Assessment of Five Interleukins in Human Synovial Fluid as Possible Markers for Aseptic Loosening of Hip Arthroplasty
One of the most important factors that seems to be involved in total hip replacement is periprosthetic osteolysis. As it is well documented that several interleukins (ILs) are triggered in periprosthetic osteolysis, this article investigates the role of five ILs in primary and replacement total hip arthroplasty, understanding if one of them can also predict hip implant loosening, secondary surgery, and prosthesis breakage. The levels of IL-1alpha, 1beta, 6, 8, and 10 in synovial fluid were examined, using a high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit (Pierce Biotechnology, Inc., Rockford, IL, USA) to determine whether these cytokines could be used as markers of enhanced periprosthetic osteolysis, leading to aseptic loosening of total/partial hip arthroplasty or revision surgery. Synovial fluid was harvested from 23 patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty and 35 patients undergoing total/partial hip revision due to aseptic loosening. In the revision group, four cases had suffered a prosthesis fracture and five were second revisions. ILs 6 and 8 were significantly higher in the revisions (305 and 817 pg/mL) compared with the primary arthroplasties (151 and 151 pg/mL), including cases with prosthesis fracture and those requiring a second revision. IL-10 levels were lower (not significantly) in second revision samples compared with those of revision samples. IL-1beta levels were significantly higher in prosthesis fracture samples compared with those of all the other revision samples. No statistically significant differences in IL levels were found between osteoarthritis samples and those of other diseases. These results are a step forward to elucidating the complex network of events that are involved in loosening of hip implants.
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