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Abstract

This article investigates the volume of foreign news provided by public service and commercial TV channels in countries with different media systems, and how this corresponds to the public's interest in and knowledge of foreign affairs. We use content analyses of television newscasts and public opinion surveys in 11 countries across five continents to provide new insight into the supply and demand for international television news. We find that (1) more market-oriented media systems and broadcasters are less devoted to international news, and (2) the international news offered by these commercial broadcasters more often focuses on soft rather than hard news. Furthermore, our results suggest that the foreign news offered by the main TV channels is quite limited in scope, and mainly driven by a combination of national interest and geographic proximity. In sum, our study demonstrates some limitations of foreign news coverage, but results also point to its importance: there is a positive relationship between the amount of hard international news coverage and citizens' level of foreign affairs knowledge.

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... This research also suggests that topic or event characteristics determine the chances of specific regions to be covered. Again, commercialized news media tend to engage in foreign or transnational news coverage, mainly in the form of soft news, such as sports and human interest (Aalberg et al. 2013). ...
... The literature on a related field, international news flows, paints an ambivalent picture. The fact that commercialized news media tend to engage in foreign or transnational news coverage mainly in the form of soft news, for instance, sports and human interest (Aalberg et al. 2013), ties to gatekeeping theory, according to which events outside a home region lack a crucial news factor: proximity (Wilke, Heimprecht, and Cohen 2012). Hence, extra-regional events must fulfill other news factors to pass the selection process. ...
... News outlets with commercial imperatives are less willing to invest in journalism, which covers seemingly distant places and regions. This is confirmed by findings on foreign news coverage in general (e.g., Aalberg et al. 2013) and coverage of the European Union (e.g., Brüggemann and Kleinen-von Königslöw 2013). If at all, commercialized media tend to cover soft news issues in foreign news coverage (Chan and Lee 2013), and the literature on geographic diversity suggests that commercial imperatives lead to lower geographic diversity (e.g., Magin and Stark 2011). ...
Article
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In reporting about the regions of a country, news media help define relevant topics and contribute to the integration of society. In multilingual countries, covering news across language boundaries is especially important, yet challenging and costly to perform. To what extent the news media use transregional coverage, that is, look beyond their own language regions, is therefore a particularly relevant question for multilingual societies. This study shows how news media in the three language regions of Switzerland observe each other. A representative sample of news items (N = 25,035) from 47 print and online news outlets was automatically structured based on textual mentions of Swiss place names (n = 189) and linked to manually coded variables. The results show that the degree of transregional coverage differs considerably depending on the size of the language regions, the topic, the source, and the media type. When covering other language regions, news media focus on sports, and news media from the two smaller media markets rely heavily on news agency reports. Both public service media and tabloid media use much transregional coverage, with the former focusing on politics and the latter on sports. Thus, media types contribute to integration differently.
... The most important distinction in this context is between commercial and public service TV news. During recent years, a number of studies have shown that media systems with strong public service TV are characterized by a greater supply of political information and greater opportunity structure for exposure to political news (Esser et al., 2012), but also citizens being better informed about hard news (Aalberg et al., 2013;Fraile & Iyengar, 2014;Soroka et al., 2013). There are also a number of studies showing that public service TV news tend to provide more hard news (Iyengar et al., 2010;Reinemann, Stanyer & Scherr, 2017), more issue-framed rather than game-framed news , more international news (Aalberg et al., 2013), less interpretive news (Salgado, Strömbäck, Aalberg & Esser, 2017), and less personalized news (Van Aelst, Sheafer, Hubé & Papathanassopoulos, 2017) than commercial TV news. ...
... The most important distinction in this context is between commercial and public service TV news. During recent years, a number of studies have shown that media systems with strong public service TV are characterized by a greater supply of political information and greater opportunity structure for exposure to political news (Esser et al., 2012), but also citizens being better informed about hard news (Aalberg et al., 2013;Fraile & Iyengar, 2014;Soroka et al., 2013). There are also a number of studies showing that public service TV news tend to provide more hard news (Iyengar et al., 2010;Reinemann, Stanyer & Scherr, 2017), more issue-framed rather than game-framed news , more international news (Aalberg et al., 2013), less interpretive news (Salgado, Strömbäck, Aalberg & Esser, 2017), and less personalized news (Van Aelst, Sheafer, Hubé & Papathanassopoulos, 2017) than commercial TV news. ...
... During recent years, a number of studies have shown that media systems with strong public service TV are characterized by a greater supply of political information and greater opportunity structure for exposure to political news (Esser et al., 2012), but also citizens being better informed about hard news (Aalberg et al., 2013;Fraile & Iyengar, 2014;Soroka et al., 2013). There are also a number of studies showing that public service TV news tend to provide more hard news (Iyengar et al., 2010;Reinemann, Stanyer & Scherr, 2017), more issue-framed rather than game-framed news , more international news (Aalberg et al., 2013), less interpretive news (Salgado, Strömbäck, Aalberg & Esser, 2017), and less personalized news (Van Aelst, Sheafer, Hubé & Papathanassopoulos, 2017) than commercial TV news. One current 16-country study thus concludes that "Public service broadcasting is good for news performance, provided that the public broadcaster has the necessary financial and political autonomy from power holders" (de Vreese et al., 2017, p. 178; see also Aalberg & Curran, 2012;Cushion, 2012;Nielsen, Fletcher, Sehl & Levy, 2016). ...
... A key distinction in this context is between commercial and public service TV news. During recent years, a number of studies have shown that media systems with strong public service TV are characterized by a greater supply of political information and greater opportunity structures for exposure to political news (Esser et al., 2012), but also citizens being better informed about hard news (Aalberg et al., 2013;Fraile & Iyengar, 2014;Soroka et al., 2013). There are also a number of studies showing that public service TV news tend to provide more hard news (Iyengar et al., 2010;Reinemann, Stanyer, & Scherr, 2017), more issue-framed rather than gameframed news Aalberg, Strömbäck, & de Vreese, 2012), more international news (Aalberg et al., 2013), and less interpretive news (Salgado, Strömbäck, Aalberg, & Esser, 2017) than commercial TV news. ...
... A key distinction in this context is between commercial and public service TV news. During recent years, a number of studies have shown that media systems with strong public service TV are characterized by a greater supply of political information and greater opportunity structures for exposure to political news (Esser et al., 2012), but also citizens being better informed about hard news (Aalberg et al., 2013;Fraile & Iyengar, 2014;Soroka et al., 2013). There are also a number of studies showing that public service TV news tend to provide more hard news (Iyengar et al., 2010;Reinemann, Stanyer, & Scherr, 2017), more issue-framed rather than gameframed news Aalberg, Strömbäck, & de Vreese, 2012), more international news (Aalberg et al., 2013), and less interpretive news (Salgado, Strömbäck, Aalberg, & Esser, 2017) than commercial TV news. ...
... During recent years, a number of studies have shown that media systems with strong public service TV are characterized by a greater supply of political information and greater opportunity structures for exposure to political news (Esser et al., 2012), but also citizens being better informed about hard news (Aalberg et al., 2013;Fraile & Iyengar, 2014;Soroka et al., 2013). There are also a number of studies showing that public service TV news tend to provide more hard news (Iyengar et al., 2010;Reinemann, Stanyer, & Scherr, 2017), more issue-framed rather than gameframed news Aalberg, Strömbäck, & de Vreese, 2012), more international news (Aalberg et al., 2013), and less interpretive news (Salgado, Strömbäck, Aalberg, & Esser, 2017) than commercial TV news. Research also suggests stronger knowledge effects from watching public service than commercial TV news . ...
Article
Although research shows that there is a correlation between political interest and news media use, whether there are reciprocal effects between political interest and news media use remain unsettled. To remedy this and go beyond previous research, this study seeks to investigate the reciprocal relationship between political interest and TV news use (a) across elections, (b) across election periods and a nonelection period, and (c) comparing public service and commercial TV news. Using four representative panel surveys, findings show that there is a reciprocal relationship between political interest and watching public service but not commercial TV news.
... Most of these studies cite systemic factors, including political and economic strength, cultural similarities, and geopolitical ranking. A number of important studies (Aalberg et al. 2013;Gerbner and Marvanyi 1977;Kariel and Rosenvall 1995;Wu 2000) have confirmed the unbalanced representation of foreign countries in U.S. news media. Core countries (particularly the United States and Western Europe), their international affairs, and their interchanging opponents or enemies have always been at the center of international news. ...
... Peripheral countries rarely, if ever, catch global attention, or only do so when defined by terms of larger major powers. Indeed, a number of studies of media coverage of global elections focus on just these core nations, with little attention to peripheral nations (Aalberg et al. 2013;de Vreese et al. 2006). Furthermore, the extensive body of literature on the relationship of media coverage to political knowledge, attitudes, and opinion points to a strong relationship between how media outlets cover political personalities, events, and issues, and subsequent voter (or nonvoter) opinion (de Vreese and Boomgaarden 2006). ...
Article
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National media narratives often embody “strategic narratives” that embody national consensus on geopolitics. The 2016 U.S. presidential election was an event of intense international interest, both for its internal drama, but also for the policy positions of both of the major candidates. This paper presents a comparative analysis of how media in four key regions covered the U.S. presidential election and its immediate aftermath. Researchers utilized an innovative technology that allowed the teams to harvest media content, from almost seventy-five global news sources, in Arabic, Farsi, Chinese, and Russian. This paper utilized the theoretical construct of strategic narratives to demonstrate how the U.S. election is incorporated into narrative constructions of global order. Theoretically, this project seeks to deepen our understanding, from a comparative methodology, of how “events,” such as the U.S. presidential election, provide the raw material for global contestations of the global order. The essay also provides a mechanism for analyzing and evaluating these narratives using Fisher’s narrative paradigm. Finally, the paper demonstrates an innovative methodological approach to comparative analysis from disparate cultural and news traditions, languages, and patterns of access to media.
... Moreover, studies have shown that information environments influence what citizens know about socially relevant topics. Aalberg et al. (2013) demonstrated a positive relationship between the amount of hard news coverage available in a country and citizens' level of public affairs knowledge. These authors, along with other studies, found the highest levels of hard news and public affairs knowledge in countries with strong public service broadcasting (PSB) (Aalberg et al., 2013;Aalberg & Curran, 2012;Humprecht, 2016;Jenssen, Aalberg, & Aarts, 2012). ...
... Aalberg et al. (2013) demonstrated a positive relationship between the amount of hard news coverage available in a country and citizens' level of public affairs knowledge. These authors, along with other studies, found the highest levels of hard news and public affairs knowledge in countries with strong public service broadcasting (PSB) (Aalberg et al., 2013;Aalberg & Curran, 2012;Humprecht, 2016;Jenssen, Aalberg, & Aarts, 2012). The level of knowledge is likely to also play an important role when one is confronted with disinformation. ...
Article
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How does the content of so-called ‘fake news’ differ across Western democracies? While previous research on online disinformation has focused on the individual level, the current study aims to shed light on cross-national differences. It compares online disinformation re-published by fact checkers from four Western democracies (the US, the UK, Germany, and Austria). The findings reveal significant differences between English-speaking and German-speaking countries. In the US and the UK, the largest shares of partisan disinformation are found, while in Germany and Austria sensationalist stories prevail. Moreover, in English-speaking countries, disinformation frequently attacks political actors, whereas in German-speaking countries, immigrants are most frequently targeted. Across all of the countries, topics of false stories strongly mirror national news agendas. Based on these results, the paper argues that online disinformation is not only a technology-driven phenomenon but also shaped by national information environments.
... The second part of the global village rebuttal is that what foreign news is reported varies greatly around the world (e.g. Aalberg et al. 2013). Although leading international news agencies provide a "global" service (Boyd-Barrett 1998), national media utilise this service selectively. ...
... As a way of complementing the many existing quantitative studies of foreign news (e.g. Curran et al. 2010;Aalberg and Curran 2012;Cohen 2013a;Aalberg et al. 2013), we chose therefore to examine, through a qualitative textual analysis, the way in which three news events were reported in five countries. ...
... However, news media play an important role in translating international affairs to audiences who are otherwise unlikely to have independent information about such contexts (Baum & Potter, 2008). Given the high cost of producing foreign news, coupled with low interest in this content by American audiences-often linked to limited attention to foreign news (Aalberg et al., 2013;Baum, 2002)we anticipate that journalists will make brief, sweeping statements about public attitudes toward international issues. This is compared to more illustrative evidence, such as vox pops or registered polls, in domestic news coverage. ...
Article
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Against a backdrop of increasing opinion polarization and distrust in mainstream news media, we investigate when and how U.S. evening newscasts represent citizen opinions. This paper focuses on the different public opinion displays presented in the news and the viewpoints they portray. Using a content analysis of 1,577 items from CBS, ABC, and NBC evening news, we find that public opinion is represented relatively more often in foreign and political news. Broad inferences to public opinion are most common in news coverage, followed by protests and vox pops. Lastly, we find that public opinion representation does not present notable viewpoint diversity.
... Asimismo, la información europea suele categorizarse en el marco del periodismo internacional. Esto conlleva unas características de complejidad y distancia hacia el público que repercuten en la percepción de las noticias (Aalberg et al., 2013). En situaciones de crisis, como la Covid-19, esta comunicación sufre numerosas fricciones (Tuñón y Bouza, 2021). ...
Article
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The journalistic accountability of the European Union (EU) is a complex issue widely addressed by the literature, since this political system is attributed an excessive distance from the citizenry. This problem has been exacerbated by a recent rise in Euroscepticism, which reduces confidence in EU news. By contrast to the crisis of international information, local media are increasing their importance in the digital age, which comes from the need to know what is happening in the closest communities. In this context, this study aims to analyze the journalistic management of the EU in local areas. Drawing upon semi-structured and in-depth interviews (n = 14), this research examines not only the perception of the journalists involved on this matter in three European countries (Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom), but also the opinion of European officials devoted to communicative tasks. The results show that the EU news are differently considered by countries, which is related to the national character of media systems in Europe. Among the journalists, the degree of self-awareness about the work carried out is low, while they criticize the communicative work of the EU institutions. This opposes to a certain optimism of European officials, who point to a progressive shift in local ecosystems towards less journalistic intermediation.
... Extant research suggested that these media system dimensions can shape individuallevel attitudes and behaviors in different ways. The benefits of strong PSB are often emphasized in the literature because it engenders a news information environment with more hard news that has been shown to increase citizens' knowledge of political and civic affairs (Aalberg et al. 2013;Fraile and Iyengar 2014). Correlated with the degree of PSB in a country is the level of journalistic professionalism and the associated norms and practices that news media organizations and journalists adhere to in their news reporting. ...
Article
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Citizens these days feel inundated with news online and are worried about its veracity. This study examines if these concerns in the digital news environment led to greater news avoidance and news authentication behaviors. The relationships were tested across 16 countries by combining individual-level survey data from the Reuters Institute Digital News Report (N = 34,201) with country-level data based on comparative media systems research. Analysis from multilevel modelling showed that concern with fake news was related to news authentication and news fatigue was related to news avoidance. High news fatigue also accentuated the influence of concern with fake news on news avoidance while low fatigue attenuated the relationship. Additional cross-level interactions further contextualized the findings according to media system, showing how the relationships can vary under different conditions of press market, political parallelism, journalistic professionalism, and public service broadcasting. This study demonstrates the utility and importance of considering the contextual role of media system to understand individuals’ perceptions of news they receive online and subsequent news engagement, especially in the context of fake news research because its prevalence and deleterious impact varies across countries.
... Citizens trust in media outlets as sources to understand a complex environment (Ognyanova 2019) in which hard news coverage is a catalyst to increase knowledge of public affairs (Aalberg et al. 2013). However, this "need for cognition" (Tsfati and Cappella 2005) is as heterogeneous as audience media skepticism. ...
Chapter
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This chapter includes Latin America in academic research on the phenomenon of disinformation, using an analytical approach in comparison with Western democracies. Online disinformation exerts influence at the individual level as well as in public opinion, public discourse, and political decision-making. The hierarchical cluster analysis revealed an agreement with Hallin and Mancini's model and its applicability when examining the phenomenon of disinformation. In contexts with social polarization and fragmented media systems, fact-checking journalism emerges, with limited effect and limited global implementation to combat disinformation and misperceptions. The chapter highlights three implications relevant to understanding the phenomenon of disinformation. First, the analysis features the vulnerabilities of Latin American countries that are similar to Mediterranean European countries. Second, the Latin American political environmental factors explain considerable gaps in comparison with Northern European and central European countries, which are the more resilient cluster. Third, “Public trust” may be addressed as a relevant factor to “Concern about fake news.”
... For example, if we were to remain within the relational methodology framework but change from THA to another type of interlinkages-say, foreign countries' presence in national news media around the world (or people's perceptions of it)-we might encounter structural similarities, but potentially also differences. Models of news repre sen ta tion have also argued that cultural and geographic proximity matters (increasing the likelihood of a regionalized structure) and that "elite nations" are more likely to be pre sent in other countries' media (which speaks for a core-periphery structure) (Galtung and Ruge 1965;Sreberny 1991;Aalberg et al. 2013). Thus, we would be faced with opposing ideal patterns similar to those found in the case of THA-yet, it seems hard to predict to which extent the empirical picture would match ours. ...
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Increasingly, people travel and communicate across borders. Yet, we still know little about the overall structure of this transnational world. Is it really a fully globalized world in which everything is linked, as popular catchphrases like “global village” suggest? Through a sweeping comparative analysis of eight types of mobility and communication among countries worldwide—from migration and tourism to Facebook friendships and phone calls—Mapping the Transnational World demonstrates that our behavior is actually regionalized, not globalized. Emanuel Deutschmann shows that transnational activity within world regions is not so much the outcome of political, cultural, or economic factors, but is driven primarily by geographic distance. He explains that the spatial structure of transnational human activity follows a simple mathematical function, the power law, a pattern that also fits the movements of many other animal species on the planet. Moreover, this pattern remained extremely stable during the five decades studied—1960 to 2010. Unveiling proximity-induced regionalism as a major feature of planet-scale networks of transnational human activity, Deutschmann provides a crucial corrective to several fields of research. Revealing why a truly global society is unlikely to emerge, Mapping the Transnational World highlights the essential role of interaction beyond borders on a planet that remains spatially fragmented. "Mapping the Transnational World offers a large-scale look at various human connections spanning national borders. I appreciate the breadth of coverage: the description of regionalization and globalization across eight types of human activity over five decades is a big contribution all on its own. The use of network-analytic techniques to model these cross-border connections is impressive."—Jason Beckfield, Harvard University "This spectacularly ambitious and potentially paradigm-shifting work builds what is indeed one of the first systematic attempts to document, analyze, and explain the totality of migrations on a planetary scale. Mapping the Transnational World is a big empirical step forward for the study of international migration and mobilities."—Adrian Favell, University of Leeds
... Although globalization has brought about an increase in international news, international media is still segmented by country, with foreign news accounting for less than a quarter of content (Aalberg et al., 2013;Curran et al., 2017). International news stories that highlight global or transnational issues tend to capture the interest of news sources (Cooper et al., 2021;Löffelholz & Weaver, 2008). ...
Article
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Donald Trump’s most notorious promise before and during his presidency was the construction of a border wall. The issues surrounding new construction of Donald Trump’s border wall (both physically and rhetorically) are complex and the outcomes are difficult to predict. The study examines how Trump’s border wall was framed in online newspaper publications of the international border cities of San Diego, California and Tijuana, Mexico, and in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Specifically, the study employs a comparative framing analysis using the John Agnew’s (2008) theoretical lens of borders as equivocal spaces of dwelling that bring about both benefit and harm — the standard of a decent life. The analysis revealed the frames of: Mexico will pay for the wall; DACA as leverage; political contention; protest and dissention; environmental impact; immigration package; separation and divisiveness; safety and security; and economic consequences. A majority of the content published in the U.S. was produced locally, however, most of the content published in Mexico was from news agencies, except for the opinion pieces that were locally produced for outlets on both side of the border.
... For example, the top two topics of SkyNews English are related to Prince Harry and Meghan (λ 3.76) as well as the UK Prime Minister (λ 3.46), while the majority of news topics covered by Euronews English are related to European affairs such as Britain (λ 2.56), UK's Prime Minster (λ 2.23), migrants and refugees (λ 1.98), and Angela Merkel (λ 1.90). This finding aligns with previous research into news values theory and the limited geographical scope of some international news organizations (Aalberg et al. 2013;Maier 2020). ...
Article
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This study employs the news values theory and method in the examination of a large dataset of international news retrieved from Instagram. News values theory itself is subjected to critical examination, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses. Using a mixed method that includes content analysis and topic modeling, the study investigates the major news topics most ‘liked’ by Instagram audiences and compares them with the topics most reported on by news organizations. The findings suggest that Instagram audiences prefer to consume general news, human-interest stories and other stories that are mainly positive in nature, unlike news on politics and other topics on which traditional news organizations tend to focus. Finally, the paper addresses the implications of the above findings.
... An investigative study was conducted to examine the volume of foreign news provided by public service and commercial television channels in countries with different media systems, and how this corresponds to the public's interest in and knowledge of foreign affairs (Aalberg et al. 2013). In an investigation, researchers used content analyses of television newscasts and public opinion surveys in eleven countries across five continents to provide new insight into the supply and demand for international television news. ...
Preprint
The Me Too or #MeToo movement has come under the spotlight in recent years since more survivors/victims are now speaking out against their abuser. These survivors/victims repressed their abuse for years, ashamed to speak out in fear that they would not be believed or face extreme scrutiny and humiliation. Survivors/victims are now coming together to seek justice and to reform the judicial system and how they handle sexual abuse and violence cases. This movement has become more prominent now than it was when it first was formed in 2006 by Tarana Burke and reintroduced by Alyssa Milano using Twitter in 2017. The movement challenges everyday lifestyles and workplace environments to consider what behaviors constitute as appropriate. Companies and businesses are now implementing compliance workplace harassment training to avoid such incidences of sexual abuse and violence.
... It is difficult to say whether the salience of these five foreign topics is unusual. Moore (2010) finds that about 10% of UK newspaper coverage is dedicated to foreign news; comparable data for the US are lacking, but studies on the level of foreign news on television suggest that it is reasonable to assume that the US figure is in the same range (Aalberg et al. 2013). The sum of the shares of the three foreign topics is a little below that number: 8.2% overall across both countries. ...
Article
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Atheists are among the most disliked “religious” groups in the United States, but the origins of this aversion remain poorly understood. Because the media are an important source of public attitudes, we analyze coverage of atheism and atheists in American and British newspapers. Using computational text analysis techniques, including sentiment analysis and topic modeling, we show that atheism is portrayed negatively by the print media. Significantly, we show that greater negativity is associated with atheism as a concept than with atheists as individuals. Building on this insight, and challenging arguments that prominent atheist intellectuals attract negative coverage, we also find that coverage of famous atheists is actually more positive than that of atheists or atheism in general. Overall, our findings add a new dimension to scholarship on differences between individual-targeted and group-targeted tolerance in public attitudes, establishing for the first time that media coverage mirrors such differences.
... США. Внешнеполитические связи и геополитические интересы стран представляют все более значимый фактор, влияющий на репрезентацию зарубежных государств, и отмечаются в нескольких исследованиях, опуб ликованных в разные периоды развития медиасистем (Aalberg, Papathanassopoulos, Soroka, Curran, et al., 2013;Cassara, 1993). При этом экономические и социальные факторы, представленные значимыми в ряде классических зарубежных научных работ (Galtung, Ruge, 1965;Rosengren, 1977) не влияли на выбор стран в рассматриваемых изданиях. ...
Article
В статье представлены результаты исследования репрезентации стран в международной журналистике России и США. На основе контент-анализа качественной прессы автор делает вывод о разных подходах к освещению зарубежных государств в прессе двух стран, представляющих разные медиасистемы. В прессе США чаще упоминаются страны в состоянии конфликта, а в СМИ России больше внимания уделяется «элитным странам», а также географически и исторически близкой Украине.
... Instead, it pays attention to demographic or systematic factors relating to support for, or opposition to, foreign aid (Chong and Gradstein 2008;Paxton and Knack 2011;Milner and Tingley 2013). However, most ordinary people depend on the media for information because they have limited personal exposure to information from abroad, particularly from developing countries, as foreign news is typically beyond a person's direct experience (Aalberg, et al. 2013). ...
Article
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This article examines the link between public support for and public knowledge about development cooperation in South Korea. Challenging previous research on established donor countries, we find that in Korea, there is a high level of public support for development cooperation but very little knowledge about it. We argue that this can be explained by three main factors. First, Korea recently transitioned from being a recipient of development aid to being a donor. Second, Korean development cooperation is conducted as a government-centred process with limited influence from civil society. Third, the dissemination of information on development cooperation is dominated by what we call “aid propaganda”, where aid is advertised primarily as a means of improving Korea’s national prestige, while the situation in the recipient countries of the Global South is largely ignored.
... As such, the personal experiences of minorities are frequently missing from mainstream media discourse (Holzberg, Kolbe, and Zaborowski 2018). The foreign news offered by national mainstream media is likely to be limited in scope, and driven by a combination of national interest and geographic proximity (Aalberg et al. 2013). ...
Article
This study explores the rhetoric, discourse, visual representation, and news narratives regarding asylum seekers (AS) in the European Union in Israeli media. Integrating cultural representation theory and foreign news proximity-distance approaches, this research focuses on differences in media coverage of AS in the EU between mainstream, community, and social media, and then suggests a model and theoretical implications. The sample included 340 Hebrew language news items from television, print and online newspapers, radio broadcasts, and social media posts from 2011 to 2019. A thematic analysis was conducted. Based on theory of representation, this study found that AS are presented as Others in two different ways based on media type. Community and social media seek to productively compare the Other (AS) to Israelis to encourage concern over Israeli identity and values. In contrast, mainstream media promote narratives that do not invite comparisons-either tacit or explicit-to Israel. Based on proximity-distance approaches, we found that mainstream media content is appropriated by social and community media for different rhetorical ends using a scale of proximity ranging from hostile to hospitable. Community and social media used mainly domestication rhetoric in contrast to mainstream media, which distance the issue, covering it as newsworthy.
... Уникальной особенностью российской повестки дня является огромное внимание к США -ни одна другая страна G20 не пишет об американских событиях столь же много. Вероятной причиной этого является то, что образ США может иметь определенную функцию для внутренней политики нашей страны 1 ным, поскольку после избрания Трампа в США активно обсуждался вопрос о сотрудничестве команды американского президента с Россией, его российских бизнес-интересах, а также в контексте возможности влияния фейковых новостей на выборы 2 . Кроме того, некоторый вклад в освещение России зарубежными странами мог внести чемпионат мира по футболу, проводившийся в 2018 г. в Москве. ...
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... Similarly, different degrees of commercialization have been found to explain differences between private and public TV channels cross-nationally. In a comparison of Australia, Canada, Columbia, India, Italy, Japan, Greece, Norway, South Korea, United Kingdom, and the United States private media have been found to be more likely to be driven by profit motives compared to public media (Aalberg et al., 2013). The study showed that in most countries, except for South Korea, Italy, and Japan, public TV channels produce higher numbers of international and foreign news items than their private competitors. ...
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Does media ownership matter for the news that is produced? In the course of the twentieth century when journalistic professionalization advanced in most Western democracies, journalistic norms were thought of as a “firewall” between the management side and the journalistic side of a media company. Editors and media managers were expected to make decisions purely on professional criteria. However, recent developments, such as increasing commercialization and concentration of media markets, have let scholars to question the role of ownership in news production. Moreover, comparative research emerging in the field of journalism studies has shown that the parameters of news production differ between various countries—with ownership being one of them.
... Similarly, different degrees of commercialization have been found to explain differences between private and public TV channels cross-nationally. In a comparison of Australia, Canada, Columbia, India, Italy, Japan, Greece, Norway, South Korea, United Kingdom, and the United States private media have been found to be more likely to be driven by profit motives compared to public media (Aalberg et al., 2013). The study showed that in most countries, except for South Korea, Italy, and Japan, public TV channels produce higher numbers of international and foreign news items than their private competitors. ...
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Does media ownership matter for the news that is produced? In the course of the twentieth century when journalistic professionalization advanced in most Western democracies, journalistic norms were thought of as a “firewall” between the management side and the journalistic side of a media company. Editors and media managers were expected to make decisions purely on professional criteria. However, recent developments, such as increasing commercialization and concentration of media markets, have let scholars to question the role of ownership in news production. Moreover, comparative research emerging in the field of journalism studies has shown that the parameters of news production differ between various countries—with ownership being one of them.
... Collectively, though, these discrete events, specific places, and particular times fuse together to portray a view of the world. Furthermore, even when a media organization is financially and logistically able to maintain foreign correspondents abroad, decades of research show that readers are drawn more to news about local events than incidents occurring in far-away, unfamiliar places that lack implicit relevance for American readers (Aalberg et al., 2013;Chang, Shoemaker and Brendlinger, 1987). In their 1987 study, Chang et al. set out to understand what factors determine how and why some international events are sufficiently 'relevant' to get covered by US media. ...
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This quantitative content analysis uses 36 years of New York Times international news to understand how conflict coverage is presented to audiences in terms of quantity and geographic focus, whether conflict is covered because of its linkage to US interests, and whether the Times relies on its own personnel for first-hand coverage. Additionally, a contemporary history approach gauges how representative coverage is of conflicts in varying regions. Quantitative data reveal an imbalance in coverage; stories about low-income nations focused more on conflict and were more likely to link events to US interests. However, the volume of coverage of these countries was minimal and arguably failed to report some of the most severe internal crises in those nations. According to social construction of reality theorists, this imbalance and distortion can lead to audience perception that more conflict occurs in low-income nations than in other, more developed parts of the world.
... indeed, research already points in this direction (Aalberg et al. 2013;Druckman 2006;Fraile and Iyengar 2014;Jochen et al. 2004). Moreover, there have been important shifts in the production and consumption of news. ...
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... Finally, the fourth phase has seen increased studies of the West and the world with the arrival of multi-nation studies across the globe, which nevertheless tended to be based on Western conceptual and methodological frameworks. Such recent large-scale endeavors have included studies of journalists' professional views (Hanitzsch et al., 2011;Weaver and Willnat, 2012), journalism students (Mellado et al., 2013), and news content (Aalberg et al., 2013;Shoemaker and Cohen, 2012;Wilke et al., 2012). At the same time, there is relatively little systematic knowledge about comparative journalism studies. ...
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... Among different media forms, television has often been considered particularly influential in the process of national identity formation (Curran, 2002;Price, 1995). More specifically, the persisting significance of national television news for national audiences has been confirmed by recent studies (Aalberg et al., 2013;Riegert, 2011). On the other hand, internet-based media have been related since the beginning to the emergence of a global public sphere, based on the dematerialised social interactions supported by digital technologies (Castells, 1996;Sassen, 2003). ...
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The article explores the relation between identity definition and trust in different information sources in Morocco, Jordan and Tunisia following the 2011 Uprisings. While prior to 2011 literature mostly highlighted the role of pan-Arab news channels in consolidating a transnational Arab public sphere, recent studies argued that there has been a reinforcement of national media and identities in the Middle East and North Africa, as a consequence of a partial liberalisation of national broadcasting. Our study is based on the Arab Transformations survey (2014), which unlike previous surveys included questions covering both media consumption and identity definition. We looked at how in the three countries the choice of Muslim, Arab or national identity definition was associated with the preference for distinct sources of political news. The results only partially confirmed the hypothesis of a renewed importance of national media and showed that in the three countries people tended to attribute very different values to the same news sources.
... g is both a collective and an individual process, managing what frames or agenda should go through the gate can be rather subjective (Bakker, 2014;White, 1950). A journalist's reporting decisions may be influenced by many factors, including their individual background (Soroka, 2012), cognitive schemas (Scheufele & Scheufele, 2010) and home country (Aalberg et. al, 2013;Chang, Southwell & Lee, 2012). Furthermore, journalists are as influenced by social norms (Nossek, 2004) and framing effects of other news content (Scheufele, 1999) and any other individuals. ...
... A glance at any mainstream news outlet should demonstrate that not all frequently covered stories in the news are about important problems facing the nation. Increasingly the news emphasizes sensational stories or other "soft news" topics, such as celebrities and sports (Aalberg et al., 2013;Boczkowski & Peer, 2011;Patterson, 2000;Slattery, Doremus, & Marcus, 2001), and this content is particularly prevalent on social media (Kalsnes & Larsson, 2017). Even in hard news coverage of politics, the focus is far more often on the game or competition between elites than on substantive policy problems (Fallows, 1997;Lawrence, 2000;Patterson, 1980Patterson, , 1994. ...
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Since Converse [1964. The nature of belief systems in mass publics. Critical Review, 18(1-3), 1 – 74 https://doi.org/10.1080/08913810608443650] asked “What goes with what?”, research tries to answer this question. How individuals perceive the world around them depending on media use has been an endeavor of studying societal beliefs of societal issues separately. Building upon literature on cognitive architecture, we study how media use shapes the formation and stability of belief structures across issues in public opinion reflected in groups of individuals. Using a three-wave panel study, we found (1) that individuals’ perceptions of different issues are interconnected, (2) translating into aggregate-stable, concurring groups in public opinion, and that (3) differential media use affects the formation and stability of these groups.
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News performance is a key concept in communication science with a long research tradition. Research on news performance is rooted in normative ideas of the public sphere and expectations about the benefits of the news media for individuals and society. Widely studied constructs include diversity, hard and soft news, analytical depth, and deliberation.
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To express attitudes and act according to their self-interest, citizens need relevant, up-to-date information about current affairs. But has the increased commercialization in the media market increased or decreased the flow of political information? Hallin and Mancini stress that the existing empirical evidence is fragmented and that this question therefore has been difficult to answer. In this article the authors present new data that allow them to systematically examine how the flow of political information on TV occurs across six Western countries during a thirty-year period. The authors find that the flow of political information through TV varies according to the degree of commercialization. The flow of news and current affairs is lowest in the most commercially oriented television system and among the commercial TV channels. There is however important cross-national variation even within similar media systems. The authors' data do not suggest a convergence toward the liberal system when it comes to the political information environment on TV. Rather, what strikes them is how strongly resistant some European countries have been to subordinating the needs of democracy to profit making.
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Building on a survey of media institutions in eighteen West European and North American democracies, Hallin and Mancini identify the principal dimensions of variation in media systems and the political variables which have shaped their evolution. They go on to identify three major models of media system development (the Polarized Pluralist, Democratic Corporatist and Liberal models) to explain why the media have played a different role in politics in each of these systems, and to explore the forces of change that are currently transforming them. It provides a key theoretical statement about the relation between media and political systems, a key statement about the methodology of comparative analysis in political communication and a clear overview of the variety of media institutions that have developed in the West, understood within their political and historical context.
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Western Media Systems offers a critical introduction to media systems in North America and Western Europe. The book offers a wide-ranging survey of comparative media analysis addressing the economic, social, political, regulatory and cultural aspects of Western media systems. Jonathan Hardy takes a thematic approach, guiding the reader through critical issues and debates, introducing key concepts and specialist literature. Western Media Systems is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying comparative and global media.
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This chapter discusses the benefits of experimentation and looks at the future of political communication research, emphasizing the previous experimental work, as well as the creative manipulations, that have been conducted using online panels. It then studies two online election studies from 2008 in order to show the properties of the data and the samples, and, finally, reveals that Internet technology is currently redefining the methodology of political communication research and improving some of the basic weaknesses of the previous methods.
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In this timely book, leading researchers consider how media inform democracy in six countries – the United States, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. Taking as their starting point the idea that citizens need to be briefed adequately with a full and intelligent coverage of public affairs so that they can make responsible, informed choices rather than act out of ignorance and misinformation, contributors use a comparative approach to examine the way in which the shifting media landscape is affecting and informing the democratic process across the globe. In particular, they ask:
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This is a cross-cutting, international comparison of the media systems and the democratic performance of the media in post-Communist countries. It explores issues of commercial media, social exclusion, and consumer capitalism in a comparative East-West perspective. Each chapter considers a different aspect of the trends and problems surrounding the media in comparative European and global perspectives. The result is a creative collaboration of leading authors from East and West that covers a rich array of controversial subjects in a comprehensive manner. Topics range from the civil society approach to media and public service broadcasting to journalism cultures, fandom and representation of poverty and gender that reinforce social exclusion and legitimize consumer capitalism. Finding the Right Place on the Map is a unique, up-to-date overview of what media transformation has meant for Post-Communist countries in nearly two decades.
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Public service broadcasters (PSBs) are a central part of national news media landscapes, and are often regarded as specialists in the provision of hard news. But does exposure to public versus commercial news influence citizens’ knowledge of current affairs? This question is investigated in this article using cross-national surveys capturing knowledge of current affairs and media consumption. Propensity score analyses test for effects of PSBs on knowledge, and examine whether PSBs vary in this regard. Results indicate that compared to commercial news, PSBs have a positive influence on knowledge of hard news, though not all PSBs are equally effective in this way. Cross-national differences are related to factors such as de jure independence, proportion of public financing and audience share.
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Significant events happen daily around the world, but only some of these are reported in the U.S. news media. A content analysis of the New York Times, and ABC, CBS, and NBC found that the Times covered only about a fourth of a sample of world events and the networks mentioned only about a tenth. This study finds that events which are deviant in certain ways from U.S. national values and which occur in nations of political and economic significance to the United States are more likely to be covered in the news.
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Since the advent of television in the middle of the 20th century, news has been an essential ingredient in TV programming. Often these newscasts are the most heavily viewed programmes, and by and large they are the main source of information for many people. This is particularly true for news from other countries and regions in the world. This immense significance of TV news has made it an important field in communication research. The article presents a new study that is formed from a multinational project. The project investigated foreign TV news in 17 countries from five regions in the world: Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Egypt, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Italy, Japan, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Switzerland, Taiwan and the United States of America. The data of the content analysis in all these countries in 2008 contain over 17,500 news items. The analysis concentrates on ‘news geography’, a term that is used to describe the extent to which the countries of the planet are represented in TV news. The results show a complex, multifaceted picture of foreign news reporting in the world. This multifaceted picture demands multi-causal interpretation. Several factors are discussed, i.e. the types of countries, their political order and integration into the international system, trade, different degrees in political power, but also historical connections, cultural ties, etc. Principally, the foreign news outlet depends on the selection criteria of journalists. On the whole the findings seem to question the world’s globalization, which is often taken for granted.
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Fast pace of technology changes makes conduction of high-quality web surveys increasingly easy, and performance of web surveys should be continuously monitored. In this article, a comparison is made of the results of telephone and web surveys of items measuring international news knowledge. The authors compare web surveys of general populations conducted in the United States and Norway in January 2009 with their telephone replications conducted in the same month. Results show rather small differences between web and telephone surveys, particularly in Norway. The authors discuss the results and make recommendations for use of web surveys and for future methodological research.
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This essay explores the economics behind changes in what types of international news reach what types of audiences in the United States. I first review the demand and supply for news from abroad, explore what has changed recently in US media markets, and then assess the likely ways that international news will be supplied in the United States in the future. I also draw tentative conclusions about the implications for these media market changes for different types of US readers and viewers.
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This longitudinal study examines what is “normal” in US newspaper foreign coverage in the twentieth century. A quantitative content analysis of three newspapers among the 40 examined by Woodward (1930) looked at two constructed weeks of each in 1927, 1947, 1977, and 1997. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explain the findings related to 39,841 articles encompassing 246,301 paragraphs in 168 issues. Our findings support what we call Woodward's Law: putative lapses in foreign news coverage are actually the norm. Low levels of foreign news are the benchmark that should set expectations; it is the increases, which occur particularly during wars, that are exceptional. This research indicates, first, that the proportion of foreign news is relatively small in times of peace. Second, increases indicate that lamentations about the decline of foreign news during the twentieth century were overstated. Third, neither absolute-item frequency nor front-page analyses provide a complete or accurate picture. Our investigation, one of the most exhaustive ever, suggests a better outcome through examination of the entire news hole using both proportion and absolute-item frequency.
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In contrast to the United States, Germany has a strong public service broadcasting system that reaches all parts of the country and is mandated to deliver news from around the world each day. We discuss the key characteristics of the German public service broadcasting system and compare the quantity of foreign affairs news in evening news programs on the flagship public service (ARD and ZDF) and private channels (RTL and SAT.1) from 2001 to 2007. We find that while the amount of foreign affairs new ebbs and flows, it remains substantial and within the range of 40–50 percent of the programs on both the public service and the private channels. We then compare programs in Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, United Kingdom, South Africa, United States and on transnational Arabic channels, for one year from April 2007 to April 2008, to assess what regions are covered and what predicts foreign news. Geographic proximity and national interest were shown to be important factors in explaining the regional focus of foreign news in these countries and outlets.
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That market forces drive the news is not news. Whether a story appears in print, on television, or on the Internet depends on who is interested, its value to advertisers, the costs of assembling the details, and competitors' products. But in All the News That's Fit to Sell, economist James Hamilton shows just how this happens. Furthermore, many complaints about journalism--media bias, soft news, and pundits as celebrities--arise from the impact of this economic logic on news judgments. This is the first book to develop an economic theory of news, analyze evidence across a wide range of media markets on how incentives affect news content, and offer policy conclusions. Media bias, for instance, was long a staple of the news. Hamilton's analysis of newspapers from 1870 to 1900 reveals how nonpartisan reporting became the norm. A hundred years later, some partisan elements reemerged as, for example, evening news broadcasts tried to retain young female viewers with stories aimed at their (Democratic) political interests. Examination of story selection on the network evening news programs from 1969 to 1998 shows how cable competition, deregulation, and ownership changes encouraged a shift from hard news about politics toward more soft news about entertainers. Hamilton concludes by calling for lower costs of access to government information, a greater role for nonprofits in funding journalism, the development of norms that stress hard news reporting, and the defining of digital and Internet property rights to encourage the flow of news. Ultimately, this book shows that by more fully understanding the economics behind the news, we will be better positioned to ensure that the news serves the public good.
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In a democracy, knowledge is power. Research explaining the determinants of knowledge focuses on unchanging demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. This study combines data on the public's knowledge of nearly 50 political issues with media coverage of those topics. In a two-part analysis, we demonstrate how education, the strongest and most consistent predictor of political knowledge, has a more nuanced connection to learning than is commonly recognized. Sometimes education is positively related to knowledge. In other instances its effect is negligible. A substantial part of the variation in the education-knowledge relationship is due to the amount of information available in the mass media. This study is among the first to distinguish the short-term, aggregate-level influences on political knowledge from the largely static individual-level predictors and to empirically demonstrate the importance of the information environment.
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This dissertation looks at the impact of several independent variables on the degree of knowledge of the European Union. We used Eurobarometer Data from 1996. The universe for this survey were persons aged 15 and over residing in the 15 member nations of the European Union. The survey included ten questions concerning political knowledge thus providing an eleven point scale. In general, we found the same pattern of political knowledge concerning the EU in all 15 countries of the EU. Looking at the impact of the independent variables on political knowledge, we saw a gap of the impact of education between employed and unemployed respondents in each country. Employment status, too, had an impact, with employed respondents who had more education getting more out of their education when it comes to political knowledge. Income, too, was a significant variable in most countries. Gender on the other hand was not seen to be a variable with an impact. Looking at media use, we saw newspaper use to be the most influential media in almost all countries. The same applies to news on the radio. The picture of television news showed to be less consistent which corresponds with the disagreement that we found in past research. In one country, Spain, use of news on television had a significantly negative impact on political knowledge, in Austria, the Benelux countries, France, and Greece the impact was insignificant, in all other countries, the more often people watch news on television, the higher their degree of knowledge. Looking at interest in the EU, we saw that at first sight interest correlates heavily with political knowledge. However, we saw dramatic changes once we included interest not only as a dummy variable but also as a variables that lets us see different slopes. Then many variables dropped to insignificance. Finally, we looked at one systemic variable, namely postmaterialism. We found it to correlate positively with political knowledge, which means that countries where citizens show a higher support for postmaterialist items, also show a higher degree of knowledge.
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To highlight its activities and services the British Library issues a number of publications. Among them a series of authoritative newsletters to inform the library and information community of the latest developments in the Library′s directorates. Provides a brief outline of each newsletter, including its starting date and frequency and a glimpse of its contents and purpose, along with a list of contacts names and addresses. Together, they cover a wide variety of topics, from news of heritage acquisitions to electronic initiatives of crucial interest to all library and information professionals.
Foreign News Shrinks in Era of Globalization
  • David Shaw
Shaw, David. 2001. ''Foreign News Shrinks in Era of Globalization''. Los Angeles Times, September 27.
Globalisation and National Media Systems: Mapping Interactions in Policies, Markets, and Formats
  • Chadha
  • Kalyani
Chadha, Kalyani, and Anadam Kavoori. 2005. ''Globalisation and National Media Systems: Mapping Interactions in Policies, Markets, and Formats.'' In Mass Media and Society. 4th ed., edited by James Curran and Michael Gurevitch. London: Arnold.
On the Role of the Media in Worldwide Security and Peace.'' In Peace and Communication
  • Johan Galtung
Galtung, Johan. 1986. ''On the Role of the Media in Worldwide Security and Peace.'' In Peace and Communication, edited by Tapio Varis and San Jose. Costa Rica: Universidad para La Paz.
Hard and Soft News: A Review of Concepts, Operationalizations and Key Findings
  • Carsten Reinemann
  • James Stanyer
  • Sebastian Scherr
  • Guido Legnante
Reinemann, Carsten, James Stanyer, Sebastian Scherr, and Guido Legnante. 2012. ''Hard and Soft News: A Review of Concepts, Operationalizations and Key Findings.'' Journalism 13 (2): 221Á239. doi:10.1177/1464884911427803.
Public Television in the Digital Era
  • Petros Iosifidis
Iosifidis, Petros. 2007. Public Television in the Digital Era. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
European Television in the Digital Age
  • Stylianos Papathanassopoulos
Papathanassopoulos, Stylianos. 2002. European Television in the Digital Age. Cambridge: Polity.
Normalcy and Foreign NewsGlobal Media and Politics: Transnational Communication Regimes and Civic CulturesNews Substance: The Relative Importance of Soft and De-contextualized News
  • Joffrion Allen
  • Maxwell Hamilton Cleo
  • James Aalberg
  • Curran
Allen, Joffrion Cleo, and Maxwell Hamilton. 2010 ''Normalcy and Foreign News.'' Journalism Studies 11 (5): 634Á649. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2010.502788. Bennet, W. Lance. 2004. ''Global Media and Politics: Transnational Communication Regimes and Civic Cultures.'' Annual Review of Political Science 7 (June): 125Á148. doi:10.1146/ annurev.polisci.7.012003.104804. Brekken, Tove, Kjersti Thorbjørnsrud, and Toril Aalberg. 2012. ''News Substance: The Relative Importance of Soft and De-contextualized News.'' In How Media Inform Democracy: A Comparative Approach, edited by Toril Aalberg and James Curran. New York: Routledge.
Discussion Paper D-23Shrinking World. The Decline of International Reporting in the British Press.'' Media Standards TrustThe Restless Searchlight: Network News Framing of the Post-Cold War WorldGlobal Governance and Cosmopolitan Citizens
  • Moisy
  • Claude
Moisy, Claude. 1996. ''Foreign News Flow in the Information Age.'' Discussion Paper D-23, The Joan Shorenstein Center, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Moore, Martin. 2010. ''Shrinking World. The Decline of International Reporting in the British Press.'' Media Standards Trust. http://mediastandardstrust.org/wp-content/uploads/ downloads/2010/11/Shrinking-World-FINAL-VERSION.pdf. Norris, Pippa. 1995. ''The Restless Searchlight: Network News Framing of the Post-Cold War World.'' Political Communication 12 (4): 357Á370. doi:10.1080/10584609.1995.9963084. Norris, Pippa. 2000. ''Global Governance and Cosmopolitan Citizens.'' In Governance in a Globalizing World, edited by Joseph S. Nye. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Page, David, and William Crawley. 2001. Satellites over South Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The Media Were American
  • Jeremy Tunstall
Tunstall, Jeremy. 2007. The Media Were American. U.S. Mass Media in Decline. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shrinking World. The Decline of International Reporting in the British Press
  • Martin Moore
Moore, Martin. 2010. ''Shrinking World. The Decline of International Reporting in the British Press.'' Media Standards Trust. http://mediastandardstrust.org/wp-content/uploads/ downloads/2010/11/Shrinking-World-FINAL-VERSION.pdf.
Department of Social and Political Studies, University of Milan, Italy. E-mail: gianpietro.mazzoleni@unimi
  • K Paul
  • Usa Jones Australia
Paul K. Jones, School of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, University of New South Wales, Australia. E-mail: p.jones@unsw.edu.au Gianpietro Mazzoleni, Department of Social and Political Studies, University of Milan, Italy. E-mail: gianpietro.mazzoleni@unimi.it Hernando Rojas, School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of WisconsinÁ Madison, USA. E-mail: hrojas@wisc.edu David Rowe, Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney, Australia. E-mail: D.Rowe@uws.edu.au Rodney Tiffen, Department of Government and International Relations, University of Sydney, Australia. E-mail: rod.tiffen@sydney.edu.au
News Substance: The Relative Importance of Soft and De-contextualized News
  • Tove Brekken
  • Kjersti Thorbjørnsrud
  • Toril Aalberg
Brekken, Tove, Kjersti Thorbjørnsrud, and Toril Aalberg. 2012. ''News Substance: The Relative Importance of Soft and De-contextualized News.'' In How Media Inform Democracy: A Comparative Approach, edited by Toril Aalberg and James Curran. New York: Routledge.
Satellites over South Asia
  • David Page
  • William Crawley
Page, David, and William Crawley. 2001. Satellites over South Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Globalisation and National Media Systems: Mapping Interactions in Policies, Markets, and Formats
  • Kalyani Chadha
  • Anadam Kavoori
Chadha, Kalyani, and Anadam Kavoori. 2005. ''Globalisation and National Media Systems: Mapping Interactions in Policies, Markets, and Formats.'' In Mass Media and Society. 4th ed., edited by James Curran and Michael Gurevitch. London: Arnold.