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Growth Promoting Potentials of Indigenous Drugs in Broiler Chicken

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Abstract

This study was conducted to explore the growth promoting potentials of indigenous drugs viz., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus niruri and Aloe vera. A total of seventy two straight run 1-day old broiler chicks (Cobb strain) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 3 replications of set 6 chicks in each. Treatments were included of control (T 1) and the inclusion of 1% of Glycyrrhiza glabra (T 2), Phyllanthus niruri (T 3) and Aloe vera (T 4) with basal diet. The results indicated that T 3 had a significantly higher body weight followed by T 4 and T 2 . A. vera supplementation increased the feed intake significantly than other groups. Feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher with T 3 followed by T 4 and T 2 . It is concluded that P. niruri and A. vera can be used as growth promoters at 1% level in feed.
Cloud Publications
International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology
2014, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp. 93-98, Article ID Sci-187
ISSN 2320-3595
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Growth Promoting Potentials of Indigenous Drugs in Broiler
Chicken
A. Jagadeeswaran1 and S. Selvasubramanian2
1Ethnoveterinary Herbal Research Centre for Poultry, T.V.C.C., Trichy Road, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
India
Correspondence should be addressed to Jagadeeswaran, jagadeeswaran@tanuvas.org.in
Publication Date: 18 June 2014
Article Link: http://scientific.cloud-journals.com/index.php/IJAVST/article/view/Sci-187
Copyright © 2014 Jagadeeswaran and S. Selvasubramanian. This is an open access article distributed under the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract This study was conducted to explore the growth promoting potentials of indigenous drugs
viz., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus niruri and Aloe vera. A total of seventy two straight run 1-day old
broiler chicks (Cobb strain) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 3 replications of set 6 chicks
in each. Treatments were included of control (T1) and the inclusion of 1% of Glycyrrhiza glabra (T2),
Phyllanthus niruri (T3) and Aloe vera (T4) with basal diet. The results indicated that T3 had a
significantly higher body weight followed by T4 and T2. A. vera supplementation increased the feed
intake significantly than other groups. Feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher with T3
followed by T4 and T2. It is concluded that P. niruri and A. vera can be used as growth promoters at
1% level in feed.
Keywords Broiler; Phyllanthus Niruri; Glycyrrhiza Glabra; Aloe Vera; Growth Performance
1. Introduction
Intensive and scientific poultry rearing introduced the use of various growth promoters in feed to
achieve the higher body weights at an early age. In previous years antibacterial drugs were tried to
promote the growth. But facing the potential threats of drug residues in poultry meat and the resultant
drug resistance in bacterial population causing diseases in both human and animals, the usage of
these drugs in various countries have been banned. At this point of time the scientific and medical
world has changed their notion on various herbal drugs and keeps trying these drugs for various
ailments in humans as well as animals. Further public, academic and government interest in
traditional medicines are growing exponentially due to the increased incidence of adverse drug
reactions and economic burden of the modern system of medicine (Dubey, et al., 2004). WHO
estimated that approximately 80% of the earth’s inhabitants rely on traditional medicine for their
primary health care needs, and most of this therapy involved the use of plant extracts or their active
components. These plants and their components are perceived as natural and safe by consumers
(Mehmet Ciftci, et al., 2005).
Open Access
Research Article
IJAVST An Open Access Journal (ISSN 2320-3595)
International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology
Glycyrrhiza glabra (Yasti-madu, Licorice) is a hardy plant growing well in deep, rich sandy soil and full
sun. Dried liquorice roots are found in all the bazaars of India. Glycyrrhiza is documented for its anti-
inflammatory, immune-stimulant, antiviral, demulcent, expectorant, anti-catarrhal, antiulcer (PUD),
hepatoprotective, spasmolytic and laxative medicinal use (CSIR, 1985 and Nadkarni, 1996). Zhang
QuiJun, et al., 2002 concluded that Zengmiansan, a traditional Chinese medicine consisting of 10
herbs including Glycyrrhiza glabra produced a positive effect on immunity and increased live weight
gain.
Phyllanthus niruri (Bhoomyamalakee) prefers rocky, calcareous salts in humid tropical regions and
usually found in central and southern India (CSIR, 1985 and Nadkarni, 1996). Haribabu and Panda
(1993); Prajapati (1997); Gopinath, et al. (2001); Mihir Sarma, et al. (2001) and Dolly Bhaskar, et al.
(2003) studied the effects of poly herbal formulations (containing Phyllanthus as one of the
components) on growth performance of broilers and concluded that they improved weight gain.
Aloe vera (Ghrita-kumari) is cultivated throughout India in many varieties some of which run wild as
on the coasts of Bombay, Gujarat and South India (CSIR, 1985 and Nadkarni, 1996). Many
therapeutic properties of A. vera have been described (Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986) as anti-
hyperglycaemic (Boudreau, 2006), anti-cancer (Steenkamp and Stewart, 2007), angiogenic and
immune system stimulator (Sa, et al., 2005). Salary, et al., (2014) concluded that inclusion of 0.4 per
cent Aloe vera extract in drinking water to broiler chicken had positive effects on performance.
In this juncture the present study is aimed at exploring the growth promoting potentials of crude
powder of indigenous plant drugs viz. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus niruri and Aloe vera in
commercial broiler chicken.
2. Materials and Methods
One day old broiler chicks of straight run, cob strain, purchased from a local hatchery were used for
this experiment. On arrival, seventy two chicks were weighed, wing banded and randomly distributed
to four groups (three replicates) of eighteen each. One group was assigned to basal diet only
[Negative control (T1)]. The other three groups were fed with basal diet supplemented (at the inclusion
level of 1%) with Glycyrrhiza glabra crude powder (T2), Phyllanthus niruri crude powder (T3) and Aloe
vera crude powder (T4), obtained as gratis from M/s Dabur Ayurvet Ltd., New Delhi, India. All birds
were fed with broiler starter (up to three weeks of age) followed by finisher mash (three to six weeks).
Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experiment. The birds were reared in table top
broiler cages maintained in a gable roofed and open sided house. Uniform management conditions
were maintained throughout the study period. The birds were immunized against Newcastle viral
disease on day seven and twenty eight. The experimental design was approved by Institutional
Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC).
Body weight and feed intake were recorded every week to measure production performance of birds.
From the recorded data, weekly body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of the birds were
calculated.
Mortality was recorded daily throughout the study period.
All data were analyzed as per the methods of (Snedecor and Cochran, 1994).
IJAVST An Open Access Journal (ISSN 2320-3595)
International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology
3. Results and Discussion
The effects of supplementation of indigenous drugs on weekly body weight of birds and their weekly
body weight gain are presented in Table 1 and 2 respectively.
Table 1: Body Weight (In Gms)
T1
T2
T3
T4
1 day
48.8 ± 0.167
49.1 ± 0.179
48.8 ± 0.191
48.7 ± 0.135
7 days
162.8 ± 1.368A
164.3 ± 0.709AB
169.2 ± 0.550C
167.2 ± 0.720BC
14 days
388.7 ± 0.605A
390.0 ± 2.254A
396.7 ± 1.377B
392.3 ± 1.355AB
21 days
750.0 ± 6.458
747.2 ± 2.407
755.8 ± 0.809
752.7 ± 1.655
28 days
1107.5 ± 4.041A
1129.3 ± 2.204B
1158.0 ± 2.232C
1137.2 ± 2.451B
35 days
1545.7 ± 3.594A
1554.8 ± 4.287A
1622.5 ± 0.638C
1604.7 ± 2.813B
42 days
1966.3 ± 6.630A
2005.5 ± 11.760B
2059.2 ± 6.744C
2044.5 ± 3.421C
Values are Mean ± SE (n=18)
Means with different alphabets as superscripts between columns differ significantly (p<0.01)
Throughout the study period it is observed that the body weight of control birds (T1) fed only with
basal diet was lower compared to that of other groups supplemented with Glycyrrhiza glabra crude
powder (T2), Phyllanthus niruri crude powder (T3) and Aloe vera crude powder (T4) except on 21
days, in which it was able to match with other groups. Among the treated groups, Phyllanthus niruri
supplemented group (T3) topped the total body weight at 4, 5 and 6 weeks followed by Aloe vera and
Glycyrrhiza glabra crude powder supplemented groups (T4 and T2). The final body weight of T3 and T4
were similar and significantly differed from T2 and T1.
Table 2: Weekly Body Weight Gain (In Gms)
T1
T2
T3
T4
1st week
114.0 ± 1.455A
115.2 ± 0.761AB
120.4 ± 0.525C
118.4 ± 0.805BC
2nd week
225.8 ± 1.014
225.7 ± 1.898
227.5 ± 1.661
225.2 ± 0.954
3rd week
361.3 ± 6.315
357.2 ± 1.581
359.2 ± 1.396
360.3 ± 2.117
4th week
357.5 ± 9.150A
382.2 ± 3.698B
402.2 ± 2.447C
384.5 ± 1.655BC
5th week
438.2 ± 3.976A
425.5 ± 5.374A
464.5 ± 1.872B
467.5 ± 2.622B
6th week
420.7 ± 5.158
450.7 ± 12.504
436.7 ± 7.040
439.8 ± 1.133
Values are Mean ± SE (n=18)
Means with different alphabets as superscripts between columns differ significantly (p<0.01)
While analyzing the weekly body weight gain achieved by birds, it further supported the incremental
body weight gain achieved by T3 and T4 at 1, 4 and 5 weeks, which was significantly higher.
Glycyrrhiza glabra treated group (T2) also could catch up weight gain in the last week, though it was
not significant.
Table 3: Cumulative Feed Intake (In Gms)
T1
T2
T3
T4
1st week
112.0 ± 0.577
111.7 ± 0.882
113.0 ± 1.000
113.0 ± 0.577
2nd week
409.0 ± 1.528A
408.3 ± 1.667A
416.7 ± 1.667B
419.3 ± 0.882B
3rd week
910.0 ± 2.887A
910.0 ± 2.887A
920.0 ± 2.887AB
926.3 ± 1.202B
4th week
1571.7 ± 4.410A
1576.7 ± 1.667AB
1586.3 ± 1.856B
1590.0 ± 2.887B
5th week
2486.7 ± 4.410A
2490.0 ± 2.887A
2494.7 ± 1.856A
2516.3 ± 4.096B
6th week
3563.3 ± 6.009A
3558.3 ± 4.410A
3578.7 ± 1.856A
3601.7 ± 4.410B
Values are Mean ± SE (n=18)
Means with different alphabets as superscripts between columns differ significantly (p<0.01)
IJAVST An Open Access Journal (ISSN 2320-3595)
International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology
Throughout the experiment cumulative feed intake was significantly high in group supplemented with
Aloe vera (T4) when compared to control. There was no significant difference in feed intake between
control (T1) and glycyrrhiza supplemented group (T2). Phyllanthus supplementation (T3) has shown
significant increase in cumulative feed intake only at 2nd and 4th weeks when compared to control,
similar to T4 (Table 3).
This reflected as better feed conversion efficiency in T3 followed by T4 and T2, and finally T1 (Table 4).
Table 4: Feed Conversion Efficiency
T1
T2
T3
T4
1st week
0.982 ± 0.005B
0.969 ± 0.008AB
0.939 ± 0.007A
0.954 ± 0.005AB
2nd week
1.204 ± 0.005a
1.198 ± 0.004a
1.198 ± 0.005a
1.220 ± 0.003b
3rd week
1.298 ± 0.004a
1.304 ± 0.004a
1.301 ± 0.004a
1.316 ± 0.002b
4th week
1.484 ± 0.004C
1.460 ± 0.002B
1.430 ± 0.002A
1.461 ± 0.003B
5th week
1.661 ± 0.003C
1.654 ± 0.002C
1.585 ± 0.001A
1.617 ± 0.003B
6th week
1.858 ± 0.003D
1.819 ± 0.002C
1.780 ± 0.001A
1.805 ± 0.002B
Values are Mean ± SE (n=18)
Means with different alphabets (capitals) as superscripts between columns differ significantly (p<0.01)
Means with different small alphabets as superscripts between columns differ significantly (p<0.05)
Ultimately the results of the present study show that Phyllanthus niruri has improved the broiler
performance by increasing the body weight without affecting feed intake, which was followed by Aloe
vera which simultaneously increased body weight along with feed intake. Glycyrrhiza glabra improved
performance of broilers as seen with increase in body weight and FCE with no alteration in feed
intake when compared to control. Contrary to the findings of the present study, Nguyen Hieu Phuong
and Nguyen Quang Thieu reported that using different levels (0.25 to 1.5%) of Phyllanthus amarus
powder in the diets had no effects on the growth performance of chicken. But, Natsir, et al. (2013)
suggested that 0.8 per cent encapsulated combination of garlic and Phyllanthus niruri in broiler diet
improved performance. Sedghi, et al. (2010) recorded that dietary licorice extract supplementation did
not have any negative effects on body weight or FCR of broiler chicken. The result of other study
using licorice extract through drinking water indicated no considerable effect on broilers’ growth
performance (Naser Moradi, et al., 2014). Mimereole (2011) in the evaluation of the dietary inclusion
of Aloe vera as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter in broiler production concluded that as a
growth promoter, A. vera was comparable to antibiotic growth promoters. Salary, et al. (2014) found
that the inclusion of licorice and A. vera extracts at the levels of 0.4 per cent in drinking water have
positive effects on the performance of broiler chicken.
4. Conclusion
It can be concluded that use of Phyllanthus niruri and Aloe vera at 1% inclusion level as crude
powder had positive effects on growth performance of broilers. Based on the observations with G.
glabra, it is suggested to conduct further studies to identify the inclusion level.
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... Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre against the Ranikhet disease virus (LaSota) and the hemagglutination antibody (HA) titre against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antigens, while the cell-mediated immune response was measured by estimating the total and differential white blood cell (WBCs) counts. The results of the study revealed that the chicks supplemented with 0.1% licorice extract powder showed considerable improvement in their immune responses [28]. Also, natural feed supplements are used as immunity enhancers because it increases WBC counts and ultimately boosts interferon levels [29]. ...
... The inclusion of 0.4% LE in the drinking water of broilers increased (p < 0.05) the feed intake at 21 and 42 days, but did not affect the body weight at different ages [51]. However, Jagadeeswaran and Selvasubramanian [28] found that the inclusion of 1% LE to the basal diet of the broiler chickens improved their body weight and FCR at 42 days of age in comparison to the control group. In Japanese quails [54] it was reported that the inclusion of 200 ppm of licorice root extract containing 1% probiotic supplement to the quail diet improved the amount of daily feed intake and body weight gain. ...
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Aloe barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera, has a long history of use as a topical and oral therapeutic. The plant is the source of two products, gel and latex, which are obtained from its fleshy leaves. Aloe vera products contain multiple constituents with potential biological and toxicological activities, yet the active components elude definition. Ingestion of Aloe vera is associated with diarrhea, electrolyte imbalance, kidney dysfunction, and conventional drug interactions; episodes of contact dermatitis, erythema, and phototoxicity have been reported from topical applications. This review examines the botany, physical and chemical properties, and biological activities of the Aloe vera plant.