Article

Linking the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) and the Compendium of Physical Activities: Methods and Rationale

Walking Behavior Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.
Journal of physical activity & health (Impact Factor: 1.95). 06/2009; 6(3):347-53.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The 2003 Bureau of Labor Statistics American Time Use Survey (ATUS) contains 438 distinct primary activity variables that can be analyzed with regard to how time is spent by Americans. The Compendium of Physical Activities is used to code physical activities derived from various surveys, logs, diaries, etc to facilitate comparison of coded intensity levels across studies.
This article describes the methods, challenges, and rationale for linking Compendium estimates of physical activity intensity (METs, metabolic equivalents) with all activities reported in the 2003 ATUS.
The assigned ATUS intensity levels are not intended to compute the energy costs of physical activity in individuals. Instead, they are intended to be used to identify time spent in activities broadly classified by type and intensity. This function will complement public health surveillance systems and aid in policy and health-promotion activities. For example, at least one of the future projects of this process is the descriptive epidemiology of time spent in common physical activity intensity categories.
The process of metabolic coding of the ATUS by linking it with the Compendium of Physical Activities can make important contributions to our understanding of American's time spent in health-related physical activity.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Tracy Washington
  • Source
    • "The MET values within each occupational category were then averaged to determine a MET value for each occupational group (Table 1). This approach for MET value assignment was necessary given the previously determined ISCO classifications; comparison with other approaches, such as that developed for the American Time Use Survey [29], was done where there was some general overlap in the main occupational categories. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Examination of historical trends and projections in estimated energy expenditure in Russia is important given the country's economic downturns and growth. Nationally representative data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) from 1995-2011 was used to determine the metabolic equivalents of task (MET)-hours per week from occupational, domestic, travel, and active leisure physical activity (PA) domains, as well as sedentary leisure time (hours per week) among adults 18-60 years. Additionally, we projected what these values would be like in 2020 and 2030 if observed trends continue. Among male adults, the largest contributor to total PA was occupational PA followed by travel PA. In contrast, domestic PA followed by occupational PA contributed most to total PA among female adults. Total PA was 282.9 MET-hours per week in 1995 and declined to 231.7 in 2011. Total PA is projected to decrease to 216.5 MET-hours per week in 2020 and to 193.0 MET-hours per week in 2030. The greatest relative declines are occurring in travel PA. Female adults are also exhibiting significant declines in domestic PA. Changes in occupational and active leisure PA are less distinct. Policies and initiatives are needed to counteract the long-term decline of overall physical activity linked with a modernizing lifestyle and economy among Russian adults.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • Source
    • "This study represents the first detailed analyses of trends in HMEE derived from nationally representative historical time-use databases. HMEE was derived using an empirically supported protocol for the translation of PA into EE [39], [61]. Our results on the allocation of time to HM, LTPA and screen-based media use are in agreement with other research [33], [52], [62], [63]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Relationships between socio-environmental factors and obesity are poorly understood due to a dearth of longitudinal population-level research. The objective of this analysis was to examine 45-year trends in time-use, household management (HM) and energy expenditure in women. Using national time-use data from women 19-64 years of age, we quantified time allocation and household management energy expenditure (HMEE) from 1965 to 2010. HM was defined as the sum of time spent in food preparation, post-meal cleaning activities (e.g., dish-washing), clothing maintenance (e.g., laundry), and general housework. HMEE was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. The time allocated to HM by women (19-64 yrs) decreased from 25.7 hr/week in 1965 to 13.3 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001), with non-employed women decreasing by 16.6 hr/week and employed women by 6.7 hr/week (P<0.001). HMEE for non-employed women decreased 42% from 25.1 Mj/week (6004 kilocalories per week) in 1965 to 14.6 Mj/week (3486 kcal/week) in 2010, a decrement of 10.5 Mj/week or 1.5 Mj/day (2518 kcal/week; 360 kcal/day) (P<0.001), whereas employed women demonstrated a 30% decrement of 3.9 Mj/week, 0.55 Mj/day (923 kcal/week, 132 kcal/day) (P<0.001). The time women spent in screen-based media use increased from 8.3 hr/week in 1965 to 16.5 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001), with non-employed women increasing 9.6 hr/week and employed women 7.5 hr/week (P<0.001). From 1965 to 2010, there was a large and significant decrease in the time allocated to HM. By 2010, women allocated 25% more time to screen-based media use than HM (i.e., cooking, cleaning, and laundry combined). The reallocation of time from active pursuits (i.e., housework) to sedentary pastimes (e.g., watching TV) has important health consequences. These results suggest that the decrement in HMEE may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women during the last five decades.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "METs were used to quantify the intensities of activities for each individual daily behaviour profile and so facilitate classification of activities into broad activity levels: sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous. The mappings of MET values to activity codes were drawn from the " Compendium of Physical Activities " [31], an approach that was modelled after a similar exercise with the American Time Use Survey [32]. In the present study, 158 different activities could be distinguished in terms of METs, with an additional 50 occupational groups providing different MET values for bouts of " Paid Work " . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. The link between physical activity and health outcomes is well established, yet levels of physical activity remain low. This study quantifies effects on mortality of the substitution of low activity episodes by higher activity alternatives using time-use data. Methods. Sample time profiles are representative of the Canadian population ( n = 19,597 ). Activity time and mortality are linked using metabolic equivalents(METs). Mortality risk is determined by peak daily METs and hours spent sedentary. The impact of altering activity patterns is assessed using simulated life expectancy. Results. If all leisure screen time was replaced with an equal amount of time spent going for a walk, an increase in life expectancy of about 2.5 years (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.8) would be expected. No other activity category would have as large as an effect. Conclusions. Reducing leisure screen time has a large effect, because seniors particularly have a large potential for mortality reduction and watch more television than other age groups. The general problem of inactivity cannot be solved simply by reallocating time to more active pursuits, because daily activity patterns can be heterogeneous or fragmented and activities may be nondiscretionary (e.g., work or childcare).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012
Show more