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Four-stage process model of the core factors of burnout: The role of work stressors and work-related resources

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Abstract

The impact of work stressors and work-related resources on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, as the two core factors of burnout, is investigated. According to the German Action Regulation Theory work stressors are conceptualized as regulation problems that lead to work stress in terms of additional effort (e.g. working longer hours), increased intensity of effort (e.g. working at a faster pace), and risky action (e.g. by neglecting safety rules). Consequently, an extended process model consisting of objective work stressors, work stress, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization is proposed. Nurses from three general hospitals (N=482) provided data for evaluating this model. Complete mediation of work stress and emotional exhaustion were analysed by hierarchical regression analysis. The overall model was tested by structural equation analysis in two steps; in the first step the basic model was analysed while in the second step the model was extended by autonomy as a work-related resource. The process model could be confirmed with respect to: (1) the mediating function of work stress and emotional exhaustion, and with regard to (2) the direct impact of autonomy as a work-related resource on work stressors but not on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Methodological considerations and implications for work design and burnout prevention are discussed.

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... Work characteristics were measured with a German self-report instrument for work analysis in healthcare organizations (Büssing & Glaser, 2000, 2002Hornung et al., 2013). Based on action regulation theory, this instrument assesses requirements, hindrances, and supportive factors in the psychological regulation of work activities (Frese & Zapf, 1994;Hacker, 2003;Oesterreich & Volpert, 1986). ...
... T3: α = .90), which is based on the theory of regulation problems as sources of psychological strain (Büssing & Glaser, 2000). Conflicting demands (three items; T1: α = .78; ...
... To some extent, our results question the assumption that one-time measures of the work environment have a longerterm impact on mental health (Liu et al., 2016). However, the measure used aimed to capture persistent work characteristics (Büssing & Glaser, 2000, 2002. Moreover, high autocorrelations corroborate that working conditions are relatively stable over time, which is consistent with previous longitudinal survey studies in occupational stress research (Zapf et al., 1996). ...
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The distinction of challenge and hindrance stressors in the job demands–resources (JD–R) model has increasingly attracted the interest of occupational health researchers. Drawing on the differentiated JD–R framework, we tested causal, reciprocal, and interaction effects of challenge demands, hindrance demands, and job resources on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and work engagement. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling was used to analyse cohort data of N = 400 German physicians across three waves comprising 9 years of observation. Overall, support for our hypotheses was limited. Higher job resources were associated with reduced depersonalization in the first time lag of 2 years. No cross-lagged effects were found for the second time lag of 7 years. Out of 12 hypothesized interaction effects, only 1 significant interaction was observed, where job resources attenuated the positive association between challenge demands and depersonalization between the first and second waves. Results provide only modest support for differential effects of challenge and hindrance demands in the JD–R model. Potential shortcomings and implications for future research are discussed.
... For instance, well established are relationships between emotional dissonance and job dissatisfaction, depression, and burnout. Especially burnout, defined as a syndrome of feeling emotionally drained and exhausted, cynical and depersonalized treatment of care recipients, and reduced personal efficacy and sense of accomplishment, is a pro- totypical outcome of stressful interaction work and maladaptive emotion regulation processes [6,16,17]. However, cumulative research suggests that emotional labor does not necessarily need to have negative psychological consequences. ...
... Based on self-determination the- ory, resources to support functional patient interactions and emotion regulation can be conceptualized as factors contributing to psychological internalization of role requirements via the fulfillment of work-related needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness [8,18]. In this study, factors relating to these three domains of psycho- logical needs were represented by interaction control, interaction competence, and social support by supervisors and coworkers [1,16]. Assumptions regarding the pos- itive functions of these factors in different phases of the emotional labor process were integrated into the developed model, which will be outlined next. ...
... Assumptions regarding the pos- itive functions of these factors in different phases of the emotional labor process were integrated into the developed model, which will be outlined next. Drawing on previous conceptual and empirical work [7,11], we developed a model of emotional labor that takes into account three distinct domains or phases of interaction work and its psychological consequences [1,4,16]. The three distinguished phases refer to (a) stressful patient interactions, (b) psychological processes of emotion reg- ulation, and (c) strain responses in the form of emotional depletion and burnout. ...
Conference Paper
Integrating theorizing on emotional labor performed by human service workers with assumptions of self-determination theory, this study tests a model of stressful patient interactions, psychological regulation of negative emotions, and symptoms of job burnout in healthcare professionals. Survey data of N = 1848 geriatric nurses in 111 nursing homes for the elderly in Germany were analyzed using latent-variable structural equation modeling. The specified phase model of interaction work and emotional regulation was well supported by the data. Emotion regulation mediated between stressful patient interactions and three dimensions of job burnout, namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced accomplishment. Differential correlational patterns confirmed faking in bad faith and deviant display as psychologically maladaptive, whereas faking in good faith and deep acting were found to be more functional. As hypothesized, factors connected to psychological need fulfillment according to self-determination theory positively influenced interactions, emotion regulation, and coping processes.
... Genel olarak tükenmişliğin aracı etkisinin yanı sıra özelde duygusal tükenmenin çeşitli örgütsel ve bireysel değişkenler arasındaki ilişkide oynadığı aracı rol de pek çok araştırmada doğrulanmaktadır (Leiter ve Maslach, 1988;Moore, 2000;Hang-yue, vd., 2005;Jaramillo, vd., 2006;Aryee, vd., 2008;Knudsen vd., 2009;Moreno-Jimenez, vd., 2009;Sawyerr, vd., 2009;Cole, vd., 2010;Bussing ve Glaser, 2010). Leiter ve Maslach (1988) duygusal tükenmenin çalışanın yöneticisiyle kötü ilişkileri ile örgütsel bağlılık arasındaki ilişkide, Aryee vd. ...
... (2008) istismarcı yönetim tarzı ile bağlamsal performans arasındaki ilişkide aracı rolü oynadığını tespit etmişlerdir. Bunun dışında duygusal tükenmenin işle ilgili gerginlik unsurları ile işten ayrılma niyeti arasında (Moore, 2000;Knudsen vd., 2009); iş stresi ile duyarsızlaşma arasında (Bussing ve Glaser, 2010), çatışma ve işten ayrılma niyeti arasında (Moreno-Jimenez, vd., 2009) kısmi aracılık rolüne sahip olduğu belirtilmektedir. ...
... Bu sonuç aynı zamanda, duygusal tükenmenin çeşitli değişkenler arasındaki kısmi aracı etkisini doğrulayan araştırma sonuçlarını da (Leiter ve Maslach, 1988;Moore, 2000;Hang-yue, vd., 2005;Jaramillo, vd., 2006;Aryee, vd., 2008;Knudsen vd., 2009;Moreno-Jimenez, vd., 2009;Sawyerr, vd., 2009;Cole, vd., 2010;Bussing ve Glaser, 2010) destekler niteliktedir. Ancak duygusal tükenmenin işe bağlı gerginlik ile iş tatmini ilişkisindeki kısmi aracı rolü, bu ilişkide başka aracı değişkenlerin de varlığına işaret etmektedir. ...
... Extant studies have identified two categories namely challenges or risks (i.e., stressors) and actions needed for individuals' workplace stress resolution. Stressors to human development and resilience range from organizationally/role related to job morale, work conditions (Dorman & Zapf, 2002), job demands, lack of job control (Meier et al., 2008) to lack of emotional and social support (Büssing & Glaser, 2000). Szatmari (2018) reported personal work-related stress issues that were overlooked in Cartwright and Cooper (1997) study that identified three stress intervention strategies: primary (minimizing stress), secondary (managing stress) and tertiary (providing support). ...
... It is also ascertained that latest technology can help organizations and individuals be more competitive, productivity driven and anxiety-free (Colligan & Higgins, 2006). However, additional pressures from employees' workloads and long, arduous work hours lead to person-job insecurity, a non-conducive and burnout induced work (Büssing & Glaser, 2000;Violanti et al., 2008) and a non-value adding work environment (Mendy, 2019). ...
Article
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The Problem Human resource development (HRD) research has sought to demarcate a human developmental problem by identifying learning interventions through which individuals can contribute towards group and organizational growth. However, there remains the fundamental problem, which is how to go beyond individualized employee development to a more collective resilience model building against workplace stress. Such lesser effectiveness has led to financial, emotional and psycho-social costs to individuals and collectives. Based on the theoretical analysis of human capital theory, HRD research and literature are lacking in how to more effectively operationalize collective resilience against workplace stress. The Solution A multi-faceted collective workforce resilience intervention conceptual model is proposed to enable both management and employees to overcome ineffective implementation of human development and thereby bounce back from workforce stress. Four aspects of the model’s practical operationalization are proposed as steps to help the HRD community of practitioners and scholars to engrain resilience as a workplace culture in resolving stress. Implications on (1) the identification of workplace stress, (2) the effective design and operationalization of development capacities. (3) the resilience intervention initiatives, and (4) the management of collective workforce resilience are highlighted. The Stakeholders The proposed model is designed for the HRD community, including scholars, practitioners, employees and managers in related HRD contexts.
... This is to be expected as a previous study showed RD to be associated with social attachment. 13 It is noteworthy to mention that although there are many studies that show SUP helps reduce the symptoms of burnout, [41][42][43][44] NS has been posi- 37,45 People using HOP focus on managing the negative emotions caused by the problem rather than the problem itself. 46 Although there is evidence that HOP results in higher levels of negative mood and stress in the work environment, 47,48 HOP is not harmful if the situation cannot be changed. ...
... There are particular jobs where some coping strategies are more or less preferred than others. 27,30,33,34,[39][40][41][42][43][44][45]47,48 With this information, an individual's personality can be used to guide the person to a more stress-free work environment where they may have a better chance of using adaptive coping strategies than in other situations. Furthermore, some diseases have specific coping strategies that are correlated with a better outcome. ...
Article
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Objective: Coping can be defined as the reactions to harm or distress individuals take to reduce stress. This study aimed to determine how an individual's temperament and character is correlated with the person's main coping method. Methods: The Korean version of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire and Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short Version were used to evaluate the coping strategies and temperament and character of 1,035 people. Four hierarchical linear regression analyses with the scores of each coping strategy subscale as a dependent variable were performed. Results: High persistence, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, and low harm avoidance were associated with using a problem-focused coping strategy. Being female, high novelty seeking, reward dependence, and self-transcendence were associated with using a supportseeking coping strategy. High novelty seeking, self-transcendence, and low self-directedness were associated with using emotion-focused coping strategy. Being female, high novelty seeking, persistence, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence were associated with using a hopeful-thinking coping strategy. Conclusion: Our results show that there may be specific personality features guiding what kind of coping strategy an individual might use in a given situation.
... The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is widely used by researchers to assess for levels of burnout (Büssing & Glaser, 2000). The origins of the tool rest in the work of psychiatrist Freudenberger (1975) and social psychologist Maslach (1976), both of whom were interested in the challenges and difficulties that arise in work situations for people working in human services. ...
... Equally nurses are better equipped to cope with challenging, complex and ever changing clinical environments when they feel that colleagues and management support them . Without this support, nurses can become stressed and burnt out (Büssing & Glaser, 2000), subject to compassion fatigue (Todaro-Franceschi, 2013) and unable to be attentively present with patients during clinical encounters (Kimble & Bamford-Wade, 2013). ...
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ABSTRACT Distinctive humanistic values are foundational in professional nursing practice, commonly shared by members of the profession and the mainstay of how nurses act. The foundational values of the nursing discipline are balanced with clinical knowledge and technical skill. Nursing values presuppose nurses’ responsibility to nurture and protect, to heal, to cultivate healthy behaviours and attitudes, and to be present (physically and intellectually) during times of vulnerability, illness or injury. The rationale for this study came from the recognition that nursing has changed, so too have the characteristics of patients and the way healthcare is operationalised. Nurses are challenged on a daily basis to negotiate between meeting the complex needs of patients whilst addressing healthcare priorities and attending to their own personal and professional requirements. There is a growing philosophical debate about whether the healthcare climate is dehumanising health care professionals’ encounters with patients, including those of nurses, and creating a culture where enacted values are inconsistent with professionalism. The purpose of the research was to explore the values of professional nurses practicing in medical ward environments and how these values are lived in day-to-day practice. Case Study methodology was used to capture the contextual conditions of nursing values in nurses’ daily practice. Data collection was carried out in three medical wards in New Zealand; data were triangulated using observations, focus groups, interviews, burnout survey and theoretical application. The major theoretical and philosophical influences on the research, which were used to explore the data, were those of Isabel Menzies’ defences against anxiety and Edith Stein’s phenomenological theory of motivation and value. Key findings indicate that healthcare environments obstruct the enactment of humanistic nursing values stimulating value dissonance for nurses between how they want to practice and how they actually practice. Conflict arises from nurses experiencing systems that foster managerialism and cultures of anxiety. In order to cope with value dissonance, nurses enact unconscious defence mechanisms; resulting in constrained nursing practice, exhaustion, cynicism and burnout. This thesis challenges the nursing profession to acknowledge and address the visibility of nursing values in contemporary practice, as well as acknowledge the dissonance that exists between the values of nursing and the values that drive healthcare delivery. Humanistic nursing values remain important to practicing nurses. This study identifies in detail the every-day difficulties nurses face in seeking to enact their values and the managerial challenges that confront them. This information offers a trustworthy analysis of the challenges the nursing profession faces in addressing this problem. It also offers a basis for developing approaches that could strengthen nurses’ ability to enact the humanistic values they are professionally committed to provide. It is critical that any attempt to embed nursing values into clinical nursing practice is founded on a strategy that recognises and mitigates against dysfunctional organisations and organisational constraints. Drawing on findings from this thesis, it is recommended that the articulation and development of nursing values in acute clinical environments is responsive to organisational factors. Through this, the nursing community can develop, articulate and operationalise nursing values. http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/handle/10063/6358
... Given the empirical evidence that the emotional exhaustion dimension is most strongly related to the causes and consequences of burnout (Lee & Ashforth, 1996), consensus has formed around the idea that this dimension is the central element of the syndrome (Cooper, Dewe & O'Driscoll, 2001;Maslach et al., 2001;Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998). Although some authors define burnout based on this dimension alone (Freudenberger, 1983;Koeske & Koeske, 1989;Pines, 2002;Shirom, 2003), many authors advocate a two-dimensional concept that includes the depersonalization component (Büssing & Glaser, 2000;Demerouti et al., 2000Demerouti et al., , 2001Green, Walkey & Taylor, 1991;Kalliath, O'Driscoll, Gillespie & Bluedorn, 2000). These authors argue that the specificity of the syndrome lies in the H9 H10 combination of general reactions linked to stress -captured by the emotional exhaustion dimension -and specific attitudinal manifestations that signal a crisis in the individual-work relationship (Maslach et al., 2001). ...
... A more precise representation of the motivational process would entail measuring the impact of resources on motivation. Also, measuring the additional effort deployed at work (see Büssing & Glaser, 2000) and other types of resources mobilized in response to chronic demands, that would be perceived as threatening or causing a loss of resources that employees consider important, could better capture the energetic process. Lastly, it would be intriguing to replicate this study on nurses working for institutions whose missions differ from that of hospitals. ...
... In many studies, researchers have treated burnout syndrome as an already acquired condition, examining the factors that predict its onset, but little research focuses on the process of its development. However, to prevent its development, understanding the process that leads to burnout is essential [27], [28]. To emphasize its dynamic nature, Cherniss [29] de ned burnout as "a process in which the professionals' attitudes and behaviour change in negative ways in response to job strain" (p. ...
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Background Studies have focused more on the outcome than on the process of burnout. However, different teachers at different stages of the process may be present at the same time, which the current methods do not capture. We aimed to develop a new measurement tool for the burnout process among teachers based on grounded theory. Methods In this cross-sectional study we tested the Burnout Process Questionnaire on a convenience sample of teachers (n = 618, 83.9% women; mean age 44.52 years). We used confirmatory factor analyses to test our measurement model. We examined the concurrent validity with the burnout factors the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire includes. We tested construct validity with depression, overcommitment, demographic characteristics and work-related factors. Results The confirmatory factor analyses supported our measurement model with seven primary factors (need to prove oneself, overload of tasks, neglecting one’s needs, conflict between values, interpersonal conflicts, passivity, and emotional drain) and three second-order factors (excessive effort, conflict, and total depletion). The covariates in the Maslach Burnout Inventory showed that emotional exhaustion had a strong relationship with the first- and second-order factors. Overcommitment showed a stronger relationship with factors at the beginning whereas depression showed a stronger relationship with factors at the end of the process. Demographic characteristics and work-related factors did not show strong associations. Conclusions The Burnout Process Questionnaire is a promising measurement tool with good convergent validity. It adds a new dimension to the measurement of burnout. The process approach to measuring burnout among teachers can guide future research and tailored prevention programs.
... This is reflected in the increasing number of days of incapacity to work. In particular, disorders of the musculoskeletal system and mental illnesses [5] are increasingly attributable to work-related overburden of employees. While musculoskeletal disorders [6] were the main reason for incapacity to work in previous years, the latest statistical analyses show that mental illnesses are now the most common cause of occupational incapacity [7,8]. ...
Conference Paper
The assembly of products in small quantities up to one-off production requires a high flexibility of the assembly system. Especially for manual processes, workplaces should be economical and at the same time offer a high level of ergonomics for the employee. Existing assembly systems have various adaptation possibilities, which require an active involvement of the user. However, in order to avoid overburdening the employees in dealing with the workplace, a special design is recommended. This paper presents a design approach that is human-centered and at the same time enhances resilience and illustrates it with an industrial case study.
... 6 Y. Shoman et al. and the need of a diagnostic standard for OB (Arvidsson et al., 2016;Rotenstein et al., 2018). In MBI, emotional exhaustion is often considered separately, representing the core of burnout syndrome Kristensen et al., 2005) but also of depression or along with depersonalisation dimension to represent the core of burnout (Bussing and Glaser, 2000). Some authors argue that depersonalisation and personal accomplishment are not even a part of OB (Kristensen et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Aims: Occupational Burnout (OB) is currently measured through several Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) and some of them have become widely used in occupational health research and practice. We, therefore, aimed to review and grade the psychometric validity of the five OB PROMs considered as valid for OB measure in mental health professionals (the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Pines' Burnout Measure (BM), the Psychologist Burnout Inventory (PBI), the OLdenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI)). Methods: We conducted systematic literature searches in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE databases. We reviewed studies published between January 1980 and September 2018 following a methodological framework, in which each step of PROM validation, the reference method, analytical technics and result interpretation criteria were assessed. Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments we evaluated the risk of bias in studies assessing content and criterion validity, structural validity, internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, hypotheses testing and responsiveness of each PROM. Finally, we assessed the level of evidence for the validity of each PROM using the GRADE approach. Results: We identified 6541 studies, 19 of which were included for review. Fifteen studies dealt with MBI whereas BM, PBI, OLBI and CBI were each examined in only one study. OLBI had the most complete validation, followed by CBI, MBI, BM and PBI, respectively. When examining the result interpretation correctness, the strongest disagreement was observed for MBI (27% of results), BM (25%) and CBI (17%). There was no disagreement regarding PBI and OLBI. For OLBI and CBI, the quality of evidence for sufficient content validity, the crucial psychometric property, was moderate; for MBI, BM and PBI, it was very low. Conclusion: To be validly and reliably used in medical research and practice, PROM should exhibit robust psychometric properties. Among the five PROMs reviewed, CBI and, to a lesser extent, OLBI meet this prerequisite. The cross-cultural validity of these PROMs was beyond the scope of our work and should be addressed in the future. Moreover, the development of a diagnostic standard for OB would be helpful to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the PROMs and further reexamine their validity. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42019124621). https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-psychiatric-sciences/article/psychometric-properties-of-burnout-measures-a-systematic-review/D5244F95FF7F2C56C65004C1DDE2608F/share/24c880455cfc3f6b5db9e4397cb8748b1d006b0.
... Tükenmişlik, hem çalışanı hem de örgütü etkileyen ve hatta çalışanın işten ayrılmasına veya başka işlerin aramasına yol açan bir sorun olduğu gibi (Constable, & Russell, 1986;Anand, & Arora, 2009), performansın düşmesine de (Anvari, Kalali, & Gholipour, 2011) yol açabilmektedir. İşten ayrılma, iş değişikliği, iş tatminin düşmesi diğer sorunların başında gelir (Bussing, & Glasser, 2000). ...
Article
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Çalışanlar arasında stres ve tükenmişlik kavramları önemli işyeri sorunları arasında yer alır. Yaşanan iş stresi ve tükenmişlik, çalışanların işe karşı duygularını dolayısıyla iyilik hallerini de etkiler. Çalışanların işe karşı olumlu duygular beslemesi, genel yaşama karşı tutumunu da belirler. Bu sebeple işe karşı geliştirilen duygular, çalışanın yaşadığı stresin ve tükenmişliğin azalmasına da yol açabilir. Bu çalışmada tükenmişlik, işe ilişkin duygular ve iş stresi kavramları ele alınmıştır. Çalışmada kamu sektöründeki çalışanlar arasındaki tükenmişlik ve işe ilişkin duygular arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiş, iş stresinin bu iki değişken arasında aracı etkisinin bulunup bulunmadığına bakılmıştır. Anket yönteminin kullanıldığı çalışmada 172 kişi katılımcı olarak yer almıştır. Araştırmada değişkenler arasındaki ilişki için Pearson Korelasyon Analizi ve değişkenler arasındaki aracı etkiyi tespit edebilmeye yönelik Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi içinde analizler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan analiz sonuçlarına göre işe ilişkin duygular ve tükenmişlik arasında anlamlı ve negatif yönlü; iş stresi ile tükenmişlik arasında anlamlı ve pozitif yönlü bir ilişki mevcuttur. Ayrıca stres değişkeninin işe ilişkin duygular ile tükenmişlik arasındaki ilişkiyi açıklamada kısmi aracılık rolünü üstlendiği görülmüştür. Diğer bir deyişle çalışanların işe ilişkin iyilik halleri ve algıları ile tükenmişlik arasındaki ilişkiyi açıklamak için iş stresini de anlamak gerekir.
... First, self-efficacy is an aspect of personal character rather than a response to tension (Demerouti et al., 2001;Kim S.M. et al., 2016). Second, self-efficacy is believed to be independent from emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and a meta-analysis supported this view (Lee and Ashforth, 1996;Büssing and Glaser, 2000). Third, the statement-ofself-efficacy-scale is positive while emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are negative (For the self-efficacy subscale only, high scores represent low burnout), which may cause inconsistencies in measurement. ...
Article
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High turnover rate represents one of the most significant challenges the hotel industry faces. High turnover rates mean labor shortages, resulting in high costs of recruiting, staffing and training. Turnover also has a negative impact on service quality. Scholars continue to search for the root causes of turnover and propose solutions. To further understand employees’ turnover intention, this study reveals the role of stress on hotel front-line employees’ turnover intention through the mediation of burnout. Moreover, the study examines the moderating effect of service climate on the underlying mechanism that links role stress with turnover intention. Using a sample of 583 questionnaires from front-line hotel employees in South China, this study reveals that role stress as a four-dimensional construct (i.e., conflict, ambiguity, qualitative overload and quantitative overload) has a statistically significant impact on burnout, which leads to turnover intention. Burnout completely mediates the relationship between role stress and turnover intention, that is, employees under role stress do not resign immediately unless they experience high levels of burnout. In addition, service climate moderates the influence of role stress on burnout, suggesting a moderated mediation relationship. The study contributes to the organizational management literature by confirming the four dimensions of role stress and demonstrating how role stress impacts employees’ turnover intention. Furthermore, the critical effect of service climate is further investigated. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed based on the findings. the study also investigates the moderating effect of service climate on role stress (challenge-hindrance stressors) and burnout.
... By adding contradictions between goals, rules, and resources, Moldaschl (2005) has extended the approach of regulation problems and inspired work analysis approaches to include contradictory demands at work. For instance, an entire section of the work analysis instrument for hospitals (Büssing & Glaser, 2002) is grounded in this taxonomy, examining contradictory work demands in nursing in terms of work overload, contradictory goals, work interruptions, additional effort, etc. Detrimental effects of contradictory work demands on psycho-mental health of nurses have been widely substantiated (e.g., Büssing & Glaser, 2000;Glaser & Büssing, 1996). In addition to contradictory demands at work, learning demands (e.g., task variety, cognitive demands) and work-related resources (e.g., autonomy, social support) have been established as predictors of intrinsic motivation and creativity at work. ...
... As an indicator of impaired well-being, we assessed the core component of burnoutemotional exhaustionusing the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D; Büssing & Glaser, 2000). Emotional exhaustion was measured using nine items, such as "I feel burned out by my work". ...
... However, both constructs can be clearly distinguished. Although exhaustion is an important aspect in current burnout models [43,47], it can be separated from stress, as stress can be seen as the precursor to emotional exhaustion [48]. ...
Article
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Leaders engaging in health-promoting leadership can influence their employees’ health directly by showing health awareness or indirectly by changing working conditions. With health-promoting leadership, leaders are able to support a healthy working environment by providing resource-oriented working conditions for their employees to support their health. Changing working conditions in a health-supportive way can prevent possible negative consequences from critical working conditions (e.g., burnout risk). The present study examined the relationship between health-promoting leadership and the employees’ resources, stress and burnout. To analyze our proposed model, structural equation modelling was conducted in two samples. The resulting model from the first sample of 228 Austrian workers was cross-validated and could be verified with the second sample (N = 263 Austrian workers). The results supported a model in which health-promoting leadership has a strong direct effect on the employees’ resources and an indirect effect on stress and burnout, which was mediated by resources. The results indicate that health-promoting leadership describes the leaders’ capability and dedication creating the right working conditions for their employees by increasing the employees’ resources at the workplace. This in turn minimizes the risk of experiencing burnout.
... Burnout is a response to interpersonal stressors on the job, in which an overload of contact with people results in changes in attitudes and behaviours towards them: it describes a characteristic bundle of strain symptoms found primarily in the helping profession (Bussing & Glaser, 2000). This study uses ...
... Control was measured with a four-item scale from a German self-report instrument for work analysis in hospitals (Büssing & Glaser, 2000(Büssing & Glaser, , 2002Hornung et al., 2010). Validation studies affirm that work characteristics can be effectively measured by selfreports due to high convergence between job incumbents' self-ratings and external observations (e.g., Büssing & Glaser, 2002;Spector, 1992; see also Frese et al., 2007). ...
Article
The article discusses evidence for the existence of gain spirals between work engagement and both psychological and environmental resources. It demonstrates that task-related, social and intrapersonal gain spirals are distinct and relatively independent processes in work design. The mediating role of work engagement in gain spirals was tested using a three-wave design. Assumptions of the Conservation of Resources Theory (COR) about the tendency for an accumulation of resources are confirmed. Key resources that have been shown to facilitate the mobilization of additional resources include job control, work relationships and active coping.
... Bisherige Forschung in Organisationen zeigt, dass hohe Arbeitskomplexität, geringer Zeitspielraum und viele Arbeitsunterbrechungen als psychisch belastend wahrgenommen werden können, wenn nicht gleichzeitig auch hoher Handlungsspielraum als Copingstrategie zur Verfügung steht (Büssing & Glaser, 2000;Fujigaki, 1990;Verhoeven et al., 2003;Weber & Jaeckel-Reinhard, 2000;Wittich, 2009 Figure 1: ...
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Zusammenfassung In dieser Studie wurden psychische Belastungen und deren Auswirkungen bei Mitarbeitern im Logistikbereich eines internationalen Flughafens über einen kombinierten objektiven und subjektiven Analysezugang in einem Längsschnittdesign untersucht. Basierend auf dem transaktionalen Stressmodell (Lazarus & Folkman 1984) wurde ein theoretisches Modell entwickelt, um zu erklären, wie die psychischen Belastungen Arbeitskomplexität, Zeitspielraum, Arbeitsunterbrechungen (Stressor, entspricht der primären Bewertung im transaktionalen Stressmodell) und die Copingstrategie Handlungsspielraum (sekundäre Bewertung) die subjektiv wahrgenommenen Beanspruchungsfolgen der Mitarbeiter (Irritation, Burnout) beeinflussen. Strukturgleichungsanalysen bestätigten den positiven Zusammenhang zwischen Arbeitskomplexität und Handlungsspielraum, die negativen Zusammenhänge zwischen Handlungsspielraum und Irritation bzw. Burnout sowie den Mediatoreffekt von Handlungsspielraum. Die Ergebnisse der subjektiven und objektiven Analyse unterstreichen im Einklang mit der Theorie des transaktionalen Stressmodells, dass Handlungsspielraum bei Verladetätigkeiten im Logistikbereich eines internationalen Flughafens eine wichtige Copingstrategie im Umgang mit Arbeitsanforderungen darstellt, die es zu stärken gilt.
... As an indicator of impaired well-being, we assessed the core component of burnoutemotional exhaustionusing the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D; Büssing & Glaser, 2000). Emotional exhaustion was measured using nine items, such as "I feel burned out by my work". ...
Article
Studies show that high-quality reciprocal relationships between leaders and followers are positively associated with employee well-being. However, the pathways for promoting this health-enhancing leadership behaviour have not yet been well explored, and most studies have been cross-sectional. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of the interplay between job-related resources and leader–member exchange (LMX) on employee well-being, measured as the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. We applied a two-wave paper-and-pencil design, with an 11-month interval, in a sample of 343 employees working in the German healthcare sector. By means of structural equation modelling, we found that job-related resources (role clarity, meaningfulness and predictability) predicted higher quality LMX, which in turn related to lower levels of emotional exhaustion. The results support the important role of job resources in stimulating health-relevant aspects of leadership behaviour, and indicate ways in which leaders can promote employee health and well-being.
... nurses), previous studies also applying this instrument confirmed its validity and reliability (e.g. Büssing and Glaser, 2000). Respondents rated the frequency of the experience of each item on a six-point scale (ranging from 1 "never" to 6 "very often"); the internal consistency of the scale is α ¼ 0.91. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the link between burnout and violent victimization in terms of physical assaults in patrol police officers. A burnout–victimization model is proposed assuming emotional exhaustion and depersonalization to be associated with violent victimization via different mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach The study entails a cross-sectional survey of 1,742 German patrol police officers who reported 4,524 police encounters. The paper employs a binary logistic multilevel SEM approach to test the proposed model. Findings In line with the hypotheses, emotional exhaustion was found to reduce police officers’ self-protecting behavior, which in turn heightened their risk of victimization. Depersonalization was positively linked to a favorable attitude towards violence, which was linked to violent victimization but only to a small extent. Further analyses yielded an additional direct pathway from emotional exhaustion to victimization. Research limitations/implications The main limitations include the cross-sectional design of the study and the lack of including police officers’ own aggressive and violent behavior. Multimethod studies also using observational data of police–citizen interactions would be desirable in future studies. Originality/value This study is one of the first investigating the burnout–victimization link in police officers. By proposing and examining two different pathways, it further enhances our understanding of the underlying mechanisms.
... Three job demands were assessed with an established tool for the assessment of work stressors in hospitals [TAA-KH-S; 22,23]. This tool has been validated for use by physicians [24]. ...
Article
Objective: Drawing on a sample of hospital physicians, we attempted to determine prospective associations between three job demands, work-related strain and perceived quality of care. Design: Longitudinal follow-up study with with a 1-year time lag. Setting: Physicians of two acute-care hospitals in Germany (one general urban and one children's hospital). Study participants: Ninety-five physicians filled out a standardized questionnaire. Main outcomes measures: Physicians' evaluations of quality of care at both waves. Results: Our results support the hypothesis that job demands directly influence quality of care irrespective of strain. Specifically, high social stressors (β = -0.15, P = 0.036) and time pressure (β = -0.19, P = 0.031) were associated with decreased quality of care over time. We additionally observed reversed effects from quality of care at baseline to time pressure at follow-up (β = -0.35, P = 0.006). Contrary to expectations, physicians' work-related strain did not mediate the job demands-quality of care-relationship, nor were strain-to-stressor effects observed. Conclusions: Our results corroborate that hospital work environments with high demands have a direct impact on physician-perceived quality of care. In turn, poor care practices contribute to increased job demands. Our findings also emphasize that further understanding is required of how physicians' workplace conditions affect job demands, well-being, and quality of care, respectively.
... Burnout describes a state of mental weariness (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004) and is portrayed as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment (Maslach & Leiter, 1997). Although the operationalization of the burnout construct has been debated, most authors advocate a two-dimensional concept that includes the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization components (e.g., Büssing & Glaser, 2000). It is argued that the specificity of the burnout syndrome lies in the combination of (1) general reactions linked to stress, captured by the HIWPs have been found to play an important role in the reduction of stress (e.g., Butts et al., 2009) and burnout (e.g., Castanheira & Chambel, 2010). ...
Article
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Previous research demonstrates that high-involvement work practices (HIWPs) may be associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization); however, to date, the process through which HIWPs infl uence burnout is not clear. This article examined the impact of HIWPs on long-term burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) by considering the mediating role of person-organization fi t (P-O fi t) in this relationship. The study used a time-lagged design and was conducted in a Canadian general hospital among health care personnel. Findings from structural equation modeling (N = 185) revealed that perceived HIWPs were positively associated with P-O fi t. There was no direct effect of HIWPs on burnout; rather, P-O fi t fully mediated the relationship between employee perceptions of HIWPs and burnout. This study fi lls a void in the HR and burnout literature by demonstrating the role that P-O fi t has in explaining how HIWPs alleviate emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.
... Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005;Shirom, Nirel, & Vinokur, 2010). Dabei zielt "work overload" auf die Quantität der zu verrichtenden Arbeitsaufgaben im Hinblick auf die zur Verfügung stehende Arbeitszeit (Büssing & Glaser, 2000;. Shaw und Weekley (1985) gliedern "overload" (als Gegenteil von "underload", u. a. Sales, 1970) weiter auf und differenzieren zwischen "quantitative" und "qualitative overload". ...
... [12] Other investigations focused only on exhaustion with depersonalization and disengagement without taking into account the personal accomplishment. [13,14] The causes of burnout are more related to the psychosocial work environment such as work overload, low job social support, lack of job control, time pressure, lack of autonomy, too much direct patient contact, etc. rather than personal factors. [15][16][17] ...
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This study examined the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of psychosocial risk factors and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 415 nurses from various wards across five hospitals of Iran's Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through three questionnaires: job content questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and visual analogue scale. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that psychosocial risk factors were significantly related to changes in burnout, which in turn affects intensity of MSDs.
... All six measures can be considered "standards" in German occupational health psychology research. They are frequently used in diverse fields of research and in particular in research on health care; studies within several fields of nursing already confirmed the construct validity of these measures outside home care nursing (e.g., Büssing, 1992;Büssing & Glaser, 2000;Büssing, Glaser, & Höge, 2001). Strain was measured by the following six scales: (a) Irritation/Strain by Mohr (1991), modified and validated for hospitals by Büssing (1992), consists of 9 items and a 5-point Likert scale (1 ϭ no, not at all, 5 ϭ yes, indeed); (b) Emotional Exhaustion and (c) Depersonalization, part of the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D) adapted from Maslach and Jackson (1986) and validated by Büssing and Perrar (1992), consist of 9 items that were rated on a 6-point frequency scale ranging from 1 ϭ never to 6 ϭ very often; (d) Psychosomatic Complaints, adapted from Fahrenberg (1994), consists of 25 items with responses given on a 5-point frequency scale from 1 ϭ never to 5 ϭ nearly daily; and (e) Mental Health and (f) Physical Health measured by the SF-12 (Bullinger & Kirchberger, 1999), which is the German short form of the Medical Outcome Study 36 Short-Form Health Survey (MOS-SF-36) of Ware and Sherbourne (1992). ...
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This article describes the development of the Violence and Aggression in Health Care Questionnaire (VAQ) and the application of the measure in the field of home care. In a 1st sample of 361 German home care workers, the scales of the VAQ reached internal consistencies from .72 to .93. A confirmatory factor analysis gave evidence to the hypothesized factor structure. Significant correlation with indicators of psychophysical strain and health resulted in a 2nd sample of 180 home care workers. In multiple regression analysis based on a 3rd sample of 180 home care workers, verbal aggression by patients was a significant predictor of negative psychological outcomes. The relationship is completely mediated by negative emotional reactions after aggressive incidents.
... Es zeigten sich keine Unterschiede bezüglich des Alters der Führungskräfte. Auch die Branchenzugehö- 4 Daten beziehen sich auf eine repräsentative Bevölkerungsstichprobe von N=324 Personen (Mohr et al., 2005) 5 Daten beziehen sich auf eine Referenzstichprobe von N=482 Krankenpflegekräften (Büssing & Glaser, 2000 Overcommitment erhöht das Risiko für psychische Belastungsfolgen deutlich Wie Abbildung 12 zeigt, steht die Verausgabungsneigung in einem sehr engen statistischen Zusammenhang mit den psychischen Belastungsfolgen . Dies bedeutet, dass Personen, die zu beruflichem Überengagement neigen, mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit unter psychischen Beschwerden leiden. ...
Technical Report
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Managers have a key role in promoting their subordinates’ health, but they also constitute a relevant target group in mental health prevention. However, mental health risks among managers have rarely been subject of empirical research so far. This technical report presents the results af a cross-sectional study with N=282 managers and supervisors. Study results focus on (1) the prevalence of mental disorders and stress symptoms and (2) mental health-related risk factors or protective factors, respectively. Based on the study results and its methodological limitations, we derive a research agenda and prevention strategies appropriate for managers.
... Action regulation theory (ART; Hacker, 2003) distinguishes between work characteristics that are beneficial for learning and personality development (learning demands) and conditions that are detrimental for action regulation and health ( job stressors). The former are psychological regulation requirements, such as challenging or complex tasks, whereas the latter refer to regulation obstacles, such as discrepancies between task goals, tasks, and learning conditions, or tasks and performance conditions (Büssing & Glaser, 2000;Greiner, Ragland, Krause, Syme, & Fisher, 1997). A third category, work-related resources, has mainly supportive functions in the psychological regulation of work demands. ...
Article
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We propose an integrated model of learning demands, work-related resources, and job stressors that incorporates core assumptions of work design in predicting processes of learning and performance as well as health impairment. The model was tested in a heterogeneous sample of 830 employees using structural equation modeling. Empirical results largely support theoretical assumptions. Learning demands and workrelated resources were positively related to intrinsic motivation and creative performance. Job stressors and low work-related resources were predictive for health impairment. The suggested tripartite taxonomy reconciles inconsistent research findings on the impact of work characteristics. The model provides practical guidance for work analysis and design by clarifying relationships between established work characteristics, job performance, and worker health.
... Arbeitsanforderungen sind nicht unbedingt gleich negativ, aber sie können sich zu Stressoren entwickeln, wenn das Bewältigen dieser Anforderungen und das Erreichen einer bestimmten Leistung große Anstrengung erfordert (Hakanen & Roodt, 2010, S. 86). Auch Büssing und Glaser (2000) Arbeitsorganisation auftreten (Büssing & Glaser, 2000) und Zusatzaufwand zur Erledigung einer Aufgabe geleistet werden muss, z. B. bei Arbeitsunterbrechungen (Zapf & Semmer, 2004, S. 1030 ...
Thesis
Die Arbeitswelt wandelt sich immer schneller, was zunehmende Anforderungen an die Flexibilitaet von Unternehmen und Beschaeftigten stellt. Vor allem kurzfristige und unvorhersehbare Anforderungen wie Kundenanfragen, zusaetzliche Aufgaben oder Terminaenderungen landen meist direkt bei den beteiligten Arbeitsgruppen oder Mitarbeitern vor Ort. Diesen Flexibilitaetsanforderungen so zu begegnen, dass die Beschaeftigtengesundheit einerseits, aber auch die Liefer- und Qualitaetsstandards des Unternehmens andererseits nicht gefaehrdet werden, ist eine zunehmende Herausforderung moderner Arbeitswelten. Um diesen hohen Anforderungen an die Flexibilitaet gerecht werden zu koennen, sind materielle und immaterielle Puffer von Unternehmensseite zu beruecksichtigen, aber auch personale Ressourcen der Beschaeftigten selbst. Das Job Demands-Resources Modell (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001) erlaubt die gleichzeitige Betrachtung der Bedeutung von Arbeitsanforderungen und arbeitsbezogenen Ressourcen auf negative und positive Gesundheitsindikatoren, laesst aber personale Ressourcen in diesem Zusammenspiel eher außer Acht. Flexibilitaetsanforderungen, die im Modell bislang nicht beruecksichtigt wurden, aber als zentrale Herausforderung moderner Arbeitswelten gelten koennen, werden neben Arbeitsmenge als Arbeitsanforderung in das Modell integriert. Dazu wird ein Index zur Messung von Flexibilitaetsanforderungen aus bestehenden Instrumenten heraus gebildet, ergaenzt und ueberprueft. Als arbeitsbezogene Ressourcen werden mit Autonomie und Sozialer Unterstuetzung zwei breit gueltige und einflussreiche Ressourcen in das Modell aufgenommen. Berufliche Selbstwirksamkeit als der Glaube daran, mit den eigenen Faehigkeiten bestimmte Ziele erreichen oder Herausforderungen ueberwinden zu koennen, wird hier auf Basis ihrer bereichsspezifischen Formulierung fuer den Berufskontext und ihrer Veraenderlichkeit durch Erfahrungen und Entwicklung als personale Ressource ausgewaehlt und in das Modell integriert. Beide Modellerweiterungen durch Flexibilitaetsanforderungen und Berufliche Selbstwirksamkeit werden anhand einer quer- und einer laengsschnittlichen Fragebogen-Studie mit Beschaeftigten ueberprueft. Die Ergebnisse der ersten Studie, durchgefuehrt mit 110 Beschaeftigten aus einem deutschen Metall- und IT-Unternehmen, koennen regressionsanalytisch die Bedeutung von Beruflicher Selbstwirksamkeit fuer das Befinden (Irritation und Work Engagement) belegen. Darueber hinaus zeigt Autonomie einen direkten Effekt auf Work Engagement. Ein inkrementeller Effekt von Flexibilitaetsanforderungen sowie erwartete Interaktionseffekte mit Beruflicher Selbstwirksamkeit koennen nicht festgestellt werden. Die zweite Studie, eine Tagebuchstudie mit fuenf Erhebungszeitpunkten, durchgefuehrt mit 122 Beschaeftigten zweier deutscher Finanzdienstleistungsunternehmen, kann mehrebenenanalytisch zeigen, dass Flexibilitaetsanforderungen neben Arbeitsmenge einen inkrementellen Anteil an Varianz in der Emotionalen Erschoepfung aufklaeren koennen. Zudem zeigt sich ein bedeutsamer Interaktionseffekt zwischen Arbeitsmenge und Beruflicher Selbstwirksamkeit. Die Berufliche Selbstwirksamkeit weist ueberdies sowohl zu Emotionaler Erschoepfung als auch zu Vitalitaet, einer Komponente von Work Engagement, direkte Zusammenhaenge auf. Im Hinblick auf positives Befinden interagiert Berufliche Selbstwirksamkeit mit Sozialer Unterstuetzung. Die Modellerweiterung durch die Betrachtung von Flexibilitaetsanforderungen wird bestaetigt. Dabei scheint der Effekt von Flexibilitaetsanforderungen auf das Befinden in der hier verwendeten Operationalisierung negativ zu sein, es bestehen positive Zusammenhaenge zu negativen Befindensindikatoren. Die nachgewiesenen direkten und Interaktionseffekte Beruflicher Selbstwirksamkeit stuetzen die Bedeutung personaler Ressourcen fuer das Job Demands-Resources Modell. Allerdings zeigen die Ergebnisse auch, dass vermutlich nicht die personale Ressource als Moderator fungiert, sondern die jeweils bedingungsbezogene Variable (Soziale Unterstuetzung, Arbeitsmenge) moderierend auf den Zusammenhang von arbeitsbezogenen Ressourcen und Arbeitsanforderungen mit Befindensindikatoren wirkt. Dies verdeutlicht, dass nie allein individuelle oder arbeitsbezogene Aspekte fuer die Beschaeftigtengesundheit verantwortlich sind, sondern ein Zusammenspiel dieser. Es scheint daher zentral, fuer die betriebliche Gestaltung von Flexibilitaetsanforderungen verhaltens- und verhaeltnisbezogene Maßnahmen zu veranlassen, um langfristig Leistungsfaehigkeit und Gesundheit von Beschaeftigten erhalten und foerdern zu koennen.
... Third, even though we included a small number of items addressing emotionally inconclusive (neutral) and positive states, the large majority of test items was developed to assess students' abilities to deal with their own negative feelings and emotional strain in the care recipients and their relatives. We would like to regard this preponderance of negative affect as being more representative of our definition and selection of care problems than of day-today client-nurse encounters themselves, but we acknowledge the high emotional load and prevalent aversive consequences that have been consistently reported for the caring professions (Büssing and Glaser 2000;Ewers et al. 2002;Zapf et al. 1999). Finally, whereas the results of this study may help to clarify the role of emotion-related affordances in the pivotal domain of direct client-nurse interaction, questions about the status and mutual relationship of emotion-related abilities employed in the remaining competence domains of organizational and self-related care competence remain untapped. ...
Article
The care of older people was described as involving substantial emotion-related affordances. Scholars in vocational training and nursing disagree whether emotion-related skills could be conceptualized and assessed as a professional competence. Studies on emotion work and empathy regularly neglect the multidimensionality of these phenomena and their relation to the care process, and are rarely conclusive with respect to nursing behavior in practice. To test the status of emotion-related skills as a facet of client-directed geriatric nursing competence, 402 final-year nursing students from 24 German schools responded to a 62-item computer-based test. 14 items were developed to represent emotion-related affordances. Multi-dimensional IRT modeling was employed to assess a potential subdomain structure. Emotion-related test items did not form a separate subdomain, and were found to be discriminating across the whole competence continuum. Tasks concerning emotion work and empathy are reliable indicators for various levels of client-directed nursing competence. Claims for a distinct emotion-related competence in geriatric nursing, however, appear excessive with a process-oriented perspective.
... As indicators of negative well-being, we also assessed two indicators of burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, using the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D; Büssing & Glaser, 2000). Emotional exhaustion was measured with nine items, e.g., "I feel burned out by my work". ...
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There is empirical evidence that leadership behaviour is related to employee wellbeing. Most studies have analysed the relation between individual leadership constructs and indicators of employee well-being. There has been no systematic comparison of different leadership constructs with respect to their impact on different indicators of employee well-being within the same sample. The aim of our study was therefore to compare different leadership constructs with respect to their relation with indicators of positive and negative employee well-being. The sample consists of 1,045 health care workers. We conducted relative weight analyses and hierarchical regression analyses in order to identify the best leadership predictor for employee well-being. Our analyses reveal that leader-member exchange best predicts most of the well-being indicators and that the other leadership constructs fail to add substantial additional variance. Our findings advance the understanding of how leaders can enhance employee well-being and provide implications for research and practice.
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La pandemia de COVID-19 es un reto enorme para la salud pública y la economía mundial; también es un reto mayor para la salud mental, siendo uno de los grupos potencialmente más afectados el personal de salud. Uno de los efectos que ya se observa entre los trabajadores de este grupo ocupacional es el síndrome de burnout. En este artículo se revisa el origen del síndrome de burnout entre el personal sanitario, su importancia en el contexto de la pandemia y se proponen estrategias para disminuir o controlar su ocurrencia.
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This study investigated different ways in which work stressors, sense of coherence (SOC), and negative affectivity (NA) might influence strain. Three models covering direct, moderating. and mediating effects between the variables were tested for hyperresponsitivity, causality, perception, selection, and stressor-creation mechanisms. The sample consisted of 205 hospital employees (nurses, physicians, and medical technicians). Work stressors. SOC. NA, and strain were measured and analyzed in structural equation models and with analyses of variance. Besides direct effects on strain, significant perception, selection, and stressor-creation mechanisms of SOC could be identified. After controlling for SOC and NA, work stressors remain substantial predictors of strain.
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As apart of wider research of emotional well-being of health associates, this research investigates their emotional response to work. For that purpose we investigated age related differences in self perception of emotional responses to work and the nature of their connection to contra productive behavior and physiological disturbances as symptoms of stress. 112 health associates employed in public health system in hospitals in Croatia have been included into the research by questionnaire, which they willingly filled in. The questionnaire was based on 4 measuring instruments that were used to evaluate emotional responses to work, counterproductive behaviors at work, physical symptoms of stress and to gain an insight into socio-demographic characteristics of examinees. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, variance analysis, Scheffes Post-hoc Test and cannonical correlation analysis were used in process of gaining valid data. In youngest health associates, with least working experience, feeling positive and negative emotions at the same time is characteristical, as it is feeling only positive emotions in those with the most working experience. Positive emotions are the least present in middle-aged associates, who are mostly frustrated by their work. Negative emotions at work are connected with more frequent counterproductive behaviors and with physical symptoms of stress. Although there is a certain research limit concerning convenient sample, self given statements by the examinees and one timeline information gathering, the results were as expected, they confirmed those in literature as well as the results of other similar research, and they match empirical knowledge. They became a starting point for further research (which is in progress), which will determine personal and organizational characteristics that contribute to emergence of certain emotional responses to work. In that way the knowledge of emotional well-being of health associates can be shared and it can be used in creation of adequate support programs to help those profiles. This research identified age groups that could use them and corroborated the reasons for their use.
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This study links idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) to job design theory. It investigates the impact of individually negotiated job changes on performance, self-efficacy, and psychological strain through their intervening effects on work design. Based on a sample of 187 health care professionals employed by a hospital in Germany, three types of work design-related i-deals were investigated: (1) task, (2) career, and (3) flexibility i-deals. Consistent with hypotheses, the three types of i-deal had differential effects on work characteristics, and each in turn related to different outcomes. Specifically, job autonomy mediated the task i-deals—job performance relationship; skill acquisition mediated the career i-deals—occupational self-efficacy relationship; and reduced work overload mediated the flexibility i-deals—emotional and affective irritation relationships. Leader–Member Exchange was confirmed as an antecedent of all three types of i-deals. Task, career, and flexibility i-deals are discussed as ways to make work more intrinsically motivating, ensure one’s professional advancement, and balance workplace stressors.
Chapter
Burnout prevention is a growing market. The systematic review of burnout intervention studies (1995a to 2011) gives an overview of the effectiveness of different approaches. Using three databases, 34 primary studies were identified. Twenty-four are person-centered, ten are combined individual–organizational interventions. Seventy-six percent show a positive effect on burnout. Five studies were followed for periods ranging from 1 to 3 years. In three of these studies, the intervention is effective with regard to burnout outcome measures. To conclude, the effects of the studies can be enhanced in refresher courses. Future research should focus on combined (person-centered and organization-based) interventions, include different risk groups, and provide long-term follow-up.
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Nas últimas décadas, pesquisadores de várias áreas têm se preocupado com o fenômeno Síndrome do Esgotamento Profissional (SEP) caracterizada como doença do trabalho. Considerada o estágio mais avançado do estresse, a SEP afeta inúmeras profissões, principalmente aquelas em que os profissionais possuem contato direto com pessoas, entre os quais, os professores. A revisão bibliográfica com textos em língua portuguesa, inglesa e espanhola sobre o tema permitiu unificar a expressão do fenômeno como "Síndrome do Esgotamento Profissional" (SEP). O aprofundamento de estudos sobre esse fenômeno em determinados coletivos docentes, como os professores de Educação Física, possibilitará ampliar a compreensão e elaborar significativos questionamentos envolvendo o trabalho docente e o fenômeno descrito na bibliografia. Destaca-se que nessa revisão de literatura, foram encontrados poucos trabalhos envolvendo coletivos de trabalhadores docentes. No caso dos professores de Educação Física, foco de interesse investigativo deste estudo, raros foram os trabalhos encontrados sobre o assunto.
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attempt to make a broad sweep of the industrial and organizational psychology and organizational behavior literatures with the intention of uncovering evidence about the effects of employee control in the workplace summary of experimental and social psychological control research / control theories / intrinsic need for control / learned helplessness / distinguishing predictability from control include those studies that measure control beliefs directly as well as studies that assess working conditions that are theoretically causal of those cognitions cover studies that address relevant dispositional constructs such as locus of contol / individual difference variables / type A behavior pattern control theory in organizational settings / participation in decision making / job design research / autonomy research / machine pacing / job decision latitude / tests of an interactive control model workplace interventions and control job attitudes / job performance / stress and well-being (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It has been almost twenty years since the term "burnout" first appeared in the psychological literature. The phenomenon that was portrayed in those early articles had not been entirely unknown, but had been rarely acknowledged or even openly discussed. In some occupations, it was almost a taboo topic, because it was considered tantamount to admitting that at times professionals can (and do) act "unprofessionally." The reaction of many people was to deny that such a phenomenon existed, or, if it did exist, to attribute it to a very small (but clearly mentally disturbed) minority. This response made it difficult, at first, for any work on burnout to be taken seriously. However, after the initial articles were published, there was a major shift in opinion. Professionals in the human services gave substantial support to both the validity of the phenomenon and its significance as an occupational hazard. Once burnout was acknowledged as a legitimate issue, it began to attract the attention of various researchers. Our knowledge and understanding of burnout have grown dramatically since that shaky beginning. Burnout is now recognized as an important social problem. There has been much discussion and debate about the phenomenon, its causes and consequences. As these ideas about burnout have proliferated, so have the number of empirical research studies to test these ideas. We can now begin to speak of a "body of work" about burnout, much of which is reviewed and cited within the current volume. This work is now viewed as a legitimate and worthy enterprise that has the potential to yield both scholarly gains and practical solutions. What I would like to do in this chapter is give a personal perspective on the concept of burnout. Having been one of the early "pioneers" in this field, I have the advantage of a long-term viewpoint that covers the twenty years from the birth of burnout to its present proliferation. Furthermore, because my research was among the earliest, it has had an impact on the development of the field. In particular, my definition of burnout, and my measure to assess it (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI) have been adopted by many researchers and have thus influenced subsequent theorizing and research. My work has also been the point of departure for various critiques. Thus, for better or for worse, my perspective on burnout has played a part in framing the field, and so it seemed appropriate to articulate that viewpoint within this volume. In presenting this perspective, however, I do not intend to simply give a summary statement of ideas that I have discussed elsewhere. Rather, I want to provide a retrospective review and analysis of why those ideas developed in the ways that they did. Looking back on my work, with the hindsight of twenty years, I can see more clearly how my research path was shaped by both choice and chance. The shape of that path has had some impact on what questions have been asked about burnout (and what have not), as well as on the manner in which 2 answers have been sought. A better understanding of the characteristics of that path will, I think, provide some insights into our current state of knowledge and debate about burnout. In some sense, this retrospective review marks a return to my research roots. The reexamination of my initial thinking about burnout, and an analysis of how that has developed and changed over the years, has led me to renew my focus on the core concept of social relationships. I find it appropriately symbolic that this return to my research roots occurred within the context of a return to my ancestral roots. The 1990 burnout conference that inspired this rethinking took place in southern Poland, from which each of my paternal grandparents, Michael Maslach and Anna Pszczolkowska, emigrated to the United States in the early 1900s. Thus, my travel to Krakow had great significance for me, at both personal and professional levels.
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Burnout is a unique type of stress syndrome, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment. Although burnout has been shown to be potentially very costly in the helping professions, such as nursing, education, and social work, little work has been done thus far to establish its generalizability to industry. This article reviews the literature on burnout and provides a conceptual framework designed to improve the understanding of burnout. Propositions are presented that are aimed at clarifying the dynamics of burnout, including determinants of and interrelationships among the three burnout components.
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This article focuses on differences between the model of burnout developed by Leiter and the phase model of Golembiewski. The advantages of utilizing the full range of the subscales are contrasted with the phase approach based on dichotomizing the subscales. Directions for future model building are discussed.
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focuses on the process of burnout / places burnout in a time perspective and regards it as a developmental process starts with the contention that burnout is a three-dimensional construct, including emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment / criticizes the "phase model" of Golembiewski and his colleagues for relying too much on the first dimension and for ignoring the temporal development of burnout / in Leiter's own process model of burnout, emotional exhaustion results from a demanding (work) environment, which in turn contributes to increased depersonalization / depersonalization is considered to be a coping response, which occurs after the emotional resources have been depleted to a large extent (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes an ongoing series of studies by the authors, begun in 1973, that concern the concept of employee burnout, which is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The development of the concept, early research, and the rationale for choosing the helping professions for studying burnout are discussed. The development of the Maslach Burnout Inventory is described, and current knowledge of burnout is assessed. It is suggested that this inventory should be used to investigate organizational conditions that increase the risk of employee burnout, especially absence of positive feedback, lack of control, lack of role clarity, lack of social support, and unrealistic personal expectations about the job. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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to establish a general theory of work behavior, one must begin with the concept of action / action is goal-oriented behavior that is organized in specific ways by goals, information integration, plans, and feedback and can be regulated consciously or via routines / describe general [German] theory along these lines / this is quite a different theory from the typical American theories in industrial and organizational psychology (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using structural equation modeling, this paper compares the intertemporal sequences of the burnout components proposed by Maslach (1982) and Golembiewski (1989) using responses from 354 human resource professionals. The relationship between the burnout components and several critical variables that are theoretically linked to the phenomenon are also investigated. Studying human resource professionals allows us to examine the generalizability of burnout. This group of employees provides a range of services to a largely internal client group, and thus experience strain from interpersonal interactions. Results support Maslach's three-factor sequential model of burnout, although its superiority over the Golembiewski sequential model is not definitive. A post hoc analysis reveals a significant path between emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, and an insignificant path between depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Investigation of the relationship between the burnout components and several critical, theoretically linked variables indicates significant paths between (a) role overload and emotional exhaustion, (b) noncontingent punishment and depersonalization, and (c) contingent rewards and personal accomplishment. The work documents the generalizability of burnout to managers and professionals in corporate settings. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Karasek (1979) proposed that job demands and decision latitude interact to cause psychological strain. Main effects of these job variables on strain have been often found, but the predicted interaction between them has been less consistently demonstrated. We argue that this lack of support results from inadequate specification and operationalization of the independent variables. In particular, most empirical tests of the interaction have been based on a general measure of decision latitude which encompasses a wide range of job properties including control, task variety and learning opportunities. Yet, theoretically, it is control which is the crucial factor. In this study we used more focused measures of demands and control, with a sample of 1451 manufacturing employees, and found clear evidence of the predicted interaction effect. Parallel analyses using a measure of decision latitude rather than of job control did not show an equivalent effect. It is recommended that greater attention be paid to congruence between theory and measurement.
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A scale designed to assess various aspects of the burnout syndrome was administered to a wide range of human services professionals. Three subscales emerged from the data analysis: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Various psychometric analyses showed that the scale has both high reliability and validity as a measure of burnout. Since the publication of this article in 1981, more extensive research was done on the MBI, which resulted in some modifications of the original measure. The present article has been re-edited to reflect those modifications. However, it does not include other new additions (which are contained in the MBI Manual distributed by the publisher, Mind Garden).
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The Leiter and Maslach (1988) and Golembiewski et al. (1986) models of burnout were examined among supervisors and managers in a public welfare setting. The paths from emotional exhaustion to depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment were found to be most consistent with the data and partially supported the Leiter and Maslach model. Work autonomy and social support were found to be related to exhaustion through role stress. In turn, exhaustion mediated between these three antecedents and the two other burnout dimensions, and directly affected turnover intentions. Further analyses revealed that a revised Leiter and Maslach model was somewhat more valid for the less experienced employees than for the more experienced employees. Implications for understanding how to cope with burnout and for future research are discussed.
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Organizational commitment and burnout were related to interpersonal relationships of nurses in a small general hospital. Regular communication contacts among personnel were differentiated as supervisor or coworker contact, and these categories were further differentiated into pleasant and unpleasant contacts. The results were consistent with a view of burnout in which emotional exhaustion leads to greater depersonalization which subsequently leads to diminished personal accomplishment. Interpersonal contact with personnel in the organization was related to the development of burnout at each stage. Patterns of pleasant and unpleasant contacts with supervisors and coworkers were related to the three aspects of burnout in a distinct manner. High burnout was related to diminished organizational commitment, which was also related to aspects of the interpersonal environment of the organization. The results are discussed in the context of a comprehensive approach to psychological adjustment to a worksetting. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Organizational Behavior is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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The paper attempts to bring concepts developed in cognitive approaches to stress and coping to a model which predicts burnout as a function of organizational demands and resources. Workers in a mental hospital (N = 177) provided information regarding coping patterns, burnout, and organizational commitment as well as various demands and resources in the work environment. A LISREL analysis confirmed that burnout is best considered a function of coping patterns as well as a function of organizational demands and resources. Control coping cognitions and actions were associated with decreased burnout, while escapist coping strategies were associated with increased burnout. The analysis indicated relationships of coping patterns with organizational commitment could be operating indirectly through the relationships of both coping patterns and commitment with the burnout. The paper discusses implications of these findings for interventions designed to alleviate or prevent burnout. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Organizational Behavior is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Eighty-one observational work analyses were conducted to measure stressors independently of worker appraisal in the San Francisco transit system. On the basis of action regulation theory, stress factors were defined as hindrances for task performance due to poor work organization or technological design. Stressors included (a) work barriers, defined as obstacles that cause extra work or unsafe behavior; (b) time pressure; (c) monotonous conditions; and (d) time binding, defined as control over timing. Reliability, measured as interrater agreement, ranged between 80 and 97%, with kappas of .46-.70. Validity analyses were done with 71 transit operators who participated in the observations and 177 operators who were assigned mean line-specific observational stressor measures. High odds ratios (ORs) were found for barriers and psychosomatic complaints (OR = 3.8, p = .00), time pressure and relaxation time needed after work (OR = 3.1, p = .05), and barriers and smoking to cope (OR = 3.8, p = .02). Using observational data in conjunction with self-report data can reduce confounding and improve interpretability of stress and health studies.
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A survey of aircraft maintenance technicians with the Canadian Forces (N = 157) found support for a model of burnout and occupational risk assessment. The model depicted employees' assessment of occupational risk as a function of the prevalence and lethalness of workplace hazards, as well as of the amount of control employees experience over their interactions with these hazards. A confirmatory factor analysis, in which LISREL analysis was used, supported an integrated model of risk perception and burnout. In this model, the employee's sense of control in managing occupational hazards was pivotal in both the experience of exhaustion and being at risk at work. Safety training contributed to perceived control and technicians' sense of effectiveness at work. The extension of the burnout construct beyond the human service domain was considered by using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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This study among Dutch nurses (N = 156) tested Leiter's 1993 process model of burnout. The LISREL results of this study partially support Leiter's model. It appeared that emotional exhaustion was primarily related with the demand variable work overload while depersonalization was, to a lesser degree, associated with the resource variable coworker support. Personal accomplishment was significantly related with coping and emotional exhaustion was associated with depersonalization. However, Leiter's model did not fit to the data in all respects. Modifications indices provided by LISREL 8 suggested to relax the relationship between: (1) coping and depersonalization and (2) social support and emotional exhaustion. Because these relationships were supported by both theory and existing empirical evidence, they were successively added to the model. Eventually, the model improved considerably and all selected criteria were met. Several relationships in the final model, however, were nonsignificant (e.g., the relationship between personal accomplishment and autonomy and participation, respectively).
Article
This study is concerned with the impact of job expectations and job competence in the development of burnout. In an intercultural and longitudinal comparison expectations of job competence of US and German nursing students are investigated by means of half-standardized interviews at the end of their training. First results indicate that American nursing students regard themselves as better prepared for job reality with respect to job competence and theoretical training than German nursing students. On the other hand, they report distinct deficits of their practical training. These results are discussed against the background of the different training courses in the USA and in Germany. Prognoses for different courses of burnout processes are given which have to be tested in future investigations of the longitudinal study.
Article
Although the stress of involuntary job loss is well documented, the process through which people cope and ultimately adapt following this stressful event needs clarification. This article provides a crucial next step by introducing new theory to explain how people cope with job loss. The process model developed in this article incorporates constructs from coping theory, control theory, and self-efficacy. Future research strategies are suggested regarding coping effectiveness and reciprocal causality.
Article
The process of redesign and organizational development from a functional to a holistic nursing system is evaluated with respect to its influence on work stressors and the implications for burnout and interactional stress. The investigation is based on a longitudinal comparative study between one "model hospital" and two "control hospitals". Two groups of data were analysed: a bundle of quantitative indicators of different forms of work stressors, which proved to be reliable predictors of burnout, and qualitative data stemming from group discussions with the nursing staff to detail and to illustrate the quantitative results. Multivariate analysis of variance was applied to inspect main, simple main, and interaction effects of the factors time and hospital. The quantitative results show that work stressors were substantially reduced in the model hospital in the course of redesign, while emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased. According to the qualitative results this effect can be interpreted in terms of an intensification of interactional stress and emotional work within the holistic nursing system. The results are discussed against the background of a modernization of work systems in people-oriented human services.
Article
This article presents an evaluation of the construct validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The authors base this critique on previously published findings and data collected through five studies carried out during an eight-year period, for which 328 social workers acted as respondents. Factor analyses and correlational studies designed to test predictions provided fairly consistent evidence for the utility of the MBI subscale measures of emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. Additional analyses supported a reconceptualization of burnout and the MBI, one that regards exhaustion as the essence of burnout and treats accomplishment and depersonalization as related variables, but not as elements of burnout.
Article
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a widely used measure of three specific aspects of the burnout syndrome-namely; emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. It is rapidly becoming a valued tool in assessment of perceived burnout in human service professionals. Although its reliability and validity are well established, its factor structure is not. In previous studies different researchers have found very different factor solutions. In the present study this problem was solved by principal components analysis of previously published American data and New Zealand data, followed by three- and four-factor varimax rotations. The outcome produced a clear, replicable three-factor solution consistent with that of the MBI authors' descriptions. No replicable four-factor structure was found.
Article
In this paper a definition and a conceptualization of stress in organizations are offered. Stress is defined as a perceived dynamic state about something important. The model developed in this paper incorporates organizational and individual stressors, individual appraisal of the stressors and individual responses to the stress including short term, intermediate and long term responses, both voluntary and involuntary. Critical to the model is the definition of stress based on individual need for the resolution of dynamic states of uncertainty. Previous research from the medical and health sciences are used along with that from organizational sciences to develop the integrative transactional process model. Finally several hypotheses based on the model are suggested.
Article
This article is concerned with measures of fit of a model. Two types of error involved in fitting a model are considered. The first is error of approximation which involves the fit of the model, with optimally chosen but unknown parameter values, to the population covariance matrix. The second is overall error which involves the fit of the model, with parameter values estimated from the sample, to the population covariance matrix. Measures of the two types of error are proposed and point and interval estimates of the measures are suggested. These measures take the number of parameters in the model into account in order to avoid penalizing parsimonious models. Practical difficulties associated with the usual tests of exact fit or a model are discussed and a test of “close fit” of a model is suggested.
Article
[explores] the possible relationships between burnout, work stress, and health / considers the nature of the burnout concept and its relationship with health, and then their relationship to work stress / suggests a possible role for organizational healthiness in moderating the processes involved in these relationships (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses mediation relations in causal terms. Influences of an antecedent are transmitted to a consequence through an intervening mediator. Mediation relations may assume a number of functional forms, including nonadditive, nonlinear, and nonrecursive forms. Although mediation and moderation are distinguishable processes, with nonadditive forms (moderated mediation) a particular variable may be both a mediator and a moderator within a single set of functional relations. Current models for testing mediation relations in industrial and organizational psychology often involve an interplay between exploratory (correlational) statistical tests and causal inference. It is suggested that no middle ground exists between exploratory and confirmatory (causal) analysis and that attempts to explain how mediation processes occur require specified causal models. (57 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews German versions of Action Regulation Theory (ART) and empirical work research in work psychology that was published in German since 1987 and is explicitly based on or related to ART. The main aspects discussed are as follows: instruments of task analysis, strain and stress, occupational training, task redesign, mental regulation of work activities, activity latitude, behavioral economy, and errors as nonattainment of a goal. It is suggested that the integrative power of ART will bridge interrelated gaps between cognition and motivation and between basic and more applied approaches. The latter could occur by fostering a dialog between general (cognitive, emotional) psychology and the "applied disciplines" (e.g., W. Bungard and T. H. Herrman; 1993). Perhaps its most challenging German contribution may be to promote a humanist reunification of various disciplines within psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A great deal of research has been conducted over recent years in the field of occupational stress and its relationship to physical and mental illness. The present paper attempts to provide a framework for examining this work, with the dual objectives of broadening the existing psychological literature with the extensive medical data available and highlighting the research gaps in this area. By emphasizing the medical evidence it is hoped that greater interdisciplinary work in the field of occupational stress will be encouraged. (83 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
discusses the conceptual meaning of burnout, in an attempt to identify its unique content and theoretical underpinnings / definitional approaches construct validity of burnout / concurrent and discriminant validity / convergent validity consider a few epidemiological aspects of burnout burnout among teachers is taken as a case in point, offering tentative generalizations which may apply to other people occupations covers the issues of the causes and consequences of burnout outline the major findings of the few longitudinal studies which have been undertaken in this field of study details recommended directions for future research, to enhance our understanding of burnout (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A model is proposed that specifies the conditions under which individuals will become internally motivated to perform effectively on their jobs. The model focuses on the interaction among three classes of variables: (a) the psychological states of employees that must be present for internally motivated work behavior to develop; (b) the characteristics of jobs that can create these psychological states; and (c) the attributes of individuals that determine how positively a person will respond to a complex and challenging job. The model was tested for 658 employees who work on 62 different jobs in seven organizations, and results support its validity. A number of special features of the model are discussed (including its use as a basis for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects), and the model is compared to other theories of job design.
Stress in organizations is an extremely important phenomenon. It is generally associated with several vital individual physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms. Yet not a great deal is known about stress, either academically or organizationally. There exists no common definition or conceptualization of stress; therefore, an integrative research effort and a cumulative body of stress knowledge do not exist. The purpose of this paper is to offer such a definition and conceptualization of stress in organizations in order to facilitate a greater understanding of this important phenomenon. Several propositions and methodological considerations are suggested after the definition and conceptualization are presented. The perspective of this paper is of an understanding an individual's stress in an organization.
Article
The article investigates the impact of family resources, control coping and skill utilization on the development of burnout. Mental health workers (N=122) provided information regarding burnout, coping styles, and resources in their work setting and their family. Resources from both work setting and family were found to be related to subsequent levels of burnout at a 6-month interval. Work and family are two interdependent spheres of life. The growth in the prevalence of two-career families and single-parent families has fostered a family structure in which every adult family member maintains a significant and direct involvement in an occupational setting. Recent research in occupational stress and burnout has been guided by general models of mutual influence between occupational and family settings. The current study focuses on one aspect of the proposed mutual relationship of family and occupational settings: the impact of family coping resources on occupational stress. Burnout is a form of occupational stress prevalent among those working in human service professions. The primary measure of the syndrome, the Maslach Burnout Inventory defines burnout as consisting of three components, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and dimished personal accomplishment. This research consistently finds that occupational demands in the form of interpersonal conflict, work overload, and role conflict contribute to the experience of emotional exhaustion.
Book
Because stress implies a particular kind of commerce between a person (or animal) and environment, it provides an ideal vehicle for addressing the subject matter of this book on internal and external determinants of behavior. We believe this issue is expressed especially well by differentiating between two metatheoretical concepts, transaction and interaction. We have been drawn inexorably toward an emphasis on transaction by the very nature of stress phenomena and the evolving theoretical perspective within which we have worked.
Article
The relationship between job control and job strain is examined. Three models of that relationship provide a framework for the study hypotheses: (H1) Control is inversely related to job strain, (H2) job demands interact with job control such that job strain will be highest when job demands are high and job control is low, and (H3) strain increases as the discrepancy between actual and desired levels of job control increases. Study participants (N = 316) were health care workers in 2 hospitals in the northeastern United States. Objective measures of job control and job demands were obtained through supervisor evaluations of incumbents' job characteristics, and perceptual measures were obtained through incumbents' self-reports. Results provide support for Hypotheses 1 and 3; little support was found for an interaction between job control and job demands.
Article
This paper considers why asking what physiological measures of stress there are is not a sensible question. In so doing, it examines the nature of stress as described by contemporary theories and explores their implications for measurement. It concludes that there cannot be direct physiological measures of stress, only physiological correlates. The measurement of stress must focus on the individual' s psychological state, as related to their perception of the environment and emotional reaction to it ( mood). In discussing the question of measurement, the paper introduces the issues of reliability, validity and fairness, and emphasizes that they should be raised in relation to all types of measure, not just those that are subjective
Article
Theory and research in psychological stress has shifted from an earlier perspective of environmental inputs or outputs to a relational one. Stress is now treated as harms, threats and challenges, the quality and intensity of which depend on personal agendas, resources and vulnerabilities of the person, as well as on environmental conditions. This implies a knowing person who construes or appraises the significance of what is happening for his or her well-being. Such a “paradigm shift” requires a different approach to stress measurement, one that takes into account the cognitive activity evaluating the personal significance of transactions, and examines the multiple specific variables of person and environment that influence the appraisal process. The need for a different approach to stress measurement has generated research by the Berkeley Stress and Coping Project on what we have called daily hassles and uplifts.
Article
Drawing from the Demand-Control Model and the conceptual framework of the stress process developed by researchers at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, this paper presents and tests an "integrated model" of occupational stress. The results indicate that control and social support are strongly correlated with negative job feelings. The effect of control on health was found to depend on the type of control and organizational level at which control is exercised. Specifically, the effect of participation on health outcomes was found to differ at the job and organizational levels, and participation without influence was associated with increased negative job feelings. The effect of social support was found to depend on the type of support and from whom the support was provided. Results also indicate that it is important to test for moderating, mediating, and direct effects of control on health, and underscore the complementary nature of qualitative and quantitative data in furthering knowledge and understanding.