ArticlePDF Available

The Late Neolithic settlement mound Borđoš near Novi Bečej, Serbian Banat, in a multiregional context – Preliminary results of geophysical, geoarchaeological and archaeological research


Abstract and Figures

Results of geophysical, geoarchaeological and archaeological research at the late Neolithic site Borđoš near Novi Bečej, Serbian Banat, add new knowledge about the size and the structure of the settlement. Preliminary results reveal that the settlement had an area of c. 7 ha. The material culture as inferred from the systematic survey reflects mixed artefact assemblages of Tisza and Vinča style, and a large number of stone artefacts. According to preliminary typo-chronological examination, the surface finds show characteristics of Vinča C and Vinča D material.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A. Medović1, R. Hofmann2, T. Stanković-Pešterac1, S. Dreibrodt3, I. Medović4, R. Pešterac5
1 Museum of Vojvodina, Novi Sad
2 Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany
3 Institut für Ökosystemforschung, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany
4 Archaeologist, Novi Sad, Serbia
5 Geologist, Belgrade, Serbia
The Late Neolithic settlement mound Borđoš near Novi Bečej, Serbian Banat, in a
multiregional context Preliminary results of geophysical, geoarchaeological and
archaeological research
Results of geophysical, geoarchaeological and archaeological research at the late Neolithic site Borđoš
near Novi Bečej, Serbian Banat, add new knowledge about the size and the structure of the settlement.
Preliminary results reveal that the settlement had an area of c. 7 ha. The material culture as inferred
from the systematic survey reflects mixed artefact assemblages of Tisza and Vinča style, and a
large number of stone artefacts. According to preliminary typo-chronological examination, the surface
finds show characteristics of Vinča C and Vinča D material.
Keywords: Late Neolithic, Tisza culture, Vinča culture, geomagnetic Prospection, geoelectrical
Prospection, Geoarchaeology, Archaeology, Borđoš, Banat, Serbia
The landscape of the north-western Banat is a core region of Neolithic settlement between
east-central Europe and south-eastern Europe. Here, like in the adjacent middle rivershed of
the Danube River and in Slavonia, the onset of sedentary lifestyle with an essential
economically maintenance of agricultural field use and cattle breeding started at c. 6,100 BCE
(Biagi et al. 2005). Distinguished natural prerequisites providing fertile soils and outstanding
convenient traffic conditions were the base of a cultural heyday during the middle and late
Neolithic times (5,0004,500 BCE). For the first time long living, large, and partly fortified
villages existed within the Banat region. With the associated growth of population size the
importance of the Tisza River an axis of trade, exchange, and transfer of ideas increased
In spring 2014 a collaboration was established between the Museum of Vojvodina at Novi
Sad and the University of Kiel focusing on research about Neolithic societies in the north-
western Banat region at the lower reach of the Tisza River. The project started in March and
April 2014 with extensive explorative investigations in a micro-region south of the city of
Novi Bečej at the site Borđoš.
The micro-region belongs to a zone in that the inventories of several middle to late Neolithic
settlements are characterized by distinct mixtures of material culture (Chapman 1981). This
region comprises the alluvial plain of the Tisza River between Szeged in the north and Novi
Bečej in the south. The amount of material of the different cultural groups observed in the
archaeological record of single settlements cannot be explained by exchange with other sites
alone and comparable mixed assemblages do not exist in adjacent regions. During the middle
Neolithic (c. 53005100 BCE) a mixture of pottery manufactured in Szakalhát-style and early
Vinča-style is present; the late Neolithic (c. 51004500 BCE) is characterized by a mixture of
pottery manufactured in Tisza-style and Vinča-style. Besides the mixture of artefacts made in
styles of different cultural groups some artifacts even show different styles in one piece.
The observed cultural relationships of Neolithic settlements in the Banat region with
neighboring regions is based on the occurrence of artefacts in diagnostic pottery styles and
anthropomorphic figurines so far. Whether this is also true for additional categories of finds
and findings it has to be proved.
Emergence, translocation, and blurring of the distribution limits of pottery styles and hybrid
cultural phenomena are reported from different regions of south-eastern Europe for different
phases of the Neolithic
. Apart from singular studies
there is a desideratum in investigations
focusing to the following contextual questions of mixed artefact inventories. 1) Were the
artefacts of different pottery styles produced and used by different social groups within
Neolithic societies? 2) Are the different pottery styles limited to distinct functional types of
pottery, perhaps produced by different social groups? Or 3) Do the mixed inventories of
material culture reflect phases of increased innovation during stages of cultural change in the
Based on detailed investigations focusing to the mentioned questions the project outlined here
is promising to contribute to the characterization and interpretation of mixed cultural
indicators in the archaeological record. An interdisciplinary approach considering the
concepts of landscape archaeology will integrate aspects of architecture, settlement structure,
economy, and demography, intensities of trade and exchange and social processes. Further,
supplementing investigations of the settlement patterns in adjacent areas of the site Borđoš are
promising to enable the reconstruction of the social, economic, and demographic processes
that resulted in the observed late Neolithic situation of a complex society at the border of
different cultural centers.
In the following a project overview and first preliminary results of explorative investigations
conducted in March and April 2014 at the site Borđoš are given. Additionally, an outlook to
further analysis and expectable results to be carried out in short is given.
For instance merging of Impresso and Starčevo pottery in Central Bosnia (Benac 1973 a; Perić 2001);
Formation of Butmir pottery style in Central Bosnia (Benac 1973 b; Sterud & Sterud 1974; Perić 1995; Hofmann
2013); Shifts of distribution limits of Vinča and Sopot pottery styles in Slavonia (e. g. Burić/ Težak-Gregl 2009)
and in the eastern Carpathian Basin (Parkinson 2006), „Patchwork“ or „mosaic-like“ situation in Uivar,
Romanian Banat with different pottery styles (Dammers 2009, 2012).
In Uivar, Romanian Banat, pottery groups which are defined by both, technological and stylistic criteria, are
not clustered in different households (Dammers 2012, 122).
Landscape and research history of the working area
The Landscape of Vojvodina
The northern province of the Republic of Serbia Vojvodina constitutes the southern part of
the Pannonian Plain. It includes two small mountain ranges (Fruška Gora and the Vršac
Mountains) with a maximal altitude of 641 m. In the large lowland, various landscape units
(depressions, alluvial plains, alluvial terraces, loess terraces and plateaus) have an altitude
range of 66 to 140 m.
Vojvodina is a forest-steppe region with a temperate form of continental climate, influenced
by Central European and Mediterranean air masses (Parabućski and Janković 1978). The
average annual temperature amounts between 11.3 and 11.5 °C; the mean sum of annual
precipitation is between 545 mm (Senta, observation of 21 years) and 652 mm (Novi Sad,
observation of 30 years) (Walter and Lieth 1960). The soils of this region display a
considerable variety. Among the terrestrial soils in the plain Phaeozems (in Serbian
bibliography one can still find the term chernozem instead of phaeozem)
is the most frequent
type, followed by Cambisols, Pseudogley and initial soils on various parent materials.
Phaeozem is a highly productive soil type and is used mainly for cereal crop production
(European Commission 2005). This dark soil with surface horizons rich in organic matter are
present in wet steppe regions. Semi-terrestrial soils include alluvial soils, calcareous dark
meadow soil on loess plateaus, calcareous and non-calcareous dark meadow soil on loess
terraces, hydromorphic black soil and Smonitzas on modified loess etc. There are also large
areas with saline soils, mostly Solonetz, followed by Solonchaks, and only slight areas under
Soloti. The parent material of the plains are (terrestrial) loess, terrace loess (partly
hydromorphic), aeolian sand and alluvial deposits.
The potential natural vegetation of Vojvodina’s plains is divided into the climatic zonal
vegetation, hydrologically conditioned vegetation, vegetation on sands and saline soils
(Parabućski and Janković 1978). The potential climatic zonal vegetation of the plains consists
of xero-thermophilous oak woods of the alliance Aceri tatarici Quercion (represented by the
community Tilieto-Quercetum crassiculae) or relatively mesophilic steppe communities.
Today, most of the natural plant cover of Vojvodina has been eradicated as the crop and
animal productions gradually intensified. There still remains about 10 % of land which has a
fairly well-developed natural plant cover.
Vojvodina´s unique relationship with water is a direct consequence of its geographical
location on the central part of the Danube basin with the largest concentration of rivers
major tributaries Tisza, Sava, Tamis, Bega and a dozen of smaller watercourses (Fig. 1).
Vojvodina is also crisscrossed with a dense network of canals. The rivers Tisza, Bega, Sava
and Tamis flow into the Danube at the distance of only 50 km this is a lot of water in a
relatively small area. The result is a very swampy area next to watercourses. Vojvodina is
“squeezed” between Serbian mountain ranges and the Carpathian Mountains and acts as the
“funnel” with a “sieve” (Vojvodina’s loess terraces and plateaus) to the Iron Gate.
A study performed by Sekulić et al. (2010) reveals that 39 % of plough land in Vojvodina has an organic matter
content of only 1 to 3 % and that 60 % of arable land has an organic matter of 3 to 5 %. Chernozems (e.g. in
Ukraine) are characterized by soil organic matter contents between 7 and 15 %.
The lower part of the Tisza valley has a very small inclination of the river bed. Since plains
can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and
turns. The destruction of natural wood cover and soils in the mountainous catchment area led
to an increase of frequency of large floods in the area during pronounced precipitation events
and large snowmelts. In the 19th century the Tisza riverbed was finally regulated by cutting
through the meanders, which resulted in additional areas of land suitable for agricultural
production. The river length was shortened by 60 % (Popov et al. 2008) and the retention
potential of the plain decreased dramatically.
In the fourth century AD Ammianus Marcellinus described the lower part of the Tisza River
in his Roman History (Yonge 1911, XIII, 4): For the Parthiscus (the Tisza River) waters this
land, proceeding with oblique windings till it falls into the Danube. But while it flows
unmixed, it passes through a vast extent of country, which, near its junction with the Danube,
it narrows into a very small corner, so that over on the side of the Danube those who live in
that district are protected from the attack of the Romans, and on the side of the Parthiscus
they are secured from any irruptions of the barbarians. Since along its course the greater part
of the ground is frequently under water from the floods, and always swampy and full of osiers,
so as to be quite impassable to strangers; and besides the mainland there is an island close to
the mouth of the river, which the stream itself seems to have separated into its present state.
Figure 1 Map of the southern part of the Pannonian Plain before Tisza River regulations with
the location of the main Late Neolithic settlements: 1. Uivar, 2 Parța, 3. Bucovăţ, 4, Foeni, 5.
Gorzsa, 6. Čoka, 7. Sajan, 8. Borđoš, 9. Opovo, 10. Vinča
Tabla 1. Karta jugoistočnog dela Panonske nizije pre regulacije toka reke Tise sa lokacijom
glavnih kasnoneolitskih naselja: 1. Ujvar, 2. Parca, 3. Bukovac, 4. Foeni, 5. Gorža, 6. Čoka, 7.
Sajan, 8. Borđoš, 9. Opovo, 10. Vinča
Figure 2 List of the Neolithic sites in the Serbian part of the central Banat region: 1. Borđoš,
2. Aradac Orbara, 3. Čenta – Mali alas, 4. Šurjan – Stara Sarča, 5. Botoš Živančeva dolja,
6. Aradac Kameniti vinogradi, 7. Elemir, 8. Taraš Selište, 9. Žabalj Nove zemlje, 10.
Matejski brod; Soil Map (Nejgebauer et al. 1971): a. Chernozem calcareous (see text inside),
b. Solonchak Soil, c. Hydromorphic Black Soils limeless, d. Alluvial loam-clayish soils, e.
Chernozem with signs of gley in loess
Tabla 2. Popis neolitskih lokaliteta u srpskom delu centralnog Banata i pedološka karta (a.
černozem karbonatni, b. solončak, c. ritska crnica beskarbonatna, d. aluvijalna ilovasto-
glinovita zemljišta, e. černozem sa znacima oglejavanja u lesu)
Late Neolithic sites in the vicinity of Borđoš
On the territory of Serbian part of the central Banat region many different archaeological sites
from the period of Late Neolithic have been discovered. Most of them are settlements, except
the site of Botoš – Živanovićeva Dolja, where a necropolis has been revealed (Grbić 1934).
The most significant sites are Matejski brod (Rašajski 1952, Nađ 1953), Kameniti vinogradi –
Aradac (Karapandžić 1922), Mali alas Čenta (Marinković 1995), Elemir (Medović 2009),
Nove zemlje near Žabalj (Medović 1998, 81–82, tab. 33/2–4), Taraš Selište (Nađ 1952),
Stara Sarača Šurjan (Medović 2012), Aradac – Orbara (Medović 2012) and Crna bara
Prkos (Marinković 2013) (Fig. 2).
The central Banat is the area where three major Neolithic cultures encounter: Vinča from
the south and south-west, Tisza from the north, and Banat from the east. Recent studies
show that shifts of cultures (Tisza-Vinča) in the late Neolithic settlements on the territory of
central Banat probably did not take place, but there were strong cultural interactions. Due to
that fact, it is extremely hard to identify the revealed archaeological artefacts as characteristics
of only one material culture. Influences of some more distant cultures cannot be excluded as
Etymology of the toponym Borđoš
The site Borđoš has been first mentioned in the list of estates along the River Tisza of the
monastery of the Tihany from the year 1211 under the Latin name Bureuohul. Later, the site
is known as Borjúól. The word Borjúól is a compound of two Hungarian nouns borjú (calf)
and ól (calf sheld). In the Middle Ages there was a settlement Borgyas. In that time, there
already existed the parish in 1414 under the name Bordas which, a year later, changed the
name in Boryas.
According to the census of 1717 there were 9 houses in the village Borđoš (Szentkláray 1897,
p. 21). A few years later (17231725) Count Claude Florimond de Mercy has listed Bordios
as an uninhabited village (Szentkláray 1897, p. 28).
The Research History of the archaeological site Borđoš
The archaeological site of Borđoš
was discovered by Jenő Szentkláray, a Hungarian
archaeologist, priest and art historian in 1875 (Archaeologiai Értesitő 9, 1875, p. 249-251).
On that occasion, he noted the existence of the elevation next to the former Hungarian village
Burdas, then empty and desolated. At first he discovered only the necropolis from the 16th
century AD. Somewhat later he discovered first prehistoric finds (Szentkláray 1877). These
were handmade pottery fragments, stone tools (chopping and polished tools) and tools made
of bones. The most interesting find was a Neolithic zoomorphic vessel, which is kept in the
Museum of the Banat in Timisoara, Romania (Draşovean and Ciobotaru 2001, p. 32, cat. 58).
In the vicinity of the Neolithic settlement, where previously stood a brickyard, Szentkláray
discovered a hoard with 74 bronze artefacts (Milleker 1940, p. 20, tab.14). Sometime later,
during meander regulation of the river Tisza, two more bronze hoards have been discovered.
The archaeological site Borđoš includes the Neolithic and the Bronze Age settlements which lay side by side
(see Fig. 3).
The first archaeological investigations of the Neolithic settlement took place in 1894 and 1895
by the archaeologists Endre Orosz and István Berkeszi from the Museum in Timisoara. They
revealed the size of the Neolithic settlement: approximately 500 steps long and 600 steps
wide. The surface consisted of few smaller tombs (Orosz 1903). Subsequent research took
place in 1903 and 1904 when they discovered a Bronze Age necropolis and a settlement in the
vicinity of the Neolithic settlement (Milleker 1906, 1517).
The territory where Borđoš is situated belonged to the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy until
1918. All the finds from Borđoš were taken to the biggest regional museums: Museum in
Timisoara (nowadays Romania) and Szeged (nowadays Hungary). The artefacts from the
excavations in 18941895 and 19031904 can be found in the Museum of Banat in
Timisoara. Some chance finds were donated to the Museum in Szeged. After the World War
II, some artefacts from the Museum in Szeged were given in accordance to the War
Reparation Contract to the Museum of Vojvodina in Novi Sad.
Joca Bakalov, an agriculture engineer and an amateur archaeologist from Zrenjanin, was
responsible for the affirmation of the site in the last two decades. One of the most famous
finds from the Neolithic site in Borđoš is the chance find of the anthropomorphic seated
figurine with a bowl (Inventory No. 16281/V) which is now kept in the National Museum in
A few extraordinary ceramic vessels from the site of Borđoš were donated to the Museum of
Vojvodina by Joca Bakalov (Medović 2006, fig. 53). At the Bronze Age settlement in Borđoš
three exceptional finds revealed: a bronze ploughshare, a balance with stone weights
(Medović 1993, 1995) and a bronze harpoon (Medović 2010).
Nineteen cult vessels from the Neolithic settlement in Borđoš were published by Ildiko
Medović (2012).
Geomorphology of the Neolithic site Borđoš
The relief and geologic substrate at the site are characterized by island like remnants of a
Pleistocene loess plateau (c. 80 m a. s. l.) of about 11 square kilometer size that is dissected
by (filled) channels and the alluvial plain of subsequent (Pleistocene and Holocene) fluvial
activity of the Tisza River (c. 75 m a. s. l.) (Fig. 2). The Neolithic settlement site is located on
the western edge of this loess island” (Fig. 3). Chernozem-like soils were found to have
developed in the calcareous loess. The soils in the surrounding alluvial plain are classified as
non-calcareous alluvial soils or Solonetz soils. The latter contain a considerable amount of
salts probably fed by groundwater from the Tisza River and enriched due to evaporation in the
plain. The process of salinization is probably related to alluvial history of the Tisza River and
could be younger then Neolithic times.
Today, the site Borđoš appears as shallow settlement mound which is elevated above its
surroundings up to about 2.5 m. To the north and to west adjoin silted oxbows of the river
Tisza originating from different periods.
Figure 3 The Location of the archaeological site Borđoš on a map sheet of The Second
Military Mapping Survey of Austrian Empire (18061869): red arrow Neolithic settlement,
yellow arrow Bronze Age settlement
Tabla 3. Lokacija arheološkog nalazišta Borđoš na listu karte Drugog vojnog kartiranja
Austrijskog carstva (18061869): crvena strelica neolitsko naselje, žuta strelica
bronzanodobno naselje
Preliminary results of the fieldwork in spring 2014
The field work at the site Borđoš was carried out on eight working days in March/April 2014.
A large scale geomagnetic survey, geoelectrical measurements of one house area, core
drillings and systematic surface collections at almost the entire site were conducted. The goal
of the prospection was to achieve as much information as possible with minimally invasive
methods useful as a base to develop a future research strategy (see below).
Geomagnetic Survey
Geomagnetic measurements were carried out with a magnetometer consisting of five detectors
installed on a trolley (FA. Sensys, Magneto® MXPDA-Fünfkanal-ARCH-System zur
magnetischen Flächenkartierung)
. The detectors are fixed 0.5 m apart from each other and
Courtesy of the Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes of the Christian-Albrechts-University of
took a measurement every 0.1 m. Later, in the software (DLMGPS v.4.01 and MAGNETO®
ARCH v. 1.0) the results of the measurements were interpolated to 0.2 m x 0.2 m raster cells.
The geomagnetic device was coupled with a GPS-system (FA. Leica, GNSS/GPS systems
Viva GS 10) enabling continuous grid measurements with a small amount of time and the
instantaneous production of geomagnetic maps. During the campaign an area of 18 ha was
mapped. The complete Neolithic settlement as well as a larger area south of the settlement
was documented (Table 1).
In the north of the prospected area a large structure of an oval-shaped magnetic anomaly
encircles an area of 7 ha probably reflecting a ditch system (Table 2, 1). The anomaly is 89
m wide and the elliptical form has dimensions of 320 by 200 m. This anomaly, whose
magnetic flux density does not exceed 10 nT, marks the edge of the flattened settlement
mound. Whereas the encircled area displays a rugged pattern of small structured anomalies to
the outer side of the macro-structure few additional small structured anomalies are visible.
With lower geomagnetic intensities a second, smaller (c. 3 m wide) anomaly parallels the
large elliptical anomaly probably reflecting a second ditch (Table 2, 2). To the west both
elliptical macro-structures are interrupted at the slope to recent river plain. This indicates a
certain erosion of the western part of the settlement as a result of postdepositional fluvial
activity (Table 2, 3).
Within the encircled area numerous small scaled magnetic anomalies with high values (6080
nT) revealed. Some of these anomalies exhibit a rectangular form while many anomalies do
not (Table 2, 4). Based on analogies from Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites in south-eastern
Europe (e. g. z. B. Mischka 2009; Mischka 2012; Hofmann et al. 2006; Erkul et al. 2013) we
interpret these anomalies as remnants of burned houses (massive daub accumulations)
although not excavated at Borđoš so far.
The cluster of the anomalies representing preserved findings implies the existence of initially
perhaps radial oriented rows of houses. Certain gaps within that cluster indicate
postdepositional erosion processes. The work at Borđoš has the character of a rescue
therefore, because the recent intensive agricultural field use would potentially lead to the
destruction of the archaeological record within a few years.
The well preserved rectangular remnants of houses show dimensions of 7.79.9 m in length
(mean 9.1 m; median 9.2 m) and of 4.06.3 m in width (mean 5.0 m, median 4.8 m).
Considering their length to width ratios (range 1.42.2, mean/median 1.9) and sizes (range
3060 m², mean 45.5 m², median 46.8 m²) the houses at Borđoš fall into the group of
relatively small late Neolithic houses (between 30 and 50 m²), consisting of one fireplace and
possibly hosting one core family (Lichter 1993, 35 ff.; Hofmann 2013, 446; Hofmann in
press). In several regions in south-eastern Europe that type of buildings was replaced by larger
houses during the termination of the late Neolithic. These larger houses consisted of
additional fireplaces and rooms added in the form of annexes to the smaller buildings
(Tripković 2009; Hofmann in press). Due to that change the ratio between length and width of
the houses changed (Lichter 1993, 38, Table 1).
The orientation of the house-axis varies between north-south and northeast-southwest in the
northern part of the settlement to east-west and northwest-southeast in the western part of the
settlement. Although there are a lot of gaps in the overall pattern of the settlement and all of
the houses must not be members of one settlement phase, the main settlement structure could
be interpreted as house rows oriented radial to elliptical around its center. Another hint to this
kind of settlement structure is given by the elliptical form of the enclosure.
Comparable centripetal late Neolithic settlement structures were reported from the eastern
Banat region, and from Transylvania and Moldavia
. During the first half of the 4th
millennium BCE radial to elliptical settlement structures of so far unique dimension emerge in
Cucuteni-Tripolje mega-sites in Moldavia and Ukraine (e. g. Kruts et al. 2013). In contrast,
house rows oriented parallel and straight occur during the late Neolithic in the central and
western Balkans
. Similar settlement forms are reported from the Tisza region, e.g. in the flat
settlement of Polgár-Csőszhalom (Raczky and Anders 2010). Considering the settlement
form, the site of Borđoš exhibits perhaps a relation to the eastern cultural groups, which is
singular in the region so far and clearly distinguished from the known Vinča sites.
Whereas the area to the north and west of the settlement shows only a few magnetic
anomalies, the area towards the south reflects a certain number of deviations, probably caused
by archaeological findings.
Adjacent to the circular ditch system a linear anomaly with maximum magnetic values of
about 7 nT is proceeding westwards in the direction towards the alluvial plain (Table 2, 5).
This anomaly has a width of c. 5 m and corresponds with a shallow valley in the recent
topography. We interpret this structure preliminary as a filled erosion channel of unknown
C. 60 m south of the settlement, another ditch system appeared within the geomagnetic map
(Table 2, 6). A twin ditch semicircle structure with a diameter of c. 130 m is cut by the slope
to the adjacent Tisza plain, probably representing the remnant of an earthwork. The two
supposed ditches have a width of c. 2 m, magnetic values of max. 4 nT, and a distance of c.
7.5 m between each other. In the southern part, an open structure (56 m in width) possibly
a gate, is visible. By a detailed excavation it remains to be solved if the ditches are connected
at this structure.
Apart from a suspected erosion structure the encircled area displays a few small radial
geomagnetic anomalies (diameter 23 m, 1520 nT) in its central and southern part. Since
these anomalies are irregularly distributed also between the ditches and at the outer side of the
enclosure they are probably not related to the earthwork.
Based on the geomagnetic results we can only speculate if the preserved semicircle ditch
system is the remnant of an originally circular structure. This seems plausible if the western
part has undergone its erosion due to the subsequent undercutting by river erosion, due to the
midlate Holocene alluvial activity of the River Tisza. Assuming a circular structure the
enclosure would have had encircled c. 0.02 ha originally. Regarding the size and the shape,
the enclosure from Borđ corresponds to locations in the northern Tisza region (Raczky and
Anders 2012).
Perhaps Uivar: Schier & Draşeovan 2004; Iclod: Mischka 2012; Petreni: Markevich 1981.
Okolište and Obre Gornje Polje (Hofmann et al. 2006, 2008/2009); Zagrebnice (Müller-Scheeßel and Hofmann
2013); Kundruci (Furholt 2012, 2013), Donje Moštre (Hofmann and Müller-Scheeßel 2013), In Eastern Bosnia:
Jagnilo near Goražde (survey plan unpublished; cf. Schroedter et al. 2013); Crkvine-Stubline (Crnobrnja et al.
2009; Crnobrnja 2012).
Additional magnetic anomalies are visible in the surroundings of the mentioned semicircle
structure. To the south two parallel ditch structures of c. 27 m in length are detected, in
distance of c. 8 m from each other (Table 2, 7). They might reflect remnants of quarry ditches
of a large longhouse. To the east another anomaly of considerable dimensions appeared. A
rectangular structure 45 m in length and 32 m in width seems to open to the south and exhibits
a rounded limit to the north (Table 2, 8).
In the southern part of the surveyed area there are further anomalies distributed with different
density in irregularly oriented clusters. Besides several relatively small round anomalies, there
are some structures with high flux densities (between 20 and 100 nT) in the very south of the
investigated area (Table 2, 9). Considering their size (89 m x 45 m) and orientation axis
(NESW), they might reflect remnants of at least eight late Neolithic houses which seem to be
arranged in 23 rows, oriented in northwest-southeast direction. This assumption has still to
be proved by typo-chronological analysis of the surface finds. If the findings are from the late
Neolithic times, they could represent a second small settlement core contemporaneously with
the encircled settlement. Similar records are known from the Tisza plain (Raczky 2009) as
well as from Vinča settlements in the western Balkans (Jagnilo and Lug near Goražde;
Schroedter et al. 2013).
In the southern part of the prospected area, eight linear magnetic anomalies oriented in south-
east to north-west direction are visible (Table 2, 10). These structures follow the slope, exhibit
a width of 2.56 m, and expose magnetic values of up to 5 nT. Their straightness points to an
anthropogenic rather than to an erosional origin. Since their orientation is similar to a system
of former field paths (Table 2, 15), they might reflect remnants of hollow ways of modern
Another young disturbance of the prehistoric record is visible in the northwestern part of the
encircled settlement structure. Surface finds and historical maps testify the former existence
of a modern times homestead at that location (Table 2, 11).
Core drillings
At 14 points vibra cores of a total length of 50 m were drilled into the ground (Table 1). The
main goals of the drilling campaign were to estimate the extent of post-depositional processes
like soil formation and soil erosion, and to enable a quick access to the archaeo-sediment and
material for numerical dating.
A look at the geomagnetic record and the topography gives first hints to erosion history of the
site. Whereas a certain part of the twin ditch system of the earth work (Table 2, 6) has been
eroded by subsequent lateral movement of the Tisza River, this is not the case for the
settlement site encircled by a large ditch preserved almost completely (Table 2, 4). This could
imply a larger age of the earth work compared to the settlement site. Subsequent slope erosion
was of minor extent and probably restricted to the steeper part of slope inclining to the Tisza
plain as indicated by a thin cover of colluvial layers (c. 0.5 m) at the lower part of this slope.
Slope wash, perhaps related to plough activity during mediaeval and recent times has
triggered the erosion of some centimeters of the upper part of the slope and its redeposition in
the lower part of the slope. Therefore, the western part of the settlement structure is seriously
endangered by recent erosion processes. Other gaps in the geomagnetic record might imply
destructing by ploughing or the existence of unburned houses, not visible in the geomagnetic
Considerable differences between the detected anomalies assumed to reflect former ditch
systems revealed from the results of the drilling campaign. The preserved record of twin ditch
system encircling the prehistoric earthwork exhibit ditch depths of c. 3 m (inner ditch) and c.
2 m (outer ditch). The inner ditch is older than the outer one. If the ditches existed at the same
time, as indicated by the geomagnetic prospection, it remains a matter of a detailed
excavation. The excavated material of both ditches was deposited probably in the form of
walls at the outer side of the earthwork. A function of the ditch-wall system as fortification is
improbable therefore. The circular anomaly encircling the settlement reflects a ditch of a
depth of > 5 m and a width of at least 2 m at the base. Indication of an accompanied wall
structure at the inner side was not found so far. The formation of B-horizons within the ditch
fills implies a phase of forestation of the site after abandonment.
A core was drilled in the centre of a burned house of the settlement (Table 3). The whole
sequence contains carbonates. The upper c. 3 m of the profile shows clear remnants of
anthropogenic activity. At the base c. 3.5 > 4 m below the surface, the parent material
(calcareous Loess) was exposed. Above, up to a depth of c. 3 m horizons of a buried soil
(Chernozem like) with an enrichment of organic matter are present. With decreasing depth,
the content of remnants of anthropogenic activity increase. A deep charcoal is present in c. 3
m depth; first particles of daub occurring in a depth of c. 2.5 m. Between c. 2 to 1 m maxima
of charcoal, daub, pottery shards and even a bone fragment are present. This high
concentration of anthropogenic remnants is associated by a distinct fine layer structure. Some
layers of Loess like color and structure might represent former house floors according to our
experience from other Balkan sites (e. g. Dreibrodt et al. 2013). The upper 1 m is free of fine
layers (except for a compact layer of daub in c. 0.6 m). The archaeological record of this
section is perhaps altered by subsequent agricultural land use (plough activity) and soil
formation (Chernozem formation).
Considering the thickness and layering of the archaeo-sediment we can state the presence of
more than one phase. The encircled settlement represents the remnant of a late Neolithic
settlement mound.
Geoelectrical prospection of a house area
At the Neolithic site of Borđoš, a geoelectrical prospection was conducted on a specific area,
over a large rectangular object/house, which is considered to be well preserved, as it was seen
by the previous geomagnetic prospection (Table 1). The aim of the geoelectrical research was
to determine the thickness of the archaeological layer, since the maximum reach of
magnetometer is up to 1 m. In order to acquire the best possible results, two different
geoelectrical methods were used: geoelectrical mapping and geoelectrical sounding.
Due to the fact that dimensions of the aforesaid object at the site of Borđoš are approximately
7 m by 10 m, we decided to measure an area of 10 m by 12 m size. Five profiles have been
appointed at different spacings: the spacing between profiles I and II, IV and V was 2 m,
while spacing between profiles II and III, III and IV was 3 m. Each profile consisted of nine
points which have been set at equal distance of 1.5 m between each other. The geoelectrical
mapping was conducted with Wenner array, with three probe spacings: a=1 m, a=2 m and a=3
m. This means that three subsurface levels have been reached, at the approximate depths of
0.50.75 m, 1.52 m and 2.53 m.
Within the same area, vertical electric sounding was also conducted, based on the resistivity
measuring in three points, diagonally through the measuring grid of the geoelectrical
mapping: S-1, S-2 and S-3, with the maximum distance between current probes of AB/2=20
m and the archieved depth of 10 m approximately. In order to compare the results, core
sampling was carried out in the points S-2 and S-3 of the geoelectrical sounding, too. The
point S-2 was placed in the center of the object/house and the drilling included 4 m of the
core, while in the point S-3, 3 m of the core was drilled.
Interpretation of the data given by geoelectrical mapping included graphic presentation,
within the maps of isolines and diagrams of apparent electrical resistivity. Isolines are used to
represent points of equal value of electrical resistivity. Maps of isolines show lithological
structure of the terrain in its horizontal projection, with clearly visible anomalies, which
should be interpreted as traces of anthropogenic activity in the past. Diagrams of apparent
electrical resistivity show changes of this value along each profile. Maps of isolines have been
created for the levels a=1 m, a=2 m and a=3 m (Table 4). Each map shows different zones
with values of apparent electrical resistivity: ρ < 50 Ωm, ρ = 50–60 Ωm, ρ > 60 Ωm (for a=1
m and a=3 m) and ρ < 60 Ωm, ρ = 60–70 Ωm, ρ > 70 Ωm (for a=2 m). These zones are
isolated not only by the values of apparent electrical resistivity, but also according to relations
between the isolines and their course. The second level (a=2 m) obviously reflects the area of
the most compact remains of the house (daub), while the third level (a=3 m) shows 5 areas
with very small values of apparent electrical resistivity (ρ < 50 Ωm), in which there are no
house remains.
Vertical electric sounding was conducted with Schlumberger array in order to define the
lithological structure of the terrain, as well as the cultural layer, its depth, position and outline.
The interpretation consists of curve identification with graph-analytical methods, based on
which, electrical zones were identified. These zones have their lithological interpretation with
the identification of anomalies that may represent archaeological remains. Based on the
interpretation of the vertical electrical sounding data, at the site of Borđoš, four different
zones have been identified (Table 5). Zone 1 is a surface layer, with resistivity values of 48
60 Ωm and a large amount of cultural layer remains. This zone is deep 1.35 m in S-1, 1.2 m in
S-2 and 1.1 m in S-3. Zone 2 is a subsurface layer, with resistivity values of 58–62 Ωm,
indicating large amount of cultural layer remains, mostly burned wattle-and-daub and other
archaeological artefacts. This zone is deep 2.1 m in S-1, 2.6 m in S-2 and 1.9 m in S-3. Zone 3
is the layer with resistivity values of 28–42 Ωm, deep 5.3 m in S-1, 4.9 m in S-2 and 6.1 m in
S-3, clearly without the remains of cultural layer. Zone 4 is identified as the natural geological
layer without cultural remains, showing the resistivity values of 11–12 Ωm. The depth of this
layer is not reached by the probe spacing of AB/2=20 m.
The depth of the zone 2 should reflect the depth of the cultural layer on the measurement
surface. The layer is deepest in the very center of the geoelectrical mapping measuring grid,
which is the sound S-2 for vertical electric sounding. Based on the interpretation of vertical
electric sounding and geoelectrical mapping, this depth is 2.6 m approximately. In the sound
S-3 and sound S-1, the cultural layer is lower and would be approximately 2.1 m deep in S-1
and 1.9 m deep in S-3.
Systematic surface collections
A systematic survey was conducted at the site focused on the following goals. To 1) map the
distribution of different artefact categories that might imply differences in economical and
social functions within the settlement, like different indicators of ancient crafts. 2) Further to
document the distribution of artefacts of different pottery styles and technological groups
(Tisza, Vinča) to enable possible inner-settlement differentiations. 3) Dating of the
geomagnetic anomalies in the south of the prospected area suspected to reflect a second
settlement core.
The background conditions of the survey were excellent: the surveyed agricultural field was
bare of vegetation and the weather was fair. Recent plough activity and associated soil erosion
enhance the artefact concentration at the soil surface.
The survey was conducted as a random survey under controlled conditions. A grid of 20 x 20
m was sampled by one person for ten minutes. The position of distinguishing artefacts like
figurines, adzes, axes, clay bowls, and artefacts made of flint was exactly documented with
the help of tachymeter-measurements. Because of the large area (18 ha) and a limitation in
time only every second quadrat was surveyed. If this results in too low spatial resolution of
the survey considering its goals, it will reveal after the detailed evaluation of the survey
All the finds from our survey in Borđoš are stored in the Museum of Vojvodina, Novi Sad.
Based on preliminary analyses of the surface pottery finds, it has been concluded that
handmade coarse pottery with characteristics of Tisza culture predominates. This pottery is
made of clay, mixed with recycled crushed ceramics, unpolished or roughly polished, red
fired. Shallow large vessels (stews) with tong-like handles are the most numerous pottery
finds (Table 6), mostly with burnt inner side of the rim. Bowls, pots and stews are the most
frequent within other small fragments. There are a lot of pieces decorated with incised linear
and zig-zag ornaments (Table 6, 17). Some of the fragments are painted with dark red and
white colour (Table 7, 2). Frequently, these coloured motifs consist of dots and circles in dark
red which is compatible with a particular pottery painting technique ochre painting on
already fired pottery. None of the fragments combine both incised and painted ornaments.
Handmade grey pottery, made of refined clay tempered with sand, fine polished, mostly
decorated with rubbed canelures on the rim and shoulder, is present in low amounts (Table 6,
9). The shapes, quality and decoration match the characteristics of the Vinča culture in its
Vinča C phase. Only sporadically, one can find pieces that resemble the Vinča D phase.
Beside of the pottery also other ceramic artefact as fragments of colanders, aribaloi, weights,
perforated circle tiles and ceramic balls have been discovered. A significant single find is the
miniature flat figurine made of ceramics with emphasised details of the head and hands (Table
8, 1). On a triangular face, there is a sculptured nose which is partially preserved. Both sides
of the figurine are decorated with incised ornaments.
One of the most interesting find is a perforated piece of a zoomorphic vessel (?) in the shape
of a fish head (Table 8, 2). Eye and gill details are carved. The perforation begins with the
mouth of the fish head and goes through, towards its tail. The realistic head resembles a carp
head a common fish known to have its natural habitat in the middle Danube region, and
living in the Tisza River today. This artefact was made of refined clay and was not burned.
The fish gives an indication both about every day and the spiritual life of the Neolithic
inhabitants at the site Borđoš. According to the eyes and mouth modelling, one can see some
similarities with the stone sculptures from the Mesolithic site of Lepenski Vir.
Animal bones are frequent. Among them, cattle (Bos sp.), pig, fish, canids (Canis sp.) and
dear were identified by archaeozoologist D. Radmanović. Interestingly, there are no tools
made of bones so far.
Chipped stone tools and cores are the most frequent stone artefacts. Among raw materials
high quality flint (white, grey and brown) dominates. There are lot of pieces of obsidian tools
which can be considered as imports from Carpathians C1 type (Table 7, 1). Few types of
radiolarian rock (Szentgál) have been found, too. The lack of the Balkans flint has also been
noticed. The most numerous tools are: scrapers, end-scrapers, piercers, blades and retouched
and combined tools. They are made in retouche and burin technique. Large tools are less
common. Most of the artefacts are middle-sized (34 cm).
The material consists of very large number of polished stone tools (Table 9, 68. 10. 11):
tong-like axes, hammers, chisels, adzes, most of them being circular perforated for handle
implant. They are made of dark and light grey metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
Only sporadically, artefacts from the Middle Ages occur (fishing weight with a stamp, pottery
and pipe fragments). This confirms the existence of a settlement which has already been
described in the written sources.
Results of geophysical, geoarchaeological and archaeological research at the late Neolithic
site Borđoš near Novi Bečej, Serbian Banat, add new knowledge about the size and the
structure of the settlement. Preliminary results reveal that the settlement had an area of c. 7 ha.
Within that area, a settlement mound accumulated due to the repeated construction of houses
(the cultural layer thickness ranges between 2.6 and 3 m). This settlement mound is encircled
by a large deep ditch system (c. 5 m in depth). The internal structure of the site as inferred
from the geomagnetic map points to a concentric radial orientation of house rows around a
free space in the center indicating a relationship to similar late Neolithic and early
Chalcolithic settlement types in Southeastern and Eastern Europe (Romanian Banat,
Transylvania, Moldavia). The settlement form is therefore clearly different from the late
Neolithic settlements, as known from the sites characterized by a material culture of Vinča
and Butmir-style. South of the encircled settlement site there exist several other small
structures perhaps a shorter living settlement site, and the remnants of a radial earthwork.
The material culture as inferred from the systematic survey reflects mixed artefact
assemblages of Vinča and Tisza-style, and a large number of stone artefacts among other
things made from the imported flint. According to preliminary typo-chronological
examination, the surface finds show characteristics of Vinča C and Vinča D material.
According to Borić (2009) this implies a dating of the site in the period between about 5000
and 4800 BCE. Against the background of the amount of artefacts with different style and the
archaeological record of the researched region, it is improbable that the observed mixture of
the material culture is the result of import alone. The matter of ongoing research is to
elucidate the processes that lead to the records documented at Borđoš.
The integration of the results of geoarchaeological, geophysical, and archaeological research
is promising to result in a detailed reconstruction of the structure and genesis of the
investigated settlement mound and the additional findings in the surroundings. Numerical
dating, geochemical, geophysical, and palaeoecological investigations on the archaeo-
sediments will provide a multidisciplinary set of proxy-data supporting the achievement of
this goal.
The ongoing evaluation of the survey results bears a comparable high potential to enhance the
understanding of the material culture of the site. Implications about the cultural catchment
area and the amount of imported material are expectable from the morphological,
technological and typo-chronological evaluation of the finds.
Hypotheses about the genesis of the site, set up on the base of the mentioned results will be
tested via the excavation of a burned house in the summer 2014. This excavation will add
detailed results about architecture, economy, archaeobotanical and archaeozoological
inventories, as well as the material inventory of the house. A particular focus will be the
pottery inventory of the house focusing on the aspect of mixed inventories. Furthermore, the
excavation will enhance the meaningfulness of the geophysical data providing profiles and
samples for calibration.
Likewise as during Neolithic times the recent cultural landscape of Vojvodina exhibits a
considerable diversity. Against this background we feel inspired to invite diverse scientists
and disciplines to collaborate at the unique site of Borđoš. In our opinion, such collaborations
bear the potential to result in a new quality of holistic reconstructions of the co-evolution of
humans and their environment in Holocene landscapes.
We are most grateful to Sabrina Autenrieth, Johanna Brinkmann, Meneka Gadkari, Till Kühl,
Julian Laabs, Wiebke Mainusch, Marcel Rodens, Henry Skorna (all Kiel) for their
enthusiastic work during our field campaign in Borđoš. Thanks are also to Milorad Gligorić
for his help in performing the geoelectrical survey. Amateur archaeologist Joca Bakalov
(Zrenjanin) ungrudgingly granted access to his find collection and supported us with his local
knowledge. Also, he is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
Benac, A. Obre I: A Neolithic Settlement of the Starčevo-Impresso and Kakanj Cultures at
Raskršće. Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen des Bosnisch-Herzegowinischen
Landesmuseums: Archäologie 3 (1973): 327429.
Benac, A. Obre II: A Neolithic Settlement of the Butmir Group at Gornje Polje.
Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen des Bosnisch-Herzegowinischen Landesmuseums:
Archäologie 3 (1973): 5325.
Biagi, P.; S. Shennan, M. Spataro. Rapid rivers and slow seas? New data for the radiocarbon
chronology of the Balkan penininsula, in: L. Nikolova, J. Fritz, J. Higgins (Eds.)
Prehistoric Archaeology & Anthropological Theory and Education, RPRP 67. Salt
Lake City/Karlovo: International Institute of Anthropology, 2005: 4351.
Borić, D. Absolute Dating of Metallurgical Innovations in the Vinča Culture of the Balkans,
in: T. L. Kienlin, B. W. Roberts (Eds.) Metals and Societies. Studies in honour of S.
Ottoway. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 169, 2009:
Burić, M. and Težak-Gregl, T. Bapska: A Late Neolithic settlement in eastern Croatia A
new project, in: F. Draşovean, D. L. Ciobotaro, M. Maddison (Eds.) Ten years after:
The Neolithic of the Balkans, as uncovered by the last decade of research. Proceedings
of the conference held at the museum of Banat on November 9th10th, 2007.
Timişoara: Biblitheca Historica et Archaeologica Banatica 49, 2009: 8599.
Chapman, J. The Vinča culture of South-East Europe: Studies in chronology, economy and
society. British Archaeological Reports. International Series 117. Oxford: Archaeopress,
Crnobrnja, A. N. Group identities in the Central Balkan Late Neolithic. Documenta
Praehistorica 39 (2012): 155165.
Crnobrnja, A. N.; Z. Simić, M. Janković. Late Vinča culture settlement at Crkvine in Stubline
(household organization and urbanization in the Late Vinča culture period). Starinar 59
(2009): 925.
Dammers, B. Ceramics and Cultural Identity between the Balkans and Middle Europe: The
Vinča C site of Uivar, in: F. Draşovean, D. L. Ciobotaro, M. Maddison (Eds.) Ten years
after: The Neolithic of the Balkans, as uncovered by the last decade of research.
Proceedings of the conference held at the museum of Banat on November 9th10th,
2007. Timişoara: Biblitheca Historica et Archaeologica Banatica 49, 2009: 235258.
Dammers, B. The Middle and Late Neolithic Tell of Uivar seen from a Ceramic Perspective,
in: R. Hofmann, F.-K. Moetz, J. Müller (Eds.) Tells: Social and Environmental Space.
Proceedings of the International Workshop “Socio-Environmental Dynamics over the
Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II (14th–18th March 2011)” in Kiel.
Volume 3. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 207, 2012:
Draşovean, F. and Ciobotaru, D. Neolithic Art in Banat: Catalogue of the Exhibition.
Timisoara: Solness, 2001.
Draşovean, F. Cultural Relationships in the Late Neolithic of the Banat, in: F. Draşovean, D.
L. Ciobotaro, M. Maddison (Eds.) Ten years after: The Neolithic of the Balkans, as
uncovered by the last decade of research. Proceedings of the conference held at the
museum of Banat on November 9th–10th, 2007. Timişoara: Biblitheca Historica et
Archaeologica Banatica 49, 2009: 259273.
Draşovean, F.; D. L. Ciobotaro, M. Maddison (Eds.). Ten years after: The Neolithic of the
Balkans, as uncovered by the last decade of research. Proceedings of the conference
held at the museum of Banat on November 9th10th, 2007. Timişoara: Biblitheca
Historica et Archaeologica Banatica 49, 2009.
Dreibrodt, S.; R. Hofmann, C. Lubos, S. Dazert, J. Zahrer, M. Fuchs, H.-R. Bork. Ergebnisse
geomorphologisch-geoarchäologischer Begleituntersuchungen an den Siedlungen im
Visokobecken (Bosnien-Herzegowina), in: J. Müller, K. Rassmann, R. Hofmann (Eds.)
Okolište 1: Untersuchungen einer spätneolithischen Siedlungskammer in
Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und Chalkolithikum in Zentralbosnien 1. Bonn:
Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 228, 2013: 287310.
Erkul, E.; D. Wilken, W. Rabbel, T. Yas, R. Hofmann, N. Müller-Scheeßel, K. Rassmann, J.
Müller. Geoelektrische Untersuchungen auf dem spätneolithischen Siedlungshügel von
Okolište, in: J. Müller, K. Rassmann, R. Hofmann (Eds.) Okolište 1: Untersuchungen
einer spätneolithischen Siedlungskammer in Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und
Chalkolithikum in Zentralbosnien 1. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen
Archäologie 228, 2013: 103111.
European Commission. Soil atlas of Europe. Luxembourg: European Communities, 2005.
Furholt, M. Kundruci: Development of Social Space in a Late Neolithic Tell Settlement in
Central Bosnia, in: R. Hofmann, F.-K. Moetz, J. Müller (Eds.) Tells: Social and
Environmental Space. Proceedings of the International Workshop “Socio-
Environmental Dynamics over the Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II
(14th–18th March 2011)” in Kiel. Volume 3. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur
prähistorischen Archäologie 207, 2012, 203219.
Furholt, M. Abseits des Weges: Prospektionen und Ausgrabungen in Kundruci, in: J. Müller,
K. Rassmann, R. Hofmann (Eds.) Okolište 1: Untersuchungen einer spätneolithischen
Siedlungskammer in Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und Chalkolithikum in
Zentralbosnien 1. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 228,
2013: 173206.
Grbić, M. Neolitsko groblje u Botošu kod Vel. Bečkereka. Starinar 89 (1934): 4058.
Hofmann, R. Okolište 2: Spätneolithische Keramik und Siedlungsentwicklung in
Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und Chalkolithikum in Zentralbosnien 2. Berlin:
Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 243, 2013.
Hofmann, R. The Bosnian Evidence: The New Late Neolithic and Early Copper Age
Chronology and Changing Settlement Patterns, in: Proceedings of the international
conference “Chronologies, Lithics and Metals: Late Neolithic and Copper Age in the
Eastern Part of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkans” in Budapest 30th of March 1st
April 2012. In press.
Hofmann; R., Z. Kujundžić-Vejzagić, J. Müller, N. Müller-Scheeßel, K. Rassmann.
Prospektionen und Ausgrabungen in Okolište (Bosnien-Herzegowina):
Siedlungsarchäologische Studien zum zentralbosnischen Spätneolithikum (53004500
v. Chr.). Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 87 (2006): 1140.
Hofmann, R.; Z. Kujundžić-Vejzagić, J. Müller, K. Rassmann, N. Müller-Scheeßel.
Rekonstrukcija procesa naseljavana u kasnom neolitu na prostoru centralne Bosne.
Glasnik Zemaljskog Muzeja u Sarajevu (Nova Serija) 50/51 (2008/2009): 11178.
Hofmann, R.; F.-K. Moetz, J. Müller (Eds.). Tells: Social and Environmental Space.
Proceedings of the International Workshop “Socio-Environmental Dynamics over the
Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II (14th18th March 2011)” in Kiel.
Volume 3. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 207, 2012.
Hofmann, R. and Müller-Scheeßel, N. Bericht über die Prospektionskampagne im Frühjahr
2008, in: in: J. Müller, K. Rassmann, R. Hofmann (Eds.) Okolište 1: Untersuchungen
einer spätneolithischen Siedlungskammer in Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und
Chalkolithikum in Zentralbosnien 1. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen
Archäologie 228, 2013: 127141.
Hofmann, R. and Müller-Scheeßel, N. Der kupferzeitliche Fundplatz Donje Moštre bei
Visoko in Zentralbosnien: Ein Vorbericht, in: J. Müller, K. Rassmann, R. Hofmann
(Eds.) Okolište 1: Untersuchungen einer spätneolithischen Siedlungskammer in
Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und Chalkolithikum in Zentralbosnien 1. Bonn:
Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 228, 2013: 207229.
Karapandžić, Đ. Aradac: Jedan prilog za preistoriju Vojvodine. Starinar 1 (1922): 151175.
Kruts, V. A.; A. G. Korvin-Piotrovskiy, C. Mischka, A. Windler, K. Rassmann. Talijanki
2012. The Geomagnetik Prospektion, in: A.G. Korvin-Piotrovskiy and K. Rassmann
(Eds.) Taljanki settlement-giant of the tripolian Culture. Investigations in 2012. Kiev:
Inst. Archeologii Nacionalnoj Akad. Nauk Ukrainy, 2013: 85 103.
Lichter, C. Untersuchungen zu den Bauten des südosteuropäischen Neolithikums und
Chalkolithikums. Internationale Archäologie 18. Buch am Erlbach: Universität
Heidelberg, 1993.
Marinković, S. Crna bara Prkos. Zrenjanin: Narodni muzej, 2013.
Marinković, S. Zaštitna arheološka iskopavanja na lokalitetu Mali alas kod Čente 1971.
godine. Glasnik muzeja Banata 6 (1995): 1321.
Markevich, V. I. Pozdnetripolskiye plemena Severnoi Moldavii (Late Tripolian Tribes of
Northern Moldavia. Shtiintsa: Kishinev, 1981.
Medović, I. Arhitektonska plastika iz Elemira. Rad Muzeja Vojvodine 51 (2009): 3544.
Medović, I. Slučajni metalni nalazi iz srednjeg Banata (Zwei Metallfunde aus Mittelbanat).
Rad Muzeja Vojvodine 52 (2010): 6170.
Medović, I. Neolitske kultne posude iz srednjeg Banata (Neolitische Kultgefäße aus
serbischem Teil vom mittleren Banat). Rad Muzeja Vojvodine 54 (2012): 2349.
Medović, P. Raonik (lemeš) rala sa Borđoša kod Novog Bečeja (Banat). Rad vojvođanskih
muzeja 35 (1993): 3340.
Medović, P. Die Waage aus der frühhalstattzeitlichen Siedlung Borđoš (Borjaš) bei Novi
Bečej (Banat), in: B. Hänsel (Ed.) Handel, Tausch und Verkehr im bronze- und
früheisenzeitlichen Südosteuropa. München/Berlin: Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft,1995:
Medović, P. Die Geländebegehungen im Raum um das Titeler Plateau 1965 und 1969, in: B.
Hänsel and P. Medović (Eds.). Feudvar I: Das Plateau von Titel und die Šajkaška. Kiel:
Verlag Oetker/Voges, 1998: 41140.
Medović, P. Vojvodina u praistoriji: Od Neandertalaca do Kelta. Novi Sad: Platoneum, 2006.
Milleker, B. Délmagyarország régiség leletei a honfoglalás előtti időkből III. Temesvár:
Délmagyarországi Tört. és Rég. Muzeumtársulat, 1906.
Milleker, F. Vorgeschichte des Banats. Starinar 15 (1940): 142.
Mischka, C. Geomagnetische Prospektion neolithischer und kupferzeitlicher Siedlungen in
Rumänien. Eurasia Antiqua 14 (2008): 101115.
Mischka, C. Neue Ergebnisse der geomagnetischen Prospektionen neolithischer und
kupferzeitlicher Siedlungen in Rumänien. Eurasia Antiqua 15 (2009): 114.
Mischka, C. Late Neolithic Multiphased Settlements in Southern Transilvania: A Geophysical
Survey and Test Excavation, in: R. Hofmann, F.-K. Moetz, J. Müller (Eds.). Tells:
Social and Environmental Space. Proceedings of the International Workshop “Socio-
Environmental Dynamics over the Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II
(14th–18th March 2011)” in Kiel. Volume 3. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur
prähistorischen Archäologie 207, 2012: 153166.
Müller, J.; Rassmann, K., Hofmann, R. (Eds) Okolište 1: Untersuchungen einer
spätneolithischen Siedlungskammer in Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und
Chalkolithikum in Zentralbosnien 1. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen
Archäologie 228, 2013.
Müller-Scheeßel, N. and Hofmann, R. Der Fundplatz Zagrebnice bei Papratnica, in: J. Müller,
K. Rassmann, R. Hofmann (Eds.) Okolište 1: Untersuchungen einer spätneolithischen
Siedlungskammer in Zentralbosnien. Neolithikum und Chalkolithikum in
Zentralbosnien 1. Bonn: Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 228,
2013: 143172.
Nađ, Š. Probno arheološko ispitivanje Selišta kod Taraša. Rad vojvođanskih muzeja 1 (1952):
Nađ, Š. Naselje iz mlađeg kamenog doba na Matejskom Brodu kod Novog Bečeja. Rad
vojvođanskih muzeja 2 (1953): 107117.
Nejgebauer, V.; B. Živković, Đ.M.Tanasijević, N. Miljković. Pedološka karta Socijalističke
autonomne pokrajine Vojvodine S. R. Srbija / Soil map of Socialist autonomous
Province of Vojvodina S. R. of Serbia. Razmera / Scale 1 : 400 000. Novi Sad: Institut
za poljoprivredna istraživanja, 1971.
Orosz, E. A borjasi ős-telepek. Temesvár: Csanád Egyházmegyei Könyvnyomda, 1903.
Parabućski, S. and Janković, M. Pokušaj utvrđivanja potencijalne vegetacije Vojvodine.
Matica srpska. Zbornik za prirodne nauke 54 (1978): 520.
Perić, S. Butmirska kultura: Geneza i razvoj / Butmir culture: Origin and development.
Beograd: Arheološki institut, 1995.
Perić, S. Der kulturelle Charakter und die Chronologie der Starčevo-Elemente im
Neolithikum der westlichen Balkanregion. Starinar 51 (2001): 943.
Parkinson, W. Tribal boundaries: Stylistic variability and social boundary maintenance during
the transition to the Copper Age on the Great Hungarian Plain. Journal of
Anthropological Archaeology 25 (2006): 3358.
Popov, D.; S. B. Marković, D. Štrbac. Generations of Meanders in Serbian Part of Tisa
Valley. Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijic” SASA 58 (2008): 29–42.
Rašajski, R. Preistorisko naselje na Matejskom Brodu. Rad vojvođanskih muzeja 1 (1952):
Raczky, P. Archaeological Data on Space Use at a Tell-Like Settlement of the Tisza Culture
(New Results from Öcsöd-Kováshalom, Hungary), in: F. Draşovean, D. L. Ciobotaro,
M. Maddison (Eds.) Ten years after: The Neolithic of the Balkans, as uncovered by the
last decade of research. Proceedings of the conference held at the museum of Banat on
November 9th10th, 2007. Timişoara: Biblitheca Historica et Archaeologica Banatica 49,
2009: 101124.
Raczky, P. and Anders, A. Acitivity loci and data for spatial division at a Late Neolithic site-
complex (Polgár-Csőszhalom: a case study), in: S. Hansen (Ed.) Leben auf dem Tell als
soziale Praxis. Beiträge des Internationalen Symposiums in Berlin vom 26.27. Februar
2007. Bonn: Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 14, 2010:143163.
Raczky, P. and Anders, A. Neolithic enclosures in Eastern Hungary and their survival into the
Copper Age, in: F. Bertemes and H. Meller (Eds.) Neolithische Kreisgrabenanlagen in
Europa/Neolithic Circular Enclosures in Europe. Internationale Arbeitstagung 7.9.
Mai 2004 in Goseck (Sachsen-Anhalt)/International Workshop 7th9th May 2004 in
Goseck (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany). Halle (Saale): Tagungen des Landesmuseums für
Vorgeschichte Halle 8, 2012: 271309.
Schier, W. and Draşovean, F. Vorbericht über die rumänisch-deutschen Prospektionen und
Ausgrabungen in der befestigten Teilsiedlung von Uivar, jud. Timiş, Rumänien (1998–
2002). Prähistorische Zeitschrift 79 (2004): 145230.
Schroedter, T.M.; S. Dreibrodt, R. Hofmann, J. Lomax, J. Müller, O. Nelle. Interdisciplinary
interpretation of challenging archives: Charcoal assemblages in Drina Valley alluvial
and colluvial sediments (Jagnilo, Bosnia and Herzegovina). Quaternary International
289 (2013): 3645.
Sekulić, P.; J. Ninkov, N. Hristov, J. Vasin, S. Šeremešić, T. Zeremski-Škorić. Sadržaj
organske materije u zemljištima AP Vojvodine i mogućnost korišćenja žetvenih
ostataka kao obnovljivog izvora energije. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo / Field and Vegetable
Crops Research 47 (2010): 591598.
Sterud, L. and Sterud, A.-K. A quantitative analyses of the material remains.
Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen des Bosnisch-Herzegowinischen Landesmuseums:
Archäologie 4 (1974): 155355.
Szentkláray, J. Torontáli őstelepek a Tisza mentén. Temesvár: 1877.
Szentkláray, J. A társadalom nemzeti feladatai Délmagyarországon. Temesvár: 1897.
Tripković, B. Kontinuiteti kuća i domaćinstava na središnjemu Balkanu od 5300. do 4600. g.
pr. n. e. / House(hold) continuities in the Central Balkans, 53004600 BC. Opvscvla
archaeologica 33 (2009): 7 28.
Walter, H. and Lieth, H. Klimadiagramm Weltatlas. Jena: VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1960.
Yonge, C.D. The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus. London: Bell and Sons, Ltd.,
Table 1 Plan of the geomagnetic survey of the Neolithic site Borđjoš (geographical reference
system: WGS 84; projection UTM zone 34): 1 area of geoelectrical survey, 2 location and
numbers of drilling points
Tabla 1. Plan geomagnetne prospekcije neolitskog lokaliteta Borđoš (geografski referentni
sistem: WGS 84; projekcija UTM, zona 34): 1. oblast geoelektričnih istraživanja, 2. položaj i
broj tačaka bušenja
Table 2 Plan of the geomagnetic survey with interpretation of the anomalies. 12 former
ditches of the late Neolithic settlement mound; 3 points, where the structures 1 and 2 were
likely undercut by activity of the river Tisza; 4 remnants of burned houses (massive daub
accumulations); 5 filled erosion channel; 6 earthwork with two parallel ditches (unknown
age); 7 two parallel linear magnetic anomalies (remnants of quarry ditches of a large
longhouse?); 8 linear rectangular structure of unknown character; 9 remnants of late Neolithic
houses (massive daub accumulations); 10 linear magnetic anomalies (possible remnants of
hollow ways?); 11 modern times homestead; 12 daub accumulations of unknown character;
13 area of a small object with high flux densities in the surrounding of the modern homestead
(metal or slags?); 14 Tisza flood plain; 15 former system of field paths; 16 eleven areas
leveled during the construction of the modern homestead.
Tabla 2. Plan geomagnetne prospekcije sa interpretacijom anomalija. 12. nekadašnji rovovi
kasnoneolitskog naselja; 3. mesta na kojima su strukture 1 i 2 najverovatnije presečene
dejstvom Tise, 4. ostaci izgorelih kuća (velika količina kućnog lepa), 5. erozioni kanal, 6.
zemljana struktua sa dva paralelna rova (nepoznate starosti), 7. dve paralelne linearne
magnetne anomalije (ostaci iskopa rovova velike izdužene kuće ?), 8. linearna pravougaona
struktura nepoznatog karaktera, 9. ostaci kasnoneolitskih kuća (velika količina kućnog lepa),
10. linearne magnetne anomalije (verovatno ostaci udolina ?), 11. savremeno poljoprivredno
imanje, 12. velika količina kućnog lepa, 13. površina malog objekta sa visokim vrednostima
magnetnog fluksa i okruženju savremenog polj. imanja, 14. plavno područje Tise, 15.
nekadašnja mreža poljskih puteva, 16. jedanaest nivelisanih površina nastalih prilikom
izgradnje modernog polj. imanja
Table 3 Schematic drawing of the investigated profile 1013 in the centre of the geoelectrical
surveyed area
Tabla 3. Shematski prikaz istražnog profila 1013 u zoni geoelektrične prospekcije
Table 4 Isoline maps of the apparent electrical resistivity
Tabla 4. Karte izolinija prividne specifične električne otpornosti
Table 5 Vertical electric sounding Geolectrical section
Tabla 5. Geoelektrično sondiranje – geoelektrični presek terena
Table 6: 16 Tisza pottery; 7–10 Vinča pottery; 11, 12 coarse pottery
Tabla 6: 16 potiska keramika; 710 vinčanska keramika; 11, 12 gruba keramika
Table 7: 1 Obsidian tools; 2 Painted pottery
Tabla 7: 1. Obsidijan; 2. Slikana keramika
Table 8: 1 Miniature figurine; 2 “Fish head“ vessel (?)
Tabla 8: 1. minijaturna figurina; 2. deo posude (?) u obliku riblje glave
Table 9: 18, 1011 Stone tools; 9 ceramic ball
Tabla 9. 18, 1011 kamene alatke; 9 keramička kugla
A. Medović, R. Hofmann, T. Stanković-Pešterac, S. Dreibrodt, I. Medović, R. Pešterac
Kasnoneolitsko naselje Borđoš kod Novog Bečeja (srpski Banat) u multiregionalnom
kontekstu preliminarni rezultati geofizičkih, geoarheoloških i arheoloških istraživanja
Rezultati geofizičkih, geoarheoloških i arheoloških istraživanja kasnoneolitskog nalazišta
Borđoš omogućili su nova saznanja o veličini i strukturi naselja. Preliminarni rezultati su
pokazali da je naselje, podignuto na blagoj gredi, obuhvatalo površinu od oko 7 ha, sa
kulturnim slojem debljine 2,63 m, kao i to da je bilo oivičeno odbrambenim rovom, oko 5 m
dubine. Kako je geomagnetna prospekcija pokazala, unutrašnja struktura naselja
podrazumevala je kuće radijalno raspoređene oko jednog slobodnog prostora u središtu,
ukazujući na veze sa sličnim kasnim neolitskim i ranim bronzanodobnim naseljima
jugoistočne i istočne Evrope (rumunski Banat, Transilvanija, Moldavija). Forma naselja se
jasno razlikuje od forme naselja poznate na brojnim lokalitetima vinčanske i butmirske
kulture. Južno od neolitskog naselja okruženog rovom, nalazi se druga struktura, možda
kratkotrajnije naselje (?), čiji su ostaci rova identifikovani geomagnetnom prospekcijom.
Analiza sistematski sakupljenog materijala sa površine lokaliteta pokazala je mešavinu
vinčanske i potiske kulture i veliki broj kamenih artefakata, među kojima ima i onih izrađenih
od importovanog kremena. Prema preliminarnoj tipološkoj i hronološkoj analizi, površinski
nalazi pokazuju karakteristike materijala Vinča C i Vinča D. Prema Boriću (2009), ovo
ukazuje na moguće datovanje lokaliteta u vreme između 5000. i 4800. godine p. n. e. Sudeći
prema količini artefakata različitih stilova, kao i drugih arheoloških podataka, izmešanost
materijala ne treba tumačiti isključivo kao import. Rasvetljavanje brojnih pitanja, nastalih u
ovim preliminarnim istraživanjima, predmet je budućih istraživanja na lokalitetu Borđoš.
... 12 Medović et al. 2014;Stanković-Pešterac et al. 2014. ...
... To the north of the settlement mound, across a drainage channel likely belonging to the Pleistocene, there is a less densely populated area of 3.5 ha with Early Neolithic finds and scattered Late Neolithic houses. In the south there is additionally a large settlement partly overlap-13 Compare Medović et al. 2014, ...
... Besides the different pottery styles and settlement characteristics, different flint raw materials like obsidian, radiolarites (Mecsek, Bakony), and shiny light grey brown 15 Medović et al. 2014;Stanković Pešterac et al. 2014. ...
... 12 Medović et al. 2014;Stanković-Pešterac et al. 2014. ...
... To the north of the settlement mound, across a drainage channel likely belonging to the Pleistocene, there is a less densely populated area of 3.5 ha with Early Neolithic finds and scattered Late Neolithic houses. In the south there is additionally a large settlement partly overlap-13 Compare Medović et al. 2014, ...
... Besides the different pottery styles and settlement characteristics, different flint raw materials like obsidian, radiolarites (Mecsek, Bakony), and shiny light grey brown 15 Medović et al. 2014;Stanković Pešterac et al. 2014. ...
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In der Theiß-Region an der nördlichen Peripherie der südosteuropäischen Tellkulturen beobachten wir zwischen 5300 und 4450 v. u. Z. das Auftreten großer bevölkerungsreicher Siedlungen, die durch die Kombinationen unterschiedlicher Siedlungskomponenten, von Tells, Flachsiedlungen und Kreisgrabenanlagen gekennzeichnet sind. In diesem Beitrag ist die Entwicklung einer solchen Mehrkomponenten-Siedlung – Borđoš in der serbischen Vojvodina – rekonstruiert, basierend auf geophysikalischen Untersuchungen, Ausgrabungen, systematischen Oberflächenbegehungen und ¹⁴ C-Datierungen. Zwischen 4850 und 4700 v. u. Z. wurde in Borđoš eine bereits länger existierende Tellsiedlung durch eine große Flachsiedlung ergänzt oder zeitweise ersetzt. Im Kontext ähnlicher Fundstellen aus dem Theiß-Gebiet und darüber hinaus interpretieren wir diese Dynamik als Ausdruck eines zeitweise verstärkten überregionalen Trends zu Bevölkerungsagglomeration zwischen etwa 4900 und 4700 v. u. Z. Hinsichtlich der Entwicklung von Tellsiedlungen und Flachsiedlungen zeichnen sich innerhalb des Theiß-Gebietes erhebliche regionale Unterschiede ab: Im südlichen Teil des Untersuchungsgebietes bilden Tells häufig die Keimzelle später wachsender komplexer Siedlungen. Dagegen stellen im Norden eher große Flachsiedlungen den Ausgangspunkt großer Siedlungen dar. Tells repräsentieren hier entweder räumliche Separierungen mit speziellen Funktionen oder stellen das Ergebnis einer länger andauernden Besiedlung in einem kleinen Teil der ursprünglichen Siedlungsfläche dar. Diese Größenreduzierung von Siedlungen oder teils ihre komplette Auflassung verstehen wir als Teil eines im Karpatenbecken und dem westlichen Balkan weiträumig sichtbaren Trends hin zu erheblich geringeren Bevölkerungsdichten und räumlich stärker verteilten Siedlungen, der nach 4700 v. u. Z. einsetzte. Aus Tells- und Flachsiedlungskomponenten bestehende Großsiedlungen der Theiß-Region zeichnen sich durch eine große Diversität hinsichtlich ihrer Größe und räumlichen Konfiguration aus. In Borđoš beobachten wir das Auftreten eines in der Region bisher unbekannten zentripetalen Siedlungslayouts, in dem die Häuser auf einen zentralen Platz im Zentrum der Siedlung ausgerichtet sind. Wir interpretieren die neuartige Siedlungskonfiguration als das Ergebnis des Zusammenschlusses einer im Hinblick auf kulturellen Hintergrund, Identitäten und Netzwerkeinbindung sehr heterogenen Bevölkerung. Demnach können wir die Gruppierung der Häuser um einen zentralen Platz als Ausdruck einer sozialen Organisation verstehen, die in stärkerem Maße als bei Siedlungen mit parallelen Hausreihen auf der Aushandlung kommunaler Belange beruhte.
... For a long time, this could only be discussed with sites excavated over extensive time periods (Cf. Banning, 2002Banning, , 2007, but advances in surveying methods have enabled to gain reliable data on the extension and in some parts also the internal structure of prehistoric sites (For example Hansen et al., 2006;Hofmann et al., 2006;Kruts et al., 2011;Medović et al., 2014;Mischka, 2008Mischka, , 2009Mischka, , 2012Rassmann et al., 2014;Schier and Draşovean, 2004;Urban et al., 2014a). This has resulted in a new wealth of data that in some cases has already stimulated new discussions on the complexity of various prehistoric societies (Hansen et al., 2006;Hansen and Toderaş, 2010;Lazăr et al., 2011;Rassmann et al., 2016;Risch, 2012). ...
... Given the state of the technology, geomagnetic surveys are a cheap, accessible, and non-destructive method to investigate the structure of large areas (see below). The method had a huge impact on areas with burnt wattle and daub architecture (For example Hansen et al., 2006;Kruts et al., 2011;Lazăr et al., 2011;Medović et al., 2014;Mischka, 2008Mischka, , 2009Mischka, , 2012, but it does not have a long tradition in the Near East (see for example Urban et al., 2014a). ...
... The samples used for this study originate from a burnt building at the archaeological site Makaranda on the Borđoš Plain near Novi Bečej in the Serbian Vojvodina, which was partly excavated in the frame of a Serbian-German cooperation in 2017. This site is a small hamlet consisting of only a few houses with Vinča and Tisza ceramic styles in the catchment of the central settlement of BorđošMedovi c et al., 2014). The settlement has been dated between 5 200 and 4 840 BCE by means of the 14 C method (two datings). ...
Full-text available
The determination of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of archaeological features can be used for magnetic modelling, joining of shards, archaeomagnetic dating or the investigation of the firing–cooling–collapsing order of ancient buildings. The measurement of NRM is normally conducted on cylindrical or cubic samples in the laboratory. Nevertheless, archaeological finds should preferably not be destroyed, and laboratory instruments are high in costs. Therefore, we propose a lightweight and portable measurement set-up including already available field magnetometers (preferably caesium magnetometers) in which the archaeological sample of arbitrary shape, in our case a piece of daub, is mounted inside a gimbal to be rotated in all directions. The magnetic field of the sample is measured at a large number of rotational positions with the magnetometer kept at fixed position. In these measurements, the unknown direction of the NRM vector of the sample is rotated, whereas the average magnetic susceptibility of the sample and the ambient magnetic field are constant and known. Hence, the vector of NRM can be determined through least-squares inversion. For the inversion computation, the sample volume is discretized either as voxel model or approximated as an equivalent sphere. Under certain conditions depending on sample–sensor distance, dipole moment and radius of the sample, the approximation by a sphere is valid without effect on the accuracy of results. Empirically determined functions quantifying these conditions for different sensor sensitivities and noise levels are provided. Validation with laboratory measurements on palaeomagnetic subsamples from the destroyed daub samples indicate that the NRM can be determined by our proposed method with a maximum error in inclination of 2°, in declination of 20° and in magnetization of ±0.6 A/m. This is accurate enough, for example, to determine from daub pieces of burnt house remains whether the building was burnt and cooled before or after it collapsed.
... The excavations were usually small scale, uncovering less than 10% of sites' area. This has changed only recently in the last 15 years when geophysical surveys revealed the spatial organization of (almost) entire settlement at sites such as Uivar (Schier, 2008), Stubline , Oreškovica (Borić et al., 2018), Drenovac and Motel Slatina , Iđoš , Borđoš (Medović et al., 2014). The second problem is the problem of contemporaneity of individual houseshow to determine how many houses were used at the same time (Porčić, 2011a). ...
Full-text available
This special issue of Quaternary International contains a selection of contributions from the international Conference entitled “LBK & Vinča - Formation and Transformation of Early Neolithic Lifestyles in Europe in the second half of the 6th millennium BC” held from 21st to 23rd of March, 2019 in Tübingen (Germany).
... The excavations were usually small scale, uncovering less than 10% of sites' area. This has changed only recently in the last 15 years when geophysical surveys revealed the spatial organization of (almost) entire settlement at sites such as Uivar (Schier, 2008), Stubline (Crnobrnja, 2014), Oreškovica (Borić et al., 2018), Drenovac and Motel Slatina (Perić et al., 2016), Iđoš , Borđoš (Medović et al., 2014). The second problem is the problem of contemporaneity of individual houseshow to determine how many houses were used at the same time (Porčić, 2011a). ...
Full-text available
The Vinča culture represents one the most important archaeological phenomena of the Neolithic and Eneolithic world in Southeastern Europe. As all other archaeological cultures, the Vinča culture is defined in the era of culture-historical archaeology, representing a set of sites with similar material culture with a core area in the Central Balkans. The task of modern archaeological research is to reconstruct social and cultural processes that gave rise to the observed patterns of material culture. In this paper I explore two partially related issues: 1) the formation of the Vinča culture (Early-Late Neolithic or Starčevo-Vinča transition) 2) regional and settlement demography of the Vinča culture. The transition between the Early Neolithic Starčevo culture and the Late Neolithic Vinča culture was marked mainly by changes in pottery style and technology, as well as in settlement size and architecture. The analysis of the regional population dynamics pattern based on the summed probability of calibrated probability distributions of radiocarbon dates suggest that the population rapidly increased after ∼5300 cal BC. The relative population size proxy curve reached its peak ∼5200 cal BC and had remained relatively constant until 4500 cal BC when it declined sharply. Estimates of settlement population sizes suggest that changes in the community organization also occurred, as Vinča culture settlements with hundreds of people, even over a thousand in some cases, could support higher levels of scalar stress than earlier Starčevo settlements. The current state of evidence is such that no definite answer can be given regarding the hypotheses about the formation of the Vinča culture.
... The same is true of the recent work on the Vinča culture taxonomic unit found in the north-central Balkans, which covers a period of more than 800 years (ca. 5,300-4,500 cal BC) in the central and northern areas of the peninsula (e.g., Borić 2009Borić , 2015Chapman 1981;Chapman, Gaydarska, and Hardy 2006;Crnobrnja 2012;Medović et al. 2014;Perić et al. 2016;Schier 2008). ...
Full-text available
Interpretations of prehistoric enclosures worldwide have varied from those that see the primary role of enclosures as defensive features to others that explore the symbolic, ritual, social, and ideological dimensions of separating space into an inside, an outside, and an in-between. Such evidence and interpretative accounts are inevitably linked to wider anthropological discussions on modes of social interaction and reproduction in the past, whether altruistic or predatory, and evolutionary narratives regarding changes in the level of intergroup violence over the course of human history. Growing evidence indicates that many Neolithic settlements in Europe were enclosed by a complex system of ditches, ramparts, and palisades. We present a case study from the central Balkans at the Neolithic Vinča culture site of Oreškovica-Selište in Serbia, dated to the last centuries of the sixth millennium BC, where recent geophysical surveys, stratigraphic excavation, and accelerator mass spectrometry dating document the existence of an early enclosed settlement with multiple enclosure features. We interpret these features as defensive and discuss the social dynamics that led to the founding and abandonment of this short-lived occupation in the context of other contemporaneous settlements in the Balkans. © 2018, by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved.
Full-text available
Miniature ceramic bottles with perforated handles entered the pottery repertoire of different Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic communities across the south-eastern Prealps, south-western Transdanubia and the Balkans in the 5th millennium BC. It is hypothesised that these small bottles were personal items that could be hung around the neck or waist, possibly to contain cosmetics or for cultic purposes. The aim of this study was to understand the function of 14 of these miniature bottles recovered from sites attributed to the Lasinja Culture in the south-eastern Prealps and the Vinča Culture in the Central Balkans, by analysing the remains of their contents. A multi-method approach was applied using local high-resolution X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD²) and micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to analyse visible residues in eight bottles, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) to test the absorbed lipid content in nine of them. The analysis showed that cerussite (lead carbonate) was the main component of the white material found in the bottle from Zgornje Radvanje, Slovenia. In the visible residues found in the bottles from Turnišče and Popava 1, the lead minerals plumbogummite and pyromorphite were identified as crystalline components. The identification of lead-containing minerals in this study coincides with the earliest use of lead in south-eastern Europe (ca. 4400–4300 BCE), as described in Hansen et al. (2019). Lipid analysis identified beeswax as the content of three of the vessels, which, together with the detection of lead minerals found in the same vessels, suggests its use as an organic binder, perhaps to form pigments as previously hypothesised, for cosmetic and/or medicinal purposes. This study represents the first application of multidisciplinary scientific methods on miniature bottles from the Lasinja and Vinča cultures in the south-eastern Prealps and Central Balkans. Significantly, this study pushes back the date for the use of lead-based cosmetic/medicinal products in North Africa and the Near East by more than a millennium, and in Europe by more than two millennia.
Full-text available
The archaeological site of Gradište near Iđoš, in the municipality of Kikinda, Serbia, is well known in the archaeological literature of the region. Excavated on several occasions since 1913, the site is best known for the existence of a late Neolithic settlement where material culture belonging to both Vinča and Tisza communities was found in the same archaeological contexts. Furthermore, the site is known for a 250 metre diameter fortified settlement from the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age period. А new research cycle was initiated in 2014 in order to explain cultural processes during prehistory in this part of the Pannonian basin. The first season of the new research campaign was focused on geophysical prospection of an area of approximately 2 hectares, geological coring and excavation of four stratigraphic trenches across the site. This work has confirmed the existence of up to 2.5 metres of archaeological remains on the tell site with several daub structures detected and the existence of numerous archaeological features within the Late Bronze - Iron Age settlement.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Polgár-Csőszhalom is one of the best known ar-chaeologicals ites in the Carpathian Basin. 1 It is a 3–3.5 mh igh elevation located along the upper reacheso ft he Tisza River,s ome 100 km north of the LateN eolithic tell settlements of the Tisza-Her-pály cultures (Fig. 1).I ts geographical position and topographic setting have, in and of themselves, stimulated considerable interest in European prehistoric archaeology. 2 Following the first professional research excavations at the site in 1957, directed by IDA BOGNÁR-KUTZIÁN,i tw as considered at ypical settlement complex with superimposed layers of burnt buildings and ac haracteristict ype of painted ceramics that turnedr ed and white after firing. 3 Since 1989, however,s ubsequent archaeomagnetic prospection, aerial surveys as well as geological borings have provided increasing evidence of as ystem of multiple , concentricd itches surrounding this mound. By the 1990s,a rchaeological data also suggested that this previouslyk nown archaeologicalc omplex shouldb ec onsidered as pecial combination of the type of tell settlemento ft he Tisza-Herpály culture, which is characteristic of the Great Hungarian Plain, and the type of circular ditch of the Lengyel culture.I ts marked structural dualityr epresents a synthesis of spatialc haracteristics of the settlements assigned to these two major cultures. 4 Formerly ,r adiocarbon samplest aken from the main body of the mound dated the complext ob etween 4840 and 4560, 5 but the new resultsp oint to the dates of 4820 and 4530 BC, 6 encompassing ar ela-tively long time period. Meanwhile, archaeomag-netic measurements and excavation data have enabled the reconstruction of 13–15 houses on the moundw ithin the circular ditch system. This may signify that 65–95 people inhabited this enclosure simultaneously.O nt he basis of these estimates, one may hypothesiset hat ac ircular complexw as createdh ere, whosee stablishment and continuous development represented continuous community effort. Shortly after these discoveries, as ingle layer settlement wasd etectedn eart he Csőszhalom tell during the course of rescue excavationst hat preceded the construction of the M3 Motorway (Fig. 2). The full extent of thisl atter,h orizontal settlement wase stimated as 24 ha, of which 4.5 ha couldb e studied in detail. Seventy-nine houses with post structures, 64 additional buildings, 68 wells and 238 pits were recovered. 7 From the external settlement , close to the entranceo ft he houses, 124 burials also came to light. 8 On the basis of radiocarbon dating, the life span of thise xternal settlementm ay be estimated as between 4830 and 4600 BC. 9 The Polgár-Csőszhalom complex formedb yt he horizontal parto ft he settlement and the previously known mounds urrounded by the con-centricd itch systemt ogether covers 28 ha. This fact makes it unique within the LateN eolithic settlement network of the Upper Tisza region. 10 The sizes of contemporaneous settlements of the Tisza-Herpály culture do not exceed 10–11 ha in extent. 11 On the other hand,s ome particularly large settlements of the Lengyel culture in Transdanubia (western Hungary), including the site of Aszód-Papiföldek, located east of the Danube River,a re characterized by significantly greater dimensions. This latter Lengyel culture settlementc overs an area of 25 ha. 12 The Lengyel culture connections with the Polgár-Csőszhalom settlement in northeastern Hungary have been clarified by research conducted by Nándor Kalicz. Based upon his investigations at Aszód, 13 but also involving the sites of Mónosbél, Hernádcéce and Gönc, he identified a loose settlement network, dating to the beginning of the Late Neolithica nd reaching all the wayt o 1 Summary papers: RACZKY et al. 1994; RACZKY et al.
Full-text available
Apstrakt: Jugoistočno od sela Elemir kod Zrenjanina, u srednjem Banatu, pronađena je 2008. godine antropomorfna plastika. Ova plastika otkrivena je na visokoj, levoj obali Tise, odnosno na aktivnom, privatnom majdanu peska zvanom „Božina peskara“. Visina pronađenog dela plastike iznosi 18,3 cm. Arhitektonska plastika iz Elemira ima izgled tzv. ptičjeg lica. Izrađena je ručno, od gline pomešane sa plevom, koja је slična kućnom lepu. Na plastici se izdvajaju detalji – oči, nos i kosa. Plastična, dvostruko gnječena traka na vratu odvaja lice od donjeg, odlomljenog dela. Plastika iz Elemira najverovatnije pripada nekom svetilištu (oltaru), ili nekom sličnom kultnom objektu iz kasnog neolita. Ona sadrži elemente kako vinčanske, tako i potiske kulture. Ključne reči: plastika, antropomorfni prikaz, kasni neolit, Elemir, Banat, Srbija. Abstract: Im mittleren Banat, südwestlich vom Dorf Elemir, bei Zrenjanin, wurde 2008 eine architektonische Plastik mit anthropomorpher Darstellung zufällig entdeckt. Sie ist an der Oberfl äche einer Sandgrube, am hohen, linken Th eißufer, gefunden. Der Fund aus Elemir unterscheidet sich vom üblichen archäologischen Fundgut vor allem durch ihre Massigkeit. Da die Plastik Elemente sowohl der Vinča-Kultur (Vinča C und D) als auch der Th eiß-Kultur (Th eiß II) in sich vereint, haben wir sie in das Spätneolithikum datiert. Schlüsselworte: architektonische Plastik, anthropomorphe Darstellung, Spätneolithikum, Elemir, Banat, Serbien
Full-text available
The final period of Neolithic Vin!a culture, which occupied wide areas in the Balkans, is characterised by large settlements, which were built, judging by the most recent investigations, according to premeditated plan. What was their purpose? Were they autonomous or part of some wider communities? How large was the territory within which people of that time defined themselves as ‘we’ and where did communities of ‘others’ begin? The objective of this work is to indicate the possibilities for studying the complexity of group identities in the Late Vin!a societies. We take as a starting point the micro-region of Drenski Vis in north-western Serbia, where five Late Vin!a settlements have been discovered.
Full-text available
This study discusses the evolution of the Serbian part of Tisa (Tisza/Theiss) valley in the context of phase meandering process during the Late Pleniglacial and Holocene. This study is focused on the subsiding central part of the Pannonian (Carpathian) Basin in the Vojvodina province. Palaeomeanders are reconstructed by using digital elevation models. Large number of old river beds are eroded and filled with deposits, and only a few remainings of them can be found on modern maps. The identification of these channels were achieved by studying historical maps of the region, and by creation of a digital elevation model. Spatial disposal and altitude correlation allowed identification of several palaeomeander generations in the Tisa valley. The formation of different generations are the result of concurrence influences of neo-tectonic processes of subduction in the western part of the Great Hungarian Plain and climate variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Studying hydro-geomorphologic characteristics of meanders is based on determination and analysis of their characteristic parameters: wavelength, arc length and radius of curvature.
In connection to an archaeological project in Bosnia and Herzegovina, charcoal fragments from several geomorphological profiles were analysed, due to the lack of other archives for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The major aim of the presented study was to systematically test the suitability of the documented colluvial and alluvial layers for charcoal analysis. The profiles uncover main phases of sedimentation of Drina Valley Holocene alluvial sedimentation and for the first time provide anthracological data from the area, giving initial insight into the vegetation of the catchment areas and into dynamics of the Drina. For the late Holocene, the presence of several genera in the catchment areas of the investigated profiles was documented. The most important genera are Quercus and Ostrya/Carpinus type, Fagus, Acer and Pinus are also present. Light-demanding genera such as Corylus and the Maloideae group indicate human activities. Alluvial elements such as Ulmus, Fraxinus and Alnus are present. A major advantage of this investigation is the distinction of catchment areas for alluvial and colluvial layers by the means of charcoal analysis. This interdisciplinary cooperation of botanists, geoscientists and archaeologists yields new information about a rarely investigated region of southeastern Europe, and thus improves understanding of natural processes and human impact.