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Abuja city profile

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  • Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (University of Dammam)
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... Cities in the developing regions of the world are experiencing astronomical rates of population growth (Abubakar, 2014) and Kaduna is no exception. UN estimates in 2010 puts Kaduna's population at 1,561,000 with a growth rate of 2.55% per annum (UNDESA, 2009) and it is today the fifth largest city in Nigeria behind Lagos, Kano, Ibadan and Abuja in descending order. ...
... Kaduna's growth and development has also been influenced by its proximity to the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and Abuja, the capital city just 200 KM to the south. The high cost of rent in Abuja (Abubakar, 2014), the presence of quality private primary and secondary schools and the liberal and cosmopolitan nature of Kaduna make it an attractive alternative to many Abuja-based civil servants (Abdullahi, Shaibu-Imodagbe, Mohammed, Sa'id, & Idris, 2009). They station their families there and commute daily or weekly to Abuja. ...
... They station their families there and commute daily or weekly to Abuja. The nearly completed Kaduna-Abuja high speed rail project (Abubakar, 2014) is expected to further increase the number of Abuja-based civil servants residing in Kaduna and commuting daily to Abuja for work. ...
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Kaduna's colonial origin and function as an administrative town ensured that it was well planned and had good and well distributed urban facilities and services in the early years of its existence. However, the pressure of urbanization that has seen the city expand beyond its planned limits into hitherto rural settlements along the urban fringe has today given the city a different character from the once celebrated well planned and beautiful town. On the one hand you have the earlier settled areas of the city with good roads, quality housing and other necessary urban facilities while on the other you have the new expansion areas that have grown outside of formal planning control and are characterized by haphazard development , poor quality housing and lack of basic urban infrastructure and services. It is within this context and the scarcity of resources that the city authorities are struggling to cope with the challenges continually posed by rapid urban growth. The article emphasizes recent initiatives of the government aimed at confronting these challenges through a critical examination of their implementation and the outcomes therefrom.
... In sub-Saharan nations like Nigeria, the housing condition of most residential buildings is substandard and largely of poor quality in both rural and urban centres (Abubakar, 2014). The increase in the quantity of housing needed by people has led to a major concern about the quick deterioration of the current housing stock (Jolaoso et al., 2012) and shortage in supply of housing units (Olayiwola et al., 2005). ...
... The increase in the quantity of housing needed by people has led to a major concern about the quick deterioration of the current housing stock (Jolaoso et al., 2012) and shortage in supply of housing units (Olayiwola et al., 2005). As a result, various builders in the region tend to focus more on quantity of housing units (Abubakar, 2014) rather than quality to meet the increasing demand for housing (Jolaoso et al., 2012;Adaji, 2018); thereby, compromising housing standards (Abubakar 2014;Adaji, 2018) which can also affect the users' comfort. ...
... The increase in the quantity of housing needed by people has led to a major concern about the quick deterioration of the current housing stock (Jolaoso et al., 2012) and shortage in supply of housing units (Olayiwola et al., 2005). As a result, various builders in the region tend to focus more on quantity of housing units (Abubakar, 2014) rather than quality to meet the increasing demand for housing (Jolaoso et al., 2012;Adaji, 2018); thereby, compromising housing standards (Abubakar 2014;Adaji, 2018) which can also affect the users' comfort. ...
Article
This paper investigates occupants' comfort, adaptation and their responses during the dry season in low-income to middle-income residential buildings in Abuja, Nigeria. The study aims to provide empirical data on occupants' comfort through evaluating 171 households in four different locations in Abuja. The study considered a combination of different research methods for data collection. Post-occupancy surveys were used to evaluate the buildings and residents' adaptation within the thermal environment. Thermal comfort surveys were also carried out in eight low-income residential households to assess occupants' perception of the thermal environment. Based on the short duration of the physical measurements, building simulation was also used to examine thermal comfort of occupants for an extended period. The Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) results revealed over 70% of the occupants were dissatisfied with their thermal environment. The comfort surveys reported similar results with over 65% of the responses revealed being ‘uncomfortably warm’. The results showed an overall mean temperature of all the measured case studies to be 31.7 °C and the average temperature (predicted) of 30.7 °C. The neutral temperatures were in a range of 28°C–30.4 °C compared to the preferred temperature range of 27.5°C–29.4 °C. The prevalence of thermal discomfort highlights the need to explore the possibilities of reducing internal temperatures, particularly by passive means (fabric, shading, insulation etc.) given the need to avoid or reduce the need for air conditioning to make the buildings energy-efficient for low to middle income groups.
... Since then Abuja has been experiencing population growth at an unprecedented rate as federal agencies, firms and businesses and international agencies and embassies have established offices in the city. The 2014 estimated population of the city is 2.3 million people (UN 2014), mainly caused by immigration of people in search of perceived job opportunities (Abubakar 2014).  Dodoma: In 1973 a public referendum in Tanzania approved moving the capital from Dares Salaam to Dodoma ( Figure 1). ...
... Myers (2011) also suggests that the disorganized treatment of pre-existing settlements in Abuja has created an uneven mixture of housing types, even while officials claim that, 'it is impossible for slums to develop here' (Vale 2008). Similarly, in many districts of Abuja there have been episodic water supply, insufficient facilities for solid waste collection, and frequent sewer blockage and sewage spills (Abubakar 2014). ...
... In Abuja over 800,000 people were left homeless in the city and its surroundings through demolishing of informal settlements (SEREC 2006). Street hawking was also banned by the city and violators were sentenced to whipping and imprisonment (Abubakar 2014). To maintain a green city, Dodoma municipal authority has demolished unauthorized retail kiosks several times, and seized cattle herds grazing on landscaped areas (Lupapa and Lupapa 2003). ...
Article
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New town building is currently reemerging in the Third World to decant major metropolitan areas using modernist design and planning assumptions. Using the experience of Africa's postcolonial new capital cities of Abuja (Nigeria), Dodoma (Tanzania), Gaborone (Botswana) and Lilongwe (Malawi), this paper analyzes the effectiveness of new town building as an urbanization strategy in Africa and highlights some lessons for new satellite towns currently being built in developing countries. Based on extensive analysis of secondary data, plans and empirical studies, this article found that in addition to their inability to provide adequate housing and infrastructure, these new capital city projects are very expensive, overwhelmed by rapid urbanization, emphasize much on physical development, exacerbate social exclusion, disrupt informal settlements and businesses, and lack public involvement. In conclusion, this paper suggests that new town building in the global South should learn from the experience of the reviewed cases and focus more on meeting contemporary urban challenges such as rapid urbanization, informality, social exclusion, economic development, urban sustainability, as well as climate and environmental change.
... To address this knowledge gap, this chapter explores the opportunities and the challenges associated with the application of PPP for the provision of housing and urban infrastructure in Abuja, Nigeria and makes recommendations for improving the partnership. Abuja city is important as the federal capital of Nigeria and the fourth largest urban center with a projected population of over 3 million residents in 2014 (Abubakar, 2014). ...
... As such, from 1980 when the implementation of Abuja master plan started until the mid2000, the public sector has been solely providing houses and associated infrastructure, including 22,000 housing stock in Phase I and II of the city (Ukoha & Beamish, 1997). However, beginning from the late 1990s, funds allocated to the FCT by the federal government has continued to dwindle due to declining oil revenues, thereby making the state unable cater for Abuja's rapid population increase, especially after relocating the capital from Lagos to Abuja in 1991 (Abubakar, 2014). While the population of Abuja has been growing at the rate of about 9.3% per annum due mainly to waves of population inmigration (Elaigwu, 2009), only 18 out of about 70 residential districts proposed in the Abuja master plan have been developed by 2011 (Abubakar, 2014). ...
... However, beginning from the late 1990s, funds allocated to the FCT by the federal government has continued to dwindle due to declining oil revenues, thereby making the state unable cater for Abuja's rapid population increase, especially after relocating the capital from Lagos to Abuja in 1991 (Abubakar, 2014). While the population of Abuja has been growing at the rate of about 9.3% per annum due mainly to waves of population inmigration (Elaigwu, 2009), only 18 out of about 70 residential districts proposed in the Abuja master plan have been developed by 2011 (Abubakar, 2014). As at December 2012; the FCTA had an infrastructure liability of over ₦420 billion (USD $1.38 billion) 1 while its average annual budgetary allocation is not more than ₦50 billion (Tangaza, 2013). ...
Chapter
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Urbanization possesses the power to transform the physical and socioeconomic structure of cities globally. In developing countries, transformative urbanization requires employing suitable tools that can address contemporary challenges such as rapid population growth, housing and basic infrastructure provision, as well as inadequate financial and technical resources. Despite some criticism, public-private partnership (PPP) is increasingly being applied to tackle these challenges and to foster sustainable urbanization. Yet, limited studies have investigated PPP applications in providing housing and infrastructure in Nigerian cities. Using desktop study, this chapter analyzes the potentials and challenges of PPP in housing and infrastructure delivery in Abuja, Nigeria. It specifically reviews the modes of housing and infrastructure provision, highlights the concept and models of PPP, and examines the potentials and challenges of PPP in housing and infrastructure delivery in Abuja. It then recommends ways of enhancing the existing PPP in Abuja and concludes with future research direction.
... Abuja was chosen as a study area because it is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa. Moreover, the city is currently facing problems of frequent sewer blockages, sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) [18][19][20], and uncollected garbage that litters the streets and blocks drainages [18,21,22]. This study was conceived because a thorough search of available literature indicated that no study was undertaken to investigate how households cope with these problems in Abuja. ...
... Abuja was chosen as a study area because it is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa. Moreover, the city is currently facing problems of frequent sewer blockages, sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) [18][19][20], and uncollected garbage that litters the streets and blocks drainages [18,21,22]. This study was conceived because a thorough search of available literature indicated that no study was undertaken to investigate how households cope with these problems in Abuja. ...
... Abuja is in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), located at the geographical center of Nigeria, so that it will be readily accessible from various parts of the country. With an estimated population of over 3 million, the city is currently facing huge urbanization challenges, including the delivery of garbage collection and sewerage services due to financial and institutional constraints, as well as rapid in-migration of people due to perceived employment opportunities [4,18]. For effective urban management and service delivery, the Abuja Master Plan divided the city into four spatially defined phases, each containing several residential districts (Figure 1). ...
Article
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Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings.
... This paper is important since Abuja was established to avoid some of Lagos' problems, including inadequate and dilapidated water supply. Abuja is also the most rapidly growing city in Africa (Myers, 2011) and water supply is among the huge challenges currently facing the city (Abubakar, 2014). ...
... Abuja officially replaced Lagos as Nigeria's capital in December 1991 because of latter's several urban problems, including inadequate and dilapidated infrastructure, urban blight and overcrowding, that had made it unsuitable as the Federal Capital City. Since then, Abuja has experienced an influx of people in search of perceived economic opportunities and city life (Abubakar, 2014). The population of Abuja city has been estimated at more than 3 million and its unprecedented population growth of 8.2% per annum makes it the fastest growing city in Africa (Myers, 2011). ...
... According to interviewed city officials, reasons for low water pressure include pipe bursts, lack of power at the pumping stations, and the small size of the main distribution pipes (at 25 mm in diameter), caused by underestimating Abuja's future population growth when designing the water network. Thus, despite the elite vision of a modern capital city (Abubakar, 2014), low water pressure and water scarcity in Abuja make conditions not different from that of other cities in Asia and Africa (McIntosh, 2003). ...
... Nevertheless, the population continues to grow, so 'the present reality today shows an increase in the size of the FCC from the original 250 square kilometers to 1,123 square kilometres' (Jibril, 2015: 14). The result is acute housing shortages (Abdullahi and Aziz, 2010;Umoh, 2012), proliferation of informal settlements (Amba, 2010;Jibril, 2005), occupation of uncompleted buildings (Abubakar and Doan, 2010), inadequate supply of water and sanitation to the poor (Ilesanmi, 2006: Ojo, 2011 and traffic congestion (Abubakar, 2014). ...
... A vast informal sector exists in Abuja, which currently employs two thirds of residents in the municipality and close to 80% in the larger FCT (FCT MDG Office, 2009). Acknowledging that this was a long-term reality in Nigeria, the Master Plan projected that 40% of jobs would be of an informal nature, and allowed space for informal businesses in designated locations (IPA, 1979;Abubakar, 2014). However, small-scale traders are often unable to afford rents, pushing them to hawking or using roadsides to sell their goods and services, with implications for daily mobility. ...
Chapter
Using the results of primary research in Abuja, Nigeria's capital city, this chapter aims to illustrate the importance of new knowledge(s) and methodologies critical to the future of transport planning in the Global South. Moving away from traditional measures of mobility, the chapter explores the potential of well-being as an operational concept in transport planning. By focusing on the different dimensions of well-being, a more rounded view of transport in the life of urban dwellers is developed, which leads transport planning down new avenues of knowledge and methodologies in the pursuit of more socially just cities. In doing so, the chapter also seeks to reflect on what are essential mobilities and to explore the contribution of transport to achieve a quality of life that recognises the diverse identities of all urban citizens.
... In addition, major cities, particularly Abuja, Lagos, and Port Harcourt, have recently seen a sharp rise in rent and housing prices on a scale that is seldom witnessed in developing countries (Abubakar and Doan, 2017). In Abuja for instance, renting a one-room flat at Phase I of the city costs ₦360,000 (USD 1000) per annum or about thrice the annual salary of 47% of the city's residents in 2012 (Abubakar, 2014). Another impediment to affordable housing is a high construction cost. ...
... If about half of Nigerian urban dwellers still live in slums, then sustainable housing policy must include slum upgrading as both the state and the slum dwellers lack the resources for alternative approaches to upgrading. Forced eviction of slum dwellers is counterproductive as it transfers the slum challenge to another location as it ensued in several satellite settlements in Abuja (Abubakar, 2014) as well as in Makoko, Kuramo, Otodo Gbame and Ijora Badia in Lagos (Dano et al., 2019). Thus, the UN-Habitat (2010) recommends integrated slum upgrading approach that improves different sectors at the same time: housing, infrastructure and public facilities (schools, hospitals, parks) and more incremental approach that focuses on regularization of land tenure and the extension of planning to informal districts as infrastructure and services are developed. ...
Article
The recent transition from the millennium development goals (MDGs) to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) raises concerns about the extent to which developing countries such as Nigeria have achieved the MDGs and their prospects and challenges of meeting the targets of the SDGs. This paper examines Nigeria's prospects of achieving the SDG11 that aims to "make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable." Nigeria with a population of about 203 million people, about half of which live in cities and towns, is the largest nation in Africa and the seventh in the world, and by 2050 the population could reach about 400 million, thus becoming the third-largest nation after India and China. Based on desk study methodology where data were collected from secondary sources, including official reports, this article assesses the extent to which Nigeria has achieved MDG7 as the precursor to SDG11 and analyzes the country's prospects and challenges of meeting SDG11, considering its current urbanization, socioeconomic and security challenges. The paper concludes with key policy recommendations for scaling up efforts toward achieving SDG11 targets.
... As close to one-third of Nigerians still defecate in the open, achieving the SDG 6.2 in the country is not possible without eliminating the practice altogether. Open defecation is the worst form of sanitation as it pollutes public open spaces, water bodies, railway lines, building construction sites, and includes the use of flying toilets (which is a form of open defecation inside polythene bags and throwing it away) [19,27]. Human behavior has been reported to contribute to the prevalence of open defection in sub-Saharan Africa [25]. ...
... Even flush toilets, as the best form of sanitation facilities, can only transport excreta but cannot render it harmless, as sewage treatment in developing countries is not fully effective because untreated sewage is often discharged into water bodies [24]. There are also reports of some households and trucks that empty sewage they evacuated from septic tanks into running storm water and water bodies respectively [27]. ...
Article
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Access to improved sanitation facilities is key to the socioeconomic wellbeing and sustainable development of any society. This study examines access to sanitation facilities in Nigeria and explores the socioeconomic and locational factors that influence the type of facility used by households. The study utilizes cross-sectional data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, and employs descriptive and inferential statistics for data analyses. The results indicated that 44.2% of households used various kinds of pit latrines, followed by toilets that flush to septic tanks (10.3%). While only 5.3% of the respondents used toilets that connect to sewer systems, about a third (31.5%) lacked sanitation facility and the remaining 8.7% used other types of sanitation facilities. Results from chi-square analysis and ANOVA revealed significant statistical differences between the type of sanitation facility households used and their place of residence, geopolitical zone, ethnicity, educational attainment and wealth. Multivariate regression results indicated that the type of household sanitation facility is significantly associated with the mentioned factors as well as household size, gender of the head of the household, type of water sources, number of rooms and access to electricity. Age of the head of the household and type of cooking fuel used were not significant. The study concludes by underscoring the implications of using unimproved sanitation facilities on human health and environmental sustainability.
... Fortunately, the high altitudes and undulating terrain of the FCT act as moderating influence on the weather of the territory. The maximum daytime air-temperature ranges from 28°C to 35°C and a minimum night-time temperature ranging from 18°C -23°C (World climate guide, 2014); (Abubakar, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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The paper presents the results of a recent study on the thermal comfort of occupants in four low-income residential buildings, at two different locations, within the hot-humid climate of Abuja. A comfort survey questionnaire was administered to occupants of four case studies to assess their perception of their thermal environment. Simultaneously, the indoor temperatures and relative humidity of the living room and bedroom spaces were monitored as well as outdoor parameters to evaluate the actual building performance. To support the comfort survey, a post-occupancy survey was carried out to evaluate an additional 86 buildings nearby in the case studies areas. The paper focuses on analysing the thermal conditions of respondents of the post-occupancy survey, the comfort survey and indoor monitoring findings from the case studies. The maximum daytime average temperature of the naturally ventilated buildings was only 2.0°C more than in the air-conditioned buildings. The maximum indoor air temperature in the living spaces during the dry season was 36.8°C (and 26.4% RH) and the minimum 28.4°C (and 66.6% RH), while during the rainy season these were respectively 35.9°C (and 43.7% RH) and the minimum 24.3°C (and 75.5% RH). The results suggest that there was significant thermal discomfort in the low income residential buildings.
... The Federal Capital Development Authority Act provided for the relocation of existing local communities, and there was no such special quota provision for the 'locals' in the case of Nigeria's PPP. Although there is provision for all categories of income group in the PPP agreement, developers built very costly houses beyond the means of the average resident (Abubakar 2014). ...
Article
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Although public–private partnership (PPP) strategy has gained popularity as an alternative strategy in the delivery of public works projects, its application has come with mixed results. Numerous studies have attributed the success of PPP projects to contextual peculiarities of different administrative settings. This comparative study uses case study approach to analyse the similarities and differences of the critical factors that influence the success of PPP housing projects in Malaysia and Nigeria. The study reveals that while ‘equitable risk allocation’, ‘stable political system’, and ‘reputable developer’ are the most critical critical success factors (CSFs) in the case of Nigeria, ‘action against errant developer’, ‘consistent monitoring’, and ‘house buyer's demand’ are the most critical factors that influenced the success the PPP housing project in Malaysia. The findings widen the understanding of the contextual issues that dictates the relative importance of CSFs of PPP in developing countries.
... For example, the Nigerian capital city of Abuja is a key destination for rural migrants seeking better employment and a safer living environment. The city administration is trying to provide water and sanitation services to a rapidly growing number of people, across disparate neighborhoods that include informal settlements (Abubakar, 2014). A 2012 study indicated that, in southwest Nigeria, Abeokuta City's water scheme would no longer be adequate to meet the total water requirements of the entire city in 2015, including for drinking water, even operating at full capacity (Idowu et al., 2012). ...
... Also, restricting the study to women who could communicate in English and recruitment from an urban area may limit the generalisability of our findings given that majority of women of childbearing age live in rural communities [4]. However, we tried to reduce this bias by targeting populations living in the suburban and satellite areas of the FCT which are known to be home to in-migrants from smaller towns and rural parts of Nigeria [54]. Finally, the follow-up period was only 3 months. ...
Article
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Purpose: To determine the association between prenatal exclusive breastfeeding intentions and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and explore other factors associated with EBF until 3 months postpartum among mothers residing in suburban parts of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria. Description: This longitudinal observational study involved the recruitment of 210 pregnant women who were prospectively followed until 3 months postpartum. Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics attached to four separate public secondary health facilities located in the suburban parts of Abuja. Cox regression hazards model was used to determine the risk of EBF cessation at 3 months postpartum. Assessment: Over 70.0 % of women had strong intention to exclusively breastfeed. The risk of exclusive breastfeeding cessation was significantly lower in women with strong exclusive breastfeeding intentions (HR 0.87, 95 % CI 0.8-0.95). Other risk factors for cessation of exclusive breastfeeding were pre-lacteal feed administration (HR 2.93 95 % CI 1.49-5.77) and mode of delivery (HR 0.17 95 % CI 0.04-0.67). Higher maternal age (≥35 years), religion (Muslim) and having an unplanned pregnancy lowered the likelihood of having a strong intention to exclusively breastfeed an infant. Conclusions: Prenatal exclusive breastfeeding intention was a strong predictor of exclusive breastfeeding. Intentions to EBF were further explained by maternal characteristics. Effective promotion of exclusive breastfeeding during prenatal period should also target factors influencing breastfeeding intentions. Additional research is warranted into the influence of maternal attitudes and self-efficacy about breastfeeding on breastfeeding intentions and practice.
... For instance, the capital city of Abuja is a key destination for rural migrants seeking better employment and safety. The city is trying to provide water and sanitation services to a rapidly growing number of people, across disparate neighborhoods (Abubakar, 2014). A 2012 study indicated that the city's water scheme would no longer be adequate to meet the total water requirements of the entire city in 2015, even operating at full capacity (Idowu et al., 2012). ...
Article
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This paper utilizes information from the 2015 Nigeria National Water and Sanitation Survey to identify the extent, timing, as well as reasons for the failure of water points. The paper finds that more than 38 percent of all improved water points are nonfunctional. The results indicate that nearly 27 percent of the water points are likely to fail in the first year of construction, while nearly 40 percent are likely to fail in the long run (after 8–10 years). The paper considers the reasons behind these failures, looking at whether they can or cannot be controlled. During the first year, a water point’s location—the political region and underlying hydrogeology—has the greatest impact on functionality. Other factors—specifically, those that can be controlled in the design, implementation, and operational stages—also contribute significantly. As water points age, their likelihood of failure is best predicted by factors that cannot be modified, as well as by the technology used. The paper concludes that, to improve the sustainability of water points, much can be done at the design, implementation, and operational stages. Over time, technology upgrades are important.
... In order to improve solid waste management in the Abuja, a partnership between AEPB and a number of individual companies began in 2003. Hence, companies were allotted to various districts to collect and transport garbage to various disposal sites a number of times per week (Abubakar 2014). According to AEPB, there are four major disposal sites (Mpape, Gossa, Ajata and Kubwa) under its management. ...
Article
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The absence of sanitary landfill in Abuja, Nigeria has been a challenge that needs the full attention of the authorities. The improper disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) on open land is a burden to the government due to the health implications and the socioeconomic issues associated with it. In order to mitigate environmental degradation, health risk concern and public vexation, the study aims at identifying suitable sites for MSW disposal in Abuja Municipal Area Council and Bwari area council of Abuja which meets global specification and standards. The integration of Geospatial data: Landsat-7ETM+, NigeriaSat-X, ASTER-GDEM, base map, soil and geology maps and multi-criteria evaluation, was used to evaluate the relative importance of each criterion in the study. Each map layers were formed by using the spatial analysis potential of the ArcGIS10.1 software and final suitability map was created using the weighted overlay analysis. The results of the analysis identified six potential sites for sanitary landfill; however four out of the six sites were considered due to the land area size of the sites and its non-intersection with the Abuja land use plan. Also, results showed that none of the existing MSW disposal sites met the global standards considered. In view of the ecological and environmental challenges regarding MSW disposal sites in Abuja, this study shows that GIS is an effective tool in MSW management, which will assist decision makers to plan appropriately toward achieving an aesthetic, healthy and sustainable environment.
... Thus, to improve the energy yield of a rooftop PV system, it should be installed in an area that is free of obstruction in order to optimise solar irradiation [50,51]. However, in Nigeria, most of the settlements are unplanned with only the Federal Capital Territory being the planned city in the country [52]. Thus, we expect that shading losses will be high in the old unplanned settlements and a bit low in the newly developed settlements like Abuja. ...
Article
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To decarbonise the Nigerian electricity sector and ensure stable power supply, rooftop solar PV will play a major role. However, studies aimed at estimating the technical potential of rooftop solar PV in Nigeria are limited. Here, a preliminary attempt has been made using a computationally logical methodology to estimate the technical potential of rooftop solar PV in urban residential buildings of Nigeria. We use the PVSyst® software to estimate the annual energy yield of rooftop solar PV in selected cities across the country. The paper also heads on to estimate the levelized unit cost of electricity and the break-even capital cost of rooftop solar PV. The available roof area for solar PV in urban residential buildings of Nigeria is estimated at 796 km2 and the technical potential at around 124 GWp. Annual energy yield and levelized unit cost of electricity analysis shows that Kano and Port Harcourt cities have the highest and lowest potentials of rooftop solar PV respectively. Break-even capital cost analysis suggest that rooftop solar PV is not financially attractive for consumers in R1 and R2s categories in the country presently. The enabling conditions and policy implications for deployment of rooftop solar PV in the country are also highlighted.
... Abuja lies at latitude 9.07°N and longitude 7.48°E and an elevation of 840 m (2760 ft) above sea level. It is bounded on the north by Kaduna State, on the west by Niger State, on the east and southeast by Nasarawa State, and on the southwest by Kogi State [11]. The FCT is divided into six area councils, namely Abuja municipal, Gwagwalada, Abaji, Kuje, Bwari, and Kwali area councils. ...
Article
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Background: Population growth led to an increase in the number of people raising pigs, resulting in increased demand for piglets/pigs for breeding and pork for consumption. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the reproductive performance of pigs raised by the intensive management system in Abuja, Nigeria, with a view to assist farmers in ensuring improved productivity and profitability. Materials and Methods: Using an interview-based questionnaire, data from 121 sows and 649 preweaning piglets were collected in 12 herds, from September 2017 to March 2018. Measures of reproductive and production performance assessed in this study were interfarrowing interval (IFI), number of liveborn piglets (NLB), preweaning piglet mortality (PPM), age at weaning (AAW), weaning to service interval (WSI), age at first farrowing (AFF), number of piglets weaned per litter (NPWL), and number of piglets weaned per sow per year (NPWPY). Results: The results obtained in this study were IFI 6.2±0.84 months, NLB 7.2±1.11, PPM 31%, AAW 40.2±3.12 days, NPWL 5.3±0.73, WSI 39.4±4.59 days, AFF 9.1±0.60 months, and NPWPY 8.1±1.21. The identified causes of PPM were maternal overlay 31.34%, splay leg/hypoglycemia 22.39%, cannibalism 20.40%, starvation 14.93%, and unknown cause 10.94%. Conclusion: The result showed that the reproductive performance of the sow (especially, NPWPY and PPM) needs to be improved on. There is a need to promote extension and herd health services by veterinarians and livestock personnel to potential and existing farmers in the area. This is more so because organized pig production in the studied area is relatively new and more people are establishing pig farms in the studied area.
... Cobbinah (2017) picturesquely describes the face of Kumasi as a place where unauthorised and haphazard development is common, segregation (formal and informal economic activities and communities) is prevalent, and urban greenery is rapidly deteriorating across the cityscape. Surprisingly these confronting challenges and the obvious reality of limited resource such as limited personnel and logistics (Cobbinah, 2017), the city planning authority is focused on achieving, what Abubakar (2014) p.81 describes as, "elitist vision of an orderly and beautiful modern city". This 'vision' is frequently expressed in passage of new legislations, policies and preparation of rigid planning schemes based on British Town Planning System (Fuseini & Kemp, 2015). ...
Article
Kumasi is the administrative capital of the Ashanti Region of, and the second largest city in, Ghana. The city also remains the seat of the traditional Asante Kingdom with its establishment around the late 17th century. It was given the accolade the 'Garden City of West Africa' in the 1940s due to its greenery cityscape. Over the years, Kumasi's development and morphological trajectories have been dictated by its formidable traditional and cultural ties as well as socio-political antecedents shaped by mainstream political and traditional systems. Presently, the city is faced with rapid urban growth characterised by urban blight, contradictions in governance regimes, distortions in planning systems, and deteriorating infrastructure and services. This paper profiles Kumasi within the context of its demographic characteristics, spatial transformation and governance dynamics, while highlighting the implications of the city's growth patterns for sustainable and resilient futures. The key issue is whether city planning authority's initiatives over the years can contribute to the attainment of the sustainable development goals, particularly goal 11.
... limited municipal services such asinadequate housing, and poor infrastructure (Brockerhoff and Brennan 1998)-faced by city residents. Nearly three decades on, the same problems exist in many African cities such as Accra and Kumasi in Ghana (Amoako and Cobbinah 2011; Obeng-Odoom and Amedzro 2011; Yankson et al. 2004), Abuja in Nigeria (Abubakar 2014) and Nairobi in Kenya (Muluka 2002) at a time that urbanisation is rife. It becomes increasingly certain that urbanisation may not be the fundamental cause of urban management challenges in African cities as many authors have suggested, rather other factors (e.g. ...
Article
Our reflections on recent treatment of African urbanisation begins with the assertion that implicit recognition and acceptance of “rapid urbanisation” as a legitimate and primary cause of urban management challenges—e.g. poverty, slum development, haphazard development, etc.—has impoverished the appreciation of other fundamental causes of poor urban functionality in Ghanaian cities. This article argues that urban planning practice in Ghana has contributed to the many urbanisation challenges in Ghanaian cities, yet remains critical if rapid urbanisation is to be effectively managed. The article provides some useful policy directions to managing rapid urbanisation in Ghana.
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Palmas is the capital of a new state created in order to foster regional development in central Brazil. This new town was planned from scratch in 1989, during the country’s re-democratization process, between the postmodernist criticism of functionalist planning and rising environmental concerns. However, its layout depicts a mixed relationship with Brasília-style urbanism. Covering a timeframe of thirty years (1989-2019), this paper presents an outline of the history and planning of Palmas, followed by an assessment of its plan and an exploration of its contemporary major urban challenges. It contrasts the planners’ original ideas with the built city, and unveils late modernist features that have been rejected and transformed. Essentially, Palmas is a modernist new capital city planned in postmodernist times.
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This paper focuses on issues of urbanization from the perspective of the social sciences. It elaborates on the importance of the social sciences in urban studies and argues approaches to achieving comprehensive development. The focus of the study is on developing countries, particularly China, that are experiencing rapid urbanization, growth, and development. In this study, the case of China is examined with the aim of demonstrating unforeseen challenges of urbanization in such contexts. This study then explores comprehensive solutions of global concern. By examining China’s new urbanization plan, the study discusses possible routes towards comprehensive development. Furthermore, this study will argue the importance of urbanism in urbanization and development and how it can be supported by the application of the social sciences. The knowledge transfer from the social sciences to the built environment is discussed as an approach to tackle issues of urbanization in the developing world. Finally, this paper argues methods of enhancing the quality and values of urbanism as part of the process of urbanization.
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Although modernist planning efforts in Africa are increasingly viewed with skepticism, planning efforts continue to utilise modernist assumptions despite numerous challenges. This paper reviews the effectiveness of modernist master planning in achieving the main objectives of creating African new towns of Abuja, Dodoma, Gaborone and Lilongwe. An extensive review of secondary data, plans and empirical studies of these cities found that most of the objectives of these modernist plans have not been achieved or have only been met at a moderate level. In conclusion the study considers the broader challenges of modernist planning efforts in Africa and argues that the lessons learned from the implementation of this model suggest it is time to rethink this model of urban development in Africa.
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Spatial inequality in service delivery is a common feature in African cities. Several factors account for the phenomenon but there is growing attention towards urban governance and the role of the state. Urban governance policies such as privatization serve as key strategies through which the state regulates and (re)produces spatial inequality in service delivery. This study examined how governance practices related to privatization and the regulatory role of the state reinforce spatial inequalities in the delivery of solid waste services in Abuja, Nigeria. It focused primarily on the issue of cost recovery. Privatization became a major focus in Abuja in 2003 when the government launched a pilot scheme. Although it has brought improvements in service delivery, privatization has also increased the gap in the quality of services delivered in different parts of the city. Drawing on empirical data, the study revealed that little sensitivity to income and affordability, and to income differentials between neighbourhoods in the fixing of user charges and in the choice of the billing method is contributing to spatial inequalities in service delivery. Furthermore, the study suggests that these practices are linked to a broader issue, a failure of the government to see the people as partners. It therefore calls for more inclusive governance especially in decision-making processes. The study also emphasizes the need for a policy document on solid waste management, as this would encourage a critical assessment of vital issues including how privatization is to be funded, especially in low-income areas.
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In recent years, attention has been drawn to the fact that now more than half of the world's population is urbanised, and the bulk of these urban dwellers are living in the global South. Many of these Southern towns and cities are dealing with crises which are compounded by rapid population growth, particularly in peri-urban areas; lack of access to shelter, infrastructure and services by predominantly poor populations; weak local governments and serious environmental issues. There is also a realisation that newer issues of climate change, resource and energy depletion, food insecurity and the current financial crisis will exacerbate present difficult conditions. As ideas that either ‘the market’ or ‘communities’ could solve these urban issues appear increasingly unrealistic, there have been suggestions for a stronger role for governments through reformed instruments of urban planning. However, agencies (such as UN-Habitat) promoting this make the point that in many parts of the world current urban planning systems are actually part of the problem: they serve to promote social and spatial exclusion, are anti-poor, and are doing little to secure environmental sustainability. Urban planning, it is argued, therefore needs fundamental review if it is to play any meaningful role in current urban issues.
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The new city of Abuja provided an opportunity to avoid some of the environmental problems associated with other major cities in Africa. The current status of solid waste management in Abuja has been reviewed and recommendations for improvements are made. The existing solid waste management system is affected by unfavourable economic, institutional, legislative, technical and operational constraints. A reliable waste collection service is needed and waste collection vehicles need to be appropriate to local conditions. More vehicles are required to cope with increasing waste generation. Wastes need to be sorted at source as much as possible, to reduce the amount requiring disposal. Co-operation among communities, the informal sector, the formal waste collectors and the authorities is necessary if recycling rates are to increase. Markets for recycled materials need to be encouraged. Despite recent improvements in the operation of the existing dumpsite, a properly sited engineered landfill should be constructed with operation contracted to the private sector. Wastes dumped along roads, underneath bridges, in culverts and in drainage channels need to be cleared. Small-scale waste composting plants could promote employment, income generation and poverty alleviation. Enforcement of waste management legislation and a proper policy and planning framework for waste management are required. Unauthorized use of land must be controlled by enforcing relevant clauses in development guidelines. Accurate population data is necessary so that waste management systems and infrastructure can be properly planned. Funding and affordability remain major constraints and challenges.
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The magnitude of the housing problem in Nigeria is immense; the current deficit is around 12 to 16 million units. Government attempts to address housing availability has been a recurring theme throughout Nigeria's history. Yet, many government led interventions of direct provision have been unable to significantly impact access to and supply of housing for low and moderate income populations. While messy political realities are acknowledged as contributing to the failure of many of these past housing programs, the analysis of the necessary solutions are more focused on financial and property rights institutions, the broad economic environment and physical capital. Articulating the solutions to the challenges around housing production and access in Nigeria in this way, has led to the embrace and official endorsement of the "enabling" framework, which advances private sector participation in the housing market through prioritizing the aforementioned "necessary solutions," as critical to solving Nigeria's housing access issues. This thesis explores the "enabling" approach to housing by investigating one particular program in Nigeria, the Abuja Mass Housing Scheme (MHS). On paper, the MHS seems to adopt this framework as a mechanism for strengthening housing supply and demand in Abuja, Nigeria. This thesis explores the challenges that have been encountered in the MHS with a particular emphasis on understanding why the "enabling" framework as implemented in this case has not worked? The sub-questions include: What might the application of the enabling framework for housing in the Abuja MHS suggest about the challenges of the approach? What is required to actually make "enabling" work in a context like Nigeria? This thesis tries to answer these questions through applying a historical exploration of why and how Abuja was created and an analysis of the land institutions that deeply impact the housing development process in Abuja to an investigation of the MHS. The analysis of the MHS suggests that applications of the "enabling" framework need to aggressively consider the political realities on the ground in order to have any chance at working. This thesis argues that the "enabling" literature seems to have overemphasized market functions to the exclusion of politics, governance and accountability and that if politics are not considered in the framing or embrace of the "enabling approach" the intended impact of the framework cannot be successfully achieved. Moreover, it argues that the attempts to implement an "enabling approach" ought to be grounded in a deep analysis of which actors are being enabled and the potential unintended consequences of this.
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This paper evaluates the impact of electronic land administration as an e-government policy initiative in Nigeria. It analyses conceptually the differences between the expected and actual value of Abuja Geographic Information Systems (AGIS)—an e-land administration project—on urbanisation in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. The AGIS case study reveals that differences between the expected and actual value of strengthening the state’s financial capacity are low. The differences are medium for enhancing access to and security of credit, and improvement of land use planning and environmental management and high for the promotion of popular participation. The elicited differences are traceable to hindrances inscribed in Land Use and National Housing Acts, to inequitable access to land, inconsistent resettlement policy, poor community participation and financial misconduct. The findings suggest the need to pay attention to provisions through which e-government can support the reduction of country specific problems, improve the quality of institutions and to promote urbanisation, thereby increasing social welfare as well as participation by the people in promoting suitable and adequate shelter for all citizens.
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Capital relocation (i.e., the physical move of the central state apparatus from one location to another) is an unusual tool for nation and state building. Yet, it is used more frequently than we might expect. Thus, when Kazakhstan shifted its capital city in 1997 from Almaty to Astana the move was unique in that post-Soviet region, but not as uncommon in other post-colonial cases. This paper examines the move of the capital in Kazakhstan suggests that this move was designed to address particularly acute nation-and state-building challenges. If the Kazakhstan experience seems strange in de-Sovietization, this tells us much about the different nature of post-Soviet space versus other post-colonial contexts. The relative in frequency of capital moves implies that the challenges of nation and state building in the ex-USSR - as daunting as they have proved to be - are generally not as acute as in those of other post-colonial contexts.
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Purpose – The notion of public participation in planning resettlements in the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja, Nigeria was not taken into consideration during the forced evictions that took place between 2003 and 2007. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of advocacy in a rights-based approach for consultation, participation and capacity-building for the victims of forced evictions in Abuja. Design/methodology/approach – This is a case study approach that explores individual and group capacities in Abuja's informal settlements. Findings – The demolition of informal settlements was carried out without due process, participatory approaches and group consultation in the plans for resettlement. Additionally, the office of the Federal Capital Development Authority put forth the argument that the proper implementation of the master plan justified and necessitated the systematic violation of the rights of hundreds of thousands of peoples; so that Abuja would not become a victim of urban sprawl which is evident in many other developing country city centres like Lagos, Cairo, or the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. Research limitations/implications – The researcher has explored a widening gap between the agenda of a master plan for a developing country's capital city and the development of an informal economy within makeshift settlements. Originality/value – This case study sheds more light on the human rights violations which have characterized the method of dealing with informal settlements in the new capital city of Abuja.
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Analysts agree that accessibility to urban land poses the grestest difficulty to low-income housing production in many developing countries. The literature of urbanisation in the Third World is replete with evidence in support of the fact that where land has been made available, even the urban poor have been able to provide themselves with housing. Closely related to ease of access to land in influencing the rate of housing supply are the development control laws applicable in a particular urban context and the effectiveness of the agencies that enforce them. These laws, and the way they are enforced, determine what is to be built, with what, where, and to some extent, when. Arguments have been advanced for imaginative, flexible and well-coordinated application of relevant building and planning standards for low-income housing. While Nwake advocates the adoption of multiple codes and standards for various neighbourhoods in the same city to accommodate differences in the level of resources and priorities, Omuta advises that standards and regulations for poor neighbourhoods should insist only on the essential requirements of structural soundness, safety and hygiene. The difficulties of acquiring land in Abuja, coupled with the stiff application of development control laws, clearly hinders housing supply, particularly to the low-income segment of the city's housing market. This trend has also been identified in the case of Brasilia (Acioly, 1994). The purpose of the present paper is to show that the solution to Abuja's low-income housing crisis lies in adopting strategies which would lead to a lowering of land costs and development control standards, as well as easing the bureaucratic procedures involved in gaining acess to land and obtaining a development permit. The paper begins with some background on the development of Abuja, showing how the utopian assumptions of the government and policy-makers have tended to discourage low-cost housing construction in the city. It then details the stringent procedures for gaining access to land and obtaining development permits, and the influence of bureaucratic, human and political factors on this process. It concludes by making recommendations, based on past experiences, for workable solutions to the city's low-income housing crisis.
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The federal government of Nigeria developed large-scale public housing to provide living spaces for federal employees in the recently created capital, Abuja. The paper examines the resident satisfaction with public housing and the relationship of satisfaction with specific housing features to overall housing satisfaction. The sample of 1,089 households was randomly selected from residents in 19,863 public housing units in Abuja. A five-point Likert scale was used to measure residents' level of housing satisfaction. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The residents expressed dissatisfaction with their overall housing situation; they were dissatisfied with structure types, building features, housing conditions, and housing management. They were satisfied with the neighborhood facilities. Government housing policy should encourage a decent living environment, effective housing management, and construction of high quality structure types.
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Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006. Includes bibliographical references (p. 61-62). This thesis investigation explores the relationship between city design and social exclusion, and more specifically, how modernist principles of urban design and development policy have contributed to social exclusion in Abuja - the capital city of Nigeria. This study is facilitated through reading the city and its unique and common characteristics. Based on my experiences in the city over a three month period, I use my understanding of urban development, and relevant documents to examine the nature of exclusion in the Abuja plan and process of development. Front the results of this analysis the presence of exclusion in Abuja is enhanced by the use of colonial policies and selective use of modernist planning/processes of development. Furthermore, the relationship between social exclusion and city design in Abuja is the continuation of a legacy of colonial urban development and divisive urban form in traditional Nigerian cities. by Ifeoma N. Ebo. M.C.P.
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