ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have reviewed the intense literature to extract all possible dimensions of motivation, having direct and indirect impact on motivation techniques. This has examined the multidimensionality of motivation from the existing literature and present a conceptual framework based on it, and it is experienced that various motivation techniques (discussed in this study) are having a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and the quality of performance in the organization; however, the model needs to be validated using quantitative measures. In order to study the various issues highlighted in this paper related to employee motivation, a large body of literature mainly from different journals have been incorporated. To make the study more current only those studies were included which were published in the last two decades. In past research papers few dimensions of motivation were used to explain the different models motivation theory which has direct influence on employee motivation. The novelty of this study lies in its theoretical framework where authors have made an attempt to come up with a construct having dimensions that directly or indirectly influences employee motivation.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A literature review on motivation
Chandra Sekhar Manoj Patwardhan
Rohit Kr. Singh
Published online: 14 November 2013
ÓInternational Network of Business and Management 2013
Abstract Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities
over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have reviewed the intense
literature to extract all possible dimensions of motivation, having direct and indirect
impact on motivation techniques. This has examined the multidimensionality of
motivation from the existing literature and present a conceptual framework based on
it, and it is experienced that various motivation techniques (discussed in this study)
are having a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and the quality of
performance in the organization; however, the model needs to be validated using
quantitative measures. In order to study the various issues highlighted in this paper
related to employee motivation, a large body of literature mainly from different
journals have been incorporated. To make the study more current only those studies
were included which were published in the last two decades. In past research papers
few dimensions of motivation were used to explain the different models motivation
theory which has direct influence on employee motivation. The novelty of this study
lies in its theoretical framework where authors have made an attempt to come up
with a construct having dimensions that directly or indirectly influences employee
C. Sekhar (&)
ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior, Room No. 152, BH-3,
ABV-IIITM Morena Link Road, Gwalior 474015, Madhya Pradesh, India
M. Patwardhan
ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior, Block C, ABV-IIITM,
Gwalior 474015, Madhya Pradesh, India
R. Kr. Singh
ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior, Room No. 05, BH-3,
ABV-IIITM Morena Link Road, Gwalior 474015, Madhya Pradesh, India
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
DOI 10.1007/s40196-013-0028-1
Keywords Motivation Employee performance Organizational
performance Motivation techniques
The ingredients of motivation lie within all and the internalized drive toward the
dominant thought of the moment (Rabby 2001). Motivation directly links to
individual performance that gain to organization performance and as a catalyzer for
all individual employees working for an organization to enhance their working
performance or to complete task in much better way than they usually do.
Organization runs because of people working for it, and each person contributes
toward achieving the ultimate goal of an organization. Panagiotakopoulos (2013)
concluded that factors affecting staff motivation at a period where the financial
rewards are kept to the least leads to stimulate employee performance. So,
management personnel’s responsibility to motivate their employees to work as per
the expectation to enhance the organization’s performance. Similarly Dysvik and
Kuvaas (2010) concluded that intrinsic motivation was the strongest predictor of
turnover intention and relationship between mastery-approach goals and turnover
intention was only positive for employees, low in intrinsic motivation. The only
thing organization needs to do is to give employees with ample resources and
platform to do. As per Kuo (2013) a successful organization must combine the
strengths and motivations of internal employees and respond to external changes
and demands promptly to show the organization’s value. In this paper, we have
taken various techniques of motivation from existing literature, and managed to
make flow of motivation from young-age employees to old-age employees. From
organization perspective managers need to understand the flow of motivation, it
helps them to create a culture where employees always get motivated to do better.
Barney and Steven Elias (2010) found that with extrinsic motivation there exist a
significant interaction between job stress, flex time, and country of residence.
Leaders know that at the heart of every productive and successful business lies a
thriving organizational culture and hardworking people collaborate passionately to
produce great results (Gignac and Palmer 2011). In the body of literature, various
frameworks are used by the researchers based on theory of motivation, with only
few dimensions of motivation.
Literature review
In a complex and dynamic environment, leader of the organization used to create the
environment in which employee feel trusted and are empowered to take decisions in
the organization which leads to enhance motivation level of employee and
ultimately organizational performance are enhanced. Smith and Rupp (2003) stated
that performance is a role of individual motivation; organizational strategy, and
structure and resistance to change, is an empirical role relating motivation in the
organization. Likewise, Luthans and Stajkovic (1999) concluded that advancement
472 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
of human resources through rewards, monetary incentives, and organizational
behavior modification has generated a large volume of debate in the human resource
and sales performance field. According to Orpen (1997) better the relationship
between mentors and mentees in the formal mentoring program, the more mentees
are motivated to work hard and committed to their organization. Likewise, Malina
and Selto (2001) conducted a case study in one corporate setting by using balance
score card (BSC) method and found out that organizational outcomes would be
greater if employees are provided with positive motivation. The establishment of
operations-based targets will help the provision of strategic feedback by allowing
the evaluation of actual performance against the operations-based targets. Goal-
directed behavior and strategic feedback are expected to enhance organizational
performance (Chenhall 2005). Kunz and Pfaff (2002) stated no substantive reason to
fear an undermining effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Decoene
and Bruggeman (2006) in their study developed and illustrated a model of the
relationship between strategic alignment, motivation and organizational perfor-
mance in a BSC context and find that effective strategic alignment empowers and
motivates working executives. Leaders motivate people to follow a participative
design of work in which they are responsible and get it together, which make them
responsible for their performance. Aguinis et al. (2013) stated that monetary
rewards can be a very powerful determinant of employee motivation and
achievement which, in turn, can advance to important returns in terms of firm-
level performance. Garg and Rastogi (2006) identified the key issues of job design
research and practice to motivate employees’ performance and concluded that a
dynamic managerial learning framework is required to enhance employees’
performance to meet global challenges. Vuori and Okkonen (2012) stated that
motivation helps to share knowledge through an intra-organizational social media
platform which can help the organization to reach its goals and objectives. Den and
Verburg (2004) found the impact of high performing work systems, also called
human resource practices, on perceptual measures of firm performance. Ashmos and
Duchon (2000) recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit and seek to
find meaning and purpose in their work, and an aspiration to be part of a
community, hence making their jobs worthwhile and motivating them to do at a
high level with a view to personal and social development.
The primary objective to write this review is to highlight the flow of motivation and
reveals what motivation technique works more efficiently in different stages of life.
This study provides useful managerial implication for employee motivation in an
organization. The dimensions are made fit into a model that can benefit organization
to enhance their performance; however, the model needs to validate through case
study or quantitative study. To study the various issues highlighted in this study
related to employee motivation, this study reviews a large body of literature mainly
in different journals. Once all the issues have been identified, each issue is used as a
keyword to search the relevant literature. To make the study more current only those
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 473
studies are included which are published in the last two decades, while priority is
given to studies which are published in the last decade. Table 1shows that the
number of articles or reviews published on motivation in the last two decades
(Table 2).
Dimensions of motivation
Training refers to ‘‘the systematic accretion of skills, command, concepts or
mindset leads to improve performance’’ (Lazazzara and Bombelli 2011). Baldwin
et al. (1991) indicates that individuals with higher pre-training motivation on the
basis of their willingness to attend training have greater learning outcomes as
compared to individuals heaving lower pre-training motivation. Commeiras et al.
(2013) point out that traineeship is continuing to grow. In business, context training
basically refers to action of teaching employees and providing proper knowledge
Table 1 Article or review
published on motivation
Current year and it’s still
continuing publication
Year No. of article or review
published on motivation
% increase
in publication
1990 1,549
1991 1,554 0.322
1992 1,603 3.15
1993 1,685 5.11
1994 2,027 20.29
1995 2,064 1.82
1996 2,794 35.36
1997 2,994 7.15
1998 3,041 1.56
1999 3,187 4.80
2000 3,412 7.05
2001 3,580 4.92
2002 3,995 11.59
2003 4,643 16.22
2004 5,125 10.38
2005 5,878 14.63
2006 6,429 9.37
2007 6,943 7.99
2008 7,585 9.24
2009 8,501 12.07
2010 9,173 7.90
2011 9,861 7.50
2012 10,679 8.29
6,858 Still continuing
474 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
Table 2 Motivation dimensions
Sl. no. Dimension Author(s) No. of
1. Training Commeiras et al. (2013); Panagiotakopoulos (2013); Williams (2013); Lazazzara and Bombelli
(2011); Gegenfurtner et al. (2009); Gegenfurtner et al. (2009); Noe (2009); Rowold (2007); Bell
and Ford (2007); Klein et al. (2006); Tai (2006); Chiaburu and Tekleab (2005); Kontoghiorghes
(2004); Tsai and Tai (2003); Tharenou (2001); Kirkpatrick (2000);Colquitt et al.(2000); Seyler
et al. (1998); Kirkpatrick (1996); Facteau et al.(1995); Cannon-Bowers et al. (1995); Whitehill
and McDonald (1993); Clark et al. (1993); Mathieu et al. (1992); Baldwin et al. (1991).
2. Monetary incentives Beretti et al. (2013); Panagiotakopoulos (2013); Aguinis et al. (2013); Szczepanowski et al. (2013);
Schultz and Brabender (2013); Pouliakas (2010); Feldman and Lobel (2010); Park (2010); Jain
et al. (2007); Rose et al. (2007); Zhang and Wu (2004); Linder (1998); Leung et al. (1996);
Nelson (1996); Rowley (1996a,b); Kovach (1995).
3. Job transfer Azizi and Liang (2013); Swift and Hwang (2013); Asensio-Cuesta et al. (2012); Casad (2012);
Datta and Eriksson (2012); Eguchi (2004); Zhang and Wu (2004); Cosgel and Miceli (1999);
Cheng and Brown (1998); Ichniowski et al. (1997).
4. Job satisfaction Pantouvakis and Bouranta (2013); Pravin and Kabir (2011); Wickramasinghe (2009); Kaliski
(2007); Saari and Judge (2004); Williams et al. (2003); Bussing et al. (1999); George and Jones
5. Promotion Steidle et al. (2013); Koch and Nafziger (2012); Garcı
´a et al. (2012); Jung and Kim (2012); Syed
et al. (2012) Pravin and Kabir (2011); Lindner (1998); Kovach (1995).
6. Working conditions Cheng et al. (2013); Jung and Kim (2012); Pravin and Kabir (2011); Dundar et al. (2007); Lindner
(1998); Kovach (1995).
7. Achievement Hunter et al. (2012); Sarkar and Huang (2012); Satyawadi and Ghosh (2012); Yang and Islam
(2012); Muchiri et al. (2012).
8. Appreciation Mahazril et al. (2012); Kingira and Mescib (2010); Lindner (1998); Nelson (1996); Kovach (1995). 5
9. Recognition Candi et al. (2013); Barton and Ambrosini (2013); Mahazril et al. (2012); Javernick-Will (2012). 4
10. Job security Yamamoto (2013); Pravin and Kabir (2011); Zhang and Wu (2004); Cheng and Brown (1998). 4
11. Social opportunities Harvey (2013); Panagiotakopoulos (2013); Kingira and Mescib (2010); Rowley (1996a,b). 4
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 475
and skills to make themselves job fit as well as organization fit. Training teaches
employees how to work and enhance their skills, hence motivate them to achieve the
common goal of organization as well as of employee. In the today’s competitive
world, every organization wants to achieve competitive edge over their competitors
and be impossible to achieve without employee involvement, which forces
management to motivate their employees by different means.
Monetary incentives
As summarized by Park (2010), monetary incentive acts as a stimulus for greater
action and inculcates zeal and enthusiasm toward work, it helps an employee in
recognition of achievement. Likewise, Beretti et al. (2013) discussed that monetary
incentives used to build a positive environment and maintain a job interest, which is
consistent among the employee and offer a spur or zeal in the employees for better
performance. For reason, monetary incentive motivate employees and enhance
commitment in work performance, and psychologically satisfy a person and leads to
job satisfaction, and shape the behavior or outlook of subordinate toward work in
the organization.
Job transfer
The work of Azizi and Liang (2013) indicated that workforce flexibility can be
achieved by cross-training and improved via job rotation. In the same way, Eguchi
(2004) concluded that job transfer plays a significant role in preventing workers
from performing influence activities for private help. As summarized by Asensio-
Cuesta et al. (2012) job rotation provides benefits to both workers and management
in an organization and prevents musculoskeletal disorders, cast out fatigue and
increases job satisfaction and morale. As a result, job transfer gives the opportunity
to learn multiple skills and outlooks to the workers. It avoids the dullness caused by
monotonous jobs and simultaneously brings smoothness in technological job with
the help of handling different circumstances at different levels and it leads to
effective learning of many aspects in the organization.
Job satisfaction
In (2011), Parvin and Kabir studied the tested factors affecting job satisfaction for
pharmaceutical companies and described job satisfaction as how content an
individual is with his or her job, and viewed job satisfaction is not the same as
motivation, although clearly linked. Similarly, Pantouvakis and Bouranta (2013)
indicated job satisfaction as a consequence of physical features and as an antecedent
of interactive features. Wickramasinghe (2009) investigated that gender and tenure
are significant in job satisfaction measurement. So here it can be said that job
satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations.
For example, a good work environment and good work conditions can increase
employee job satisfaction and the employees will try to give their best which can
increase the employee work performance.
476 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
A study by Garcı
´a et al. (2012) identified that perceptions of promotion systems
affect organizational justice and job satisfaction. Likewise, Koch and Nafziger
(2012) specified that promotions are desirable for most employees, only because
they work harder to compensate for their ‘‘incompetence.’’ As a result, promotion at
regular interval of time has an optimistic approach behind and they are generally
given to satisfy the psychological requirements of employees in the organization.
The work of Hunter et al. (2012) defines that achievement is a unique and
specialized form of organizational performance. As per Satyawadi and Ghosh
(2012), employees are motivated to a greater extent by achievement and self-
control. Now this can be understood: an employee who is achievement motivated
seeks achievement, bringing realistic but challenging goals, and betterment in the
job. There is a strong need for feedback from the higher officials in the organization
as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of attainment.
Working conditions
In (2012), Jung and Kim stated that good work environment and good work
conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and an employee organizational
commitment. So the employees will try to give their best which can increase the
employee work performance. Similarly, Cheng et al. (2013) concluded that there
were evidences of moderating effects of age on the associations between
psychosocial work conditions and health. Now the importance and the need of
working condition is so describing or defining the physical environment by
identifying those elements or dimensions of the physical environment. Employees
having poor working conditions will only provoke negative performance, since their
jobs are mentally and physically demanding, they need good working conditions.
A study by Mahazril et al. (2012) organizations had the duty to appreciate the
employee from time to time and offer other form of benefits such as payment, which
will help in employee motivation. Likewise, Kingira and Mescib (2010) define
appreciation as the abstract of immaterial incentives; ‘‘employees giving immaterial
incentives (appreciation, respect etc.) as much as materiel incentives with working
department’’ shows employees do not agree with this behavioral statement. With
this result, it can be stated that employees being employed in different parts can take
their different opinions at different levels. Among the variable of responsibility and
being appreciated, it is understood that ‘‘success of employers always be appreciated
with education.’’ The more effective quality and practicality of education employees
had, the more contribution they will have to businesses.
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 477
Job security
As per Yamamoto (2013) if an employee perceives they will be getting rewards for
good work and their job is a secured one, the performance will automatically be
better. Similarly, Zhang and Wu (2004) indicated that with Job security, an
employee gets confident with the future career and they put their most efforts to
achieve the objectives of the organization. So we can say job satisfaction is the most
influential tool of motivation and put the employee very far off from mental tension
and he gives his best to the organization, ultimately it leads to profit maximization.
According to Candi et al. (2013), a growing recognition of the opportunities of
innovation is through experience staging. Mahazril et al. (2012) concluded that
rewards and recognition and communication may motivate them to work.
Recognition enhances the level of productivity and performance at job whether it
is a first time performance or a repeated action at the job in a progressive way and
ultimately reinforces the behavior of employee.
Social opportunities
In (2013), Harvey indicated that an employee is accepted as part of the social group
or team. Most staff has an acute need that their contribution is worthwhile,
appreciated, and acknowledged. Organizations need to look beyond the traditional
economic incentives of career opportunities and salaries to other social and lifestyle
factors outside the workplace. Similarly, Kingira and Mescib (2010) concluded that,
different opinions between the employees in terms of behavioral statements which
can be ‘‘Social opportunities providing at the highest level with working period
leads the employee to achieve their goals of the organization.’’ Therefore, a social
opportunity for the employee is used to boost their motivation level and ultimately
helps in achieving the goals and objectives of the organization.
Figure 1explains how motivation works in different stages of life, and
motivation dimension plays a vital role in enhancing individual performance in
different stages of life of human being. In the developed and developing nations
around the world people experiencing the phenomenon of population aging i.e.,
participation of worker in their late career stage is low in the labor market.
Levinson’s (1986) life stage model pointed out that adult life is characterized by a
consecution of stages, such as early, middle, and late career stage, divided into
various sub-stages and concerned with career development (comparable to the
career stage model of Super (1984)). Here we have considered early career stage
between 20 and 40; middle career stages between 40 and 54, and late career stage 55
and above. In an effort to set a threshold to define the older worker category, as
anyone over age 55 (Finkelstein et al. 1995; Koc-Menard 2009).
In the early and middle stage of life, money is important to goal setting because
offering such incentives bring person being more willing to expand effort to meet a
given goal level than not offering the incentives. Given the willingness to expand
478 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
effort, a goal tells the individual during different career stages where to expand
effort, how much effort to exert, and how long to exert the effort. For example,
younger employees early in their careers may have a propensity for higher
immediate compensation and benefits, such as fully paid family medical plans or
maternity/paternity leaves; because employees in later career stages might prefer
stock options or most company contributions to their retirement plans. Wiley (1997)
concluded that good pay is an important motivator regardless of age.
Figure 2explains how motivation dimensions influence individual and organi-
zation performance. In this competitive environment, organizations works harder to
integrate its workforce and to keep the coordination among employees to enhance
the working as well as employee productivity. The positive impact of motivation
works toward enhancing individual responsiveness toward work. Individual
enhanced responsiveness help organization working that directly links toward
increase in profit and increase in organization responsiveness. Customer will be
more satisfied if organization shows fast response toward his/her queries and if
organization takes responsibility to fulfill his demand.
If we talk the motivation dimension that enhances organization performance,
training used to enhance the skills, efficiency, and knowledge of employees for
doing a particular job during their earlier career stage because it familiarizes them
with the organizations goals, rules, and regulations and the working conditions in
Fig. 1 Flow of motivation
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 479
one hand since updates and amendments take place in technology, purchasing a new
equipment, changes in technique of production, and computer impartment. The
employees are trained for use of new equipments and work methods. Training molds
the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees.
Supervisors believe that older workers are less motivated to learn, less flexible, and
Fig. 2 Theoretical construct of research dimensions
480 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
do not want to take part in training programs. So, companies do not invest in
training or development opportunities for older people. In turn, older workers
become less self-confident due to the lack of support in terms of training and their
skills rapidly become outdated (Maurer 2001; Van Vianen et al. 2011).
Giving a job security to an employee makes him more responsible toward job.
Job security can be explained as, affirmation that an employee has for the continuity
of gainful employment for his or her job. It is more essential for younger employee
during different career stages of life (job) because it arises from the terms of
contract of employment, labor legislation that results in prevention of arbitrary
termination, layoffs, and lockout. Likewise, Pravin and Kabir (2011) indicated that
with job security in pharmaceutical companies employee is ‘‘neither happy nor
unhappy’’ and hence influence job satisfaction in pharmaceutical companies. Job
security has been considered from several theoretical perspectives, including as a
motivational precursor to job performance.
Employee recognition is used to fulfill the inherent need to appreciate as well as
work to be validated by the employee contribution. During the early and later stage
of life of the employee, the most important tool to motivate the employee by
recognizing positive behavior from employees means that those desired behaviors
that drive business success will be reciprocated. Recognition is essential to an
outstanding workplace because people want to be respected and valued for their
contribution. Recognizing employee for their good work sends an extremely
powerful message to the recipient, their work team, and other employees through
formal and informal communication channels. Employee recognition is a dynamic
communication technique to improve employee performance which leads to
enhance organizational performance.
In an organization, it is important to make the employees valued and appreciated,
because of which they get motivated and they work harder and be more loyal toward
the organization. During the early and middle career stage of the job employee want
more appreciation from his next boss in the organization. Many ways of
appreciating employee are news for companies looking for inexpensive ways to
show appreciation to employees who made an appreciative effort, to thank
employees several times a week, often through notes mailed to their homes and
admits an employee-of-the-month program, the least time-consuming way to make
sure his staff continued to appreciate.
In an organization employees have the opportunity to transfer to another job if
they are moving or have the want to switch occupations. It brings positive energy
among the early career stage employee to work in a new environment, which gives
workers the opportunity to learn multiple skills and outlooks. When employees
continue working at the same tasks for an extended time, they are likely to build
tight relationships with particular individuals and companies, which can yield help
to the employees, and to the organization.
In the early stage of the employee, they used to seek the working environment
and aspects of an employee’s terms and conditions of employment. This includes
the employee payment, organization of work, and work activities; training, skills,
and employability; amenities, physical environment, health, safety, and well-being;
and working time and work–life balance. These used to motivate the employee to do
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 481
better and achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Changes in working
conditions and other aspects of the employment relationship can generate serious
industrial relations problems.
Williams et al. (2003) argues that the job satisfaction works toward making good
relationships with staff and colleagues, control of time off, enough resources, and
bring autonomy for employee in the organization. It is essential in the stages of
employment i.e., early, middle, and late career stage of life because it brings any
combination of physiological, psychological, satisfaction that invokes a person
truthfully to say I am satisfied with my current job and it leads to employee
motivation to achieve goals of the organization. Job satisfaction refers doing a job
one enjoys, and being rewarded for one’s accomplishment. It is the key ingredient
that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals that
lead to a feeling of fulfillment of the desired goals and objectives (Kaliski 2007).
In the middle and late career stages of their employment, employees have an
opportunity to showcase their achievements with pride. Employees work in
organizations not just to make a living, but to make a life. It encourages heightened
ownership at work. Tangible benefits (salary) and intangible benefits (achievements
of the knowledge) and other perks are necessary to engage employees, and motivate
them to do their personal best. Mehta et al. (2000) pointed out that four most highly
ranked rewards for sales managers in the late career stage have mean values that
exceed 6.0, which includes achievement of market goals, retaining respect of
salespeople, opportunities for promotion, and bonus.
A motivated and dedicated employee in the middle career stage of their job in the
organization is an asset for any organization and proves instrumental in building a
high-performance culture that drives organizational advancement. Promotion is
always employee’s ultimate wish for the service rendered by him in the organization
and this is the only way for an employee career development. Promotion is the
ultimate motivating for any employee because it moves employee forward in
hierarchy of concern organization added with other responsibility, higher respect,
honors, with increase in grade pay and allowances. It stimulates self-development
and creates interest in the job in one hand and minimizes discontent and unrest.
In the late career stage of their employment social opportunities for employees to
get involved in leveraging the core competencies of the organization to create
business value and positive social change can increase employee motivation and job
satisfaction and help workers to more effectively manage job stress. This can lead to
positive gains for the organization by enhancing organizational effectiveness and
improving work quality, as well as by helping the organization attract and keep top-
quality employees, which can bring growth and development to the organizations
and can improve the quality of their employees’ work experience and realize the
benefits of developing workers to their full potential.
Concluding remarks
Motivation works as a catalyzer for individual employees working for an
organization to enhance their working performance or to complete task in much
482 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
better way than they usually do. In this paper, authors identified the key motivation
techniques from existing literature and linked it through organization performance.
These motivation techniques has long been acknowledged as an important personnel
work with the potential to improve employee motivation and hence performance,
and to deliver management with the control needed to achieve organizational
objectives. Authors made flow of motivation from early career motivation
techniques to late career motivation techniques and reached on a conclusion: if
employees are provided with right motivation technique at right time, their morale
and confidence goes up and had a direct positive impact in individual performance
and organizational performance. It is indicative of the above discussion, most of the
motivation dimensions viz. training, monetary incentives, promotion, and working
conditions has been met and for reason the efforts made to motivate are bound to
succeed. This conclusion is built on the emphasis made by earlier researchers to
motivate people, organizations need to first have the baseline in place; in the
absence of the baseline, motivation is not possible to achieve. The study has shown
success in intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators to improve performance in
the organization.
The major limitation of this study is that the proposed framework is designed on
basis of extensive literature review and so needs to be confirmed using quantitative
measures. This framework is not been implemented in specific industry, due to its
generality in nature. Although extensive research is reviewed and every possible
dimensions of motivation are studied, it cannot be stated explicitly that these
dimensions will be able to create the baseline which will motivate the employees
through the motivators. Thus, they create a dilemma as to whether these motivation
dimensions are enough to create a solid baseline which has an impact on the
Aguinis, H., Joo, H., & Gottfredson, R. K. (2013). What monetary rewards can and cannot do: How to
show employees the money. Business Horizons, 56(2), 241–249.
Asensio-Cuesta, S., Diego-Mas, J. A., Cano
´s, L., & Andre
´s-Romano, C. (2012). A genetic
algorithm for the design of job rotation schedules considering ergonomic and competence criteria.
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 60(9–12), 1161–1174.
Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of
Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134–145.
Azizi, N., & Liang, M. (2013). An integrated approach to worker assignment, workforce flexibility
acquisition, and task rotation. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 64(2), 260–275.
Baldwin, T. T., Magjuka, R. J., & Loher, B. (1991). The perils of participation: Effects of the choice of
training on trainee motivation and learning. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 51–65.
Barney, E. C., & Steven Elias, M. S. (2010). Flex-time as a moderator of the job stress-work motivation
relationship: A three nation investigation. Personnel Review, 39(4), 487–502.
Barton, L. C., & Ambrosini, V. (2013). The moderating effect of organizational change cynicism on
middle manager strategy commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management,
24(4), 721–746.
Bell, B. S., & Ford, J. K. (2007). Reactions to skill assessment: The forgotten factor in explaining
motivation to learn. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 18(1), 33–62.
Beretti, A., Figuie
`res, C., & Grolleau, G. (2013). Using money to motivate both ‘saints’ and ‘sinners’: A
field experiment on motivational crowding-out. Kyklos, 66(1), 63–77.
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 483
Bussing, A. T., Bissels, T., Fuchs, V., & Perrar, K.-M. (1999). A dynamic model of work satisfaction:
Qualitative approaches. Human Relations, 52(8), 999–1028.
Candi, M., Beltagui, A., & Riedel, J. C. K. H. (2013). Innovation through experience staging: Motives and
outcomes. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(2), 279–297.
Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S. I., & Mathieu, J. E. (1995). Toward theoretically based
principles of training effectiveness: A model and initial empirical investigation. Military
Psychology, 7(3), 141–164.
Casad, S. (2012). Implications of job rotation literature for performance improvement practitioners.
Performance Improvement Quarterly, 25(2), 27–41.
Cheng, A., & Brown, A. (1998). HRM strategies and labor turnover in the hotel industry: A comparative
study of Australia and Singapore. International journal of human resource management, 9(1),
Cheng, Y., Chen, I.-S., Chen, C.-J., Burr, H., & Hasselhorn, H. M. (2013). The influence of age on the
distribution of self-rated health, burnout and their associations with psychosocial work conditions.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74(3), 213–220.
Chenhall, R. H. (2005). Integrative strategic performance measurement systems, strategic alignment of
manufacturing, learning and strategic outcomes: An exploratory study. Accounting, Organizations
and Society, 30(5), 395–422.
Chiaburu, D. S., & Tekleab, A. G. (2005). Individual and contextual influences on multiple dimensions of
training effectiveness. Journal of European Industrial Training, 29(8), 604–626.
Clark, C. S., Dobbins, G. H., & Ladd, R. T. (1993). Exploratory field study of training motivation:
Influence of involvement, credibility, and transfer climate. Group Organization Management, 18(3),
Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., & Noe, R. A. (2000). Toward an integrative theory of training motivation: A
meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 678–707.
Commeiras, N., Loubes, A., & Bories, A. (2013). Identification of organizational socialization tactics:
The case of sales and marketing trainees in higher education. European Management Journal, 31(2),
Cosgel, M., & Miceli, T. (1999). Job rotation: Cost, benefits, and stylized facts. Journal of Institutional
and Theoretical Economics, 155, 301–320.
Datta, G. N., & Eriksson, T. (2012). HRM practices and the within-firm gender wage gap. British Journal
of Industrial Relations, 50(3), 554–580.
Decoene, V., & Bruggeman, W. (2006). Strategic alignment and middle-level managers’ motivation in a
balanced scorecard setting. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 26(4),
Den, H. D. N., & Verburg, R. M. (2004). High performance work systems, organizational culture and firm
performance. Human Resource Management Journal, 14, 55–78.
Dundar, S., Ozutku, H., & Tas¸pınar, F. (2007). I
˙csel ve dıs¸sal motivasyon araclarınınis¸gorenlerin
motivasyonu uzerindeki etkisi: ampirik bir inceleme. Ticaret ve Turizm Eg
˘itim Fakultesi Dergisi, 2,
Dysvik, A., & Kuvaas, B. (2010). Exploring the relative and combined influence of mastery-approach
goals and work intrinsic motivation on employee turnover intention. Personnel Review, 39(5),
Eguchi, K. (2004). Job transfer and influence activities. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization,
56, 187–197.
Facteau, J. D., Dobbins, G. H., Russell, J. E., Ladd, R. T., & Kudisch, J. D. (1995). The influence of
general perceptions of the training environment on pre-training motivation and perceived training
transfer. Journal of Management, 21(1), 1–25.
Feldman, Y., & Lobel, O. (2010). The incentives matrix: The comparative effectiveness of rewards,
liabilities, duties, and protections for reporting illegality. Texas Law Review, 88(6), 1151–1211.
Finkelstein, L. M., Burke, M. J., & Raju, N. S. (1995). Age discrimination in simulated employment
contexts: An integrative analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(6), 652–663.
´a, I. A. L., Moscoso, S., & Ramos, V. P. J. (2012). Reactions to the Fairness of Promotion Methods:
Procedural justice and job satisfaction. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20(4),
Garg, P., & Rastogi, R. (2006). New model of job design: Motivating employees’ performance. Journal
of Management Development, 25(6), 572–587.
484 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
Gegenfurtner, A., Festner, D., Gallenberger, W., Lehtinen, E., & Gruber, H. (2009a). Predicting
autonomous and controlled motivation to transfer training. International Journal of Training and
Development, 13(2), 124–138.
Gegenfurtner, A., Veermans, K., Festiner, D., & Gruber, H. (2009b). Motivation to transfer training: An
integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review, 8(3), 403–423.
George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (1997). Organizational spontaneity in context. Human Performance, 10(1),
Gignac, G. E., & Palmer, B. R. (2011). The genos employee motivation assessment. Industrial and
Commercial Training, 43(2), 79–87.
Harvey, W. (2013). Victory can be yours in the global war for talent: Social factors and lifestyle help to
attract top employees. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(1), 37–40.
Hunter, S. T., Cushenbery, L., & Friedrich, T. (2012). Hiring an innovative workforce: A necessary yet
uniquely challenging endeavor. Human Resource Management Review, 22(4), 303–322.
Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. (1997). The effects of human resource management practices
on productivity: A study of steel finishing lines. American Economic Review, 87, 291–313.
Jain K. K., Jabeen F., Mishra, V., and Gupta, N. (2007). International Review of Business Research
Papers, 13(5), 193–208.
Javernick-Will, A. (2012). Motivating knowledge sharing in engineering and construction organizations:
Power of social motivations. Journal of Management in Engineering, 28(2), 193–202.
Jung, J., & Kim, Y. (2012). Causes of newspaper firm employee burnout in Korea and its impact on
organizational commitment and turnover intention. International Journal of Human Resource
Management, 23(17), 3636–3651.
Kaliski, B. S. (2007). Encyclopedia of business and finance (2nd ed., p. 446). Detroit: Thompson Gale.
Kingira, & Mescib, M. (2010). Factors that affect hotel employs motivation the case of bodrum. Serbian
Journal of Management, 5(1), 59–76.
Kirkpatrick, D. (1996). Great ideas revisited: Revisiting Kirkpatrick’s four-level model. Training and
Development, 50(1), 54–67.
Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2000). Evaluating training programs: The four levels’’. In G. M. Piskurich, P.
Beckschi, & B. Hall (Eds.), The ASTD handbook of training design and delivery (pp. 133–146). New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Klein, H. J., Noe, R. A., & Wang, C. W. (2006). Motivation to learn and course outcomes: The impact of
delivery mode, learning goal orientation, and perceived barriers and enablers. Personnel
Psychology, 59(3), 665–702.
Koch, A. K., & Nafziger, J. (2012). Job assignments under moral hazard: The Peter principle revisited.
Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 21(4), 1029–1059.
Koc-Menard, S. (2009). Training strategies for an aging workforce. Industrial and Commercial Training,
41(6), 334–348.
Kontoghiorghes, C. (2004). Reconceptualising the learning transfer conceptual framework: Empirical
validation of a new systemic model. International Journal of Training and Development, 8(3),
Kovach, K. A. (1995). Employee motivation: Addressing a crucial factor in your organization’s
performance. Employee Relations Today, 22(2), 93–105.
Kunz, A. H., & Pfaff, D. (2002). Agency theory, performance evaluation, and the hypothetical construct
of intrinsic motivation. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 27(3), 275–295.
Kuo, Y. K. (2013). Organizational commitment in an intense competition environment. Industrial
Management and Data Systems, 113(1), 39–56.
Lazazzara, A., & Bombelli, C. M. (2011). HRM practices for an ageing Italian workforce: The role of
training. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(8), 808–825.
Leung, K., Smith, P. B., Wang, Z., & Sun, H. (1996). Job satisfaction in joint venture hotels in China: An
organizational justice analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 27(5), 947–962.
Levinson, D. J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41(1), 3–13.
Linder, J. R. (1998). Understanding employee motivation. Journal of Extension, 36(3), 28–43.
Luthans, F., & Stajkovic, A. D. (1999). Reinforce for performance: The need to go beyond pay and even
rewards. The academy of management executive, 13(2), 49–57.
Mahazril, A. Y., Zuraini, Y. Z., Hafizah, H. A. K., Aminuddin, A., Zakaria, Z., Noordin, N., et al. (2012).
Work motivation among Malaysian public servants. Asian Social Science, 8(12), 238–242.
Malina, M. A., & Selto, F. H. (2001). Communicating and controlling strategy: An empirical study of the
effectiveness of the balanced scorecard. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 13, 47–90.
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 485
Mathieu, J. E., Tannenbaum, S. I., & Salas, E. (1992). Influences of individual and situational
characteristic on measures of training effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 35(4),
Maurer, T. J. (2001). Career-relevant learning and development, worker age, and beliefs about self-
efficacy for development. Journal of Management, 27, 123–140.
Mehta, R., Rolph, E. A., & Alan, J. D. (2000). The perceived importance of sales managers’ rewards: A
career stage perspective. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 15(7), 507–524.
Muchiri, M. K., Cooksey, R. W., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2012). Transformational and social processes of
leadership as predictors of organizational outcomes. Leadership and Organization Development
Journal, 33(7), 662–683.
Nelson, B. (1996). Dump the cash, load on the praise. Personnel Journal, 75(7), 65–70.
Noe, R. A. (2009). Employee training and development (5th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Orpen, C. (1997). The effects of formal mentoring on employee work motivation, organizational
commitment and job performance. The Learning Organization, 4(2), 53–60.
Panagiotakopoulos, A. (2013). The impact of employee learning on staff motivation in Greek small firms:
The employees’ perspective. Development and Learning in Organisations, 27(2), 13–15.
Pantouvakis, A., & Bouranta, N. (201). The interrelationship between service features, job satisfaction
and customer satisfaction: Evidence from the transport sector. TQM Journal, 25(2), 186–201.
Park, S. M. (2010). The effects of personnel reform systems on Georgia state employees’ attitudes: An
empirical analysis from a principal-agent theoretical perspective. Public Management Review,
12(3), 403–437.
Parvin, M. M., & Kabir, N. M. M. (2011). Factors affecting employee job satisfaction of pharmaceutical
sector. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(9), 113–123.
Pouliakas, K. (2010). Pay enough, don’t pay too much or don’t pay at all?, The impact of bonus intensity
on job satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(4), 597–626.
Rabby, G. P. (2001). Motivation is response. Industrial and commercial training, 33(1), 26–28.
Rose, D. S., Sidle, S. D., & Griffith, K. H. (2007). A penny for your thoughts: Monetary incentives
improve response rates for company-sponsored employee surveys. Organizational Research
Methods, 10, 225–240.
Rowley, J. (1996a). Motivation of staff in libraries. Library Management, 17(5), 31–35.
Rowley, J. (1996b). Motivation and academic staff in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education,
4(3), 11–16.
Rowold, J. (2007). The impact of personality on training-related aspects of motivation: Test of a
longitudinal model. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 18(1), 9–31.
Saari, L. M., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resource
Management, 43(3), 395–407.
Sarkar, S., & Huang, K. L. (2012). Do cultural groups differ in their attitudes towards unions Evidence
from Indian and Taiwanese samples. Asian Business and Management, 11(4), 395–423.
Satyawadi, R., & Ghosh, P. (2012). Motivation and work values in Indian public and private sector
enterprises: A comparative study. International Journal of Human Resources Development and
Management, 12(3), 237–253.
Schultz, D. S., & Brabender, V. M. (2013). More challenges since Wikipedia: The effects of exposure to
internet information about the rorschach on selected comprehensive system variables. Journal of
Personality Assessment, 95(2), 149–158.
Seyler, D. L., Holton, E. F, I. I. I., Bates, R. A., Burnett, M. F., & Carvalho, M. A. (1998). Factors affecting
motivation to transfer training. International Journal of Training and Development, 2(1), 2–16.
Smith and Rupp. (2003). An examination of emerging strategy and sales performance: Motivation,
chaotic change and organizational structure. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 21(3), 156–167.
Steidle, A., Gockel, C., & Werth, L. (2013). Growth or security? Regulatory focus determines work
priorities. Management Research Review, 36(2), 173–182.
Swift, P. E., & Hwang, A. (2013). The impact of affective and cognitive trust on knowledge sharing and
organizational learning. Learning Organization, 20(1), 20–37.
Syed, A. A. S. G., Anka, L. M., Jamali, M. B., & Shaikh, F. M. (2012). Motivation as a tool for effective
staff productivity in the public sector: A case study of raw materials research and development
council of Nigeria. Asian Social Science, 8(11), 85–95.
Szczepanowski, R., Traczyk, J., Wierzchon
´, M., & Cleeremans, A. (2013). The perception of visual
emotion: Comparing different measures of awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(1),
486 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
Tai, W. T. (2006). Effects of training framing, general self-efficacy and training motivation on trainees’
training effectiveness. Personnel Review, 35(1), 51–65.
Tharenou, P. (2001). The relationship of training motivation to participation in training and development.
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(5), 599–621.
Tsai, W.-C., & Tai, W. T. (2003). Perceived importance as a mediator of the relationship between training
assignment and training motivation. Personnel Review, 32(2), 151–163.
Van Vianen, A. E. M., Dalhoeven, B. A. G. W., & De Pater, I. E. (2011). Aging and training and
development willingness: Employee and supervisor mindset. Journal of Organizational Behavior,
32, 226–247.
Vuori, V., & Okkonen, J. (2012). Knowledge sharing motivational factors of using an intra-organizational
social media platform. Journal of Knowledge Management, 16(4), 592–603.
Whitehill, B. V., & McDonald, B. A. (1993). Improving learning persistence of military personnel by
enhancing motivation in a technical training program. Simulation Gaming, 24(3), 294–313.
Wickramasinghe, V. (2009). Predictors of job satisfaction among IT graduates in offshore Outsourced IT
firms. Personnel Review, 38(4), 413–431.
Wiley, C. (1997). What motivates employees according to over 40 years of motivation surveys.
International Journal of Manpower, 18(3), 263–280.
Williams, H. (2013). Achieving supply chain utopia: Companies need to priorities investing in people.
Development and Learning in Organizations, 27(2), 16–19.
Williams, E. S., Konrad, T. R., Linzer, M., McMurray, J., Pathman, D. E., Gerrity, M., et al. (2003).
Refining the measurement of physician job satisfaction: Results from the physician work life survey.
Medical Care, 37(11), 1140–1154.
Yamamoto, H. (2013). The relationship between employees’ perceptions of human resource management
and their retention: From the viewpoint of attitudes toward job specialties. International Journal of
Human Resource Management, 24(4), 747–767.
Yang, Y.-F., & Islam, M. (2012). The influence of transformational leadership on job satisfaction: The
balanced scorecard perspective. Journal of Accounting and Organizational Change, 8(3), 386–402.
Zhang, H. Q., & Wu, E. (2004). Human resources issues facing the hotel and travel industry in China.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16(7), 424–428.
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 487
... Motivasi kerja sangat penting bagi karyawan dalam melaksanakan pekerjaannya. Sekhar et al. (2013) Kesimpulannya bahwa kinerja karyawan dapat dipengaruhi oleh gaya kepemimpinan (Wahyuni, 2015;Ramadhany, 2017;Paramita, 2017), lingkungan kerja (Andrew, 2016;Nurhayati, 2017;Putri, 2018), motivasi kerja (Dantyo, 2014;Nuraini, 2017;Mafra, 2019 ...
... Menurut Sekhar et al. (2013, dalam Ajabar, 2021 ...
... In addition, incentives and motivation ensure employee job security, job promotion, and pride for accomplishment. Based on an extensive meta-analysis of 25 years of previous research that examined incentives and motivation and employee productivity, the argument that incentives and motivation undermine both motivation and employee productivity is refuted (García-Izquierdo et al., 2012;Sekhar et al., 2013;Ogohi, 2019). • Organizational justice and fairness: Employees' perceptions of justice and fairness in an organization are referred to as organizational justice (Swalhi et al., 2017). ...
... Hui et al. (2000) and Kim et al. (2013) found that OCBs tend to diminish following a promotion, particularly when the individual feels that further progress is unlikely. Meanwhile, incentive and motivation such as promotions, training, remuneration, pay increase choices, performance evaluations, and material resources given to workers may influence their OCB, according to social exchange theory (Dulebohn et al., 2005;García-Izquierdo et al., 2012;Sekhar et al., 2013;Ogohi, 2019). Hence the second hypothesis of the study to be tested stresses that: ...
Full-text available
This study was necessitated by the lack of research on internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organizational citizenship behavior among employees of higher learning institutions in Ghana, as well as the claim that employees of public higher learning institutions in Ghana lack commitment, motivation, trust, and engagement. The research focused on the impact of internal CSR on the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of employees in public higher learning institutions in Ghana. Employees of public higher education institutions across the country were selected using stratified random and convenience sampling techniques. The data were analyzed using SEM, confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. The findings of the study showed that internal CSR has a significant role to play in the OCB of workers in public higher learning institutions in Ghana. Incentives and motivation, as well as organizational justice and fairness, were found to influence the employees' OCB. The study provides recommendations for management and stakeholders' strategic decisions.
... Thus, based on honesty, justice, and mutual respect, they had the chance to establish strong links. Sekhar et al. (2013) also observed this trend. In the present study, it was important for respondents to rely on their peers and managers' support, who provided them with the right strategic vision at the hospital. ...
This research aims to explore the role of job satisfaction and motivation on administrative staff within the context of King Fahd Central Hospital in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The literature review of this research highlighted a number of relevant theories of McGregor's theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and Herzberg's two-factor theory to understand factors that affect motivation and satisfaction amongst employees. In order to fulfil such aim, this study adopted qualitative research and collected data through conducted online interviews with 12 administrative staff from the aforementioned hospital. The determined participants included four administrators, four secretaries and Four more receptionists. The results refer to interpersonal relationships with various management team members, financial rewards and compensations are factors that support work motivation. The findings indicate that positive working environment, the value of honest and transparent communication, job security, and open communication are factors that stimulate motivation amongst workers. A main limitation of this study is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population reliably due to sample size.
... Also researcher have observed that unfriendly work culture is one of the main reasons for women attrition rate being higher (King et al., 2018). Also motivation of the employees and the knowledge they acquire at the work place plays a role in employee retention (Singh, 2013;Zafar and Zafar, 2019) Hence we propose that: H1organization culture has a positive impact on women intention to stay. H2organization culture has a positive impact on work-life balance. ...
Full-text available
High attrition rates among women employees has been a matter of concern in the recent times especially in the automotive sector. This study attempts to find reasons for this high attrition rate through the lens of work environment and work-life balance. This paper identifies variables that can help in segregating those women who plan to leave the automotive industry and the individuals who expect to remain with a company. This quantitative study was conducted across several leading automotive giants in India. A questionnaire covering several aspects relating to intention to stay, work-life balance, organisation culture, policies and rewards and recognition was designed using previous literature in this area. 250 samples were collected using convenience sampling technique. Hypotheses of the study were tested using Partial Least Square - Structural Equation Modelling method. The results show that organizational culture, work-life balance and organizational polices are the main factors influencing the intention to stay among the women workforce in automotive sector.
... The performance will significantly increase in proportion to the motivational level (Musoli, 2021). (Sekhar et al., 2013) define motivation as the drive and effort to fulfill a need or a goal. One of the characteristics of highly motivated individuals is their desire to improve their performance by working diligently (Venkataraman et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
This study is intended to examine the effect of discipline, motivation, local wisdom, and work environment on employee performance through job satisfaction as an intervening. This research is in the form of an explanation pattern approach that uses primary data and secondary data collected using interviews, observation, questionnaires, and documentation. The population in this study was echelon Officials in the Regional Apparatus Organizations (OPD) within the Parepare City Government, consisting of echelon II, III, and IV officials with a total of 532 people. The research sample amounted to 84 people generated through the Slovin formulation. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis (applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using the Smart PLS Version 3.0 program). The results showed that discipline, motivation, local wisdom, and work environment had a positive and significant direct influence on job satisfaction. Discipline, motivation, local wisdom, and work environment positively and significantly affect employee performance. The impact of job satisfaction as an intervening variable cannot strengthen the relationship between discipline and employee performance. The impact of job satisfaction as an intervening variable can enhance the relationship between motivation, local wisdom, and work environment on employee performance. Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on employee performance.
... Every teacher is an individual with different motivations. Motivation affects individual performance, which can improve organizational performance and can be used as a catalyst in the organization (Sekhar et al., 2013). Therefore, motivation is a stimulus for someone to act (Bakar, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Along with so many crucial roles for teachers in schools and the low competence of teachers in general, school institutions certainly need a catalyst to increase their effectiveness to produce an excellent education system. Teachers who are creative, adaptive, and full of initiative are no longer just a necessity but an urgency for every school. Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) which is a positive voluntary behavior that exceeds the formal job requirements is expected to have positive implications for teacher performance. Existing studies found OCB has greatly benefited organizational outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of transformational leadership and motivation on organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools Kecamatan Pinang, Kota Tangerang, Indonesia. The sample in this research were 112 teachers in Pinang primary schools. The study used a quantitative approach with a survey method. Path analysis was utilized to determine between variables. These results indicate that transformational leadership has a direct positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior, motivation has a direct positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior, and transformational leadership has a direct positive effect on motivation. Thus, to improve organizational citizenship behavior in schools, school principals should practice transformational leadership and teachers should maintain the level of motivation. Banyaknya peran guru di sekolah dan masih rendahnya kompetensi guru secara umum, membuat institusi pendidikan jelas membutuhkan katalis dalam meningkatkan efektivitasnya agar bisa menciptakan sistem pendidikan yang unggul. Guru yang kreatif, adaptif, dan penuh inisiatif bukan lagi sekedar kebutuhan namun sudah menjadi urgensi bagi setiap sekolah. Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) yang merupakan perilaku sukarela melampaui persyaratan pekerjaan formal diharapkan dapat memberikan implikasi positif terhadap performa guru. Kajian yang sudah ada menunjukkan bahwa OCB memberikan manfaat yang besar terhadap organisasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh kepemimpinan transformasional dan motivasi terhadap organizational citizenship behavior di Sekolah Dasar Negeri Kecamatan Pinang, Kota Tangerang, Indonesia. Sampel pada penelitian ini berjumlah 112 guru dari 10 sekolah di Kecamatan Pinang. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode survey. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis jalur. Hasil penelitian ini adalah, terdapat pengaruh positif kepemimpinan transformasional terhadap organizational citizenship behavior, terdapat pengaruh positif motivasi terhadap organizational citizenship behavior, dan terdapat pengaruh positif kepemimpinan transformasional terhadap motivasi. Kepala sekolah dapat menggunakan kepemimpinan transformasional dalam kepemimpinan manajemen dan guru dapat menjaga tingkat motivasi dalam rangka peningkatan organizational citizenship behavior di sekolah..
... And every activity carried out by a person cannot be separated from various motivations and attitudes, which encourage the person to carry out a series of actions called activities. According to the word's meaning, motivation means giving motives (Sekhar et al., 2013), the generation of motivation or things that give rise to encouragement, or circumstances that give rise to encouragement. Motivation can also be interpreted as a factor that encourages people to act in a certain way. ...
... Motivation is a psychological power that builds the sophisticated process of targeted concepts and behaviors as goals [8]. These processes drive together with external contexts as an orientation, severity, and existence of personal behaviors leading to the objectives [9], [10]. ...
Full-text available
The research aims at studying the motivation and performance evaluation literacy of skilled workers on Balanced Scorecard Approach. A sample group derived from 350 skilled workers of an export condom company in Thailand. Multiple Regression was used to analyze the influence of the Motivation Factors according to Herzberg’s Two- Factor Theory on the performance evaluation literacy of skilled workers. The research result revealed that the performance motivation had a significant relationship with the literacy of skilled workers on Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach. Especially, Motivation Factors, which indicated positive effects on the literacy of the skilled workers on the BSC approach significantly at 0.05 level. It can be beneficial to various organizations to apply the study results by making a plan, improving, and determining the evaluative strategies through the processes focusing on Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. It can promote the use of BSC as a tool of evaluation to achieve the goals,specifically the emphasis of Motivation Factors such as giving praise, emphasizing the success of work, challenging work, and responsibility, to use with the skilled workers.
Na przestrzeni lat zmianom ulegają warunki, w których wykonywana jest praca i wy-korzystywane w niej narzędzia. Jednocześnie przeobrażeniom ulega motywowanie pracowników. Celem badania zaprezentowanego w artykule stało się poznanie metod, jakie są stosowane do motywowania pracowników w przedsiębiorstwie, w którym stosuje się pracę zdalną. Cel ten został osiągnięty na podstawie studium przypadku średniej polskiej firmy, która umożliwiała swoim pracownikom pracę zdalną jeszcze przed pandemią. Wyniki badania wskazują, że znamienitą rolę w motywowaniu pracowników pracujących zdalnie, jak i tych, którzy pracują w siedzibie firmy, odgrywa kultura organizacyjna i środowisko pracy oparte na bezpieczeństwie psychologicznym oraz tworzeniu i utrzymywaniu długoterminowych relacji pomiędzy przedsiębiorstwem i jego pracownikami
Full-text available
Background: Low level of health professionals' work motivation is a critical challenge for countries' health care system. A survey of ministries of health in many countries showed that low motivation was seen as the second most important health workforce problem after staff shortages. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine in detail the factors which can affect motivation and work engagement, to assess the motivation levels of personnel working in public hospitals and to identify any differences between the various categories of healthcare professionals employed at the 1st Regional Health Authority of Attica. Methods: Frederick Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory was used as the theoretical framework. Twelve phrases were used that correspond to intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors, namely achievement, recognition, nature of work, responsibility, advancement, growth, organizational policies, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary and job security. Phrases 1-6 covered the internal motivators and 7-12 correspond to the external. Additional questions were added covering the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents. Results: The response rate was 81.95% and 3,278 questionnaires were collected. Findings suggest that extrinsic motivation factors have slightly higher mean scores (MS=8.30) than intrinsic motivation factors (7.81). The role of factors like salary (9.31), organizational policies (8.91), growth (8.89) and job security (8.86) was significant. However, every category of hospital staff is affected in a different way and degree by each factor. In periods of crisis, the need of extrinsic factors of motivation increased. Conclusions: Providing a motivating environment for employees becomes more fundamental in the healthcare system. Motivation of healthcare employees was affected by factors related to supervision, financial benefits, job training and growth. Efforts should be made to provide such benefits to health employees as appropriate especially, to those who did not get any such benefits. Officially recognizing best performance is suggested.
Full-text available
This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes. Suggestions for practitioners are provided on how to close the gaps in knowledge and for evaluating implemented practices. Future research will likely focus on greater understanding of personal characteristics, such as emotion, in defining job satisfaction and how employee attitudes influence organizational performance. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full-text available
Every organization is competing to survive in this ever increasingly challenging market environment. In order to survive, they need pools of excellent, talented and productive human capital to work in organization. With that, organizations need to provide public servants with suitable benefits such as a good salary, appreciations, good remuneration and other form of benefits. However, there is still a numbers of complaints received the public regarding poor service delivery especially from the counter services and front-line employees. In fact, an increasing number of complaints have been made the public due to delays by public sectors' employees in term of service delivery. This might happen due to the lack of work motivation and resulted in poor work performance. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors that contribute to low work motivation and also to examine the relationship between motivational factors with employees' work motivation. Questionnaires constructed were distributed to 97 respondents from each divisions in Immigration Department. Besides, Descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation were used in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that communication is the major factor that contributes to their low work motivation. In addition, motivated employees agreed that rewards and recognition and also communication may motivate them to work. In relation to this, recommendations have been made for future improvement and suggestions proposed for future research.
The aim of this study was to assess how training motivation in terms of the expectation of gaining valued outcomes (i.e., motivation through expectation) and motivation to learn explains participation in training and development. Direct, mediator, and moderated explanations were tested. Survey data were gathered at Time 1 and a year later at Time 2, providing a longitudinal sample of 1705 Australians. Multiple regression analyses showed that, the higher the training motivation (both types), the more employees participated in training and development in the next 12 months, as they also did from higher supervisor support. Training motivation did not mediate the effects of the work environment on participation but moderated the prediction by employer support. Employer support predicted participation in training and development in the next 12 months more for employees with higher than lower training motivation. Motivation to learn and motivation through expectation, chiefly instrumentality, similarly explained participation in training and development.
The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.
Conference Paper
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of training framing from supervisors on trainee self-efficacy and training motivation, and further test how these variables subsequently influence overall training effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The design of the study includes longitudinal, self-report and objective measures. Data were collected from 126 employees who entered a training program aiming at introduction of computer software operation and design. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires at the beginning, the midpoint, and the end of the course. Finally, the trainees' learning performances were obtained from the test held at the end of the training program. Findings - Confirms the importance of supervisors training framing - which predicts the self-efficacy and training motivation of trainee, subsequently affects their reactions, learning and transfer motivation. Research limitations/implications - The sample of this study consisted of more young employees (the oldest was 35 years old), which perhaps limits its generalization. While this study found that supervisors' training framing impacted trainees' attitudes and in turn further influenced their training outcomes, other contextual determinants of trainees' motivation, such as another type of training framing, post-training accountability, and organizational climate remain unexplored. Future research should further examine the interactive effects of these variables on training effectiveness. Practical implications - Mainly, organizations should increase trainees' self-efficacy and training motivation prior to the actual training program. Specifically, to increase trainees' self-efficacy and training motivation, managers can provide training-related information, such as training attributes, training environment, content complexity, and the like. If trainees perceive the information as realistic, the more self-efficacy they will generate, the more motivated they are for training, and finally, the more effective training outcomes they will achieve. Originality/value - This paper has enhanced our understanding in modeling trainees' attitudes and training effectiveness. The results have suggested that both individual and contextual factors impacted training outcomes, and offer one practical implication to organizational training.