounts in combination with field archaeology, Mills shows that the fort was originally built and used by Hawaiians as a heiau (ritual temple). After the Russians' departure, Hawaiians continued to use the fort but in ways that reflected an ongoing transformation of cultural values provoked by contact with outsiders and the development of multiethnic communities in Waimea and other port settlements throughout the Hawaiian chain. Hawaii's Russian Adventure is an original look at a significant chapter in the history of Hawaii. It overturns many popular myths and perceptions about the fort at Waimea and about European and Hawaiian interaction in the first half of the nineteenth century while delving into some of the central issues in historical anthropology, colonialism, and the development of global networks.
Book
Tracing the origins of the Hawaiians and other Polynesians back to the shores of the South China Sea, archaeologist Patrick Vinton Kirch follows their voyages of discovery across the Pacific in this fascinating history of Hawaiian culture from about one thousand years ago. Combining more than four decades of his own research with Native Hawaiian oral traditions and the evidence of archaeology, Kirch puts a human face on the gradual rise to power of the Hawaiian god-kings, who by the late eighteenth century were locked in a series of wars for ultimate control of the entire archipelago. This lively, accessible chronicle works back from Captain James Cook's encounter with the pristine kingdom in 1778, when the British explorers encountered an island civilization governed by rulers who could not be gazed upon by common people. Interweaving anecdotes from his own widespread travel and extensive archaeological investigations into the broader historical narrative, Kirch shows how the early Polynesian settlers of Hawai'i adapted to this new island landscape and created highly productive agricultural systems.
Article
In How Chiefs Became Kings, Patrick Vinton Kirch addresses a central problem in anthropological archaeology: the emergence of "archaic states" whose distinctive feature was divine kingship. Kirch takes as his focus the Hawaiian archipelago, commonly regarded as the archetype of a complex chiefdom. Integrating anthropology, linguistics, archaeology, traditional history, and theory, and drawing on significant contributions from his own four decades of research, Kirch argues that Hawaiian polities had become states before the time of Captain Cook's voyage (1778-1779). The status of most archaic states is inferred from the archaeological record. But Kirch shows that because Hawai'i's kingdoms were established relatively recently, they could be observed and recorded by Cook and other European voyagers. Substantive and provocative, this book makes a major contribution to the literature of precontact Hawaii and illuminates Hawaii's importance in the global theory and literature about divine kingship, archaic states, and sociopolitical evolution.
Article
An anthropology of architecture has much to gain by exploring, in a range of cultural contexts, the tectonic dimension of power identified, but left largely undeveloped, by Foucault. When walls actively plunge into fields of social relations they include and exclude, divide and join, muffle, silence, conceal, contain, confine and visually impress, sometimes in radically new ways. These ideas are pursued in relation to a dramatic series of events here termed ‘the Hawaiian iconoclasm’. A tectonic shift from temples and men's eating-houses to royal residences and family eating-houses is shown to have been integral to a transformation of chiefly power in 19th century Hawaii.
Article
This article seeks to understand mass conversion to Christianity in early 19th century Tahiti as the re-materialisation of a heroic social field. Beginning with a re-consideration of Sahlins' notion of 'heroic history', I argue that heroic Tahitian history was a distinctive combination of chiefly and collective action. The cultural structure of this history was reflected in three architectural moments: the building of a chapel for the high chief, Pomare, at Mo'orea, the generalised replication of this act through the construction, within a very short period, of some 70 chapels at Tahiti, and the building of a monumental chapel for Pomare at Tahiti. This article is a ' prequel' to an earlier publication on mass conversion to Christianity and church construction in Rarotonga.
Article
Through intensive archaeological investigation of temples in Hawai'i, the authors reveal a sequence of religious strategies for creating and maintaining authority that has application to prehistoric sequences everywhere. Expressed in the orientation and layout of the temples and their place in the landscape, these strategies develop in four stages over the course of a few hundred years, from the fifteenth to nineteenth century AD, from local shrines associated with agriculture to the development of a centralising priesthood serving the larger political economy.
Article
This article theorizes potential contributions of outsider analysis to the study of contemporary indigenous traditions, taking Native Hawaiian canoe voyaging and repatriation disputes as its primary examples. The argument proceeds by specifying analytical contributions of articulation theory in contrast to limitations of invention and authenticity discourses. A shared liability of the latter discourses is identified in their tendency to reify identity in ways that preclude engagement with the full range of cultural articulations constitutive of living tradition. Cultural struggle, in particular, is theorized as the aspect of identity articulation that is most explanatory of the character of tradition and least addressed by theories of invention and authenticity.
Article
Valeri presents an overview of Hawaiian religious culture, in which hierarchies of social beings and their actions are mirrored by the cosmological hierarchy of the gods. As the sacrifice is performed, the worshipper is incorporated into the god of his class. Thus he draws on divine power to sustain the social order of which his action is a part, and in which his own place is determined by the degree of his resemblance to his god. The key to Hawaiian society—and a central focus for Valeri—is the complex and encompassing sacrificial ritual that is the responsibility of the king, for it displays in concrete actions all the concepts of pre-Western Hawaiian society. By interpreting and understanding this ritual cycle, Valeri contends, we can interpret all of Hawaiian religious culture.
Article
A sociopolitical history of Hawaiian archaeology: Kuleana and commitment
Fishhooks and adzes: the pointed and edgy nexus of culture, technology, and early capitalism in Hawai'i
  • J M Bayman
Bayman, J.M. 2014. Fishhooks and adzes: the pointed and edgy nexus of culture, technology, and early capitalism in Hawai'i. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(2): 99-109.
Tales from the Temples Part II. Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1908
  • T G Thrum
Thrum, T.G. 1907. Tales from the Temples Part II. Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1908, Honolulu.
Sourcing the Building Material of Pu'ukohola Heiau: A Pilot Study Using XRF Chemical Characterization of Architectural Stone
  • M D Mccoy
McCoy, M.D. 2012. Sourcing the Building Material of Pu'ukohola Heiau: A Pilot Study Using XRF Chemical Characterization of Architectural Stone. Report on file with the National Park Service.
A reputation unmade Stokes's career in Hawaiian Archaeology Heiau of the Island of Hawai'i: A historic survey of native Hawaiian temple sites
  • T S Dye
Dye, T.S. 1991. A reputation unmade: J.F.G. Stokes's career in Hawaiian Archaeology. In: T.S. Dye (ed.) Heiau of the Island of Hawai'i: A historic survey of native Hawaiian temple sites. Honolulu: B.P. Bishop Museum Press, pp. 3–20.
Hawaiki Rising: Hōkūle'a, Nainoa Thompson, and the Hawaiian Renaissance. Honolulu: Island Heritage Publishing
  • S Low
Low, S. 2013. Hawaiki Rising: Hōkūle'a, Nainoa Thompson, and the Hawaiian Renaissance. Honolulu: Island Heritage Publishing.
Legacy of the Landscape: An illustrated guide to Hawaiian archaeological sites
  • P V Kirch
Kirch, P.V.1996. Legacy of the Landscape: An illustrated guide to Hawaiian archaeological sites. With photographs by Thérèse I. Babineau. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Archaeology of the Recent Past at Kalawao: Landscape, Place, and Power in a Hawaiian Leprosarium
  • J L Flexner
Flexner, J.L. 2010. Archaeology of the Recent Past at Kalawao: Landscape, Place, and Power in a Hawaiian Leprosarium. Ph.D. Dissertation, Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.
Life outside the temple: reconstructing traditional Hawaiian ritual and religion through new studies of ritualized practices
  • M D Mccoy
McCoy, M.D. 2008. Life outside the temple: reconstructing traditional Hawaiian ritual and religion through new studies of ritualized practices. In: L. Fogelin (ed.) Religion, Archaeology, and the Material World. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University's Center for Archaeological Investigations, Occasional Paper No. 36, pp. 261-278.
The Kealakekua region: salubrious core, political centre
  • R J Hommon
Hommon, R.J. 2014. The Kealakekua region: salubrious core, political centre. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(2): 40-50.
Hawaiian Antiquities: Mo'olelo
  • D Malo
Malo, D. 1951. Hawaiian Antiquities: Mo'olelo Hawai'i. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
Tales and Traditions of the People of Old: Nā Mo'olelo a ka Po'e Kahiko
  • S M Kamakau
Kamakau, S.M. 1991. Tales and Traditions of the People of Old: Nā Mo'olelo a ka Po'e Kahiko. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
Community-based research: the next step in Hawaiian archaeology
  • K Kawelu
  • D Pakele
Kawelu, K. & Pakele, D. 2014. Community-based research: the next step in Hawaiian archaeology. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(2): 62-71.
Eight million points per day: archaeological implications of laser scanning and three-dimensional modeling of Pu'ukoholā Heiau
  • M A Mulrooney
  • T N Ladefoged
  • R Gibb
  • D Mccurdy
Mulrooney, M.A., Ladefoged, T.N., Gibb, R., & McCurdy, D. 2005. Eight million points per day: archaeological implications of laser scanning and three-dimensional modeling of Pu'ukoholā Heiau, Hawai'i Island. Hawaiian Archaeology 10: 18-28.
Fragments of Hawaiian History
  • J P I'i
I'i, J.P. 1959. Fragments of Hawaiian History. Translated by Mary Kawena Pukui. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
Landscape, Social Memory, and Society: An Ethnohistoric-Archaeological Study of Three Hawaiian Communities
  • M D Mccoy
McCoy, M.D. 2006. Landscape, Social Memory, and Society: An Ethnohistoric-Archaeological Study of Three Hawaiian Communities. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
Household archaeology and 'house societies' in the Hawaiian Archipelago
  • J G Kahn
Kahn, J.G. 2014. Household archaeology and 'house societies' in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(2): 18-29.
Hawaiian archaeology: past, present, and future
  • P V Kirch
Kirch, P.V. 1999. Hawaiian archaeology: past, present, and future. Hawaiian Archaeology 7: 60 -72.