Monitoring of HIV-1 envelope-mediated membrane fusion using modified split green fluorescent proteins

China-Japan Joint Laboratory of Structural Virology and Immunology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.
Journal of virological methods (Impact Factor: 1.78). 07/2009; 161(2):216-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.06.017
Source: PubMed


A simple, cell-based, membrane fusion assay system that uses split green fluorescent proteins (spGFPs) as an indicator was developed. The attachment of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain to the N-termini of each spGFP not only localized the reporter signal to the plasma membrane but also helped the stable expression of the smaller spGFP of seventeen amino acid residues. It was shown that this system allowed real-time monitoring of membrane fusion by HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) without the addition of external substrates. This method can be adapted to the analyses of other viral membrane fusion.

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Available from: Naoyuki Kondo
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    • "Here, we describe a novel, cell-fusion-based PTA that uses a dual split reporter protein system (DSP) [14,15] to measure HIV-1 tropism by both Renilla luciferase (RL) activity and green fluorescent protein (GFP) activity. We validated the DSP-Pheno assay using HIV-1 reference strains and applied the assay to test clinical samples from patients with HIV-1 infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction A dual split reporter protein system (DSP), recombining Renilla luciferase (RL) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) split into two different constructs (DSP1–7 and DSP8–11), was adapted to create a novel rapid phenotypic tropism assay (PTA) for HIV-1 infection (DSP-Pheno). Methods DSP1–7 was stably expressed in the glioma-derived NP-2 cell lines, which expressed CD4/CXCR4 (N4X4) or CD4/CCR5 (N4R5), respectively. An expression vector with DSP8–11 (pRE11) was constructed. The HIV-1 envelope genes were subcloned in pRE11 (pRE11-env) and transfected into 293FT cells. Transfected 293FT cells were incubated with the indicator cell lines independently. In developing the assay, we selected the DSP1–7-positive clones that showed the highest GFP activity after complementation with DSP8–11. These cell lines, designated N4R5-DSP1–7, N4X4-DSP1–7 were used for subsequent assays. Results The env gene from the reference strains (BaL for R5 virus, NL4-3 for X4 virus, SF2 for dual tropic virus) subcloned in pRE11 and tested, was concordant with the expected co-receptor usage. Assay results were available in two ways (RL or GFP). The assay sensitivity by RL activity was comparable with those of the published phenotypic assays using pseudovirus. The shortest turnaround time was 5 days after obtaining the patient's plasma. All clinical samples gave positive RL signals on R5 indicator cells in the fusion assay. Median RLU value of the low CD4 group was significantly higher on X4 indicator cells and suggested the presence of more dual or X4 tropic viruses in this group of patients. Comparison of representative samples with Geno2Pheno [co-receptor] assay was concordant. Conclusions A new cell-fusion-based, high-throughput PTA for HIV-1, which would be suitable for in-house studies, was developed. Equipped with two-way reporter system, RL and GFP, DSP-Pheno is a sensitive test with short turnaround time. Although maintenance of cell lines and laboratory equipment is necessary, it provides a safe assay system without infectious viruses. With further validation against other conventional analyses, DSP-Pheno may prove to be a useful laboratory tool. The assay may be useful especially for the research on non-B subtype HIV-1 whose co-receptor usage has not been studied much.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    • "For model simulations and calculations, we made parameter choices based on published results for the kinetics of HIV infected CD4+ T cells [11] and the kinetics of the different drug classes in CD4+ T cells [12-17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: More and more antiretroviral therapies are being developed for treatment of HIV infection. The in-vivo efficacy of these drugs is commonly predicted based on in-vitro measures of antiviral effect. One primary in-vitro measure is the IC50, the amount of drug required for 50% inhibition of viral replication. We have previously shown that HIV life-cycle kinetics impact clinically observed HIV viral dynamics. Here we present a mathematical model of how they affect the pharmacodynamics of antiretroviral drugs. We find that experimentally measured antiretroviral IC50s are determined by three factors: (i) intrinsic drug properties (e.g. drug-target binding), (ii) kinetics of the HIV life cycle, and (iii) kinetics of drug-inhibited infected cells. Our model predicts that the IC50 is a declining function of the duration of the drug-susceptible stage in the host cell. We combine our model with known viral life-cycle kinetics to derive a measure of intrinsic properties, reflecting drug action, for known antiretroviral drugs from previously measured IC50s. We show that this measure of intrinsic drug property correlates very well with in vitro-measured antiviral activity, whereas experimentally measured IC50 does not. Our results have implications for understanding pharmacodynamics of and improving activity of antiretroviral drugs. Our findings predict that drug activity can be improved through co-administration of synergistic drugs that delay the viral life cycle but are not inhibitory by themselves. Moreover, our results may easily extend to treatment of other pathogens.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Biology Direct
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    • "This modified vector was named as mpKMal-p2e. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene as the reporter for the membrane topology was prepared by PCR using GFPopt1-11 in pCR4Blunt-TOPO [25] as the template with 5'-GAC TCTAGA ATGGTG AGCAAG GGCGAG GAGC-3' and 5'-GCACTG CAGTCA GGTGAT GCCGGC GGCGT-3' as the forward and reverse primer, respectively, and cloned into mpKMal-p2e vector using XbaI and PstI sites. The generated vector was named as mpKMalp2e-GFP (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: The gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) has been widely regarded as a type I transmembrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain (MSD). An alternative topology model suggested multiple MSDs. The major discrepancy between the two models is that the cytoplasmic Kennedy sequence in the single MSD model is assigned as the extracellular loop accessible to neutralizing antibodies in the other model. We examined the membrane topology of the gp41 subunit in both prokaryotic and mammalian systems. We attached topological markers to the C-termini of serially truncated gp41. In the prokaryotic system, we utilized a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is only active in the cytoplasm. The tag protein (HaloTag) and a membrane-impermeable ligand specific to HaloTag was used in the mammalian system. In the absence of membrane fusion, both the prokaryotic and mammalian systems (293FT cells) supported the single MSD model. In the presence of membrane fusion in mammalian cells (293CD4 cells), the data obtained seem to support the multiple MSD model. However, the region predicted to be a potential MSD is the highly hydrophilic Kennedy sequence and is least likely to become a MSD based on several algorithms. Further analysis revealed the induction of membrane permeability during membrane fusion, allowing the membrane-impermeable ligand and antibodies to cross the membrane. Therefore, we cannot completely rule out the possible artifacts. Addition of membrane fusion inhibitors or alterations of the MSD sequence decreased the induction of membrane permeability. It is likely that a single MSD model for HIV-1 gp41 holds true even in the presence of membrane fusion. The degree of the augmentation of membrane permeability we observed was dependent on the membrane fusion and sequence of the MSD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Retrovirology
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