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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions of sunflower seeds including their nutritional and nutraceutical benefits. Design/methodology/approach The literature review is of the chemical composition of sunflower seeds, their health benefits and their utilization in different products. Findings “We are what we eat.” All living creatures need to take in nutrients to live. Nutrients provide energy for processes in the body and can promote growth, maintenance and repair. The classes of nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Sunflower seeds are a good source of all these nutrients. Plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, oil crops and whole grains contain many components that are beneficial to human health. Research supports that some of these foods, as part of an overall healthful diet, have the potential to delay the onset of many age‐related diseases. Research limitations/implications Currently available information on sunflower seeds is insufficient. These observations have led to continuing research aimed at identifying specific bioactive components in foods, such as antioxidants, which may be responsible for improving and maintaining health. Antioxidants are present in foods as vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Originality/value This review is unique in its comprehensive nature. This article will reflect the role of sunflower seeds as nutritional and nutraceutical package.
British Food Journal
Emerald Article: Nutritional and therapeutic potential of sunflower seeds:
a review
Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Issa Khan, Shahzad Hussain
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To cite this document: Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Issa Khan, Shahzad Hussain, (2012),"Nutritional and
therapeutic potential of sunflower seeds: a review", British Food Journal, Vol. 114 Iss: 4 pp. 544 - 552
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Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Issa Khan, Shahzad Hussain, (2012),"Nutritional and therapeutic potential of
sunflower seeds: a review", British Food Journal, Vol. 114 Iss: 4 pp. 544 - 552
Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Issa Khan, Shahzad Hussain, (2012),"Nutritional and therapeutic potential of
sunflower seeds: a review", British Food Journal, Vol. 114 Iss: 4 pp. 544 - 552
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Nutritional and therapeutic
potential of sunflower seeds:
a review
Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Nadeem,
Muhammad Issa Khan and Shahzad Hussain
National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions of
sunflower seeds including their nutritional and nutraceutical benefits.
Design/methodology/approach The literature review is of the chemical composition of
sunflower seeds, their health benefits and their utilization in different products.
Findings “We are what we eat. All living creatures need to take in nutrients to live. Nutrients
provide energy for processes in the body and can promote growth, maintenance and repair. The classes
of nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Sunflower seeds are a good source
of all these nutrients. Plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, oil crops and whole grains contain many
components that are beneficial to human health. Research supports that some of these foods, as part of
an overall healthful diet, have the potential to delay the onset of many age-related diseases.
Research limitations/implications Currently available information on sunflower seeds is
insufficient. These observations have led to continuing research aimed at identifying specific bioactive
components in foods, such as antioxidants, which may be responsible for improving and maintaining
health. Antioxidants are present in foods as vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and polyphenols.
Originality/value This review is unique in its comprehensive nature. This article will reflect the
role of sunflower seeds as nutritional and nutraceutical package.
Keywords Sunflower seeds, Antioxidants, Nutraceutical, Nutritional, Health foods, Personal health,
Food crops, Nutrition
Paper type Literature review
Everyone needs healthier lifestyle for this, require foods which that have positive
influence on health. Oilseeds have been found with increasing demand as diet from last
few decades owing to their rich phytochemistry mainly responsible for imparting
because they have been proven to be rich in components beneficial for human health
(Lin et al., 2009).
Many scientists have worked about the composition and chemistry of oilseeds
(Caballero et al., 2003; Conte et al., 2004) but now the researchers have thoroughly
investigated that the phytochemicals like tocopherols and phenolic compounds
represents the minor components of oilseeds (Shahidi, 2004a). These compound
inhibits lipid oxidation (Moreno and Mitjavila, 2003; Shahidi, 2004b) and can prevent
cardiovascular diseases (Delplanque et al., 2002; Nielsen et al., 2002) and these
beneficial effects of tocopherols and phenolic compounds are due to antioxidant
activity when they stabilize oil (Koski et al., 2002).
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
Received 5 August 2010
Revised 3 November 2010
Accepted 15 November 2010
British Food Journal
Vol. 114 No. 4, 2012
pp. 544-552
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/00070701211219559
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crop grown in
the world (Stefansson, 2007). A tiny sunflower seed is a package of healthy unsaturated
fats, protein, fiber and other important nutrients like vitamin E, selenium, copper, zinc,
folate, iron and phytochemicals. After palm, soy and rapeseed oil, sunflower oil ranked
fourth with a worldwide production of about 10.6 million metric tons during 2006
(FAO-STAT, 2008).
Sunflower is an annual plant originated from America and belongs to the family
Asteraceae. Its production was started in Europe IN early sixteenth century (Pope et al.,
2001). Seeds of the sunflower plant have dual purpose because they provide both
protein and oil (Nagraj, 1997).
Sunflower seed and its composition
As explained earlier sunflower is an oilseed crop cultivated worldwide for oil and
protein contents (Ravindran and Blair, 1992). Sunflower seeds are among the best
source of vegetable proteins, and their nutritional and functional properties have been
extensively studied (Venktesh and Prakash, 1993). Per 100 g the seed is believed to
contain protein 20.78 g, total lipid (fat) 51.46 g, ash 3.02 g, carbohydrate 20 g and fiber
8.6 g with total energy of 2445kj. It is also an excellent source of choline (55.1 mg) and
betaine (35.4 mg) (USDA, 2008).
The whole sunflower seeds contain moisture 5.50 percent, protein 18.72 percent,
crude fat 37.47 percent, crude fiber 28.30 percent, ash 3.49 percent and carbohydrates
6.11 percent. Whole sunflower cake contain moisture 5.80 percent, protein 23.60
percent, crude fat 11.01 percent, crude fiber 30.18 percent, ash 5.66 percent and
carbohydrates 23.75 percent while partially dehulled sunflower cake comprises of 5.60
percent moisture, 25.28 percent protein, 21.38 percent crude fiber, 6.89 percent ash and
19.34 percent carbohydrate. Similarly, dehulled sunflower cake contain moisture
contents, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrate contents as 7.59
percent, 29 percent, 30.25 percent, 8.60 percent,7.50 percent, and 11.17 percent
respectively (Srilatha and Krishnakumari, 2003).
While some scientists gave the chemical composition of hulled full-fat sunflower
seed (Rodrıguez et al., 1998) as moisture 33.2 g/kg fresh weight, ash 26.0 g/kg fresh
weight, crude protein 212.3 g/kg fresh weight, ether extract 457.1 g/kg fresh weight and
crude fiber 134.0 g/kg fresh weight.
It has also been investigated that some elements can decrease the risk of some types
of cancer, e.g. selenium (WCRF, 1997). Sunflower seeds are good source of these
minerals. USDA (2008) gave the following composition for mineral contents in
sunflower seeds. Per 100 g seeds contains calcium 78 mg, iron 5.25 mg, magnesium
325 mg, phosphorus 660 mg, potassium 645 mg, sodium 9 mg, zinc, copper
1.80 mg, manganese 1.95 mg and selenium 53.0 mcg.
Sunflower oil: composition and health benefits
Sunflower seed contains an appreciable amount of oil. Sunflower oil is the non-volatile
oil expressed from sunflower seeds. The oil is important with respect to its fatty acid
profile and tocopherols contents.
Sunflower oil contains almost 90 percent unsaturated fat. In particular, the fatty acid
composition is known to differ between cultivars and with environmental conditions.
Sunflower oil has about 110 g/kg of saturated fatty acids (Osorio et al., 1995). Perez-Vicha
potential of
sunflower seeds
et al. (1998) investigated a set of 387 intact-seed samples of sunflower were investigated
for fatty acid profile. Their results revealed that Palmitic acid was found in the range of 3
to 35.5 percent for whole seeds and 3.9 to 35.8 percent for dehulled seeds. Palmitoleic acid
was observed in the range of 0.0 to 8.6 percent and 0.0 to 9 percent, Stearic acid in the
range of 1.4 to 30.3 percent and 1.7 to 28.5 percent, oleic acid in the range of 7.7 to 90.7
and 9.1 to 90.5 percent and linoleic acid was observed in the range of 1.8 to 74.5 and 1.9 to
64.4 percent. Fayyaz and Ahmad (2003) reported the percentage of palmitic acid in the
range of 6.57 to 7.67 in different sunflower hybrids.
Jamieson and Baughman (1922) found different results for fatty acid profile. The
percentage palmitic acid and stearic acid were observed in the range of 7.92 to 84.91
percent and 7.25 to 74.90 percent. The percentages of linoleic and oleic acids were
calculated to be 63.3 percent of linoleic acid and 36.7 percent of oleic acid. The
difference in the results may be due to soil conditions and also because that is very old
study so old and differing analytical methods will also be considered. Climate and
seasonal varation also effect fatty aicd contents of sunflower seeds. Demurin et al.
(2000) concluded that oleic acid content is essentially influenced by temperature during
seed development. Each 18C increase of temperature leads to about 2 percent increase
of oleic acid. They also reported a strong negative correlation between oleic and linoleic
acid percentage. A low oleic acid phenotype would essentially be high linoleic. Ahmad
and Hassan (2000) also reported higher oil accumulation at high temperature and
reduction at low temperature.
Thomas (2000) reported that fat, as carriers of the powerful antioxidant alpha
tocopherol, have at the same time a pro-oxidant effect since they are susceptible to
oxidation so the scientific interest is in the relationship between alpha tocopherol and
fatty acids in different food stuffs.
So the other important component of sunflower oil is its vitamin E/Tocopherols
contents. Tocopherols are natural antioxidants. The term vitamin E was first time used
in 1931 for rodents to describe a dietary factor important for fertility in them (Ricciareli
et al., 2001). Tocopherols are fat-soluble vitamin having antioxidant action both in vivo
and in vitro (Kamal-Eldin and Appelqvist, 1996). They occur as a family of four
derivatives named alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol. These Tocopherols
isomers differ for their relative in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities with highest
activity of alpha-tocopherol. As it has antioxidant potential and performs various
functions at the molecular level, it is believed that it reduces the risk of cardiovascular
diseases and of certain types of cancer as well (Burton, 1994). It is also the second most
abundant tocopherol isomer found in the human body. Human body is unable to
synthesize tocopherol therefore they must be included in the diet (Sen et al., 2006).
Moderate content of seed tocopherols have been reported in the cultivated sunflower
seeds, predominantly made up of alpha-tocopherol. Velasco et al. (2002) reported an
average tocopherol content of 669.1 mg kg-1 seed, made up of 92.4 percent
alpha-tocopherol, 5.6 percent beta-tocopherol, and 2.0 percent gamma-tocopherol, in a
set of commercial hybrids. Sunflower oil contains alpha 670(mg/kg) beta 27(mg/kg)
gamma 11(mg/kg) and delta 1(mg/kg) tocopherols (Gunstone et al., 1994). Also
significant variations (389 to 1873 mg/g oil 2 1) in the total tocopherol concentration of
sunflower seed oil have been reported. (Nolascoa et al., 2004). The total tocopherols
present in crude oil from whole sunflower seeds varie between 447 and 900 mg/g
oil 2 1 (Gunstone et al., 1994) with extreme values varying from 389 to 1873 mg/g oil
(Velasco et al., 2002). Alpha-tocopherol typically represents most of 90 percent of
tocopherol content of sunflower seed oil. Sunflower seeds contain almost 90 percent
alpha-tocopherol, beta- and gamma-tocopherol in amounts below 5 percent of the total
tocopherols (Velasco et al., 2002). According to Fisk et al. (2006) tocopherol values
ranged from 214 mg total tocopherol kg 2 1 to 392 mg total tocopherol kg 2 1. In
cultivated material, an average tocopherol content of 669.1 mg kg-1 seed have been
reported, made up of 92.4 percent alpha-tocopherol, 5.6 percent betatocopherol, and 2.0
percent gamma-tocopherol (Velasco et al., 2002). Rossi et al. (2007) reported alpha
tocopherol content 475 mg/100 g in sunflower seed oil.
Total phenolic and antioxidant activity of sunflower seeds
Phenolics compounds possess one or more aromatic rings and with one or more
hydroxyl groups. These compounds in diet may provide health benefits associated with
reduced risk of chronic disease (Liu, 2007) because they are also known as antioxidants
(Abdel-Aal et al., 2006). Phenolic compounds from plant sources have become a subject of
interest for researchers due to their antioxidant properties. Antioxidants have long been
recognized to have protective functions against oxidative damage and are helpful to
reduce the risk of chronic diseases (Adom and Liu, 2002; Liu, 2007).
Many plants contain these natural antioxidants in the form of phenolics (Awika
et al., 2003; Chun et al., 2003; Kroyer, 2004; Kuti and Konuru, 2004). Sunflower seeds are
one of them as they contain appreciable amount of these phenolics (Kubicka et al.,
Contents of phenolic compounds in sunflower seeds have been reported in various
studies (Dabrowski and Sosulski, 1984; Pedrosa et al., 2000) in comparison with the data
obtained is hardly possible due to differing analytical methodologies used, the
development of novel sophisticated techniques and also differences in the sample
material and origin. Fisk et al. (2006) determined the total phenolics contents in sunflower
seeds and found to be 2700 mg/100 g on dry weight basis. The total phenolics content
(TPC) as determined by summarizing individual amounts of all constituents ranged from
2938.8 mg/100 g to 4175.9 mg/100 g dry matter (DM) for the dehulled kernels and from
40.8 mg/100 g to 86.0 mg/100 g DM for the corresponding shells implying a variation of
around 30 percent for the TPC from sunflower kernels and 52 percent for the shells.
Expectedly, the TPCs of the sunflower kernels were up to 100 times higher than those
determined in the shells. (Weisz et al., 2009). Many polyphenols from sunflower seeds
such as caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids have been reported in many studies to exert
a high antioxidative potential, which is beneficial from technofunctional and
biofunctional point-of-view (Velioglu et al., 1998; De Leonardis et al., 2005; Maier et al.,
2009). A total of 70 percent of sunflower polyphenols are present as chlorogenic and
caffeic acids (Sabir et al., 1974). These polyphenols have the capability to be used as
effective antioxidants for sunflower oil (De Leonardis et al., 2003).
Determination of antioxidant activity is important to assess the effectiveness of the
phenolics. Several studies applying the DPPH assay for determining the antioxidant
capacity of oilseeds such as the sunflower’s have found high antioxidant capacity
values for the extracts of these seeds (Chang et al., 2002; Suja et al., 2005; Shahidi et al.,
2007). Antioxidant activity by this method of the aqueous extract of sunflower seeds
was found to be 58.8 percent in striped sunflower seeds via DPPH assay (Giada and
Mancini-Filho, 2008).
potential of
sunflower seeds
The antioxidant activity via beta carotene bleaching method from sunflower
residue was found to be near 70 percent by Matthaus et al. (2002). And also the
antioxidant activity of sunflower seeds determined by Velioglu et al. (1998) was 72.9
Different results for relationship between phenolic content and antioxidant activity
have been reported. Some authors found correlation between the polyphenol content
and the antioxidant activity while others found no such relationship. Andarwulan et al.
(1999) found a parallel increase between phenol content and antioxidant activity during
germination of Pangium edule. Tsaliki et al. (1999) also found an increase in the
antioxidant activity of lupin seed. Maillard and Berset (1995) found no correlation
between antioxidant activity and phenolic content in malts as they reported other
compounds are also responsible for the antioxidant activity and also there was no
relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic composition found in citrus
residues (Bocco et al., 1998), fruit berry, fruit wines (Heinonen and Lehtohen et al., 1998)
and in plant extracts (Kahkonen et al., 1999).
Utilization of sunflower seeds
The scientists are working to explore the new ways to improve the quality of wheat
bread through various means. From consumer point-of-view the quality of breads
depends on sensoric attributes like appearance, aroma, texture and flavour (Meilgard
et al., 2007). Scientists have carried out work on the preparation of composite flours
comprising wheat flour supplemented with nutritionally rich materials of different
products of oil seeds i.e. soybean, peanut, sunflower, and cottonseed.
Sunflower seeds can be used to prepare various products. Nutritive value of these
products highly depends on the technology of seed processing i.e. high temperature,
pressure for oil extraction. Sunflower cake left after the extraction of oil contains high
level of crude protein 15-45 percent, and ether extract 3.5-38 percent (San and
Villamide, 2000).
Addition of different levels of sunflower seeds in bread negatively affected the
volume but improve the flavor and taste of the bread. Sunflower seeds can be
successfully replace wheat flour up to 16 percent. The supplementation of sunflower in
wheat flour significantly improved the nutrient profile of the breads (Skrbic and
Filipcev, 2008). There is a significant increase in protein, fat and fiber values when
recipes (for chapatti’s, biscuits) containing sunflower cake at 10 and 20 percent levels
were analyzed (Srilatha and Krishnakumari, 2003).
Using five protein sources, including sunflower seed protein concentrates, enriches
wheat bread. The protein sources were added at 5 percent and 10 percent level.
Chemical analysis of the enriched bread revealed increase in the protein content by
values ranging from 16 to 62 percent. Sensoric evaluated included: aroma, crumb color,
texture, flavor, and overall acceptability. The mean score for these characteristics show
that the protein sources are favorable supplements especially at 5 percent level.
Health and nutrition rank high for consumers who want foods that are as good for
them as they are good to eat. Sunflower oil and kernels meet that challenge with their
combination of nutrients and health benefits. The technology to utilize this functional
food package is to supplement it with wheat flour because wheat is the staple food of
the world. So by supplementing wheat flour with sunflower seeds four increase in
nutrient and phytochemicals contents can lead human beings to healthier life style.
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... It is recommended for patients with hyperglycemia because it can reduce increased oxidative stress during hyperglycemia (Patkova et al. 2017;Sutikno et al. 2020). Sunflower seed flour, apart from having an anti-diabetic effect, also contains ingredients that can help inhibit, protect, and repair damage to pancreatic cells, namely vitamin E in the form of alpha-tocopherol (92.4%), which acts as a natural antioxidant (Varsha et al. 2015;Pazdro & Burgess 2010;Anjum et al. 2012). ...
... Sunflower seed flour is rich in vitamin E or tocopherol in the form of alpha-tocopherol (92.4%), which acts as a natural antioxidant (Anjum et al. 2012). STZ-induced pancreatic cell death is associated with cell apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress due to excessive intracellular ROS production (Butler et al. 2003). ...
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Tempeh, yam, and sunflower's flour have been known to have antidiabetic effects, but their combined effect on the histopathology of hyperglycemic rat pancreatic cells in an enteral formula has not been proven. This study aimed to analyze the effect of GLITEROS specific-diabetes enteral formula modification based on tempeh flour, yam flour, and sunflower seed flour on the score pancreatic damage, number and diameter of the islets of langerhans of hyperglycemic rats with streptozotocin induction. The intervention was administered via an oral probe for 28 days to 30 Wistar rats, with each group consisting of 6 rats. The formula was given at a dose of 3.97 g/200 g/day (P1) and 8.75 g/200gr/day (P2) compared to standard control (K), positive control (K +), and negative control (K-). Histopathological features of the pancreas were analyzed using the hematoxylin–eosin staining method. Data were analyzed using paied t-test/Wilcoxon and ANOVA/Kruskal Wallis. The results showed a significant repair of pancreatic cell damage in the treatment group (P1 and P2) after the intervention ( p < 0.05), but there was no difference in the number and diameter of the islets of Langerhans ( p > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the modified GLITEROS specific-diabetes enteral formula made from tempeh, yam, and sunflower seeds flour on the histopathological picture of hyperglycemia-induced rat pancreas, especially in the repair of damage to pancreatic Langerhans cells. Graphical Abstract
... Its production was started in Europe in the early sixteenth century. As explained earlier sunflower is an oilseed crop cultivated worldwide for oil and protein contents [16]. ...
... cm [15], 9.50-13.30 cm [16], and 16.18-18.19 cm [22]. ...
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Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) are one of the most significant annual crops that are produced all over the globe for extracting edible oil from the plant's seeds. This study investigated and compared the growth and yield output of three Turkish sunflowers (Metinbey, Deray, and Reyna) cultivated in Somalia-Mogadishu. As well as to choose a high-yield variety of sunflowers that is ecologically adapted to Somalia's environment and to determine the morphological characteristics of these three imported sunflower crops. The experiment was conducted at the Research Center of the Faculty of Agriculture at Zamzam University of Science and Technology. The experiment began at the beginning of the winter (Jiilaal) season in January-2018 and continued until July of the same year. In terms of morphological characteristics, Metinbey demonstrated the best among the varieties, followed by Reyna, which displayed promptly; nevertheless, Deray recorded the lowest morphological parameters among the varieties. Regarding yield and yield components, the Reyna variety was documented as having the best yield and yield components among the varieties. The Deray variety followed this, while the variety of Metinbey was documented as having the lowest yield and yield component among the varieties.
... A large part of the antioxidant activity observed in DS may be related to the higher content of phenolic compounds present in the sample. In fact, sunflower meal has up to 4% of its mass in phenolic compounds, and the major component is chlorogenic acid [38,43,44]. Although a low antioxidant capacity of DP was observed, several compounds have been identified in palm kernel meal, such as pyrogallol (1550 µg/g), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (980 µg/g), gallic acid (590 µg/g), and ferulic acid (560 µg/g), as well as catechol, homovanillyl alcohol, and catechin [43]. ...
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Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and African palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) are among the most cultivated in the world regarding oil extraction. The oil industry generates a large amount of meal as a by-product, which can be a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, the physiological effects of bioactive compounds in such matrices are only valid if they remain bioavailable and bioactive after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This study evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant and prebiotic potential of de-oiled sunflower (DS) and de-oiled palm kernel (DP) meal after in vitro digestion. The DS sample had the highest protein content and the best chemical score, in which lysine was the limiting amino acid. Digested samples showed increased antioxidant activity, measured by in vitro methods. The digested DS sample showed a better antioxidant effect compared to DP. Moreover, both samples managed to preserve DNA supercoiling in the presence of the oxidizing agent. The insoluble fractions after digestion stimulated the growth of prebiotic bacterium, similar to inulin. In conclusion, simulated gastrointestinal digestion promoted in both matrices an increase in protein bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity, pointing to a metabolic modulation favorable to the organism.
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Non-traditional machining with Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF); precision machining technology, is widely used in areas such as semiconductors, optics, aviation, biomedical engineering, etc. Due to its ability to penetrate magnetic fields, the MAF process can be used not only to finish the outer surface of workpieces but also to finish the inner surface of tubes. In literature research, significant improvements in surface roughness values have been observed through the processing of flat and cylindrical workpieces using this method. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of non-traditional machining MAF method in Turkey, particularly in the processing of AISI 304L material surfaces through abrasion. Unlike studies conducted elsewhere, the literature in Turkey has focused on increasing magnetism using magnets, altering the micron sizes of magnetic and abrasive powders. Emphasis has been placed on polishing the surface of AISI 304L material through abrasion, and it has been concluded that processing both inner and outer surfaces is easily achievable with this material. The MAF method has shown more favorable results in inner surface processing. Looking at the literature, the congruence between experimental results in Turkey and those conducted abroad suggests that the MAF method may replace grinding in the future. The mixture ratios of magnetic and abrasive powders are crucial in machining. A decrease in the abrasive ratio in the mixture has reduced the % YPI values when abrasive powders settled among magnetic Fe powders, failing to effectively contact the surface and apply pressure. It has been concluded that the MAF method is more effective in polishing the inner surface of pipes.
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Background and Aims The global Coronavirus‐2 outbreak has emerged as a significant threat to majority of individuals around the world. The most effective solution for addressing this viral outbreak is through vaccination. Simultaneously, the virus's mutation capabilities pose a potential risk to the effectiveness of both vaccines and, in certain instances, newly developed drugs. Conversely, the human body's immune system exhibits a robust ability to combat viral outbreaks with substantial confidence, as evidenced by the ratio of fatalities to affected individuals worldwide. Hence, an alternative strategy to mitigate this pandemic could involve enhancing the immune system's resilience. Methods The research objective of the review is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the role of inflammation and immunity in COVID‐19. The pertinent literature concerning immune system functions, the impact of inflammation against viruses like SARS‐CoV‐2, and the connection between nutritional interventions, inflammation, and immunity was systematically explored. Results Enhancing immune function involves mitigating the impact of key factors that negatively influence the immune response. Strengthening the immune system against emerging diseases can be achieved through nonpharmaceutical measures such as maintaining a balanced nutrition, engaging in regular exercise, ensuring adequate sleep, and managing stress. Conclusion This review aims to convey the significance of and provide recommendations for immune‐strengthening strategies amidst the ongoing COVID‐19 pandemic.
To further utilize plant protein in oilseeds, it is vital to understand the structural and digestive characteristics of cell wall polysaccharides fractionated from sunflower meal. Water, chelator (cyclohexane‐trans‐1,2‐diaminetetra‐acetate, CDTA), sodium carbonate, 1 mol/L KOH, and 4 mol/L KOH were used to sequentially extract polysaccharides from sunflower meal, yielding samples that were labeled WSP, CSP, NSP, KS1, and KS4, respectively. Results indicated that galactose (1,6‐β‐D‐Galp) was the major sugar unit in WSP, while arabinose (1,3‐α‐L‐Araf and 1,5‐α‐L‐Araf) was the major sugar in the other four fractions. KS4 showed the highest molecular weight and the lowest thermal stability. The surface of the five polysaccharides was shown to be heterogeneous using SEM and AFM, with KS4 having the highest average size. The molecular weight of the five polysaccharides decreased during simulated digestion in vitro. It was noteworthy that the structures of KS1 and KS4 were harder to destroy than the other three fractions. These two polysaccharides are perhaps what makes sunflower protein difficult to digest, thereby decreasing its nutritional value.
Helianthus annuus cypsela (sunflower) is a staple oilseed crop with significant therapeutic applications against diverse diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite its reported antidiabetic potential , the implicated molecular mechanism of action is yet to be unravelled to date. This study evaluated the molecular mechanism of the antidiabetic activity of sunflower cypsela using network pharmacology (NP), density functional theory, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approaches. The six cultivars of sunflower cypsela used were profiled for their secondary metabolites using LC-MS and GCÀMS techniques. Subsequently , the genes associated with the identified metabolites were screened against T2DM-associated genes using NP. Based on the KEGG enrichment analysis of the identified common genes, signaling pathways were subsequently identified. The results obtained revealed 87 intersecting genes between the metabolites of sunflower cypsela and T2DM, while the KEGG analysis identified 35 signaling pathways with the PPAR route and its associated genes as the most implicated in T2DM progression with respect to sunflower cypsela. Both MMP1 and PPARA in the PPAR pathways interacted most with the identified metabolites, with CGA (À43.74 kcal/mol), GPA (À41.62 kcal/mol), and CFG (À45.36 kcal/mol) having higher binding free energy than both ROS and MET (reference standards) against MMP1 after 100,000 ps MD simulation. In contrast, ROS (À46.98 kcal/mol) had better affinity against PPARA compared to the top hits of sunflower cypsela. However , against both gene targets, the top hits had significant thermodynamic stability, flexibility, and compact-ness, which are attributable to their bond interactions and molecular orbital properties. These findings are suggestive of the essential role of the top-hits in the antidiabetic potential of sunflower cypsela through activation of the PPAR signalling pathway and most especially MMP1. In this regard, the modulation of MMP1 and PPARA genes by the identified metabolites of sunflower cypsela may enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose homoeostasis in the management of T2DM.
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Les maladies cardiovasculaires représentent le premier problème de santé publique des pays occidentaux. Des études récentes de prévention secondaire ont montré que des régimes maintenant un apport en acide oléique de 10 à 13% de l’apport énergétique total (AET) pouvaient protéger de l’apparition d’accidents cardio-vasculaires [8], mais augmenter cet apport d’acide oléique à plus de 20% de l’AET pourrait limiter cet effet bénéfique en induisant une augmentation du LDL-C [12, 34]. Grundy, dans le but de clarifier le ratio nécessaire entre acides gras saturés et insaturés (mono and poly), concluait en 1997 à d’« insufficient data for recommended Oleic intake », et proposait pour le moment 15-16% d’acide oléique à titre de « reasonable compromise ». L’objectif de notre étude était de définir des rapports entre acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique (OL/LA/ALA ratio) et de valider l’apport oléique après avoir stabilisé le rapport linoléique/alphalinolénique du régime d’hommes normolipidémiques (n = 40). Pour atteindre 11, 13 et 16% de l’AET sous forme d’acide oléique, nous avons utilisé des huiles de tournesol, de tournesol oléique (HOSO) et de colza pour obtenir des mélanges spécifiques ajustés à l’apport en acides gras proposés au protocole. Chacun de ces trois régimes (comportant 11, 13 et 16% d’acide oléique) a été suivi pendant 16 semaines et l’épuration postprandiale d’un repas gras (1 000 Kcal, 62,5% lipides) a été suivie pendant 8 heures à la fin de chaque période de régime. Les résultats indiquent que la stabilité des paramètres d’athérogenèse évalués à jeun et en postprandial est maintenue à un niveau favorable après ces régimes à 11, 13 et 16% d’apport en acide oléique : il n’y a pas de différences statistiques significatives sur les concentrations à jeun de LDL-C, non-HDL-C, HDL-C, TG, ApoB, ApoAI ou sur l’amplitude de la réponse postprandiale des TG. Ainsi les rapports ApoB/AI, LDL-C/HDL-C et non-HDL-C/HDL-C sont stabilisés. Ces observations permettent de conclure que la consommation d’acide oléique comprise entre 11 et 16% d’AET (soit 28 g à 44 g) de la ration alimentaire pourrait correspondre aux limites de flexibilité de ces apports, dans le cadre d’un apport calorique total de l’ordre de 2 000 à 2 500 Kcal et compte tenu des autres éléments entrant dans la composition du régime. Les limites de flexibilité des apports en acides oléique, linoléique et alphalinolénique en pourcentage d’AET du régime alimentaire pourraient être définies comme suit : 11-16% (soit 28 g à 44 g) d’acide oléique, 4-6% (soit 9 g à 13 g) d’acide linoléique, 1% (soit 1,5 g à 3 g) d’alphalinolénique (pour 60% en position sn2). Soit des rapports 18:1/18:2n-6/18:3n-3 de l’ordre de 11-16/4-6/1 en % de l’AET.
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Shelf life of two products namely chikki and oilseed butter were evaluated. Sunflower was substituted for groundnut at three levels (0, 50 and 100 %). Products were stored up to 2 months in ambient conditions (25-30 °C; RH 40-60 %). Chikki was packed in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and laminated pouches and oil seed butter was stored in glass and plastic jars. Products were evaluated for sensory characteristics, absence of rancidity; per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value. Stored chikki was evaluated for microbial load. Products were acceptable for sensory attributes even at the end of storage period. Product chikki stored in laminated pouches had higher per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value compared to that stored in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches. Oilseed butter stored in glass jar had higher per cent free fatty acid when compared to that stored in plastic jar. Stored chikki had higher microbial load in the Low density polyethylene (LDPE) when compared to that stored in laminated pouches. Products made with groundnut alone (control) were preferred over those made in combination with sunflower and groundnut (1:1) or sunflower alone. However all products were highly acceptable at the end of storage period.
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RÉSUMÉ Au cours du printemps et de l’automne de l’année 2000, une expérience a été faite à l’Université d’Agronomie pour les régions arides de Rawalpindija (Pakistan) pour déterminer l’effet des variations saisonnières sur le contenu d’huile et le profil en acides gras de quelques hybrides de tournesol souvent cultivés. Cinq hybrides de tournesol ont été semés selon le système de bloc aléatoire; ce processus a été répété trois fois. Les semailles de printemps ont été faites en février et la récolte en juin alors que les semailles d’automne ont été faites en août et la récolte en novembre. Les résultats ont montré qu’il y avait eu diminution du contenu d’huile et du pourcentage d’acide oléique dans la production obtenue en automne par rapport à celle du printemps. Cependant, le pourcentage d’acide palmitique et d’acide linoléique était supérieur dans la production d’automne. Il a été conclu que les semailles faites au printemps permettaient l’accumulation d’un plus grand contenu d’huile et d’un plus grand pourcentage d’acide oléique que les semailles d’automne. Les semences obtenues en automne, par contre, produisaient un plus grand pourcentage d’acide linoléique.
Cotton seed oil is a renewable resource that can potentially be blended with fossil fuels for power generation. The primary objective of this work was to identify analytical techniques that can be performed on the field to discern poppy seed oil from cotton seed oil. It was determined that it is feasible to distinguish poppy and cotton seed oil samples using reverse phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and viscosity measurement. Other seed oils including soybean and canola seed oils were also evaluated to understand the limitations of these analytical techniques. Viscosity measurement was determined to be effective to distinguish cotton seed oil from poppy or soybean seed oil, but it failed to distinguish cotton and canola seed oils. To maximize the HPTLC separation of the oils without pretreatment, different solvent mixtures were studied: isopropyl alcohol, 1-butanol, methanol, hexane, dioxane, and distilled water. The purpose of mixing solvents was to tailor a solution with moderate polarity to achieve the best separation with the HPTLC plates. The most promising mixtures were butanol-methanol at the ratio of 80:20% and 90:10%. In the 80:20 mixture, Rf values increased in the order of poppy, canola, cotton, and soybean, while in the 90:10 mixture the order was reversed. With this technique the oil polarity can be ranked in increasing polarity: poppy < canola < cotton < soybean. This showed that the various compounds making up the oil have varying levels of polarity, and thus lessen in concentration at varying levels as the analyte moves up the plate. Raman spectroscopy (microscopy) was employed to characterize the oils by locating cis C=C vibrational peak at 1654cm-1 on the oil smear that decreased as the analyte moved up the stationary phase.
Multispectral imaging in the visible and near-infrared (405–970 nm) regions was tested for nondestructive discrimination of insect-infested, moldy, heterochromatic, and rancidity in sunflower seeds. An excellent classification (accuracy >97 %) for intact sunflower seeds could be achieved using Fisher’s linear discriminant function based on 10 feature wavelengths that were selected from the original 19 wavelengths by Wilks’ lambda stepwise method. Intact sunflower seeds with different degree of rancidity could be precisely clustered by multispectral imaging technology combined with principal component analysis-cluster analysis (PCA-CA). Our results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a tool for rapid and nondestructive analysis of seed quality attributes, which enables many applications in the agriculture and food industry.
Oleic, linoleic, and alphalinoleic acids from vegetable oils: where are the limits for beneficial effects on lipemia and athero-thrombotic parameters in humans? Cardiovascular disease is the number one public health problem in western countries. Recent data showed that diets including 10 to 13% of oleic acid in the total caloric intake could protect from new cardio-vascular events [8], but increasing oleic acid intake to more than 20% of the total caloric intake could limit this beneficial effect by inducing an increase of LDL-C [21, 34]. Grundy, in an attempt to clarify the desirable ratio of saturated versus unsaturated (mono and poly) fatty acids, concluded in 1997 to "insufficient data for recommended oleic intake", and proposed for the moment 15-16% as a "reasonable compromise". The objective of our study was to define the proper ratio between oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic (OL/LA/ALA ratio) and to validate dietary levels of oleic acid after stabilisation of the linoleic/alpha-linolenic ratio in the diet of normolipidemic male subjects (n=40). In order to reach 11, 13 and 16% of oleic acid of the total energy (TE) intake, sunflower, high oleic sunflower (HOSO) and rapeseed oils were combined to obtain specific blends adjusted to the FA intake proposed in the protocol. Each of these 3 diets (11, 13, 16% oleic diets) was maintained for 16 weeks and the clearance of a fatty meal (1,000 kcal, 62.5% fat) was tested during 8 h postprandially at the end of each period. The results indicated that the stability of fasting and postprandial plasma atherogenic parameters was maintained to favorable levels. There were no statistical differences of the effects of the 11, 13, 16% oleic acid diets evaluated on fasting LDL-C, Non-HDL-C, HDL-C, TG, ApoB, ApoAI or postprandial TG incremental area under the curve, so that the ApoB/AI, LDL-C/HDL-C and Non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio were kept stable. We propose that the following data could represent a dietary fatty acid range of an healthy nutrition for the general population: within a range of total caloric intake of 2,000-2,500 kcal, an oleic acid intake limited to 11 to 16% of TE (28 g/day to 44 g/day), a linoleic acid intake of 4 to 6% of TE (9 g/day to 13 g/day), and an alpha-linolenic acid intake in sn2 position of 1% of TE (1.5 g/day to 3 g/day), the resilience for the OL/LA/ALA ratio could be expressed by: 11-16/4-6/1.