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This study examined the effects of sprint running training on sloping surfaces (3 degrees) on selected kinematic and physiological variables. Fifty-four sport and physical education students were randomly allocated to one of two training groups (combined uphill-downhill [U+D] and horizontal (H)) and a control group (C). Pre- and posttraining tests were performed to examine the effects of 8 wk of training on the maximum running speed (MRS), step rate, step length, step time, contact time, eccentric and concentric phase of contact time (EP, CP), flight time, selected posture characteristics of the step cycle, and 6-s maximal cycle sprint test. MRS, step rate, contact time, and step time were improved significantly in a 35-m sprint test for the U+D group (P<.01) after training by 4.3%, 4.3%, -5.1%, and -3.9% respectively, whereas the H group showed smaller improvements, (1.7% (P<.05), 1.2% (P<.01), 1.7% (P<.01), and 1.2% (P<.01) respectively). There were no significant changes in the C group. The posture characteristics and the peak anaerobic power (AWT) performance did not change with training in any of the groups. The U+D training method was significantly more effective in improving MRS and the kinematic characteristics of sprint running than a traditional horizontal training method.
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Citation:
Paradisis, G.P., Bissas, A., Cooke, C.B. (2009) Combined Uphill and Downhill
Sprint Running Training Is More Efficacious Than Horizontal. International
Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4 (2) June, pp.229-243.
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229
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2009, 4, 229-243
© 2009 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Combined Uphill and Downhill Sprint
Running Training Is More Efficacious
Than Horizontal
Giorgos P. Paradisis, Athanassios Bissas,
and Carlton B. Cooke
Purpose: This study examined the effects of sprint running training on sloping sur-
faces (3°) on selected kinematic and physiological variables. Methods: Fifty-four
sport and physical education students were randomly allocated to one of two training
groups (combined uphill–downhill [U+D] and horizontal (H)) and a control group
(C). Pre- and posttraining tests were performed to examine the effects of 8 wk of
training on the maximum running speed (MRS), step rate, step length, step time,
contact time, eccentric and concentric phase of contact time (EP, CP), ight time,
selected posture characteristics of the step cycle, and 6-s maximal cycle sprint test.
Results: MRS, step rate, contact time, and step time were improved signicantly in a
35-m sprint test for the U+D group (P < .01) after training by 4.3%, 4.3%, −5.1%, and
−3.9% respectively, whereas the H group showed smaller improvements, (1.7% (P <
.05), 1.2% (P < .01), 1.7% (P < .01), and 1.2% (P < .01) respectively). There were no
signicant changes in the C group. The posture characteristics and the peak anaerobic
power (AWT) performance did not change with training in any of the groups. Conclu-
sion: The U+D training method was signicantly more effective in improving MRS
and the kinematic characteristics of sprint running than a traditional horizontal train-
ing method.
Keywords: Kinematic sprinting characteristics, posture characteristics, 6-s
maximal cycle sprint test
Many training methods have been used to improve maximal sprint running
performance by effecting changes in step length and step rate. Running on sloping
surfaces is widely used in training for sprint running.1 Previous studies have
examined kinematic changes of sprinting on a 3° slope and reported an 8.4%
faster maximum running speed (MRS) for the downhill and 2.9% slower MRS for
the uphill slope when compared with horizontal sprinting.2,3 Kunz and Kaufmann4
examined sprinting on a 1.7° slope and reported similar results, whereas Slawinski
Paradisis is with Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Athens, Athens, Greece, and
Bissas and Cooke are with Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education, Leeds Metropolitan University,
Leeds, United Kingdom.
230 Paradisis, Bissas, and Cooke
et al24 found decreases in MRS, step rate, and step length by 15.6%, 7.4%, and
14.2% respectively when sprinting in 4.9° uphill slope. Positive claims have been
made for the effects of downhill and uphill training on the kinematic characteris-
tics on horizontal running,1,5 but only two studies have reported experimental data.
Tziortzis6 showed that after 12 wk of training on a downhill slope of 8° the MRS
increased by 2.1% and the step length increased by 1.4%, whereas the step rate did
not change. Paradisis and Cooke7 have reported that after 6 wk of training on a
downhill slope of 3° the MRS increased by 1.1% and the step rate increased by
2.3%, whereas the step length did not change. For uphill training, Tziortzis6
reported that the MRS and step rate increased by 3.3% and 2.4% respectively,
although the changes in step length were not statistically signicant, whereas Par-
adisis and Cooke7 reported no statistically signicant changes after the uphill
training.
There have also been positive claims for the benets of training on combined
uphill and downhill sloping surfaces, although again these claims have not been
substantiated with published experimental data.1,5 Only Paradisis and Cooke7
have assessed the effects of 6 wk combined uphill–downhill sprinting training, on
sloping surfaces of 3° and showed improvements on MRS and step rate by 3.5%
and 3.4% respectively. In addition, the horizontal training and control groups did
not produce any statistically signicant changes.
The aim of this study was to evaluate further the effects of 8 wk of training on
combined uphill and downhill sloping surfaces of 3° compared with both training
on the horizontal and a control group in terms of the kinematic and posture char-
acteristics of sprinting and performance in the 6-s maximal cycle sprint test
(MCST). The current study will, therefore, either conrm or refute the ndings of
the previous preliminary study7 using more appropriate group sizes and provide a
comparison of training effects for 8 wk with those reported for 6 wk.
Methods
Fifty-four male sport and physical education students participated in this study
(age 24.1 ± 2.1 years, mass 75.3 ± 10.2 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.08 m). All subjects
were active in different sports but none was a sprinter; their mean MRS was 8.20
± 0.74 m·s−1. However, to participate in this study, all subjects were asked to ter-
minate any other sport activity. Informed consent was obtained from each partici-
pant before data collection, where the study was granted with ethics approval by
the appropriate board of the university. A wooden uphill–downhill platform was
used and it was covered with synthetic track surface. The width of the platform
was 1.20 m and the total distance covered was 80 m: 20 m horizontal, 20 m uphill
at 3° slope, 10 m horizontal, 20 m downhill at 3° slope, and 10 m horizontal
(Figure 1).
Training
The participants were randomly assigned to three groups:
• U+Dwastrainedontheuphill-downhillplatform(n = 18)
• Hwastrainedonthehorizontal(n = 18)
231
Figure 1 — The uphill–downhill platform.
232 Paradisis, Bissas, and Cooke
• Cwasthecontrolgroupanddidnottrain(n = 18)
After completion of a 20-min warm-up, both training groups performed 6
80 m sprints at maximal intensity per session, three times a week, where the time
between repetitions (10 min) was sufcient for the participants to recover fully.8
This training program continued until the fourth week, after which one repetition
was added for both training groups, for each of the remaining 4 wk (training ses-
sions for the last week were 10 80 m). Group C maintained their normal physi-
cal activities throughout the experimental period without performing any kind of
training.
Testing
Pre- and posttraining tests were employed to evaluate the effects of training on the
kinematic and posture characteristics of sprinting and AWT performance. The
sprints were performed in a corridor 60 m long and 2.5 m wide in the biomechan-
ics laboratory, and the oor was covered with a synthetic track surface (tartan) 55
m long and 2.5 m wide. The corridor was well lit and the ambient temperature was
25o C. After completion of a 20-min warm-up, the participants performed three
maximal sprint runs over a 35-m distance using a standing start. The time between
the repetitions (10 min) was sufcient for the participants to recover fully.8 The
adoption of three trials for each participant was to establish the magnitude of vari-
ability associated with repeated trials.
A Kodak EktaPro 1000 high-speed video camera was used to collect record-
ings of the sagittal plane of a full stride (two consecutive steps) of all three maxi-
mal sprint runs, sampling at 250 Hz. Filming was performed with the camera
placed at the 35-m distance (so it should be near to MRS as evidence from the
literature has showed that MRS is achieved at about 30 m9,10) and 10 m from the
performance plane such that its optical axis was approximately horizontal, form-
ing an angle of 90° with the horizontal plane of running. For the digitization pro-
cess, a metal calibration frame (2 2 m) was lmed such that the x-axis was
parallel to the horizontal and the y-axis was perpendicular to the horizontal.
Analysis of the Video Data
The hardware of the digitizing system comprised a video projector Imager LCD
15E (General Electronic, USA), a TDS Graphic tablet and controller (x,y resolu-
tion, 0.025 mm; active area 1.20 0.90 m), interfaced with an IBM computer that
ran the digitizing program DIGIT (Leeds Metropolitan University). A standard
17-point,11 14-segment model of the human performer based on the data of Demp-
ster12 was used to represent the human performer and to calculate the position of
the center of mass. Reliability of the digitizing process was established in previ-
ous study3 by repeated digitizing of one sprinting sequence at the same sampling
frequency with an intervening period of 48 h. Contact time, ight time, step time,
step length, ight distance, step rate, and MRS were calculated according to meth-
ods reported previously.3 The comparison of left and right foot contact times was
performed using the limits of agreement method (calculating the mean ± s of the
differences between left and right feet, where the boundaries of agreement based
on the expression ± 1.96).13 Additionally, the following were calculated
Combined Uphill and Downhill Sprint Training 233
according to methods reported previously3: the touchdown and take-off angles of
the knee (), hip (), shank to running surface (), trunk to running surface (;
trunk angle was determined by the line between the hip and glenohumeral joints
of the right side of the body), and the distance parallel to the running surface
between a line perpendicular to the running surface that passes through the center
of mass and the contact point at touchdown (DCM TD) and at take-off (DCM TO;
Figure 2)
6-s Maximal Cycle Sprint Test
A 6-s maximal cycle sprint test (MCST) was used to determine the peak anaerobic
power and consisted of a 6-s maximal sprint on a modied cycle ergometer
(Monark 814E) against a braking force of 0.075 kg·kg−1 of body mass. This test
was included to establish whether any adaptations to training transferred to a dif-
ferent mode of exercise than that used in sprint running training. These data will
be useful in characterizing the specic and general responses to sprint training
using running on sloping surfaces. Initially, the participants were instructed to
perform a warm-up activity for 5 min by cycling at 60 rpm with 1.5 kg of load.
After a 5-min rest period, each participant performed three all-out trials and the
best of the three trials was analyzed. The participants were instructed to attain an
Figure 2Location of the body landmarks and visualization of the angles: knee (), hip
(), shank to running surface (), trunk to running surface (), and the distance parallel to
the running surface between a line perpendicular to the running surface that passes through
the center of mass and the contact point at touchdown and takeoff. Note that in terms of
simplicity the ipsilateral and contralateral hip/glenohumeral joints appeared to be in the
same position; however, this was not the case.
234 Paradisis, Bissas, and Cooke
initial pedaling frequency of 80 rpm with 0.5 kg of resistance. When this pedal
rate was achieved, the load was applied and the participants accelerated, pedaling
maximally for 6 s. The time between repetitions (10 min) was sufcient for the
participants to recover fully.8
Statistical Analysis
A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures on two factors (trial and test) was
used to establish if there were any signicant differences between the trials, the
tests (pre and post) and the groups (training groups) and any interaction effects.
Each dependent variable was analyzed using a separate ANOVA. A multivariate
analysis of variance, used to analyze all dependent variables, was not completed
as there were insufcient participants for the required degrees of freedom. In the
event of signicant main effects, a post hoc Tukey test was used to locate the dif-
ferences. The signicance level for the tests was set at P < .05.
Results
Comparison of the Three Trials
To assess the consistency between the three trials, a comparison was performed
across the groups. Factors that could affect the consistency include fatigue, lack of
familiarization, boredom, natural variation, insufcient warm-up, and lack of
motivation. There was no signicant difference in all the analyzed variables
between the three trials for all the groups.
Comparison of Left and Right Leg
In the analysis of the pre- and posttraining tests, contact time was measured from
the left foot throughout. This was justied through a comparison of left and right
foot contact times using the limits of agreement method.13 The mean ± s of the
differences between left and right feet was 0.001 ± 0.003 s and the boundaries of
agreement were −0.008 and 0.005 s (heteroscedasticity correlation was close to
zero). Given these results it was concluded that there were no signicant differ-
ences between the contact times for the left and right foot.
Effects of Different Training Methods
Kinematic Characteristics. MRS increased signicantly after 8 weeks of train-
ing for the U+D group by 4.3% and for the H group by 1.7%, whereas for the
control group did not change signicantly (Table 1). In the U+D group, all partici-
pants produced increases in the MRS (0.35 ± 0.21 m·s−1, ranged from 0.10 m·s−1
to 0.89 m·s−1), whereas in the H group thirteen participants increased their MRS
(0.21 ± 0.15 m·s−1, ranged from 0.05 m·s−1 to 0.53 m·s−1). Finally, the repeated-
measures ANOVA showed no signicant differences between the groups for all
the pretraining tests.
Similarly, step rate increased signicantly for U+D group (4.3%) and H
group (1.2%), whereas it did not change signicantly for the C group (Table 1).
235
Table 1 Mean ± SD of the three trials (post- to pretraining values) of the kinematic characteristics of all groups
MRS (m·s−1) SR (Hz) SL (m) CT (ms) FT (ms) ST (ms)
U+D Pre 8.25 ± 0.69 3.98 ± 0.32 2.07 ± 0.11 128 ± 18 125 ± 11 253 ± 20
Post 8.60 ± 0.68 4.15 ± 0.38 2.08 ± 0.15 121 ± 15 121 ± 12 243 ± 22
P0.001 0.001 0.763 0.001 0.052 0.001
CI 0.28 to 0.43 0.11 to 0.24 −0.037 to 0.028 4.3 to 8.6 0.9 to 7.5 6.1 to 13.8
HPre 8.12 ± 0.40 3.91 ± 0.14 2.02 ± 0.08 128 ± 11 128 ± 10 256 ± 10
Post 8.26 ± 0.42 3.96 ± 0.17 2.03 ± 0.07 125 ± 11 127 ± 10 253 ± 11
P0.010 0.001 0.396 0.001 0.175 0.001
CI 0.03 to 0.23 0.02 to 0.07 −0.032 to 0.013 1.0 to 3.3 −0.4 to 2.3 1.5 to 4.6
CPre 8.20 ± 0.86 4.05 ± 0.20 1.99 ± 0.18 125 ± 6 122 ± 9 247 ± 13
Post 8.16 ± 0.81 4.04 ± 0.20 1.98 ± 0.18 126 ± 5 123 ± 9 248 ± 13
P0.180 0.200 0.887 0.508 0.439 0.058
CI −0.019 to 0.096 −0.009 to 0.041 −0.012 to 0.013 −1.4 to 0.7 −2.2 to 1.0 0.2 to 6.0
Abbreviations: U+D = combined uphill and downhill training group, H = horizontal training group, C = control group, CI = condence interval, MRS = maximum
running speed, SR = step rate, SL = step length, CT = contact time, FT = ight time and ST = step.
236 Paradisis, Bissas, and Cooke
Fifteen participants increased their step rate for the U+D (0.23 ± 0.10 Hz, ranged
from 0.04 Hz to 0.39 Hz), whereas in the H group 14 participants increased their
step rate (0.06 ± 0.05 Hz, ranged from 0.01 Hz to 0.15 Hz).
The contact time decreased signicantly for U+D group (5.1%) and H group
(1.7%) after the 8 weeks of training, whereas it did not change signicantly for the
C group (Table 1). Sixteen participants reduced their ight time in the U+D group
(8 ± 5 ms, range = 1 to 19 ms), whereas 15 participants reduced it in the H group
(5 ± 4 ms, range = 1 to 15 ms).
Step time decreased signicantly for U+D group by 3.9% and for H group by
1.2%, whereas for the C group it was not signicantly different (Table 1). Fifteen
participants shortened their step time for the U+D group (14 ± 6 ms, range = 3 to
23 ms), whereas 14 participants shortened it for the H group (4 ± 3 ms, range = 1
to 9 ms).
Finally, step length remained unaltered for U+D, H and C groups (Table 1),
the ight time showed a trend toward a decrease by 3.1% for the U+D group after
the 8 weeks of training but this was not statistically signicant. The step length for
the H and C groups remained unaltered (Table 1).
Concentric and Eccentric Phases of Contact. The concentric phase of the
contact time decreased signicantly for the U+D group after the 8 weeks of train-
ing (11.5%), whereas for the H and C groups it did not change signicantly (Table
2). There were no signicant changes in the eccentric phase of the contact time for
all groups, after the 8 weeks of training (Table 2).
Posture Characteristics. There was generally a small effect on the posture char-
acteristics for touchdown and take-off after the 8 weeks of training. The U+D
group showed signicant changes in the knee (3°) and shank (3°) angles for the
contact phase and the hip angle (6°) for takeoff after the 8 weeks of training,
whereas the H group showed signicant changes in the hip angle during the con-
tact phase by 3° and during the takeoff phase by 2°. The C group did not show any
signicant changes (Table 3 and Table 4).
Table 2 Mean ± SD (post- to pretraining values) of the eccentric
and concentric phases of all groups
U+D H C
EP (ms) Pre 53 ± 9 56 ± 7 57 ± 8
Post 53 ± 9 55 ± 6 56 ± 9
P0.954 0.745 0.456
CI −4.1 to 3.9 −4.4 to 6.0 −1.9 to 4.1
CP (ms) Pre 75 ± 19 70 ± 12 67 ± 10
Post 67 ± 17 69 ± 14 69 ± 10
P0.003 0.614 0.069
CI 3.5 to 14.0 −3.4 to 5.5 −3.6 to 0.1
Abbreviations: U+D = combined uphill and downhill training group, H = horizontal training group, C
= control group, CI = condence interval, EP = eccentric phase of contact time, CP = concentric phase
of contact time.
237
Table 3 Mean ± SD (post- to pretraining values) of the posture characteristics at contact
Knee (°) Hip (°) Shank (°) Trunk (°)DCM (m)
U+D Pre 144 ± 7.4 135 ± 7.0 91 ± 5.4 82 ± 4.8 0.30 ± 0.06
Post 147 ± 7.2 132 ± 5.7 94 ± 4.7 80 ± 4.9 0.32 ± 0.04
P0.001 0.091 0.001 0.183 0.069
CI 1.56 to 4.27 −0.44 to 5.47 1.24 to 4.85 −1.02 to 4.95 −0.048 to 0.002
HPre 151 ± 6.2 134 ± 5.5 92 ± 3.9 78 ± 3.3 0.30 ± 0.03
Post 149 ± 5.1 137 ± 3.8 92 ± 4.6 78 ± 3.8 0.29 ± 0.02
P0.244 0.0012 0.479 0.663 0.836
CI −1.36 to 4.93 1.08 to 5.78 −2.23 to 1.10 −3.49 to 2.29 −0.06 to 0.07
CPre 146 ± 2.0 133 ± 3.7 92 ± 3.5 77 ± 2.7 0.30 ± 0.03
Post 147 ± 3.1 134 ± 4.0 93 ± 4.0 78 ± 3.7 0.30 ± 0.04
P0.078 0.101 0.055 0.096 0.678
CI −1.77 to 0.11 −1.60 to 0.16 −1.71 to 0.02 −1.53 to 0.14 −0.01 to 0.02
Abbreviations: U+D = combined uphill and downhill training group, H = horizontal training group, C = control group, CI = condence interval, DCM = the distance
parallel to the running surface between a line perpendicular to the running surface that passes through the center of mass and the contact point.
238
Table 4 Mean ± SD (post- to pretraining values) of the posture characteristics at takeoff
Knee (°) Hip (°) Shank (°) Trunk (°)DCM (m)
U+D Pre 164 ± 6.5 207 ± 7.8 42 ± 4.7 84 ± 5.4 0.60 ± 0.06
Post 162 ± 8.6 201 ± 6.6 42 ± 5.1 82 ± 5.4 0.61 ± 0.06
P0.194 0.001 0.705 0.087 0.486
CI −1.03 to 4.72 1.97 to 8.52 −0.96 to 1.38 −0.46 to 6.23 −0.03 to 0.01
HPre 164 ± 5.5 203 ± 5.1 43 ± 3.2 84 ± 2.0 0.60 ± 0.04
Post 163 ± 7.1 205 ± 2.9 43 ± 3.3 84 ± 2.2 0.60 ± 0.03
P0.162 0.002 0.811 0.832 0.250
CI −0.68 to 3.68 0.27 to 3.48 −1.58 to 1.99 −1.34 to 1.10 −0.01 to 0.02
CPre 164 ± 4.1 204 ± 4.3 42 ± 1.2 83 ± 0.9 0.60 ± 0.05
Post 165 ± 5.3 203 ± 3.4 42 ± 1.2 83 ± 1.6 0.58 ± 0.05
P0.411 0.245 0.053 0.347 0.056
CI −2.91 to 1.26 −0.39 to 1.39 −1.26 to 0.01 −0.35 to 0.94 −0.01 to 0.02
Abbreviations: U+D = combined uphill and downhill training group, H = horizontal training group, C = control group, CI = condence interval, DCM = the distance
parallel to the running surface between a line perpendicular to the running surface that passes through the center of mass and the contact point.
Combined Uphill and Downhill Sprint Training 239
Peak Anaerobic Power. The results of the best trial of the 6-s MCST showed no
signicant differences between the pre- and posttraining tests for the MCST for
any group (from 1207.7 ± 172.9 to 1219.3 ± 187.3 W for U+D, from 1085.4 ±
188.9 to 1098.3 ± 198.8 W for H group and 1067.3 ±1076.7 ± 291.9 W for the C
group). These ndings suggested that the training had not increased the ability to
generate a higher peak anaerobic power output in an alternative mode of
exercise.
Discussion
The methodological procedures used for digitization and calculation of kinematic
and posture variables, for the comparison of repeated trials and for the comparison
of the left and right step shown to be consistent enough for the effective compari-
son of adaptations to various sprint training methods against a control group.
There were no signicant differences between the pre- and posttraining tests for
all the analyzed variables in the C group, where other studies6,14,15 reported similar
results. The results of the current study were not inuenced by a learning effect,
which means that the familiarization of the subjects before the pretraining test was
sufcient. Therefore, it can be argued that if any pre- to posttesting changes
occurred, these could be attributed as the effect of the training.
The H training method produced signicant increases in MRS (1.7%) and
step rate (1.2%), whereas contact time decreased (1.7%) as did step time (1.2%)
after training, with only minor changes in posture characteristics. Dintiman16 after
8 wk of horizontal training, observed an improvement of 5.2% in performance for
50 m, whereas Suellentrop17 found a 2.5% improvement in 100-m performance
after 6 wk of training, but there are no experimental data regarding changes in step
rate, step length, contact time, and ight time, in the literature. However, as the
correlation between MRS and performance is very high (r = .90)18,19 it can be
concluded that the current study has produced ndings that are consistent with
those predicted by the limited literature for subjects of similar level of expertise.
The results of this study showed that traditional horizontal training produced
small improvements in step rate, contact and step time, variables that inuence
MRS.
The U+D training produced an increase in MRS of 4.3%, which were accom-
panied by an increase in step rate by 4.3%, whereas the step length did not change.
The increase in step rate was mainly due to a shorter step time (−3.9%), which
was affected by the shorter contact time (−5.1%). The U+D training produced an
11.5% decrease in the concentric phase of contact time after training, whereas the
eccentric phase did not show any signicant changes. This is arguably the most
important adaptation to training, which may account for the improvement in run-
ning speed. In addition, the shortening of the concentric (propulsive) phase and
effectively the shortening of contact time could be interpreted as an improvement
of muscle power.1,21,25 However, in the context of this study the suggestion of
improvements in the force-time (power) muscle’s characteristics is hypothetical,
as no measurement of power was conducted. In addition, the lack of changes in
the eccentric phase is rather surprising, as a reduction of this phase was expected.
Slawinski et al showed the vastus lateralis was less active but for a longer time
240 Paradisis, Bissas, and Cooke
during the concentric phase in uphill sprinting of ~3° (MRS 6.28 ± 0.38 m·s−1),
whereas no differences occurred during the eccentric phase.24 However, Gottschall
and Kram showed a decrease in eccentric impulse and an increase in the concen-
tric impulse during similar uphill sprinting.29 The role of eccentric and concentric
phases in the improvement of MRS as well as the changes of the muscles activa-
tion during uphill and downhill sprinting needs move evaluation.
Despite the signicant changes that occurred in almost all the kinematic vari-
ables after the training period, U+D training did not produce signicant changes
in the posture characteristics. The only exception was an increase in the shank
angle of 3° at contact, which can be explained by the increase of the knee angle
(3°) and a decrease in the hip angle at take off by 6°, all of which can be explained
by the decrease of the concentric phase. It can therefore be concluded that the
combined uphill–downhill training method did not signicantly alter the subject’s
running technique.
Overall, the superiority of the U+D training method was clear from the
results, with statistical analysis demonstrating that the improvements produced
were signicantly greater than for the H training method. There are few reports in
the literature concerning the effects of U+D training methods, suggesting that a
combination of training methods (uphill and downhill) should produce better
results than any other training method1 and indicating that a combination of uphill
and downhill training would produce signicant improvements in all the kine-
matic characteristics of sprint running.20–22 These suggestions are supported by
the ndings of the current study, which showed that the combined method of
training on the uphill, horizontal, and downhill produced signicant improve-
ments in almost all the kinematic variable analyzed. In contrary, the results indi-
cated that the training employed did not improve performance in the 6-s maximal
cycle sprint test. It seems that the generation of forces to produce peak power in
the 6-s test is based on a different adaptation to that seen in the sprint running
groups, which was not stimulated with the specic sprint running training regi-
men used in the current study.
It can be argued that a faster sprinting speed could be attained by shortening
the step time while the step length remained the same. The step time could be
shortened by reducing the contact time and keeping the ight time the same, as
was the case for the U+D group. However, if the contact time was shortened and
the muscle force remained the same, the impulse produced by the muscles would
decrease (I = F t). In such a scenario, the gain from a shortened contact time
should be lost by producing a smaller step length, but step length did not change
in the U+D group. So, as the impulse would be the same and the contact time
shortened, the muscle force must be increased to produce a higher step velocity.
As the MRS was increased, the contact time was shortened and the step length
remained the same in the U+D group, it could be hypothesized that muscle force
was improved. This hypothesis is partially supported by Wood’s23 conclusion that
to increase MRS, athletes should increase the muscle force of the hamstring. Stud-
ies have demonstrated enhanced muscular loading applied to the hip, knee and
ankle extensors25–28 during uphill running (in lower range of speed ~4.5 m·s-1),
whereas Slawinski24 showed a decreased activation of the hamstrings muscles
during contact time (running at 6.28 m·s−1) in ~3° uphill running; however, no
data are available regarding muscle activation during downhill running. It seems
Combined Uphill and Downhill Sprint Training 241
that there may be a link between the force-time characteristics of the muscles and
the production of shorter contact time and eventually the production of greater
MRS, but this needs further evaluation, since in the context of this study no mea-
surement of muscle force was conducted.
A comparison of the ndings from the current study with those previously
published7 showed a greater magnitude of training response in the current study,
in similar subject expertise ( the MRS, step rate, contact time, and step time were
improved for the U+D group by 4.3%, 4.3%, 5.1%, and 3.9% respectively, whereas
in the previous study7 the MRS, step rate, and step time were increased by 3.5%,
3.4%, and 3.3% respectively, but the contact time did not change signicantly). It
is possible that the greater magnitude of change in the current study might be
partly due to the longer training period, as the subjects’ level of expertise was
similar (8 wk vs. 6 wk in the previous study7). This suggests that the specic train-
ing adaptations associated with the combined uphill–downhill methods continue
while the training stimulus is applied. However, this particular interpretation must
be made with caution, since the only way such a claim can be objectively evalu-
ated is to monitor the training adaptations longitudinally throughout the training
program. Further work is therefore required to substantiate this suggestion, but the
magnitude of training response for the U+D method is certainly encouraging in
comparison with horizontal sprint training.
During running on the platform, subjects experience a 20-m resistive stimu-
lus (uphill), followed by a 10-m normal stimulus (horizontal) and after that a 20-m
facilitative stimulus (downhill). During the resistive stimulus the neuromuscular
system will be overloaded owing to extra resistance (5% of the body weight
because of the 3° slope).7 By repetitive application for a certain time, the body
will adapt to that extra load and as a result some trends of change in the MRS and
kinematic characteristics of horizontal running occur. However, in downhill, an
extra propulsive force (5% of the body weight because of the 3° slope) produces
a supramaximal speed.7 During the uphill part of the platform, the MRS would be
reduced by 2.9% whereas during the downhill part the MRS would be increased
by 8.4%, producing a net increased in the average running speed, over the whole
distance (80 m), compared with maximum horizontal running.2 With training, the
body adapts to this stimulus and increases MRS by improving some of the kine-
matic characteristics. The results of both the previous7 and present studies suggest
that this quick transition from the rst stimulus to the second, from one form of
overload to another, beneted the neuromuscular system. The immediate transi-
tion from the overload status to the facilitated status seems to be a key factor in
enhancing the training adaptation. However, to investigate some of the possible
mechanisms that produce this adaptation further work is needed. It is important to
identify the effects of training on the maximum force and the force-time charac-
teristics from the dominant muscles during sprinting, to have some information on
possible cause and effect.
242 Paradisis, Bissas, and Cooke
Practical Applications
The U+D training method was signicantly more effective in improving the maxi-
mum sprinting speed and the associated kinematic characteristics of sprint run-
ning in active sports subjects than an equivalent horizontal training method, with
little change in running posture. The correlation coefcient between MRS and
resulting performance in the 100 m was reported as 0.90 and 0.96 for male and
female sprinters respectively, indicating the importance of the maximum speed
for high-level performance.30,31 Similarly, Tziortzis6 found a correlation 0.88
between MRS and resulting performance. Susanka et al,31 interpreting these
results, reported that MRS seems to be the most important factor in male sprinters
in the 100-m race. So, it could be speculated that the combined uphill–downhill
training method is more effective in improving performance in short distance
sprinting events. This study therefore provides further objective evidence substan-
tiating the efcacy of the combined U+D training method for improving maxi-
mum horizontal sprinting speed, which is important in a range of sports, including
athletics and a variety of major team games.
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... However, sprint training on an uphill slope did not result in a significant change in Maximum Running Speed under the same training conditions (duration, volume, intensity) [11] . When compared to other methods on inclined surfaces, 6 to 8 weeks of training with uphill-downhill combined training resulted in significant improvements (p>0.05) in Maximum Running Speed (from 3.5 percent to 5.9%) and stride speed (from 3.4 percent to 7.4%) [11][12][13] . Thus, the uphill and downhill training methods are more effective in increasing maximum running speed than the horizontal running method [10] . ...
... Positive claims for training benefits on a combined uphill and downhill slope surface have also been found, though these claims have yet to be backed up with published experimental data. The horizontal exercise group did not produce statistically significant changes, and neither did the control group [13] . ...
... The results of this study did not find any significant effect of the treatment applied, but the athletes were known to have an increase in the average score on the pre-test (±11.80) and post-test (±11.40). In the same previous study, there was no significant difference between pre-test and post-test for all variables analyzed in the control group [11,13,14] . The effects of the uphill and downhill methods were independent of the participants' pre-training status, according to previous studies, because the pattern and magnitude of adaptation were similar [10] . ...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the effect of Up Hill and Down Hill exercises on increasing the 100 m run. The respondents of this study were 30 male athletes aged 16-17 years with a height of ±157.4 cm and a weight of ±56 kg. Samples were taken from extracurricular athletes who met the following criteria: they had been doing club training for 4-5 years, had done anatomical adaptation exercises before doing uphill and downhill exercises for 1 month, could carry out treatment for 16 meetings, and were in good health and not injured. Exclusion criteria are those that do not include requirements for inclusion. This research is an experimental study with a One Group Pretest-Posttest design as this research has a Pre-Test before being given treatment and a Post-Test after being given treatment. To test one's ability to run a 100 m sprint, one uses an instrument that measures one's ability to perform a 100 m sprint. An athletic track and a stopwatch are used as the tools in the 100-meter sprint ability test. The results showed that the average scores on the Pre-Test and Post-Test were ±11.80 and ±11.40, respectively. Based on the results of the analysis of the T-Test Paired Sample, the results of the Pre-Test and Post-Test were found at a significance of p>0.05 so it can be concluded that there are no significant effects on Up Hill and Down Hill exercises on increasing the 100-meter run.
... However, the results of studies investigating the effects of sprint interval training on aerobic and/or anaerobic power are mostly concentrated on the training methods on horizontal surfaces. Relatively few studies have been reported on the results of the training methods on a sloping surface [37,39]. ...
... In the literature, the results of studies examining the effects of sprint interval training on sloping surfaces are mainly focused on the effects of sprint running time, kinematic and dynamic properties of running and electromyographic activity of muscles during sprint running and anaerobic power. [7,37,39,43]. However, there are a limited number of comprehensive studies examining the effects of sprint running on sloping surfaces on aerobic power. ...
... The significant increases in anaerobic power were 4.91% and 8.35%, in EXP 1 and EXP 3 groups, respectively. In a previous study using a training programme on a sloping surface with 3°, Paradisis (2009) reported that no statistically significant changes occur in anaerobic power output after the 6 weeks of training [37]. Also Padulo et al. (2016) previously showed that the blood lactate and oxygen consumption levels are increased during acute exercise on a sloping surface [36]. ...
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Study aim : Several sprint interval training applications with different slope angles in the literature mostly focused on sprint running time and kinematic and dynamic properties of running. There is a lack of comparative studies investigating aerobic and anaerobic power. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of sprint interval training on sloping surfaces on anaerobic and aerobic power. Material and methods : A total of 34 male recreationally active men aged 20.26 ± 1.68 years and having a BMI of 21.77 ± 1.74 were assigned to one of the five groups as control ( CON ), uphill training ( EXP1 ), downhill training ( EXP2 ), uphill + downhill training ( EXP3 ) and horizontal running training ( EXP4 ) groups. Gradually increased sprint interval training was performed on horizontal and sloping surfaces with an angle of 4°. The training period continued for three days a week for eight weeks. The initial and the final aerobic power was measured by an oxygen analyser and anaerobic power was calculated from the results of the Margaria-Kalamen staircase test. Results : Following the training programme, an increase in aerobic power was found in all training groups ( EXP1 = 20.79%, EXP2 = 14.95%, EXP3 = 26.85%, p < 0.01) and EXP4 = 20.46%) (p < 0.05) in comparison with the CON group (0.12%), but there were no differences among the training groups. However, significant increases in anaerobic power were found in uphill training (4.91%) and uphill + downhill training (8.35%) groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion : This study showed that all sprint interval studies on horizontal and sloping surfaces have a positive effect on aerobic power, and uphill and combined training are the most effective methods for the improvement of anaerobic power.
... The use of different training approaches, such as sprintresisted, non-resisted-sprint and over speed-sprint are designed to improve the repeated sprint ability [11,12]. Thus, running on sloped surfaces is probably among the most widely used training methods to improve the speed [13]. The use of uphill and downhill sloping surfaces seems to be a useful method to enhance the associated kinematic variables despite being scarcely explored in the literature [14]. ...
... For instance, Paradisis and Cooke [15] showed that after 6 weeks of training under similar conditions, downhill slope of 3 • increased the maximum running speed (MRS) in 1.1% and step rate in 2.3% and uphill slope did not induce significant changes. Other studies assessed the combination between uphill and downhill training (3 • ) and reported improvements in MRS, step rate, contact time and step time of 4.3%, 4.3%, 5.1% and 3.9% respectively, when compared to horizontal training group [13]. ...
... Moreover, several studies identified the effects of a combined uphill-downhill sprint training, showing an increase in maximum running speed (3.5%) and step frequency (3.4%), while flight time (4.3%) and contact time (3.3%) decreased [15]. Other studies quantified the effects of combined uphilldownhill sprint training and showed superior results when compared to a horizontal sprint training [13]. Training program exercises performed under slope conditions promoted a greater exposure to eccentric contraction. ...
Article
Aim The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 4-week combined sloped training program with a standard flat training program performed by basketball players. Methods A total of 31 male elite youth basketball players were randomly allocated into an experimental (SLOPE, n = 15, age 13.4 ± 0.4 y, height 168.8 ± 14.2 cm, weight 52.6 ± 12.7 kg) and control training group (FLAT, n = 16, age 12.9 ± 0.3 y, height 169.5 ± 9.3 cm, weight 56.2 ± 11.3 kg). A pre- to post-test design was used to explore the effects in performance variables. Results The comparison between groups showed moderate higher values in FLAT training group for standing height jump (differences in groups means: % [90% confidence intervals], −10.2% [−14.9% to −5.3%]) and reaction time (5.8% [1.3% to 10.5%]). On the other hand, SLOPE training promoted a small improve in anaerobic-alactic power (W/kg) (3.4% [−1.2% to 8.1%]). The FLAT group presented small improvements in peak power (W), (−9.2% [−15.0% to −3.0%]) and moderate in relative peak power (W/kg) (−9.8% [−15.3% to −4.0%]). Power results suggested a more efficient movement pattern, probably due to a better propulsive phase supported by an improved ability to produce equivalent levels of force in a shorter period of time. Despite the identified benefits of combined uphill/downhill/flat training method, results suggest that young non-familiarize players need a progressive reduction of training load to optimize performance. These results represent important evidence into the planning guidelines of strength and conditioning coaches to support daily planning by choosing the most appropriate tasks to enhance players’ performance.
... Ancak son zamanlarda farklı eğimlerde yapılan tepe çıkışı ve tepe inişi antrenman yöntemlerinin de koşunun kinematik özelliklerini değiştirdiği gösterilmiştir [12].Düz yüzeylerde koşu için sporcuların en az düzeyde metabolik tüketim sağlayacak şekilde bir teknik kullandıkları ileri sürülmüş, artan eğime yanıt olarak, metabolik değişkenlerin arttığı gözlenmiştir [13]. Metabolik değişkenlerdeki artışlarla da ilişkili olarak, AF'nda %2'lik bir artış sensorimotor etkinin bir göstergesi olarak kabul edilebilir. ...
... Eğim koşularının dahil olduğu antrenman programlarının farklı koşu mesafelerinde sprint performansı üzerine etkilerini inceleyen sınırlı sayıda araştırma vardır [12,15,16,[20][21][22]. Ancak var olan araştırmaların, sprint performansının ilk 60m'lik bölümündeki etkileri üzerine odaklandığı, yani ivmelenme evresi ve maksimal sürat evresinin bir bölümü üzerine etkilerinin incelendiği görülmektedir. ...
... Ancak var olan araştırmaların, sprint performansının ilk 60m'lik bölümündeki etkileri üzerine odaklandığı, yani ivmelenme evresi ve maksimal sürat evresinin bir bölümü üzerine etkilerinin incelendiği görülmektedir. Bu çalışmalarda tepe çıkışı, tepe inişi ve kombine Kombine antrenmanın geleneksel yatay antrenmana göre koşu hızını ve kinematik özellikleri geliştirmede daha etkin olduğu belirtilmiştir [12].Ayrıca benzer bir çalışmada, kombine antrenman programının diz fleksör kaslarının izometrik kuvvetinde (%7.1) ve kuvvet üretiminde (%25) istatistiksel olarak anlamlı gelişme belirlenmiştir [21]. Padulo ve ark. ...
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Koşu performansının geliştirilmesi üzerine yapılan birçok çalışma, herhangi bir eğimin olmadığı yüzeylerde koşu sırasında alt ekstremite kinematiğini anlamak üzerine kurulmuştur. Eğimli yüzeylerde yapılan sprint çalışmalarının antrenman programlarına eklenmesi ile birlikte, adım parametrelerinin koşunun her bir evresindeki katkıları daha iyi anlaşılmıştır. Farklı eğim derecelerinin performansa olan etkisinin bilinmesi etkili ve pratik bazı antrenman yöntemlerinin uygulanmasına olanak verecektir. Son zamanlarda literatürde sıklıkla rastlanan bu yöntemlerin ve spor bilimleri alanındaki son gelişmelerin ülkemizde yaygınlaşması, ülkemiz sporu açısından büyük önem taşıdığı düşünülmektedir. Bu derlemenin amacı, farklı eğim antrenman yöntemlerinin farklı koşu performansları üzerine etkilerini yazılı kaynaklarda yer alan çalışma sonuçları ile özetlemek ve bu alanda çalışan araştırmacı, antrenör ve sporculara kullanabilmesi için önerilerde bulunmaktır.
... What we conclude from these Studies is that running the slopes in different directions leads to changes in the path of the movement of the runner and strength and time of contact with the ground will be a positive return on horizontal running, the uphill slope, which leads to excessive burdens on the responsible muscles, and downhill slope which leads to the rapid step frequency and results in the way to reduce the time of contact with the ground which are all serve to increase the strength of the muscles responsible for performance, Shortening the cyclic period with united center and effectively can be interpreted as shortening the duration of communication as improving muscle strength 13 . ...
... References also show the training that contains a combination of the components of the uphill and downhill of the slope gives better results in the development of the movement path for speed runners or in other words to increase and improve the strength of legs for all sports. and therefore a combination of training methods (up and down) should be done for better results than any other training method and suggest that a combination of training up and down would result in significant improvements in all kinematic characteristics in the fast running 13 . The present study is distinguished from the other studies because of how important the training of the slopes is for the running mechanism, so our current research took into consideration the amount of muscular activity of the working muscles while working on the slopes, where it gives a more accurate analysis. ...
... A Kodak EktaPro 1000 high-speed video camera (Kodak, Hamburg, Germany) sampling at 250 Hz was used (Paradisis, Bissas, & Cooke, 2009Paradisis & Cooke, 2001). The camera was fixed on a tripod at a distance of 10 m from the runway with its optical axis perpendicular to the plane of motion. ...
... This would indicate that more experienced sprinters achieve faster MRS without the necessity to adopt a different body positioning of their lower extremities, but through the generation of greater propulsive impulses. In line with this, previous research indicated that specific sprint training improved MRS and the related spatio-temporal characteristics, without altering the body segment angles in a population cohort ranging from physical education students to experienced sprinters (Paradisis et al., 2009(Paradisis et al., , 2013(Paradisis et al., , 2015Paradisis & Cooke, 2006). This supports the suggestion that the faster sprinters in our study had improved neural and/or the contractile characteristics, probably due to years of training. ...
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As the effect of performance level on sprinting mechanics has not been fully studied, we examined mechanical differences at maximal running speed (MRS) over a straight-line 35 m sprint amongst sprinters of different performance levels. Fifty male track and field sprinters, divided in Slow, Medium and Fast groups (MRS: 7.67 ± 0.27 m∙s⁻¹, 8.44 ± 0.22 m∙s⁻¹, and 9.37 ± 0.41 m∙s⁻¹, respectively) were tested. A high-speed camera (250 Hz) recorded a full stride in the sagittal plane at 30–35 m. MRS was higher (p < 0.05) in Fast vs. Medium (+11.0%) and Slow (+22.1%) as well as in Medium vs. Slow (+10.0%). Twelve, eight and seven out of 21 variables significantly distinguished Fast from Slow, Fast from Medium and Medium from Slow sprinters, respectively. Propulsive phase was significantly shorter in Fast vs. Medium (−17.5%) and Slow (−29.4%) as well as in Medium vs. Slow (−14.4%). Fast sprinters had significantly higher vertical and leg stiffness values than Medium (+44.1% and +18.1%, respectively) and Slow (+25.4% and +22.0%, respectively). MRS at 30–35 m increased with performance level during a 35-m sprint and was achieved through shorter contact time, longer step length, faster step rate, and higher vertical and leg stiffness.
... Although empirical, these variables in turn can generate long-term differentiated metabolic and neuromuscular benefits. 10,11 respectively). This had already been shown by Olesen et al. 14 and could be attributed to higher content of motor units being recruited during the uphill running. ...
... In this way, it is possible to speculate about the existence of some mechanism of a transfer of adaptations resulting from uphill running to flat race performance. 10,11 Such effects could be beneficial to sports performance and deserve to be properly investigated. ...
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Strategies for metabolic adjustments are often considered by athletes throughout a running event. Planning for such events during training does not always include variations from level training, even though up/downhill exertion should definitely be a part of such planning. The differentiation of training stimuli, under adverse conditions of intensity and inclination, can generate differentiated benefits. However, uphill running raises expectations of deleterious effects. The imposition of different slope gradients throughout running could generate increased metabolic demands for sports performance. Thus, the present study aimed to answer questions mainly about the acute effects of uphill running, its relationship with aerobic performance, allowing us to introduce new hypotheses for future studies in the area on the subject. Gaps still need to be filled concerning the relevance of uphill running, and its determinants. Many of the points presently under scrutiny only lead to speculative explanations; for logical reasons, more studies should focus on the prescription of training at different slopes. This is the point at which specific conditioning is required, because the regulation of the effort and the energy cost resulting from the imposition of uphill running during competitive races depends heavily on previous experiences. This review will cover recently published research on the subject.
... However, when uphill and downhill stimuli have been combined in a single run (Figure 1), the beneficial effects have been greater. Furthermore, training for 6 to 8 weeks on 3°uphill and downhill sloping surfaces produced improvements for both MRS (from 3.5 to 5.9%) and SR (from 3.4 to 7.4%) (32,34,36). These changes in MRS and SR were linked to improvements in the maximal bilateral isometric force (MBIF) (7.1%) and the force production rate (24.7%) of the knee flexor muscles (33). ...
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Development and maintenance of sprint training adaptations: an uphill-downhill study. J Strength Cond Res 36(1): 90–98, 2022-We examined the development of performance adaptations resulting from an uphill-downhill training program and monitored the decline of adaptations during detraining. Twenty-eight men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sprint training groups who trained 3 times per week for 6 weeks and a control group (C). The uphill-downhill group (U+D) trained on an 80-m platform with 3° slopes, whereas the horizontal (H) group trained on flat track. Subjects were tested for maximal running speed (MRS), associated kinematics, and leg strength before and after training, with U+D subjects also tested after weeks 2 and 4 of training, and after a 3-week detraining period. The U+D group increased their MRS by 3.7% (from 8.75 ± 0.72 to 9.07 ± 0.64 m·s, p < 0.05), their stride rate by 3.1% (from 4.21 ± 0.21 to 4.34 ± 0.18 Hz, p < 0.05), and their knee extensors' maximum isometric force by 21% (from 2,242 ± 489 to 2,712 ± 498 N, p < 0.05) after training. The time course of changes showed declines for weeks 1-4 (1.4-5.1%), but an ascending trend of improvement compensated all losses by the end of week 6 (p < 0.05). During detraining, no decreases occurred. No changes were observed for the H and C groups. The minimum period to produce positive effects was 6 weeks, with a very good standard of performance maintained 3 weeks after training. U+D training will prove useful for all athletes requiring fast adaptations, and it can fit into training mesocycles because of its low time demands.
... However, when uphill and downhill stimuli have been combined in a single run (Figure 1), the beneficial effects have been greater. Furthermore, training for 6 to 8 weeks on 3°uphill and downhill sloping surfaces produced improvements for both MRS (from 3.5 to 5.9%) and SR (from 3.4 to 7.4%) (32,34,36). These changes in MRS and SR were linked to improvements in the maximal bilateral isometric force (MBIF) (7.1%) and the force production rate (24.7%) of the knee flexor muscles (33). ...
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The development of performance adaptations resulting from an uphill-downhill training program and monitoring of the decline of adaptations during detraining.
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Speed, power and acceleration ability are important components for most of the summer sports, such as athletics, football, rugby, handball and basketball. Our analytical review compiles and systematizes by physical criteria (conditions change and influence of external or internal factors) the long-term studies of experts on the use of non-traditional means and methods in sports training to improve the ability to speed up and develop the maximum speed and power of running. The non-traditional methods include conjugate influence used in sprinters’ training, which correspond or slightly exceed the basic kinematic and dynamic criteria of the basic competitive exercise. Research analysis confirmed the efficiency of conjugate influence exercises and their impact on kinematic spatial and temporal parameters and on the dynamic parameters of the running stride reflecting the interaction of internal and external forces. Studies have also confirmed a positive immediate and long-term post-training trace effect. The survey research confirms that the use of traditional sprint training along with non-traditional means and methods enables the athlete to avoid the formation of a speed barrier, to improve acceleration, maximum speed, and running power.
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The effects of running at supramaximal velocity on biomechanical variables were studied in 13 male and 9 female sprinters. Cinematographical analysis was employed to investigate the biomechanics of the running technique. In supramaximal running the velocity increased by 8.5%, stride rate by 1.7%, and stride length by 6.8% over that of the normal maximal running. The elite male sprinters increased their stride rate significantly but did not increase their stride length. The major biomechanical differences between supramaximal and maximal running occurred during the contact phase. In supramaximal running the inclination of the ground shank at the beginning of eccentric phase was more "braking" and the angle of the ground knee was greater. During the ground contact phase, the maximal horizontal velocity of the swinging thigh was faster. The duration of the contact phase was shorter and the flight phase was longer in the supramaximal run as compared to the maximal run. It was concluded that in supramaximal effort it is possible to run at a higher stride rate than in maximal running. Data suggest that supramaximal sprinting can be beneficial in preparing for competition and as an additional stimulus for the neuromuscular system during training. This may result in adaptation of the neuromuscular system to a higher performance level.
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A complete profile of the average (male) soccer player is established through the study of ten topflight soccer teams in the United States and abroad. Statistical averages for team age, strength and muscular power, body size and composition, agility and flexibility, lung capacity, and various other physical and physiological characteristics are given. Sociological and psychological profiles of soccer players in general are examined. The demands of competition in differing field positions are discussed, and suggestions are given for training routines to develop overall endurance as well as motor skill. References are included. (LH)
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In clinical measurement comparison of a new measurement technique with an established one is often needed to see whether they agree sufficiently for the new to replace the old. Such investigations are often analysed inappropriately, notably by using correlation coefficients. The use of correlation is misleading. An alternative approach, based on graphical techniques and simple calculations, is described, together with the relation between this analysis and the assessment of repeatability.
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Thesis (M. Sc.)--University of Alberta, 1974. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 64-69). Microfiche of typescript.