To evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads in eradication of an arterial prosthetic graft methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm in an experimental animal model.
Forty rats underwent subcutaneous implantation of a MRSA-colonized arterial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 1 x 1 cm wafer on the back. The effect of regional antibiosis produced by antibiotic PMMA bead placement adjacent to the infected PTFE wafer was determined using four 10-animal study groups: control (no antibiotic), PMMA bead with no antibiotic, PMMA bead with 10% vancomycin, and PMMA bead with 10% daptomycin. After 3 d, the PTFE wafers were explanted and quantitative biofilm cultures, expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per graft wafer, performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess MRSA eradication. No systemic antibiotic was administered. Bioassays of antibiotic bead bacteriocidal were performed by measuring zone of inhibition diameters on MRSA colonized agar culture plates prior to and following graft explantation.
All animal tolerated implantation of the MRSA-infected PTFE wafer and survived the 3 d until graft explantation. Quantitative biofilm cultures demonstrated a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in MRSA CFUs present on the PTFE wafer surfaces in the presence of both the vancomycin- and daptomycin-impregnated beads compared to controls and plain PMMA beads. Both vancomycin and daptomycin PMMA beads retained antibacterial activity after 3 d of implantation with decrease in zones of inhibition of 15% and 45%, respectively.
Regional antibiotic delivery using an antibiotic-impregnated PMMA bead reduced the bacterial biofilm concentration in experimental subcutaneous pocket model of vascular surgical site infection. The delivery of antibiotics via a PMMA bead may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of vascular surgical site infection.