Distinct Cerebellar Contributions to Intrinsic Connectivity Networks

Service de NeuroImagerie, Hôpital des Quinze-Vingts, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, 75012 Paris, France.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 08/2009; 29(26):8586-94. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1868-09.2009
Source: PubMed


Convergent data from various scientific approaches strongly implicate cerebellar systems in nonmotor functions. The functional anatomy of these systems has been pieced together from disparate sources, such as animal studies, lesion studies in humans, and structural and functional imaging studies in humans. To better define this distinct functional anatomy, in the current study we delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state functional connectivity MRI. Independent component analysis was applied to resting state data from two independent datasets to identify common cerebellar contributions to several previously identified intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) involved in executive control, episodic memory/self-reflection, salience detection, and sensorimotor function. We found distinct cerebellar contributions to each of these ICNs. The neocerebellum participates in (1) the right and left executive control networks (especially crus I and II), (2) the salience network (lobule VI), and (3) the default-mode network (lobule IX). Little to no overlap was detected between these cerebellar regions and the sensorimotor cerebellum (lobules V-VI). Clusters were also located in pontine and dentate nuclei, prominent points of convergence for cerebellar input and output, respectively. The results suggest that the most phylogenetically recent part of the cerebellum, particularly crus I and II, make contributions to parallel cortico-cerebellar loops involved in executive control, salience detection, and episodic memory/self-reflection. The largest portions of the neocerebellum take part in the executive control network implicated in higher cognitive functions such as working memory.

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Available from: Christophe Habas, Jan 05, 2016
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    • "Projections from associative, limbic and motor territories of the subthalamic nucleus terminate in motor and non-motor cerebellar regions, highlighting this as a critical pathway for integrating basal ganglia and cerebellar function across a range of behavioural modalities (Bostan et al., 2013). From a networks perspective, cerebellar motor subregions show preferential coupling with the cortical sensorimotor network, while cognitive subregions are associated with large-scale cortical networks involved in cognitive and limbic function, including the cognitive control, salience and default networks (Habas et al., 2009;Buckner et al., 2011). Although cerebellar architecture is arguably more complex than two distinct subsystems (Buckner et al., 2011), the division into motor and cognitive cerebellar territories reflects the underlying structural connectivity with the cortex and it subsumes the more detailed modules described in functional parcellation schemes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological and atrophic changes in the cerebellum are documented in Parkinson's disease. Without compensatory activity, such abnormalities could potentially have more widespread effects on both motor and non-motor symptoms. We examined how atrophic change in the cerebellum impacts functional connectivity patterns within the cerebellum and between cerebellar-cortical networks in 42 patients with Parkinson's disease and 29 control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry confirmed grey matter loss across the motor and cognitive cerebellar territories in the patient cohort. The extent of cerebellar atrophy correlated with decreased resting-state connectivity between the cerebellum and large-scale cortical networks, including the sensorimotor, dorsal attention and default networks, but with increased connectivity between the cerebellum and frontoparietal networks. The severity of patients' motor impairment was predicted by a combination of cerebellar atrophy and decreased cerebellar-sensorimotor connectivity. These findings demonstrate that cerebellar atrophy is related to both increases and decreases in cerebellar-cortical connectivity in Parkinson's disease, identifying potential cerebellar driven functional changes associated with sensorimotor deficits. A post hoc analysis exploring the effect of atrophy in the subthalamic nucleus, a cerebellar input source, confirmed that a significant negative relationship between grey matter volume and intrinsic cerebellar connectivity seen in controls was absent in the patients. This suggests that the modulatory relationship of the subthalamic nucleus on intracerebellar connectivity is lost in Parkinson's disease, which may contribute to pathological activation within the cerebellum. The results confirm significant changes in cerebellar network activity in Parkinson's disease and reveal that such changes occur in association with atrophy of the cerebellum.
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    • "Recent work analyzing subcortical contributions to the ICNs has paid little attention to cerebellar connectivity. Those studies that have assessed cerebellar connectivity with the ICNs have been promising, demonstrating cerebellar contributions to all functional networks (Habas et al. 2009). Importantly, these studies have shown that regions of the cerebellum contribute distinctly to individual networks, with some regions such as cerebellar Crus I, Crus II and lobule VI contributing specifically to cortical networks such as the executive control and salience networks (Habas et al. 2009; O'Reilly et al. 2010; Bucker et al. 2011; Bernard et al. 2012). "
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    • "The existence of a direct cerebello-limbic pathway might overcome the objection of Strick et al. (2009) who argued that a big criticism about the hypothesis of a cerebello-limbic functional interaction was the lack of a defined anatomical substrate allowing the connection between the cerebellar output and the limbic system; indeed to date there are no sufficient anatomical literature findings supporting that all the effects on behavior be induced by cerebellar stimulation (Strick et al., 2009). Baumann and Mattingley argued that cerebellar connectivity with limbic networks wasn't deeply investigated, although fMRI studies demonstrated several cortico-cerebellar connections in humans (Habas et al., 2009; O'Reilly et al., 2010; Buckner et al., 2011; Baumann and Mattingley, 2012) confirming its role in non-motor processes. Finally Rochefort et al. (2013) suggested that many data support the hypothesis that a direct connection between cerebellum and hippocampus exists, despite the fact that it was never demonstrated. "
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