Article

Education inequality in Ghana: Gender and spatial dimensions

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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and extent of gender and spatial inequalities in educational attainment in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses the education Gini coefficient, computed on the basis of years of schooling of individuals, to assess education inequality in Ghana. Findings The paper finds evidence of gender and spatial inequality in education in Ghana. In particular, the three northern regions have lower education attainment as well as higher education Gini coefficients compared to the rest of the country. The paper finds evidence of intra‐gender and intra‐spatial inequalities in education attainment in Ghana, with females contributing proportionately more to the within‐inequality component of the education Gini. The paper also finds a positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality. Research limitations/implications The research finds a positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality but requires an econometric analysis to make inferences regarding causality. Practical implications The findings call for the design and implementation of policies not only to address between‐gender and spatial inequities in education in Ghana, but also to tackle within‐gender and within‐spatial inequalities. The positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality implies the need to create greater equity in educational opportunities across the country. Social implications The need for changes in attitudes, values and cultural practices that put girls at a disadvantage when it comes to education. Originality/value One important and new finding of the paper is the existence of intra‐gender and intra‐spatial inequalities in education attainment in Ghana, with females contributing proportionately more to the within‐inequality component of the education Gini.

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... In 2015, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimated that more than half of the 58 million out-of-school children worldwide were girls. While Ghana has made significant progress in promoting access to education, gender disparities in educational opportunities remain visible, particularly at the secondary and tertiary education levels (Senadza, 2012). At the junior high school level, the gender parity index (GPI), which represents the ratio of girls' gross enrollment to boys' gross enrollment, has improved from 0.88 in 2004 to 0.96 in 2014. ...
... In fact, available evidence suggests that geographical disparities exacerbate these gender differences, with rural and poorer geographic areas demonstrating even higher incidences of gender inequality in school enrollment (Senadza, 2012). The geographically moderated gender gaps in education are more pronounced in developing countries than developed countries ( Jayachandran, 2015). ...
... Although prior studies have examined the gender disparities in educational access, several important questions remain unanswered. For instance, despite indications of variability in the balance of parity between girls' and boys' enrollment (Senadza, 2012), the literature is scant on the variations in rural areas. Also, the extent to which factors that account for these differences vary spatially is not clear. ...
Article
Purpose: This paper examines the spatial patterns of gender inequality in junior high school enrollment and the educational resource investments associated with the spatial trends. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses data on 170 districts in Ghana and hot-spot analysis based on the Getis-Ord Gi statistic, linear regression, and geographically weighted regression to assess spatial variability in gender parity in junior high school enrollment and its association with resource allocation. Findings: The results reveal rural-urban and north-south variability in gender parity. Results show that educational resources contribute to gender parity. At the national level, educational expenditure, and the number of classrooms, teachers, and available writing places have the strongest positive associations with girls’ enrollment. These relationships are spatially moderated, such that predominantly rural and northern districts experience the most substantial benefits of educational investments. Practical implications: The findings show that strategic allocation of infrastructure, financial, and human resources through local governments holds promise for a more impactful and sustainable educational development of all children, regardless of gender. Besides seeking solutions that address the lack of resources at the national level, there is a need for locally-tailored efforts to remove the barriers to equitable distribution of educational resources across gender and socioeconomic groups. Originality/value: This paper’s use of advanced spatial analysis techniques allowed for in-depth examination of gender parity and investments in educational resources, and highlights the spatial nuances in how such investments predict gender disparities in junior high school enrollment. The findings speak to the need for targeted and localized efforts to address gender and geographical disparities in educational opportunities.
... There is additional evidence that pro-rich biases are observed in the distribution of growth in agricultural income in favour of the wealthier farmers and seem not to be trickling down to the poorer ones (Kuyvenhoven, 2004;Lay and Schüler, 2008). Additionally, distribution of incomes earned varies and depends on income sources or employment options and gender (Canagarajah et al., 2001), such that non-farm employment incomes induce inequality among farmers (Senadza, 2011(Senadza, , 2012. ...
... However, recent surveys in Ghana have demonstrated that poverty is still endemic in rural Ghana, especially among farm households (GLSS 2007(GLSS , 2014b. Also, according to some researchers, poverty incident is higher in rural areas of Ghana due to gender imbalances and education differentials, in addition to differences between urban and rural area, southern and northern regions as well as the disparities in agro-ecological zones (Canagarajah et al., 2001;Senadza, 2012). Moreover, poverty in rural areas of the forest regions seems to be either above or below the national poverty indicators at some given points in time. ...
... The share of the intragroup inequality contribution is substantially higher than the share of inter-group inequality, which implies that there are larger income discrepancies within the respective farm categories than between them. Thus, the findings in this thesis that the intra-group inequalities are higher than inter-group inequalities, and the primary source of inequality is due to differences within the farmer categories, agree with the observations by some previous findings in the literature (Senadza, 2012). Also, the evidence that income inequality has increased significantly over the period suggests that the gaps between individual group of farm households' incomes and the overall mean incomes of the rural farm households have increased, and this has indicated an increased dispersion in the income distributions among the farmers, which could lead differential experience of poverty among the households. ...
Thesis
Issues on economic well-being distribution among households and poverty reduction have been continuous concerns to many economists and policy-makers. However, progress in closing the gaps in the economic well-being of people in a given population has not been impressive, particularly among rural agricultural households in sub-Saharan Africa. As well, the importance of reducing inequality and polarisation in order to convert income growth into poverty reduction has been a challenge and, therefore, limits the more impoverished individuals from climbing up the income ladder and joining the higher income groups. Meanwhile, poverty is endemic in among rural farm households in Africa and it has been difficult lessening it to the minimum, but whether or not, this difficulty is sometimes attributed to a high inequality and polarisation in the distribution economic well-being indicators has not been adequately examined in Africa’s rural sector. This thesis provides an empirical analysis of the distribution of economic well-being indicators among rural farm households by drawing on the concepts of income inequality, polarisation and poverty. It uses the framework of the agrarian system in sub-Saharan Africa, which is characterised by diversity in farm sizes and varied sources of incomes, including nonfarm employment. It has also considered dissimilarities in climatic condition, determined by differences in agro-ecological zones, which in turn, linked with the type crops cultivated. The main question, therefore, answered in this dissertation is how the diverse characteristics of rural farm sector together with other factors influence the distribution of the economic well-being indicators of income inequality, polarisation and poverty among rural farmers in Ghana. These questions have not been adequately answered empirically in the past. Also, the issues examined in this study are essential for providing some insights into identifying coordinated approaches for reducing income inequality, polarisation and poverty simultaneously with the ultimate aim of increasing the standard of living among all categories of rural farmers. The primary objective of this thesis is first, to give an overview of the incidence of income inequality, polarisation and poverty among rural farmers in Ghana. The second is to investigate factors that affect income polarisation and inequality and their implications for poverty. distribution among rural farmers in Ghana. The thesis identifies explicitly factors that do not grant farmers the equal opportunity of attaining similar levels of economic well-being or standards of living and how they influence income polarisation, inequality and poverty. Thus, it has examined income inequality and polarisation as economic outcomes and as well offer some implications for persistent poverty among rural farmers in rural Ghana. Further, it has explored how employment backgrounds of farmers, among other factors, facilitate segregation of farmers into clusters of income groups of alienation and identification, referred to as polarisation, and also sought to provide some understanding for which factors influence farmer mobility across the identified income groups or socio-economic classes among the rural farmers. Before such analyses, the thesis as used the Chi-squared tests (adjusted by the Holm-Bonferroni probability) to show that distribution of the major crops cultivated generally vary across the farmer categories, particularly by the agro-ecological locations and the farm sizes cultivated. The tests of multivariate analyses of variance on the economic well-being indicators of income and consumptions are significantly different across all the categories of farm households. In spite the differences in the income and consumption distributions among the farm households, the density curves have shown that the patterns of the distributions overlap with one another. Thus, it implies that it is not all the farm households in each of the categories whose incomes and consumptions are lower than the other households’ in a different category and the vice versa.
... Also, the country is currently faced with rising inequality among various sects of the population (Coulombe and Wodon, 2007), which exerts a significant effect on household poverty (Annim et al., 2012). According to some researchers, inequality exists in Ghana due to regional imbalances, gender and education differentials, as well as differences between urban and rural, southern and northern areas, and intrahousehold differences (Aryeetey et al., 2009;Canagarajah et al., 2001;DFID, 2005;Senadza, 2012). Similarly, evidence suggests that the rates of income gaps between the poorest and the wealthiest have been increasing since 2006 and that inequality between the poor and the rich has also increased in Ghana (Cooke et al., 2016), which is a sign of emerging polarisation than inequality. ...
... Additionally, Cooke et al. (2016) investigated the relationship between inequality and poverty in Ghana and found that groups of people in certain regions and communities, particularly in the north, are being left behind and are missing out from sharing the benefits of the recent economic growth due to increasing inequality. Further, distribution of earnings differ across income sources and gender (Canagarajah et al., 2001), and that non-farm incomes induce inequality (Senadza, 2011(Senadza, , 2012. Annim et al. (2012) also pointed out that districtlevel inequality exerts a significant negative effect on household poverty. ...
... The share of the within-group inequality contribution is substantially higher than the share of inter-group inequality, which implies that there are larger income discrepancies within the respective categories than between them. Our findings that intra-group inequalities are greater than inter-group inequalities, and the main source of inequality is due to differences within the groups, is in agreement with some earlier literature (Senadza, 2012). Also, the evidence that income inequality has increased significantly over the period suggests that the gaps between individual farmer group's incomes and the overall mean income of rural farm households have increased, and this indicates an increased dispersion in the income distributions among the farmers. ...
Article
This paper investigates economic well-being of rural farm households in Ghana from the perspective of inequality and polarisation, using data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey rounds 5 and 6, and within the framework of disparities in ecological locations, farm size holdings and the main occupation of household heads. It also examines sources of income polarisation and inequality and their implications for poverty distribution among the rural farmers. The results show that distribution of the major crops cultivated generally vary across the farmer categories. Also, biases exist in income distribution among the farmers. The main source of inequality and polarisation is the differences within the individual categories of farmers, however, with respect to the ecological locations, between-group differences is the main source of polarisation. We find that greater proportion of the poorer farmers are found in the savannah zones, as well as among the smallholders and where household heads are engaged in self-employed agricultural activities. Contrarily, large-scale producers, farmers in forest areas, and where farm household heads are in public and private sector jobs are richer. Generally, poverty is concentrated within the farmer categories that incur higher polarisation and inequality indices and have also contributed the greatest to the total inequality and polarisation, whereas the categories that incur the lowest of the indices and have contributed the least to the total indices are wealthier. These findings suggest inequality and polarisation should be mitigated in tandem, and targeting the categories harbouring larger proportions of poorer farmers can reduce poverty more effectively.
... Existing researches recognize the critical role played by gender gap and suggest that gender gap is key determinant of education distribution. The literature for instance Thomas et al., (2001), Zhang and Li (2002), Senadza (2012) and Digdowiseiso (2010) underline that gender gap is one of the major factors affecting the degree of education distribution. The gender gap has narrowed in many developed and developing countries, especially in education and health. 1 However, overall gender disparity persists in many regions. ...
... However, the main limitation of previous literatures regarding gender equality (see e.g. Thomas et al., (2001), Zhang and Li (2002), Senadza (2012) and Digdowiseiso (2010)) is that most empirical work on gender equality uses a unidimensional perspective for instance gender equality in education (usually measured by the difference between female illiteracy rate and male illiteracy rate) 2 impact on education inequality, ignoring the other dimensions of gender equality (such as health and survival, economic participation and opportunity, and political empowerment) effects on education inequality. Yet, literacy may not be sufficient measure of the quality and adequacy of the literacy level needed for people working in the community. ...
... Using the European Community Household Panel dataset for 102 regions over the period 1995-2000, the results show a negative relationship between women's access to work and education inequality. Similarly, Senadza (2012) examined the relationship between the gender inequality in education (measured as the difference of average years of schooling of male and female) and the education inequality in Ghana. The results show a positive and statistically significant link between gender inequality and education inequality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender and education inequalities are a widespread phenomenon. This study investigates the impact of gender equality and its sub-indices on education inequality using panel data of 103 countries, over the period 2006-2014. Results reveal, by employing the System Generalize Method of Moment (Sys-GMM) estimation method, gender equality and its sub-indices of gender equality; health and survival, economic participation and opportunity and political empowerment gender equality exert a significant negative effect on education inequality, indicating that higher gender equality between males and females results in lower education inequality. GDP per capita, schooling and democracy have a negative and significant effect on education inequality. Conversely, unemployment, population density and dependency have a positive and significant impact on education distribution. Finally, the result implies that higher gender equality is the primary pathway to lower education inequality or achieving greater fairness in education access.
... In Ghana, several studies still focus on the traditional approach, measuring schooling access by looking at the impact of national programmes and policies on enrolment, retention, and completion without necessarily focusing on issues of equity, quality, and functional outcomes (White, 2004;Adamu-Issah, et al., 2007;Akyeampong et al., 2007). Recently, more studies are moving beyond the traditional/nominal approach to concentrate more on equity and disparity issues which characterise access and learning outcomes (Shabaya and Konadu-Agyemang, 2004;Akyeampong, 2006Akyeampong, , 2009Senadza, 2012;Ansong et al., 2015a, b;Iddrisu et al., 2017). Based on analysis of household datasets from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys (GLSS 1997(GLSS /1998(GLSS and 2005(GLSS /2006, Akyeampong (2006Akyeampong ( , 2009 investigated the impact of Ghana's FCUBE policy on basic education access, and the changes in patterns of attendance based on the welfare quantile. ...
... Another vital component of the research on Ghana's UBE relates to the documentation of high levels of disparity in learning outcomes, mostly attributed to the uneven 16 NKRUMAH AND SINHA attention to mass participation. The disparities, as highlighted by scholars in the field (Senadza, 2012;Balwanz and Darvas, 2013;Ansong et al., 2015b), largely manifest along gender, poverty, and spatial dimensions. In the World Bank country report on Basic Education Beyond the MDGs in Ghana, Balwanz and Darvas (2013) highlighted the uneven distribution of educational input (i.e., finance, trained teachers, textbooks), poor participation by, and poor learning outcomes for the rural poor as significant threats to attaining universal basic education in Ghana. ...
... This dynamic disproportionally favours Source: Adopted from the Ghana Education Sector Performance Report (2012) candidates from districts in the southern and middle belts of Ghana compared to those from the northern belt. Other studies by Iddrisu et al. (2018), Senadza (2012), Seshie-Nasser and Oduro (2016), and Shabaya and Konadu-Agyemang (2004) have also reported on disproportional inequalities and disparities in schooling access for female and rural children in general, especially those from Ghana's northern regions. ...
Article
The emergence of global development frameworks such as Education for All, Millennium Development Goals, and Sustainable Development Goals have expanded opportunities for Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Ghana and Sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). In the three decades of their implementation, these frameworks have also stimulated a culture of research based on measuring development and educational outcomes through established indicator‐based approaches. Subsequently, research on UBE in Ghana and SSA remains largely dominated by quantitative indicators which concentrate on enrolment and completion numbers in measuring a country’s progress. Yet, emerging literature shows that the expansion in enrolment is accompanied by high rates of drop‐outs, non completion, and low learning outcomes even for those able to complete basic education. Using structured and unstructured procedures to identify both academic and grey literature, this review explores the state of educational expansion and research on UBE in Ghana and SSA. We argue that the current reliance on dominant quantitative, indicator‐based approaches to assessing UBE reveals little about the differential experiences of children, particularly those in rural and marginalised communities, who receive poor quality education. The lack of information about children’s experiences of access reinforces inequalities in education, employment, and upward mobility in later life. Future research should seek to unpack micro‐level experiences which characterise access, as well as the pathways through which factors such as poverty and location create unequal experiences in schooling access, to inform context‐specific policies for UBE.
... Reducing the gender gap in the education sector is needed to overcome the imbalance of education in 85 research countries. Every effort to reduce educational inequality must aim to narrow the gender gap (Senadza, 2012). ...
... The wider the gender gap, the higher the level of educational inequality. (Digdowiseiso, 2010;Bustomi, 2012;Senadza, 2012 andSholikhah, et al 2014). ...
Article
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Education is the main capital for humans to prosper. The importance of the role of education in improving welfare requires the need for equal distribution of education in each region regardless of socioeconomic, gender and racial backgrounds. In making educational equality, it is important to know the factors that influence educational inequality, namely income inequality, poverty and education gap. Reducing the income inequality, poverty and education gender gap in each province in Indonesia will reduce education inequality which is the responsibility of all parties, both the central and regional governments. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of income inequality, poverty and education gender gap on education inequality in Indonesia in 2016-2018. Data analysis was performed using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method with a panel data regression estimation model using the help of eviews 9.0. Estimation results show that partially income inequality, poverty and gender gap in education have a positive and significant effect on educational inequality in Indonesia, while simultaneously income inequality, poverty and education gender gap negatively affect education inequality in Indonesia.
... Furthermore, we also calculate a spatially-based university accessibility Gini index to help quantify the potential impact of the reforms on geographic inequalities in the university accessibility. While higher education related Gini indices have been estimated previously (Senadza 2012), these have tended to focus on educational attainment rather than geographic accessibility. This approach, combined with our other measures of geographic accessibility, helps illustrate the power of these methods in exploring spatial inequalities in higher education and their ability to inform policy. ...
... The Gini coefficient ranges between 0 and 1 where theoretically 0 corresponds to perfect equality and 1 corresponds to perfect inequality, with an increase in the Gini coefficient indicating greater inequality. Previous work in the education literature has estimated the Gini coefficient with respect to issues such as educational achievement (Senadza 2012), school enrolment and education expenditure (Maas and Criel 1982;Sheret 1988), educational attainment (López et al. 1998;Thomas et al. 2000) and regional inequality in schooling (Qian and Smyth 2008;Tomul 2009). In contrast, the aim in this paper is to estimate a Gini coefficient in relation to geographic accessibility in the university sector. ...
Article
Full-text available
The pursuit of equity in access to higher education is central to education policy in most developed countries. Although much of the focus has been on narrowing the social class differential in higher education participation, spatial factors have been increasingly acknowledged as a potential barrier to access and subsequent participation. This article explores geographic accessibility to university education in Ireland using a variety of techniques and measures, paying particular attention to analysing the effect of proposed higher education policy reforms. In particular, we utilise GIS-based methodologies to model the impact of the proposed reforms on both the level of, and inequalities in, geographic accessibility to university education in Ireland. This includes mapping and analysing a range of accessibility measures, as well as calculating spatially-based university accessibility Gini indices. We also illustrate how the techniques and analysis can be used to help inform higher education policy.
... Education infrastructure such as schools plays an important role in education inequality. For example, [20] shows regional differences in education levels due to disparities existing in terms of infrastructures and of public education resources in Ghana. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in building and improving schools and other infrastructures with educational objectives and make them both sustainable and resilient (Aspect 1.1). ...
... Secondly, as for economic activity, [22] empirically show the relationship between income inequalities and geographical access to goods. [20] points at the fact that inequalities in access to employment can arise as an effect of transport inequalities. Therefore, ensuring that transportation can be accessed and afforded by all members of society is key, and this can be done by improving transportation infrastructure (Aspect 2.1). ...
Article
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Currently, poverty and inequality are crucial social issues around the world. They demand objective evaluations with the purpose of defining policies and prioritizing actions. Most of the times the most important problem lies on the fact that individuals under poverty circumstances or belonging to vulnerable collectives cannot escape these conditions by themselves and need external assistance or interventions. Another added difficulty is that both poverty and inequality can be studied from different angles and require a multidimensional approach whose definition is not straightforward. There exists a vicious cycle defined by a collection of determinants or events that lead to a phenomenon in which various disadvantages work circularly so that it is impossible for individuals or households to break the cycle. In this context, setting the background in which these vicious cycles arise can be helpful in order to conduct in-depth studies as a first step to establishing possible solutions. Even though many researchers have proposed alternative schemes for the poverty’s vicious circle, none has been introduced for inequality. In this contribution, a meaningful and integrated cycle is defined for inequality at two different levels: first of all, at an individual level; secondly, at a collective level in which a certain group is made vulnerable. This cycle includes similar parameter as those comprised in the poverty cycle such as income, access to education and access to healthcare. However, it additionally places emphasis on other aspects such as participation in politics and access to leadership positions. Besides, a conceptual and analytical framework is built, whose objective is to describe ways in which infrastructure, innovation and industry can help interrupt the continuation of the cycle. This model integrates a collection of different measures that is to be potentially helpful for policy makers. Additionally, the frame accounts for not only the fight of current existing cycles, but also of future generations ones, hence considering sustainability dimensions.
... Existing studies regarding basic school completion in Ghana are largely confined to selected geographical regions or limited points in time (Ampiah & Adu-Yeboah, 2009;Ananga, 2013;Senadza, 2012). Findings from selected regions and cross-sectional data do not fully reflect the trends in JHS completion across the country over a longer period. ...
... The economic inequalities in Ghana based on a southern versus northern divide and based on a rural versus urban divide is manifested in students' academic performance, with the poorest performing schools mostly found in rural and economically disadvantaged areas (Norviewu-Mortty, 2012). The low academic performance of students, particularly at the JHS level, appears to be more pronounced in some geographic parts of the country, especially in rural and disadvantaged areas (Ansong, Ansong, Ampomah, & Adjabeng, 2015;Senadza, 2012). The results of the 2013 National Education Assessment showed the percentage of students who achieved proficiency in math and English was 3 times greater in the Greater Accra region (in the Southern sector) than in the Northern regions (Varley, 2014). ...
Article
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Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child’s educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in school, with very little investment or commitment paid toward ensuring that they graduate or complete junior high school. Part of the problem is that there is little to no research on the challenges that children, especially girls, face in completing school. This study aims to bring school completion trends and related challenges to the forefront of research and policy discourse. Thus, the study uses multilevel growth curve modeling, spatial hot spot analysis, and school completion data (from 2009 through 2013) to offer longitudinal insights into (a) the scale and trajectories of junior high school completion in Ghana, and (b) the gender and spatial nuances in the trends. Findings suggest that the completion rate is steadily improving but still low. Findings also reveal unequivocal gender and spatial disparities in the completion rate and the rate’s trajectories, although the spatial inequalities between northern and southern Ghana are more severe compared to the gender inequalities. Suggestions for how Ghana’s government and its development partners can bridge the gender and spatial gaps are discussed.
... In Ghana, for instance, the rate at which boys enroll in and complete school exceeds that of girls, and this is especially true in rural and in the socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (Nguyen and Wodon 2014). As Senadza (2012) observed, it was not unusual for families in these underprivileged areas to only send boys to school due to scant resources. ...
... The three-item classmate support construct assessed the extent of perceived support from peers based on emotional support from classmates, the ability to work with classmates, and availability of help when needed. The three-item teacher support construct assessed students' perception of the level of support from their class teachers based on the teachers' interest in their success, their availability when students needed help, and fair treatment from the teacher (See Ansong et al. 2017and Torsheim et al. 2000, 2012 for scale items and psychometric validation results for the classmate and teacher support construct). Both scales were rated on a 5-point response set (i.e., 1-strongly disagree to 5-strongly agree). ...
Article
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This study focuses on trends in STEM performance and inclusiveness. We examine performance trajectories in STEM subjects, the predictive role of social support and psychological well-being of students, and variations across student gender and school locality (rural vs urban). We used three waves of data from 135 junior high school students in Ghana. Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to assess the trajectories and the socio-environmental predictors of STEM performance, and posthoc power calculation was used to confirm the adequacy of the sample size. Results show that overall, students’ STEM performance improves over time. Minimal gender differences exist but depend on the subject area and evolve with time. We observed a nuanced “urban advantage,” with rural students starting well but declining over time. Among various indicators of social support and psychological well-being, teacher support was the strongest positive predictor of STEM performance. The study highlights the need to focus on the structural and cultural impediments to STEM education at the lower levels of education in order not to risk excluding marginalized groups early in the education system. Further, STEM interventions may do well to incorporate long-term measures to sustain girls’ interest, motivation, and efforts in STEM.
... Most publications pay attention to the relationship between education and economic development (Chen and Feng 2000;Démurger 2000;Fan and Zhang 2004;Zhou et al. 2018), educational reform (Dello-Iacovo 2009;Hawkins 2000;Liu and Fang 2009;Tsang 1996), the impacts of education on health (Cheng et al. 2014;Peng et al. 2004;Zhang et al. 1990), returns to education (Byron and Manaloto 1990;de Brauw and Rozelle 2008;Heckman and Li 2004;Li 2003), international comparisons (Altbach 2009;Huang 2006;Gereffi et al. 2008), and spatial inequalities (Qian and Smyth 2008;Zhang and Kanbur 2005). Meanwhile, education is an important part of poverty studies, including the antipoverty effects of educational development (Brown and Park 2002;Knight et al. 2010;Senadza 2012;Song 2012), mental problems of povertystricken students (Xie and Cheng 2002;Long 2003;Pang and Zhou 2009), and left-behind children (Wen and Lin 2011;Lu 2012;Zhou et al. 2015). Existing studies on education system of China are mainly qualitative researches, involving characteristics, significances, as well as problems and countermeasures from either provincial-level or prefectural-level. ...
... Since it is difficult to obtain quantitative data on the quality of teachers and schools, such as teaching skills and equipment, this research mainly analyzes the SLER at county level from the perspective of the number of teachers and schools shared by students in school. Enlightened by existing researches (Malczewski and Jackson 2000;Senadza 2012;Zhang and Kanbur 2005), this study constructs a comprehensive index system to measure the SLER at county level in southwest China, including primary and secondary schools. Teacher-student ratio (TSR) is the quantitative relationship between teachers and students, and shows a positive correlation with SLER. ...
Article
Equal access to education has long been a global concern and is important for rural revitalization strategy in the new era. However, little is known about the regional differences of educational resources in China, especially southwest China, where the spatial heterogeneity of human and physical geography is extremely significant. Using a dataset of primary and secondary schools of southwest China at county level in 2015, this study builds an index system to comprehensively measure the supply of educational resources, investigates the spatial pattern of educational resources via exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), and explores its influence factors through spatial econometrics. Results indicated that the supply level of educational resources in southwest China was relatively low; the high-high clusters of the supply of educational resources were mainly located in Sichuan Basin and the east of Western Sichuan Plateau, while the concentrated poverty-stricken areas of Guizhou and the border areas of Yunnan-Sichuan-Guizhou, especially Wumeng mountain area, were characterized by the low-low clusters. Furthermore, this study suggested that altitude, population density, local government revenue and rural residents’ income were positively correlated with the supply of educational resources, while the negative influences were exerted by proportion of ethnic minority population and urbanization rate. And there were differences in the specific objects of actions of each factor. Ultimately, we proposed that village relocation and combination, as well as sustainable urbanization and regional development were practical paths to optimize the supply of educational resources in rural areas, thus promoting the modernization of agriculture and countryside.
... These resources were more valuable in the colonial era and restricted missionary activities mainly to the South to the Missionary activities and regional wealth inequalities in Ghana . 25 detriment of those in the North with arid climatic conditions (Langer, 2009;Senadza, 2012). In the North, there was a half-hearted interest in developing cotton, tobacco, groundnuts and sheanuts as exportable cash crops, which rarely got integrated into the capitalist economic system (Songsore, 2003a). ...
... This tends to provide a relative advantage for urban dwellers over rural dwellers in the acquisition of well-paying jobs (Mfum-Mensah, 2017). Consequently, our findings are consistent with Senadza (2012), who finds that the spatial differences in educational inequality can be explained partially by the differences in education institutions, which, for us, is a function of historical missionary activity, infrastructure and opportunities that exist between the 'North' and the 'South.' It has further been shown that parents who are educated are more likely to acknowledge the benefits associated with education and subsequently ensure their children have the best of education, thereby ensuring persistent schooling gaps (Reardon, 2011;Chevalier et al., 2013;Wantchekon et al., 2015). ...
Article
What forces drive regional economic divergence? This study identifies colonial-era missions as an institutional force in shaping economic relations in Ghana. We conceptualize Christian missions as an institution, in its solid form, as the educational infrastructure and trade networks developed, and in its formal form, as advancing new rules that governed cultural and trade development. We use survey data, a map of mission stations, data on colonial-era urbanization and calculations of geographic endowments in each region of the country to examine the impacts of missionary activities on wealth, schooling and population clustering, and how these are reflected in wealth differences across regions of Ghana today. Results show that regional disparities in household wealth are large and significantly associated with intensity of colonial missionary activities, even after accounting for other important structural factors.
... The proportion of males that are educated in Ghana is about 45%, two times that of females which is about 16.3% (Population & Housing Census Report., 2010). In addition, the three Northern states in Ghana are the least educated states with females contributing more to this inequality (Senadza, 2012). Low level of education in addition to gender differences has been shown from previous studies to be a determinant of unequal health across a group of people University of Ghana http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh ...
Experiment Findings
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Data for the study were drawn from the World Health Organization (WHO)’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1) and analyzed using STATA and a Distributive Analysis Stata Package (DASP) installed in STATA. Health inequality was measured using concentration curves and concentration index (CI). Furthermore, a regression-based approach was used to determine factors associated with health inequality and their estimated contributions to health inequality.
... The Ghanaian Constitution enshrines human rights. 1 Nonetheless gender disparities are prevalent in Ghana characterized by financial difficulties associated with women's education coupled with the forecast that boys will likely generate more investment returns (Appleton, Hoddinott, & Mackinnon, 1996;Avotri, Owusu-Darko, Eghan, & Ocansey, 2000;Herz, Subbrarao, Habi, & Raney, 1991), as well as sociocultural considerations, gendered social practices within households, lack of role models for girls in schools, and hostile school environments documented as sexual harassment from male students and inadequate institutional facilities (Atuahene & Owusu-Ansah, 2013;Morley, Leach, & Lugg, 2009, 2010UNESCO, 2007). These factors fuel the perception that Ghanaian culture frowns upon the value of female education and women (Lambert, Perrino, & Barreras, 2012;Senadza, 2012). ...
Article
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At all levels of education in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplinary fields, there are disparities in participation according to gender. This study explores the educational and professional experiences of female faculty in STEM in universities in Ghana. In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken employing 20 participants from universities in Ghana. Findings indicate that despite their success fueled by the support system available to them, gender disparities, fostered by patriarchy, characterized these women’s educational and professional experiences. Their gendered experiences were exacerbated in the higher education workplace as some sources of support turned to be sources of discrimination. This was because the women were perceived as threats to the patriarchal status quo as they surged in the academic STEM trajectory.
... Several large-scale emerging economies with high population rates, such as China, Mexico and Turkey, have been faced with serious interregional imbalances in educational access with the recent educational expansion (Gómez-Zaldívar, 2014;Gumus & Chudgar, 2016;Senadza, 2012;Wei, 2012). Indonesia also experienced such educational expansions given its insular geography, size, and population (world's fourth largest) as well as extraordinary economic, demographic, cultural, and historical diversity (Hill, 2000;Kataoka, 2010). ...
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en Introducing an employment variable with five levels of educational attainment per capita and employing inequality decomposition, this study addresses three questions. How does labour force vary by education and provinces? How does labour force utilization vary by education and provinces? What are the potential causes of differences? We find that the no‐primary‐education group is more endowed in less‐developed provinces and allocated most unequally among education groups across provinces, despite past universal primary education policies. The senior‐secondary‐education group with the largest labour share is a growing concern due to the lower employment rate and largest interprovincial inequality. Resumen es Este estudio introduce una variable de empleo con cinco niveles de logro educativo per cápita y emplea una descomposición de la desigualdad, con el objeto de abordar tres preguntas. ¿Cómo varía la fuerza laboral según la educación y en diferentes provincias? ¿Cómo varía la utilización de la fuerza laboral según la educación y en diferentes provincias? ¿Cuáles son las causas potenciales de las diferencias? Se encontró que el grupo sin educación primaria es más numeroso en las provincias menos desarrolladas y está asignado de forma más desigual entre los grupos educativos de las provincias, a pesar de las políticas anteriores de educación primaria universal. El grupo de educación secundaria superior con la mayor proporción de mano de obra es una preocupación creciente debido a la menor tasa de empleo y a la mayor desigualdad interprovincial. 抄録 ja 本稿では、1人当たりの学歴に5段階の雇用の変数を導入し、不平等分解分析を用いて、労働力は教育や地域によってどのように異なるか、労働力の活用は教育や地域によってどのように異なるか、その差異の潜在的な原因は何か、以上の3つの問題に取り組む。過去に普通初等教育の政策が実施されたにもかかわらず、開発が進んでいない省では初等教育 (primary‐education)の学歴がない集団はより多くの資金を与えられており、すべての省の学歴集団の中で最も不均等に配分されていることが分かった。労働分配率が最大である高等/中等教育の学歴集団は、低い雇用率と省間の非常に大きい格差のために懸念が増大している。.
... Economically, more than half (53.3%) of the employed population (15 years and older) are in the services sector, followed by agriculture (33.0%) with the industry sector having the least (13.7%) (Ghana Statistical Service, 2021). Owing to social and cultural norms, gender equality has not yet been attained in Ghana, while social and economic inequality is one key challenge facing the country's development efforts (Senadza, 2012). ...
... En recourant à la nouvelle méthodologie du PNUD certains auteurs ont calculé l'IDH au niveau infra-national comme c'est le cas de Hazell et al. (2012), pour 13 provinces du Canada durant la période 2000-2011; de Schrott et al. (2015), pour 121 districts de l'Autriche et de Felice et Vasta (2015), pour 20 régions italiennes pour la période 1871-2007, tandis que d'autres ont eu recours à l'ancienne méthodologie comme c'est le cas de Sabermahani et al. (2013) D'autres auteurs ont aussi tenté d'appréhender les inégalités d'éducation au niveau infra-national à travers l'estimation de l'indice de Gini de l'éducation (Mesa, 2007;Holsinger, 2007;Lorel, 2008;Burt et Park, 2009;Tomul, 2009;Morales et Teran, 2010;Kumba, 2010;Gustave. et Joubert, 2012;Senadza, 2012;Trabelsi, 2013;Yang et al., 2014et Agrawal, 2014. Ces auteurs ont analysé respectivement le cas des Philippines, Vietnam, Brésil, Corée du Sud, Turquie, Argentine, Indonésie, Cameroun, Ghana, Tunisie, Chine et l'Inde (cf. ...
Thesis
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Cette thèse cherche à approfondir la nature et la forme des relations entre les inégalités éducatives et le développement. Elle s’inscrit dans le prolongement des analyses engagées sur les liens éducation/croissance et inégalités/croissance, en essayant d’apporter un éclairage complémentaire sur ces deux relations. Elle vise à retracer de manière stylisée l’évolution des inégalités éducatives particulièrement dans les pays en développement et à caractériser la non-linéarité de la relation à partir de l’estimation de modèles non-paramétriques et semi-paramétriques. Cette thèse est constituée de trois chapitres auxquels correspondent des objectifs, des bases de données et des méthodologies spécifiques. Dans un premier chapitre, nous proposons une nouvelle base mondiale sur les inégalités d’éducation. La majorité des travaux sur la relation entre capital humain et développement économique ont principalement appréhendé la mesure du capital humain à travers des mesures de l’éducation en utilisant notamment la moyenne d’années de scolarisation (stock du capital humain). Notre base de données, qui présente une mesure alternative du capital humain, tend à améliorer sensiblement le mode de calcul des inégalités de l’éducation. Elle exploite toute la richesse des données désagrégées, corrige les pondérations inappropriées et affine certaines hypothèses réductrices sur les durées des cycles d’enseignement et les niveaux d’éducation retenus. Nous avons aussi généralisé la formule proposée par Berthélemy (2006) sur l’indice de Gini de l’éducation. Le domaine de variation possible de cet indice est identifié graphiquement selon la moyenne d’années de scolarisation et les durées cumulées des cycles d’enseignement. Nous mettons en évidence, dans le cadre du chapitre II, l’existence d’une relation non linéaire entre les inégalités dans l’éducation et le développement économique en utilisant des modèles non-paramétriques et semi-paramétriques qui n’exigent pas de formes fonctionnelles prédéfinies à l’avance. Plusieurs phases sont ainsi mises en évidence : les trois premières sont repérées seulement par rapport aux niveaux de développement ; deux autres sont identifiées à la fois par des seuils de développement et d’inégalité d’éducation ; une sixième et dernière phase est définie par rapport au seul niveau d’inégalité d’éducation. Nous montrons que c’est dans la troisième et cinquième phases que la réduction de l’inégalité d’éducation présente l’impact le plus bénéfique sur le développement économique.Au-delà du schéma général mis en évidence sur le plan transnational dans les chapitres I et II, nous explorons dans le chapitre III la nature de cette relation au plan régional dans le cas du Maroc, pour lequel nous disposons de données aux niveaux communal et provincial. La non-linéarité de la relation est aussi confirmée. La troisième phase repérée au chapitre II est subdivisée, dans le cas des provinces marocaines, en deux sous phases qui présentent un impact différencié selon un seuil de développement et d’inégalité d’éducation.
... Similar patterns are observed in access to education where the poor are disproportionately deprived, particularly beyond the primary and secondary levels. In Ghana, for example, positive correlations are found between poverty incidence and education inequalities, with additional deprivation experienced by girls and those living in rural areas (Senadza, 2012). This is also the case in many other countries in the region. ...
Chapter
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Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has witnessed impressive progress on human development over the past 25 years.At the same time, inequality has become a central challenge for the region as it has for all other regions of the world. Progress has been uneven between countries and various socioeconomic groups and serious human deprivation remains. Income inequality is an important element of inequality, but the trends capture only part of the story. The full realization of human potential for all people also requires attention to inequalities in access to non-income resources, including basic services such as health, education, political participation and access to property and financial resources. In addition, some groups systematically have less access to income and non-income resources than others. Women and girls in particular are, on average, more deprived than men across all countries in the region. Ensuring equal access to opportunities and services for women and girls would have significant positive implications for overall human development progress in SSA. This chapter employs the human development framework to examine the extent and nature of inequality in SSA. It draws attention to the complex and multidimensional nature of inequalities in the region, with a particular focus on gender inequalities, and points to policy interventions that may help to close gaps
... Les études sur les déterminants des inégalités scolaires entre les filles et les garçons montrent que la réussite scolaire est influencée à la fois par des facteurs d'offre et de demande d'éducation (d 'Aiglepierre, 2011 ;Lincove, 2015 ;Senadza, 2012 ;Rakoto-Tiana, 2012 ;Ombati et Mokua, 2012). L'« offre » scolaire (répartition spatiale, éloignement de l'école, localisation géographique, qualité de l'enseignement, coût de l'éducation. . . ) et la « demande » d'éducation des élèves (niveau socio-économique, niveau éducatif des ménages. . . ) déterminent généralement le comportement des familles et des groupes sociaux. ...
Thesis
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L’objectif de ce travail est d’analyser les déterminants des inégalités de performances scolaires de 56 392 élèves en fin de cycle primaire dans 2 603 établissements scolaires situés dans 647 districts des 12 pays d’Afrique australe et orientale (Afrique du Sud, Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibie, Ouganda, Swaziland, Tanzanie, Zambie et Zimbabwe) à partir de la troi-sième enquête de 2007 du Consortium de suivi de la qualité de l’éducation en Afrique orientale et australe (SACMEQ III). Le travail s’articule autour de trois chapitres. Il s’agit d’étudier, dans le premier chapitre, l’influence des caractéristiques individuelles de l’élève et de l’école sur les per-formances scolaires, ainsi que le rôle important des caractéristiques régionales. Dans le deuxième chapitre, nous cherchons à analyser comment l’inspection des établissements scolaires et leur ac-cessibilité par rapport au domicile des élèves agissent sur l’eÿcience scolaire. Le dernier chapitre propose d’étudier les facteurs socio-économiques et les conditions de scolarité déterminant les per-formances et les inégalités scolaires entre les filles et les garçons, compte tenu de leurs origines socio-économiques. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilisé di˙érentes approches économétriques, à savoir une modélisation multiniveau dans le premier chapitre, un modèle de frontière non paramétrique dans le chapitre deux et un modèle d’économétrie spatiale dans le chapitre trois. Les résultats montrent que les acquis des élèves, l’eÿcience des établissements et les inégalités scolaires entre les filles et les garçons sont très hétérogènes en Afrique australe et orientale. Les résultats révèlent que les élèves qui enregistrent des scores relativement élevés sont situés dans les régions urbaines riches et ayant accès aux moyens de transport. De profondes inégalités scolaires existent du fait de la carence de transports, d’infrastructures routières, éducatives et de santé particulièrement pour les districts situés en milieu rural et dans les quartiers pauvres des grandes villes. Il est également montré que les variables touchant les missions d’inspection des écoles, l’utilisation de la langue d’instruction à la maison et la sécurité dans le milieu scolaire jouent un rôle important dans la réussite des élèves. Les résultats obtenus permettent une meilleure compréhension du système sco-laire dans ces pays.
... Given that print media requires the ability to read, and financial capacity to continually purchase media prints (for example most newspapers in Ghana are printed on daily basis) accessibility to print media may be limited to those with relatively high level of education and income. 24 Meanwhile, women with more exposure to radio are more likely to enroll in the NHIS than those with limited exposure. This is largely consistent with previous findings in Ghana that advertisements on radio may inform health behavioral choices such as HIV prevention, family planning, and personal hygiene practice. ...
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Although previous studies have explored the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana, very little attention is paid to the influence of mass media exposure on NHIS enrolment. Yet, understanding this linkage is important, particularly due to the critical role of mass media in disseminating health information and shaping people's health perceptions and choices. Using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we employed logistic regression analysis to understand the relationship between NHIS enrolment and exposure to print media, radio, and television. Our findings indicate that women with more exposure to radio (OR = 1.23, P < 0.01) and television (OR = 1.24, P < 0.01) were more likely to enroll in the NHIS than those with no exposure. For men, more exposure to print media was associated with higher odds of enrolling in the NHIS (OR = 1.41, P < 0.01). In conclusion, all 3 types of media may be helpful in promoting NHIS enrolment in Ghana. However, given that the relationship between media exposure and enrolment in the NHIS was gendered, we recommend that policymakers should pay attention to these dynamics to ensure effective targeting in NHIS media campaigns for increased enrolment into the scheme.
... Similar patterns are observed in access to education where the poor are disproportionately deprived, particularly beyond the primary and secondary levels. In Ghana, for example, positive correlations are found between poverty incidence and education inequalities, with additional deprivation experienced by girls and those living in rural areas (Senadza, 2012). This is also the case in many other countries in the region. ...
Chapter
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Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has witnessed impressive progress on human development over the past 25 years. Indeed, using the Human Development Index (HDI) as a measure of development, since 2000, SSA has experienced more rapid growth than any other region, growing at 1.68 per cent from 2000 to 2010 and 0.94 per cent from 2010 to 2014 (UNDP, 2015a). The rate of progress in some countries – for example, Rwanda, Ethiopia and Mozambique – has been particularly remarkable.
... A value of zero expresses perfect equality while a coefficient of one represents maximal inequality. As recently documented (Senadza, 2012;De Silva, 2013), the GINI coefficient which is commonly used as a measure of inequality in income or wealth has found application in diverse disciplines investigating inequality: sociology, economics, health science, agriculture, etc. ...
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Purpose – Poverty and inequality undoubtedly remain substantial challenges to economic and human developments amid growing emphasis on IPRs (with recent advances in ICTs) and good governance. In the first empirical study on the incidence of piracy on inequality in Africa, we examine how a plethora of factors (IPRs laws, education & ICTs and government quality) are instrumental in the piracy-inequality nexus. Design/methodology/approach – Two-Stage-Least Squares estimation approaches are applied in which piracy is instrumented with IPRs regimes (treaties), education & ICTs and government quality dynamics. Findings – The main finding suggests that, software piracy is good for the poor as it has a positive income-redistributive effect; consistent with economic and cultural considerations from recent literature. ICTs & education (dissemination of knowledge) are instrumental in this positive redistributive effect, while good governance mitigates inequality beyond the piracy channel. Practical implications – As a policy implication, in the adoption IPRs, sampled countries should take account of the role less stringent IPRs regimes play on income-redistribution through software piracy. Collateral benefits include among others, the cheap dissemination of knowledge through ICTs which African countries badly need in their quest to become ‘knowledge economies’. A caveat however is that, too much piracy may decrease incentives to innovate. Hence, the need to adopt tighter IPRs regimes in tandem with increasing income-equality. Originality/value – It is the first empirical assessment of the incidence of piracy on inequality in Africa: a continent with stubbornly high poverty and inequality rates.
... Many universities and tertiary institutions in Ghana have also appreciated this need and some have taken giant leaps to grant solutions to this growing necessity. There is still an educational acquisition cavity that needs to be transformed into a more visible, resource-enhanced form of attaining knowledge that is open to providing lasting learning prospects in distance education to all working Ghanaians to meet the various learning needs for academic, personal, and professional growth (Ametepee & Anastasiou, 2015;Senadza, 2012). ...
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Many universities in Ghana have had a desire to ensure equitable access to formal tertiary education for the growing number of the working public who have sought to improve or better their educational status in tertiary institutions. For many of these working public or individuals, it is almost impossible to stay off work to enrol in these tertiary institutions but rather would most likely prefer to improve their educational and knowledge acquisition status in the comfort of their homes and in a relaxed and calm environment. This study is aimed at distinguishing between whether tertiary institutions should be evenly and commonly regulated and the learning process standardized for all individuals or to be specifically adapted for the individual needs of the target market.
... It was high among those with university and college education compared to those in other levels of education, both in the general population and among males. There exist inequalities in education favouring males over females in Ghana [31] which, was also noted in our study where males had significantly higher level of education compared with females. High education has also been linked to the increasing adoption of new sedentary lifestyles, changes in dietary intake and less engagement in physical activity due to the nature of job and pressure at work thus increasing their cumulative health risk [32][33][34][35]. ...
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Background Diabetes is one of the leading non-communicable diseases in Africa, contributing to the increasing disease burden among the old adults. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of diabetes among adults aged 50 years and above in Ghana. MethodsA cross sectional study based on data collected from Study of Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1 from 2007 to 2008. Data was collected from 5565 respondents of whom 4135 were aged 50+ years identified using a multistage stratified clusters design. Bivariate and hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of the determinants and diabetes. ResultsThe weighted prevalence of diabetes among the adults aged 50 years and above in Ghana was 3.95% (95% Confidence Interval: 3.35–4.55) with the prevalence being insignificantly higher in females than males (2.16%, 95% CI: 1.69–2.76 vs. 1.73%, 95% CI: 1.28–2.33). Low level of physical activity (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.11, 95% CI: 1.21–3.69) and obesity (AOR 4.81, 95% CI: 1.92–12.0) were associated with increased odds of diabetes among women while old age (AOR 2.58, 95% CI: 1.29–5.18) and university (AOR 12.8, 95% CI: 4.20–39.1), secondary (AOR 3.61, 95% CI: 1.38–9.47) and primary education (AOR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.02–7.19) were associated with increased the odds of diabetes among men. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes among old adults shows a similar trend with that of the general population. However, the prevalence may have been underestimated due to self-reporting and a high rate of undiagnosed diabetes. In addition, the determinants of diabetes among older adults are a clear indication of the need for diabetes prevention programme targeting the young people and that are gender specific to reduce the burden of diabetes at old age. Physical activity and nutrition should be emphasised in any prevention strategy.
... Despite efforts to achieve educational equity over the years, marked disparities exist between rural and urban populations and gender; where school children in urban Ghana have more improved access to formal education and perform better, compared to their counterparts in rural Ghana (Etsey et al., 2009;Ghana Statistical Service, 2014;Hugo, 2012;Koinzer, Nikolai, & Waldow, 2017). Earlier studies (see Agbenyega, 2011;Akyeampong, 2010;Akyeampong et al., 2007;Akyeampong, Rolleston, Ampiah, & Lewin, 2012;Senadza, 2012) link the disparities to the failure to consider the specific needs of pupils. Important as the studies are for policy processes, equity was assessed in the narrow sense without regard to all the equity goals of education by Scott (2006). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess how Ghana’s educational system is promoting educational equity. In terms of data collection, the study relied on secondary sources whilst Scott’s goals of educational equity served as the theoretical basis for data analysis. The results show marked disparities in Ghana’s educational system that manifest in terms of gender, geographic location, and income levels. In the area of gender, the results show that gender parity worsens as the educational level increases. This fuels the variations in literacy rates between the male and female population in Ghana. In terms of geographic location, a performance gap was observed between urban and rural Ghana, which could be explained by the uneven distribution of educational facilities and resources. It was further observed that the current educational system is skewed more towards formal academic development to the neglect of vocational and technical training, especially in the informal sector. To address this form of educational inequity, policies should be put in place to expand Ghana’s educational system to areas such as sports development, the creative arts, vocational, and technical education.
... However, the authors did not consider two facts: cross sectional dependence, and cointegration between human capital inequality and economic growth. Senadza (2012) studied about the gender and spatial inequality in educational attainment in Ghana. The author found positive correlation between poverty indices and educational inequality, which might have negative reflection in economic growth. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to find the effects of human capital inequality on economic growth. Design/methodology/approach Thailand Labor Force Survey has been used to generate provincial average years of schooling and Gini coefficient of years of schooling for the years 1995‒2012. Econometric techniques have been employed to identify the effects of human capital inequality on economic growth. Findings Economic growth is inversely affected by the distribution of human capital in Thailand. The coefficient of human capital inequality suggests that if Gini coefficient increases by 0.01 points, gross provincial product (GPP) decreases by about 2 percentage points in the long run. However, the effect of average years of schooling in GPP is not significant. Research limitations/implications There is a lack of strong theoretical background for the relationship between human capital inequality and economic growth to support the empirical study. Practical implications The findings of the study help to design and evaluate education policies in developing countries like Thailand and other low- and middle-income countries. Originality/value This paper is among the first attempts to analyze the effect of human capital inequality on economic growth with sub-national level annual data. In addition, it considers cross sectional dependence in panel model.
... For instance, some studies have shown that people from minority groups have fewer opportunities in pursuing careers in STEM (see Crisp et al., 2009). Others have shown that males are more likely to pursue careers in STEM when compared to females (see Senadza, 2012). Studies which give credence to the influential role of the individual-level or demographic factors argue that cognitive abilities tend to translate into a positive attitude towards STEM subjects (see Lent et al., 1994;Valla & Ceci, 2014). ...
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This paper examines the career aspirations of male and female students studying Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects at the tertiary level in Ghana and the motivating factors for these aspirations. The study objectives were addressed using data gathered from a survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in analysing the quantitative data, while the qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis. The results show that there is no significant difference in the career aspirations of male and female students. However, we established that there are differences in the factors that influence career choices of male and female students. While economic consideration was a significant factor for males’ interest in pursuing a career in STEM, females were influenced by external motivation factors such as encouragement and motivation from role models. The authors recommend both formal and informal science-related mentorship programmes and internships as measures that could encourage females to actualise their career aspirations in STEM since it is an essential way of empowering them and building their capacities for national development.
... Interchange, 39(2), 167-184. 16 Senadza, B. (2012). Education inequality in Ghana: Gender and spatial dimensions. ...
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Gender inequality is one of the problems that has gained much attention in both policy and academia. The increased attention paid to the problem has been as a result of the mass acknowledgment of both its short and long term effects on development. While it has placed females in disadvantaged situations and thereby curtailed their growth and development, it has also compromised the optimal utilization of human capital in various countries. In Ghana, gender inequality in which females have usually been treated as second-class citizens can be traced back to patriarchy. While females in Ghana are underprivileged in various arenas of life, the three main areas are education, economy and political participation. This paper discusses the current trends in gender inequality in the three above-stated areas. It also interrogates the causes of the inequalities. The paper concludes by exploring interventions that have been adopted to resolve gender inequality in Ghana.
... Interchange, 39(2), 167-184. 16 Senadza, B. (2012). Education inequality in Ghana: Gender and spatial dimensions. ...
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Z Cinsiyet eşitsizliğinin her iki politika ve Akademi çok önem kazanmış sorunlarından biridir. Soruna verilen dikkatin artması, hem kısa hem de uzun vadeli gelişime etkilerinin kitlesel olarak kabul edilmesinin bir sonucu olmuştur. Kadınları dezavantajlı durumlara yerleştirmiş ve böylece büyümelerini ve gelişimlerini azaltmış olsa da, çeşitli ülkelerde insan sermayesinin optimal kullanımını da tehlikeye atmıştır. Gana'da, kadınların genellikle ikinci sınıf vatandaşlar olarak ele alındığı cinsiyet eşitsizliği ataerkilliğe kadar izlenebilir. Gana'daki kadınlar çeşitli yaşam alanlarında yetersiz kalırken, üç ana alan eğitim, ekonomi ve politik katılımdır. Bu makale, yukarıda belirtilen üç alanda cinsiyet eşitsizliğindeki mevcut eğilimleri tartışmaktadır. Aynı zamanda eşitsizliklerin nedenlerini de sorguluyor. Makale, Gana'daki cinsiyet eşitsizliğini çözmek için kabul edilen müdahaleleri keşfederek sona eriyor. ABSTRACT Gender inequality is one of the problems that has gained much attention in both policy and academia. The increased attention paid to the problem has been as a result of the mass acknowledgment of both its short and long term effects on development. While it has placed females in disadvantaged situations and thereby curtailed their growth and development, it has also compromised the optimal utilization of human capital in various countries. In Ghana, gender inequality in which females have usually been treated as second-class citizens can be traced back to patriarchy. While females in Ghana are underprivileged in various arenas of life, the three main areas are education, economy and political participation. This paper discusses the current trends in gender inequality in the three above-stated areas. It also interrogates the causes of the inequalities. The paper concludes by exploring interventions that have been adopted to resolve gender inequality in Ghana.
... Nevertheless, there exists intra-gender inequality in access. For example, women from rich or middle-class family backgrounds who live in urban areas and attend elite secondary schools have advantages over their poorer and rural-based counterparts in terms of access to university education (see Senadza 2012). ...
Article
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The number of higher education institutions in Ghana has soared in the last three decades and university enrolments have shot up in tandem. Yet the number of Ghanaians living in poverty is higher than ever before, and social inequality is on the rise. Against this backdrop, this paper critically examines the role universities play in addressing the problem of social inequality in Ghana. It specifically explores the possibilities and limitations Ghana faces in meeting the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), specifically SDG 4 on education. Based on analysis of secondary data, both qualitative and quantitative, the paper argues that the widening of participation in university education in Ghana is not inclusive in terms of gender, class or geographic location. Far from addressing inequalities in access to university education, the dynamics shaping the provision of university education in Ghana exclude marginalized social groups such as women and the poor, as well as the those living in rural areas and in the northern part of the country. The paper concludes by highlighting critical areas and issues needing further research to inform policy reforms aimed at widening access and promoting equity in higher education in Ghana.
... Generally, girls in Ghana are disadvantaged in intrahousehold food distribution and resource allocation (21), and are at risk of sexual violence (22). Girls are also less educated than boys (23,24) and are more likely to drop out of secondary school than boys (23); for instance, only 78.7% of girls complete primary education compared with 92.4% of boys in the Northern Region of Ghana (25). Last, approximately onethird of Ghanaian adolescent girls are married by age 18 (2), and 14% of adolescents aged [15][16][17][18][19] in Ghana have begun childbearing (26). ...
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Investing in adolescent girls’ nutrition is vital for health and breaking intergenerational cycle of malnutrition and deprivation, but limited knowledge on the type, timing and efficacy of interventions delays progress. We describe the design of a 26-weeks randomised placebo-controlled trial with multiple-micronutrient fortified biscuits (MMB) among adolescent girls in north-eastern Ghana. Apparently healthy pre-menarche (n = 312) and post-menarche (n = 309) girls (10–17 yrs.) were randomised into receiving 5-day per week (i) MMB (fortified with 11 vitamins and 7 minerals) or (ii) unfortified biscuits. Data included plasma micronutrient status; anthropometry; body composition; cognitive function; psychosocial health; fertility; dietary intake, and socio-demographic and socio-economic covariates, complemented with in-depth interviews (n = 30) and 4 focus group discussions. We hypothesize that plasma ferritin and retinol-binding protein increase with a resultant increase in haemoglobin, cognition, vertical height and psychosocial health. Our study allows determining the efficacy and optimal timing of a multiple-micronutrient food intervention programme for adolescent girls
... In addition to our present findings, adolescent girls remain a vulnerable group in Ghana with disadvantages in intra-household food distribution and resource allocation [33], sexual violence and exploitation [53], poor education [54], more substantial burdens in their time use and less income [55]. These deprivations are known to have intergenerational effects with the nutrition and health of the adolescent girl [56], which may explain that the focus of most nutrition and public health intervention programmes for adolescents in Ghana has mostly been on girls. ...
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The sex differences in malnutrition and hypertension during adolescence is largely inconclusive. There is also a paucity of data on the sex-specific correlates of malnutrition and hypertension for adolescents. Hence, this study aimed to assess the association between malnutrition, pre-hypertension/hypertension (PHH) and sex among adolescents. The study also aimed to determine and contrast the factors associated with these risks in Ghana. We analysed data of non-pregnant adolescent girls (n = 857) and adolescent boys (n = 870) aged 15–19 years from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). We modelled the prevalence risk ratio (PRR) of malnutrition and PHH using Cox proportional hazard models. Compared to adolescent girls, boys were more than twice likely to be stunted (PRR = 2.58, 95% C.I (1.77, 3.76)) and underweight (PRR = 2.67, 95% C.I (1.41, 5.09)) but less likely to be overweight/obese (PRR = 0.85, 95% C.I (0.08, 0.29)). Boys were also about twice likely to have PHH (PRR = 1.96, 95% C.I (1.47, 2.59)) compared to their female peers. Girls were more at risk of the detrimental effects of poor education on stunting and PHH. Empowerment index while protective of stunting for girls (PRR = 0.82, 95% C.I (0.67, 0.99)) also increased their risk of overweight/obesity (PRR = 1.31, 95% C.I (1.02, 1.68)). A higher household wealth index (HWI) increased the risk of overweight/obesity for adolescent girls but was protective of stunting and PHH for adolescent boys. Improvement in household water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH) reduced the risk of stunting by 15% for adolescent boys. Overall, our findings suggest a double-burden of malnutrition with an up-coming non-communicable disease burden for adolescents in Ghana. Our findings may also be highlighting the need to target adolescent boys alongside girls in nutrition and health intervention programmes.
... Recently, some studies have ascertained the reasons behind low CWC attendance, as well as the attitude and practices of mothers towards CWC in the country [9,10]. However, all these studies [5,9,10] focused on CWC completion among children in Southern Ghana, a part of the country which is economically and socially advantaged compared to the northern sector of the country [11][12][13]. One of the few and current studies conducted in the Mumprusi District of Northern Ghana also only focused on growth monitoring and promotion practices among health workers [14], neglecting caregivers, who are essential in determining child CWC completion. ...
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Background: While completion of the Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) schedule for children remains a crucial factor in the prevention of illness and promotion of better child health, there has been low attendance among caregivers in Ghana. This study examined knowledge of 220 caregivers of children aged 24-59 months on CWC and other factors influencing attendance in the Garu-Tempane District of Northern Ghana. Methods: This health facility-based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among caregivers of children using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics comprising frequency, percentage, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression were adopted in analysing the data. Results: Less than half (46.9%) of the children completed their CWC schedules. Meanwhile, caregivers' knowledge on CWC was 97.7%. Children aged 37-48 months (AOR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.21-0.86, p=0.017) and 49-59 months (AOR = 0.27, 95%CI = 0.10-0.77, p=0.014), respectively, had lower odds of completing CWC. Children with caregivers not having any formal education also had lower odds of completing CWC (AOR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.21-0.95, p=0.036). Conclusion: Educational programmes on the importance of CWC completion should focus on caregivers with children aged 37 months and above and those caregivers with low educational level. It is further recommended that studies be conducted to explore the extent of association between caregivers' marital status, occupation, level of knowledge, and child CWC completion in the Garu-Tempane District.
... Another study also verified the results that there was a significant relationship (P=0.046) between the income of the household and the educational attainment of the children (Hashmi, 2009).The study conducted by Shabbir and Ishfaq(2019)showed that parents were agreed (4.1600) that they faced economic constraints to educated their children. The children of rural and marginalized areas faced more transportation difficulties (Lloyd, 2005;Allais, 2007;Senadza, 2012;Farrah, 2013).In our study, there was a significant relationship (X 2 =3.124), (P=.045) between the availability of livestock in the home and the educational exclusion of the children. ...
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The current study was conducted in the 3 Districts of Southern Punjab to analyze the parent's attitude towards children's education and teachers related attributes. A sample of 975 household heads were investigated through the interview schedule. It was found that due to poor socioeconomic status, parents involve their children in livestock activities due to poverty. Parents do not know the importance of education due to their illiteracy. Teachers, related issues were also explored like shortage of teachers, usage of bad language by teachers, exercise of corporal punishment, and late join of school by teachers as well. These above issues negatively affected the educational inclusion of children in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Based on results, the researcher recommended that the government should have arranged professional and focus for the scholarships to the needy children and arrange seminars to motivate the community towards children education.
... The educational system in Ghana is based on the British educational systems, where the curriculum involves little student participation in the classroom (teacher-centered learning) whereby students depend on teachers for knowledge and respond in rote memorization (Senadza, 2012). Currently, there are more than 240, 000 Ghanaian immigrant population (first and second generations) in the United States residing mostly in large metropolitan cities (United States Census Bureau, 2014). ...
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The past two decades have witnessed a rapid increase of immigrant population in U.S. schools. Little is known, however, about factors that promote cross-cultural experiences, academic achievement, and/or challenges of Black African immigrant youth, which is particularly significant today in the midst of the current social and political discourse over the influence of immigration in U.S. schools. Sixty Ghanaian-born immigrant students were recruited and interviewed. Analyses, which draw from in-depth interviews and observations, revealed that resilience to succeed, teacher and parent support, positive school environment, past histories including educational experiences, and challenging factors of racism, classism, xenophobia, acculturative stress, changes in curriculum, language, and cultural discrimination emerged as the major factors that largely influenced academic achievement of these learners. This article discusses the implications of these findings for educators who are tasked to render better educational settings for Black African immigrant students to succeed in U.S. schools.
... erefore, it is not unusual that females were less likely to have high knowledge of iodized salt than males. e finding agrees with studies in the northern parts of Ghana that indicated gender inequalities in education [20][21][22][23]. ...
Article
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Background. There are laws to enforce the universal iodization of salt to check the consequences of iodine deficiency in Ghana. These laws are to ensure that there are production and sales of iodized salt in the country. Yet, the availability of iodized salt in the county's households is still not encouraging, with data indicating that 93.8% of children have urine iodine <100 μg/dl. Hence, the study investigated the iodine content of salt in retail shops and knowledge of iodized salt among retailers in the Wa East District. The study will help the informed decision on strengthening and enforcing laws to achieve the universal salt iodization and the consumption of adequate iodized salt. Method. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. We used a questionnaire to collect quantitative data from participants and a rapid field test kits to determine the iodine content of salt. STATA version 14.2 was used to analyse data. Chi-squared and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between the dependent and independent variables and considered value <0.05 as statistically significant. Findings. The retailers’ primary source of information about iodized salt was health workers (46.2%), with the majority (52.8%) of them having low knowledge of iodized salt. Notwithstanding the high knowledge of iodized salt, as high as 53.8% of the salts do not have adequate iodine (<15 ppm). Retailer’s sex (), educational level (), primary source of information about iodized salt (), texture of salt being sold (), and mode of displaying salt in the shop () were associated with knowledge of iodised salt. Again, retailer’s educational level (), knowledge of iodized salt (), texture of salt being sold (), and method of displaying the salt being sold () were associated with an iodine content of the salt in the shop. Conclusions. Though policies have been implemented to promote production and consumption of iodized salt, the iodine content of salt in retail shops in the Wa East are not encouraging. We recommend the establishment of checkpoints along the production and distribution chain to ensure salt with adequate iodine reaches the consumer. Again, traders of iodized salt should have regular training on ways to preserve salt to maintain its iodine content. 1. Background Iodized Salt has been credited with preventing about 750 million cases of goitre over the past years, with Iodine Global Network and UNICEF estimating that globally about 6.1 billion people are currently consuming iodised salt representing a significant achievement of large-scale food fortification [1]. However, studies in Tunisia and Tanzania showed that salt in wholesale and retail shops are inadequately iodised [2, 3]. Ghana has, since 1996, passed laws, including the Food and Drugs (Amendment) Act 523, the Provisional National Defence Council Law (PNDCL) 3058, and the Public Health Act 851 aimed at promoting universal salt iodization to check the consequences of iodine deficiency. Despite this, studies in the country indicate that 93.8% of children have low urine iodine (<100 μg/dl) levels [4] and 36.6% of women are living in households with no iodized salt [5]. Again, a study conducted in the Volta Region of Ghana revealed that only 30.9% and 24.5% of salt in the retail shops and households, respectively, have adequate iodine (>15 ppm) [6]. Also, iodine concentration levels in salt in retail shops in Accra do not meet the standards of the Ghana Standard Authority [7]. Though Volta Region and Accra are closer to the iodized salt production sites, transporting iodized salts to these areas might have less effect on iodine content than to the Wa East District. Aware of the consequences of iodine deficiency on the general population, especially women and children including abortion, miscarriage, brain damage, congenital abnormalities, and perinatal deaths [5], we investigated the iodine content of salt in retail shops and knowledge of iodized salt among retailers in the Wa East District to help inform the decision on strengthening and enforcing laws to achieve the universal salt iodization and the consumption of adequate iodized salt. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Study Site The total land size of Wa East District is about 4,279.1 km², forming approximately 17.3% of the total landmass of the Upper West Region. It is located in the South-Eastern part of the region and has one-hundred and forty-five (145) communities that are completely rural with no urban settlements. The district had an estimated population of eighty-nine thousand one-hundred and eighty-two (89,182) with an annual fertility rate of 3.9 and crude birth rate (CBR) of 25 per 1,000 populations. Males constitute 50.5%, while females represent 49.5%. The distance between the study area and salt production sites on the coast of Ghana is about 713.1.3 km. About 68.6% of the people who are 11 years or older are uneducated, with the proportion of females (53.4%) higher than that of males (46.6%). About 76.0% of the people who are 15 years or older are economically active, while 24.0% are not active. Of the economically active ones, 97.8% of them are employed while 2.2% are unemployed [8]. There are nine health centres, a clinic, and twenty-eight Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) compounds providing healthcare services to the people in the district. The area also has some secondary and elementary schools providing formal education to people in the area including two senior high secondary schools, fifty-four junior high secondary schools, eighty-one primary schools, and seventy-seven nursery schools [9]. 2.2. Study Population The study involves retailers of salt who had stayed in the district for three or more months. However, only those who signed informed consent forms were allowed to participate in the study. Foreign nationals and severely ill people were excluded from the study. 2.3. Study Design We used a descriptive cross-sectional study and a qualitative and quantitative data collection procedure to collect data on iodine concentration levels in salt in retail shops and knowledge of iodized salt among retailers in the district from October to November 2019. 2.4. Sample Size and Sampling Procedure A total of 197 salt retail shops and retailers were involved in the study. A total population purposive sampling method was used to include all the 197 registered salt retail shops and retailers in the study area. 2.5. Data Collection Tools and Procedure Semistructured questionnaires and the Rapid Field Iodine Test kits manufactured by MBI KITS INTERNATIONAL supplied to Ghana Health Service by UNICEF were the tools used to collect data on iodine concentration levels of salts in retail shops, knowledge on iodized salt, and demographic characteristics of the retailers. Face-to-face interview technique and collection of a sample of salt for the iodine test were the methods used to collect study data. The Rapid Field Iodine Test kits used were part of kits tested and approved for Ghana Health Service to use for routine services by the Ghana Standard Board and Food and Drugs Authority. Iodine concentration levels of salt in each retail shop were tested by adding two drops of the test solution to each sample using the Rapid Field Test kits and the testing procedure was followed as specified by the manufacturer of the kits. After sixty seconds, the colour of the salt was cross-checked with the colour chart of the kits to determine the iodine content. A verification test was performed on salts that did not show colour change after sixty-seconds by adding five drops of the recheck solution and two drops of the test solution to a fresh sample as specified in the user instructions. When no colour change appeared after the retest, it was assumed and concluded that the salt does not contain iodine. Due to differences in an individual’s eyesight and to reduce errors, two individuals were recruited to perform double iodine tests on each sample separately and independently. Ages of the retailers were assessed using their Baptismal Certificates, Birth Certificates, Health Insurance Cards, Marriage Certificates, and events calendars for participants who do not possess any certificate or document. 2.6. Data Analysis The statistical software STATA 14.2 version was used to analyse data and display them in tables and charts as frequencies and proportions to delineate the characteristics of the study population. Chi-squared and logistic regression analytical tests were used to investigate the associations between the predictor and outcome variables, and the value <0.05 was recognized as exhibiting significant association. The retailers’ knowledge on iodized salt was appraised on 11 points, and those who scored 0 to 5 points were described as having low (poor) knowledge, while those who scored 6 to 11 points were described as having high (good) knowledge on iodized salt. 3. Results 3.1. Background Characteristics of Retailers A total of one-hundred and ninety-seven (197) salt retailers in Wa East District were involved in the study. The mean age of the retailers was 39.5 years (±2.6 sd), with a comparative majority (47.2%) of them being 40 years or older. The majority (63.5%) of them was females, and a comparative majority (45.2%) of the salt retailers had no formal education. Again, the majority (73.1%) of them was married, and 78.2% were Moslems. Also, a comparative majority (48.2%) of them were Waalas. About 1% of the retailers’ tested the salt for iodine content before purchasing from the wholesale shops and distributors. Fine-texture salt (38.1%) was the comparative majority found in the shops in the district, while 44.2% of the retailers had placed salt directly under the Sun. About 37.6% of salts were in the original package from the producer (Table 1). Variable Frequency (n = 197) Percentage Sex Male 72 36.5 Female 125 63.5 Age group (years) <20 41 20.8 20–39 63 32.0 ≥40 93 47.2 Educational level None 89 45.2 Basic 47 23.9 Secondary 43 21.8 Tertiary 18 9.1 Marital status Single 53 26.9 Married 144 73.1 Type of marriage (n = 144) Monogamous 81 56.3 Polygamous 63 43.7 Ethnicity Waala 95 48.2 Sissala 57 28.9 Dagaaba 45 22.9 Religion Christianity 43 21.8 Islam 154 78.2 Salt from wholesale shop tested for iodine No 195 99.0 Yes 2 1.0 Texture of salt in shop Fine 75 38.1 Coarse 71 36.0 Granular 51 25.9 How salt was displayed for sale In handy polythene bag 41 20.8 In large polythene bag 49 24.9 In original package 74 37.6 Open/uncovered bowl 33 16.7 Where salt was displayed for sale Placed directly in sun 87 44.2 Placed under shade 110 55.8
... − the educational GINI coefficient for years of schooling (Castelló & Doménech, 2002;Agrawal, 2014;Shukla & Mishra, 2019), − the standard deviation of years of schooling (Gregorio & Lee, 2002;Shukla & Mishra, 2019;Senadza, 2012), − the ratio of rural to urban average years of schooling (Ulubaşoğlu & Cardak, 2007). The main focus of the research is to answer the question of how educational inequality evolves over time, how it is generated and how it relates to other economic variables (e.g. economic growth, income inequality etc.). ...
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... The reason for the persistence of under-five mortality inequities on the basis of maternal education likely relates to the absence or non-effectiveness of strong social policies on female education in the country. There remain significant disparities in educational attainment in Ghana between males and females and these often fall along regional lines as well [32]. Closing these gaps in education could significantly contribute to reducing under-five mortality generally. ...
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... 74 The impact of colonialism has greatly influenced the distribution of power, especially since the north has generally ended up with very low levels of education and high levels of illiteracy. 75 The limiting of educational opportunities in the north means that the less educated people from the north have lower incomes, which could potentially limit their ability to access health services since health is not free at the point of use. The current national health insurance scheme, however, provides some financial protection to people in lower income quintiles. ...
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This paper examines the recent decentralization of governance in Indonesia and its impact on local infrastructure provision. The decentralization of decisionmaking power to local jurisdictions in Indonesia may have improved the matching of public infrastructures provision with local preferences. However, decentralization has made local public infrastructures depend on local resources. Due to differences in initial endowments, this may result in the divergence of local public infrastructures in rich and poor jurisdictions. Using data from village-level panel surveys conducted in 1996, 2000, and 2006, this paper finds that (1) local public infrastructures depend on local resources, (2) decentralization has improved the availability of local public infrastructures, (3) local jurisdictions are converging to a similar level of local public infrastructure, and (4) to some extent, decentralized public infrastructures' provision reflects local preferences.
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This paper uses Demographic and Health Survey data from six Latin American countries to analyze levels and trends of inequality for two important non-income measures of well-being, children's stature and adult women's educational attainment. Our purpose is to determine whether the worrying trend of increasing income inequality in Latin America is also found in non-income dimensions of well-being. We find that it is not. Almost across the board, health inequality, measured by children's stature, and education inequality, measured by young women's years of schooling, have fallen in these countries in the late 1980s and 1990s, often dramatically. Further, by decomposing changes in non-income dimensions of poverty into shifts in the mean and changes in the distribution of health and education, we show that reduced inequality has contributed to significant reductions in education poverty, and to a lesser extent, health poverty. This, too, is a very different result from the income inequality literature.
Article
This paper uses Kenya's survey data to explore ethnic inequalities in education in Kenya. It focuses on some ethnic groups that may have resources and opportunities as a result of their geographical location and ethnic proximity to the ruling elite. The factors examined to explain potential educational inequalities among ethnic groups include the Gross Enrolment Ratios, the number of schools, and the number of qualified teachers. The results suggest a close correspondence of differentials between inequalities in education and ethnic affiliation to the ruling elite. Relatively small, clearly defined ethnic groups have accumulated an advantage over the majority in the national population, in terms of the education infrastructure and resources. Based on these results, this paper argues that ethnicity should be placed at the forefront of analyses of educational development in Kenya, as well as in policy efforts to reduce inequalities in education.
Article
Abstract As human capital is one of the few assets that the poor may possess, its distribution matters for both welfare and efficiency. This article introduces a new dataset containing several indices measuring inequalities in educational attainment for 140 countries between 1960 and 2000. Using education Gini and Theil indices we are able to compare the distribution of education attainment across countries and over time. We then examine the behavior of these inequality indices especially at the lower bound as schooling approaches zero, and show that education Gini and Theil indices are well behaved. Our limited objective is to make this dataset available to the development community,and facilitate research on inequality in all aspects of welfare. JEL Classification code: D63, I32, O15 Keywords: Distribution of education, Human Capital Accumulation, Poverty Reduction * Respectively, Country Director, senior economist, and consultant, at The World Bank. This paper builds on the initial work in our 1999 paper,“Measuring Educational Inequality: Education Gini Index from 1960 to 1990.” The authors are grateful to Ramón E. López for collaborating on an earlier paper. We thank Nancy Birdsall, Deon Filmer, Emmanuel Jimenz, Peter Moock, and Martin Ravallion for their comments.
Article
This brief explores the education dimensions of spatial inequality in Ghana and examines the model secondary schools policy, which was recently adopted by the Government of Ghana (GoG) in an attempt to address this disparity. This brief explores the education dimensions of spatial inequality in Ghana and examines the model secondary schools policy, which was recently adopted by the Government of Ghana (GoG) in an attempt to address this disparity. The first section of the brief briefly outlines the development, poverty and inequality context in Ghana. The second section examines regional inequality and the education dimension of regional inequality in Ghana. The third section discusses the model secondary schools programme, which has been developed by GoG to specifically address geographic disparities in education and discusses the potential for this policy to reduce regional disparities in education in Ghana.
Article
This paper develops a Mincerian measure of human capital distribution and applies it to evaluate national and global human capital inequality and compare them with education inequality measures. It is shown that using education inequality as a proxy of human capital inequality is problematic due to the nonmonotonic relationship between them. We find that the inconsistent evidence on education and human capital Kuznets curves in the literature is due to the use of different inequality measures. In particular, human capital Kuznets curves are evident when relative inequality measures are used, whereas education Kuznets curves are found when absolute inequality measures are used. It is also observed that while global education inequality has been declining over the past four decades, global human capital inequality remains largely steady, as the decrease in between-country human capital inequality is largely balanced by the increase in within-country human capital inequality.
Article
This paper measures the degree of education inequality in the Philippines. It generates the average years of schooling (AYS) and education Gini coefficients of the Philippines as a whole, and all its regions and provinces to examine the economically active population’s level of educational attainment and the distribution of education. The paper finds that although inequality in educational attainment declined from 1960 to 2000, there are wide discrepancies in the educational performance of regions and provinces. Using decomposition analysis, it finds that poor provinces have greater education inequality than nonpoor provinces. It also finds that at the national level, women are facing a more equitable distribution of education than males. The regional and provincial data show that the education Gini index is negatively associated with the average years of schooling and gross domestic regional product, but positively associated with the income Gini index, poverty incidence, and poverty gap.
Article
While increasing income inequality in China has been commented on and studied extensively, relatively little analysis is available on inequality in other dimensions of human development. Using data from different sources, this paper presents some basic facts on the evolution of spatial inequalities in education and healthcare in China over the long run. In the era of economic reforms, as the foundations of education and healthcare provision have changed, so has the distribution of illiteracy and infant mortality. Across provinces and within provinces, between rural and urban areas and within rural and urban areas, social inequalities have increased substantially since the reforms began.
Article
This paper documents the extent of inequality of educational opportunity in India spanning the period 1983-2004 using National Sample Survey (NSS) data. We build on recent developments in the literature that has operationalized concepts in the inequality of opportunity theory (including Roemer's) and construct three indices of inequality of educational opportunity using data on an adult sample. Irrespective of the index used, the state of Kerala stands out as the least unequal in terms of educational opportunities. However, even after excluding Kerala, significant inter-state divergence remains amongst the remaining states. Transition matrix analysis confirms substantial inter-temporal mobility in inequality of opportunity across Indian states. Rajasthan and Gujarat in the West and Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the Centre experienced large-scale fall in the ranking of inequality of opportunities. However, despite being poor, Eastern states of West Bengal and Orissa made significant progress in reducing inequality of opportunity. At a region level, Southern, North-eastern and Eastern regions on average experienced upward mobility (i.e. decline in inequality of opportunity) whilst the Central region experienced downward mobility. We conclude by examining the link between progress towards equality of opportunity and poverty reduction, growth and a selection of pro-poor policies.
Article
The paper examines the international inequality and convergence of educational attainment from 1960 to 1990. Despite the increasing trend in educational attainment, the gap in educational attainment between the developing countries and developed countries and that between males and females increased in the period. However, the relative dispersion of educational attainment--as measured by the coefficient of variation, the Gini coefficient, or the standard deviation of log average years of schooling--declined consistently during the period by either development or gender status. Decompositions of the Gini coefficient indicate that the development gap and the gender gap were the main components for world inequality in educational attainment in both 1960 and 1990. Educational attainment exhibited beta- and sigma-convergence over the period. Copyright 2002 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
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