A literature review on motivation
Chandra Sekhar •Manoj Patwardhan •
Rohit Kr. Singh
Published online: 14 November 2013
ÓInternational Network of Business and Management 2013
Abstract Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities
over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have reviewed the intense
literature to extract all possible dimensions of motivation, having direct and indirect
impact on motivation techniques. This has examined the multidimensionality of
motivation from the existing literature and present a conceptual framework based on
it, and it is experienced that various motivation techniques (discussed in this study)
are having a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and the quality of
performance in the organization; however, the model needs to be validated using
quantitative measures. In order to study the various issues highlighted in this paper
related to employee motivation, a large body of literature mainly from different
journals have been incorporated. To make the study more current only those studies
were included which were published in the last two decades. In past research papers
few dimensions of motivation were used to explain the different models motivation
theory which has direct inﬂuence on employee motivation. The novelty of this study
lies in its theoretical framework where authors have made an attempt to come up
with a construct having dimensions that directly or indirectly inﬂuences employee
C. Sekhar (&)
ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior, Room No. 152, BH-3,
ABV-IIITM Morena Link Road, Gwalior 474015, Madhya Pradesh, India
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior, Block C, ABV-IIITM,
Gwalior 474015, Madhya Pradesh, India
R. Kr. Singh
ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior, Room No. 05, BH-3,
ABV-IIITM Morena Link Road, Gwalior 474015, Madhya Pradesh, India
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
Keywords Motivation Employee performance Organizational
performance Motivation techniques
The ingredients of motivation lie within all and the internalized drive toward the
dominant thought of the moment (Rabby 2001). Motivation directly links to
individual performance that gain to organization performance and as a catalyzer for
all individual employees working for an organization to enhance their working
performance or to complete task in much better way than they usually do.
Organization runs because of people working for it, and each person contributes
toward achieving the ultimate goal of an organization. Panagiotakopoulos (2013)
concluded that factors affecting staff motivation at a period where the ﬁnancial
rewards are kept to the least leads to stimulate employee performance. So,
management personnel’s responsibility to motivate their employees to work as per
the expectation to enhance the organization’s performance. Similarly Dysvik and
Kuvaas (2010) concluded that intrinsic motivation was the strongest predictor of
turnover intention and relationship between mastery-approach goals and turnover
intention was only positive for employees, low in intrinsic motivation. The only
thing organization needs to do is to give employees with ample resources and
platform to do. As per Kuo (2013) a successful organization must combine the
strengths and motivations of internal employees and respond to external changes
and demands promptly to show the organization’s value. In this paper, we have
taken various techniques of motivation from existing literature, and managed to
make ﬂow of motivation from young-age employees to old-age employees. From
organization perspective managers need to understand the ﬂow of motivation, it
helps them to create a culture where employees always get motivated to do better.
Barney and Steven Elias (2010) found that with extrinsic motivation there exist a
signiﬁcant interaction between job stress, ﬂex time, and country of residence.
Leaders know that at the heart of every productive and successful business lies a
thriving organizational culture and hardworking people collaborate passionately to
produce great results (Gignac and Palmer 2011). In the body of literature, various
frameworks are used by the researchers based on theory of motivation, with only
few dimensions of motivation.
In a complex and dynamic environment, leader of the organization used to create the
environment in which employee feel trusted and are empowered to take decisions in
the organization which leads to enhance motivation level of employee and
ultimately organizational performance are enhanced. Smith and Rupp (2003) stated
that performance is a role of individual motivation; organizational strategy, and
structure and resistance to change, is an empirical role relating motivation in the
organization. Likewise, Luthans and Stajkovic (1999) concluded that advancement
472 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
of human resources through rewards, monetary incentives, and organizational
behavior modiﬁcation has generated a large volume of debate in the human resource
and sales performance ﬁeld. According to Orpen (1997) better the relationship
between mentors and mentees in the formal mentoring program, the more mentees
are motivated to work hard and committed to their organization. Likewise, Malina
and Selto (2001) conducted a case study in one corporate setting by using balance
score card (BSC) method and found out that organizational outcomes would be
greater if employees are provided with positive motivation. The establishment of
operations-based targets will help the provision of strategic feedback by allowing
the evaluation of actual performance against the operations-based targets. Goal-
directed behavior and strategic feedback are expected to enhance organizational
performance (Chenhall 2005). Kunz and Pfaff (2002) stated no substantive reason to
fear an undermining effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Decoene
and Bruggeman (2006) in their study developed and illustrated a model of the
relationship between strategic alignment, motivation and organizational perfor-
mance in a BSC context and ﬁnd that effective strategic alignment empowers and
motivates working executives. Leaders motivate people to follow a participative
design of work in which they are responsible and get it together, which make them
responsible for their performance. Aguinis et al. (2013) stated that monetary
rewards can be a very powerful determinant of employee motivation and
achievement which, in turn, can advance to important returns in terms of ﬁrm-
level performance. Garg and Rastogi (2006) identiﬁed the key issues of job design
research and practice to motivate employees’ performance and concluded that a
dynamic managerial learning framework is required to enhance employees’
performance to meet global challenges. Vuori and Okkonen (2012) stated that
motivation helps to share knowledge through an intra-organizational social media
platform which can help the organization to reach its goals and objectives. Den and
Verburg (2004) found the impact of high performing work systems, also called
human resource practices, on perceptual measures of ﬁrm performance. Ashmos and
Duchon (2000) recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit and seek to
ﬁnd meaning and purpose in their work, and an aspiration to be part of a
community, hence making their jobs worthwhile and motivating them to do at a
high level with a view to personal and social development.
The primary objective to write this review is to highlight the ﬂow of motivation and
reveals what motivation technique works more efﬁciently in different stages of life.
This study provides useful managerial implication for employee motivation in an
organization. The dimensions are made ﬁt into a model that can beneﬁt organization
to enhance their performance; however, the model needs to validate through case
study or quantitative study. To study the various issues highlighted in this study
related to employee motivation, this study reviews a large body of literature mainly
in different journals. Once all the issues have been identiﬁed, each issue is used as a
keyword to search the relevant literature. To make the study more current only those
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 473
studies are included which are published in the last two decades, while priority is
given to studies which are published in the last decade. Table 1shows that the
number of articles or reviews published on motivation in the last two decades
Dimensions of motivation
Training refers to ‘‘the systematic accretion of skills, command, concepts or
mindset leads to improve performance’’ (Lazazzara and Bombelli 2011). Baldwin
et al. (1991) indicates that individuals with higher pre-training motivation on the
basis of their willingness to attend training have greater learning outcomes as
compared to individuals heaving lower pre-training motivation. Commeiras et al.
(2013) point out that traineeship is continuing to grow. In business, context training
basically refers to action of teaching employees and providing proper knowledge
Table 1 Article or review
published on motivation
Current year and it’s still
Year No. of article or review
published on motivation
1990 1,549 —
1991 1,554 0.322
1992 1,603 3.15
1993 1,685 5.11
1994 2,027 20.29
1995 2,064 1.82
1996 2,794 35.36
1997 2,994 7.15
1998 3,041 1.56
1999 3,187 4.80
2000 3,412 7.05
2001 3,580 4.92
2002 3,995 11.59
2003 4,643 16.22
2004 5,125 10.38
2005 5,878 14.63
2006 6,429 9.37
2007 6,943 7.99
2008 7,585 9.24
2009 8,501 12.07
2010 9,173 7.90
2011 9,861 7.50
2012 10,679 8.29
6,858 Still continuing
474 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
Table 2 Motivation dimensions
Sl. no. Dimension Author(s) No. of
1. Training Commeiras et al. (2013); Panagiotakopoulos (2013); Williams (2013); Lazazzara and Bombelli
(2011); Gegenfurtner et al. (2009); Gegenfurtner et al. (2009); Noe (2009); Rowold (2007); Bell
and Ford (2007); Klein et al. (2006); Tai (2006); Chiaburu and Tekleab (2005); Kontoghiorghes
(2004); Tsai and Tai (2003); Tharenou (2001); Kirkpatrick (2000);Colquitt et al.(2000); Seyler
et al. (1998); Kirkpatrick (1996); Facteau et al.(1995); Cannon-Bowers et al. (1995); Whitehill
and McDonald (1993); Clark et al. (1993); Mathieu et al. (1992); Baldwin et al. (1991).
2. Monetary incentives Beretti et al. (2013); Panagiotakopoulos (2013); Aguinis et al. (2013); Szczepanowski et al. (2013);
Schultz and Brabender (2013); Pouliakas (2010); Feldman and Lobel (2010); Park (2010); Jain
et al. (2007); Rose et al. (2007); Zhang and Wu (2004); Linder (1998); Leung et al. (1996);
Nelson (1996); Rowley (1996a,b); Kovach (1995).
3. Job transfer Azizi and Liang (2013); Swift and Hwang (2013); Asensio-Cuesta et al. (2012); Casad (2012);
Datta and Eriksson (2012); Eguchi (2004); Zhang and Wu (2004); Cosgel and Miceli (1999);
Cheng and Brown (1998); Ichniowski et al. (1997).
4. Job satisfaction Pantouvakis and Bouranta (2013); Pravin and Kabir (2011); Wickramasinghe (2009); Kaliski
(2007); Saari and Judge (2004); Williams et al. (2003); Bussing et al. (1999); George and Jones
5. Promotion Steidle et al. (2013); Koch and Nafziger (2012); Garcı
´a et al. (2012); Jung and Kim (2012); Syed
et al. (2012) Pravin and Kabir (2011); Lindner (1998); Kovach (1995).
6. Working conditions Cheng et al. (2013); Jung and Kim (2012); Pravin and Kabir (2011); Dundar et al. (2007); Lindner
(1998); Kovach (1995).
7. Achievement Hunter et al. (2012); Sarkar and Huang (2012); Satyawadi and Ghosh (2012); Yang and Islam
(2012); Muchiri et al. (2012).
8. Appreciation Mahazril et al. (2012); Kingira and Mescib (2010); Lindner (1998); Nelson (1996); Kovach (1995). 5
9. Recognition Candi et al. (2013); Barton and Ambrosini (2013); Mahazril et al. (2012); Javernick-Will (2012). 4
10. Job security Yamamoto (2013); Pravin and Kabir (2011); Zhang and Wu (2004); Cheng and Brown (1998). 4
11. Social opportunities Harvey (2013); Panagiotakopoulos (2013); Kingira and Mescib (2010); Rowley (1996a,b). 4
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 475
and skills to make themselves job ﬁt as well as organization ﬁt. Training teaches
employees how to work and enhance their skills, hence motivate them to achieve the
common goal of organization as well as of employee. In the today’s competitive
world, every organization wants to achieve competitive edge over their competitors
and be impossible to achieve without employee involvement, which forces
management to motivate their employees by different means.
As summarized by Park (2010), monetary incentive acts as a stimulus for greater
action and inculcates zeal and enthusiasm toward work, it helps an employee in
recognition of achievement. Likewise, Beretti et al. (2013) discussed that monetary
incentives used to build a positive environment and maintain a job interest, which is
consistent among the employee and offer a spur or zeal in the employees for better
performance. For reason, monetary incentive motivate employees and enhance
commitment in work performance, and psychologically satisfy a person and leads to
job satisfaction, and shape the behavior or outlook of subordinate toward work in
The work of Azizi and Liang (2013) indicated that workforce ﬂexibility can be
achieved by cross-training and improved via job rotation. In the same way, Eguchi
(2004) concluded that job transfer plays a signiﬁcant role in preventing workers
from performing inﬂuence activities for private help. As summarized by Asensio-
Cuesta et al. (2012) job rotation provides beneﬁts to both workers and management
in an organization and prevents musculoskeletal disorders, cast out fatigue and
increases job satisfaction and morale. As a result, job transfer gives the opportunity
to learn multiple skills and outlooks to the workers. It avoids the dullness caused by
monotonous jobs and simultaneously brings smoothness in technological job with
the help of handling different circumstances at different levels and it leads to
effective learning of many aspects in the organization.
In (2011), Parvin and Kabir studied the tested factors affecting job satisfaction for
pharmaceutical companies and described job satisfaction as how content an
individual is with his or her job, and viewed job satisfaction is not the same as
motivation, although clearly linked. Similarly, Pantouvakis and Bouranta (2013)
indicated job satisfaction as a consequence of physical features and as an antecedent
of interactive features. Wickramasinghe (2009) investigated that gender and tenure
are signiﬁcant in job satisfaction measurement. So here it can be said that job
satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations.
For example, a good work environment and good work conditions can increase
employee job satisfaction and the employees will try to give their best which can
increase the employee work performance.
476 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
A study by Garcı
´a et al. (2012) identiﬁed that perceptions of promotion systems
affect organizational justice and job satisfaction. Likewise, Koch and Nafziger
(2012) speciﬁed that promotions are desirable for most employees, only because
they work harder to compensate for their ‘‘incompetence.’’ As a result, promotion at
regular interval of time has an optimistic approach behind and they are generally
given to satisfy the psychological requirements of employees in the organization.
The work of Hunter et al. (2012) deﬁnes that achievement is a unique and
specialized form of organizational performance. As per Satyawadi and Ghosh
(2012), employees are motivated to a greater extent by achievement and self-
control. Now this can be understood: an employee who is achievement motivated
seeks achievement, bringing realistic but challenging goals, and betterment in the
job. There is a strong need for feedback from the higher ofﬁcials in the organization
as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of attainment.
In (2012), Jung and Kim stated that good work environment and good work
conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and an employee organizational
commitment. So the employees will try to give their best which can increase the
employee work performance. Similarly, Cheng et al. (2013) concluded that there
were evidences of moderating effects of age on the associations between
psychosocial work conditions and health. Now the importance and the need of
working condition is so describing or deﬁning the physical environment by
identifying those elements or dimensions of the physical environment. Employees
having poor working conditions will only provoke negative performance, since their
jobs are mentally and physically demanding, they need good working conditions.
A study by Mahazril et al. (2012) organizations had the duty to appreciate the
employee from time to time and offer other form of beneﬁts such as payment, which
will help in employee motivation. Likewise, Kingira and Mescib (2010) deﬁne
appreciation as the abstract of immaterial incentives; ‘‘employees giving immaterial
incentives (appreciation, respect etc.) as much as materiel incentives with working
department’’ shows employees do not agree with this behavioral statement. With
this result, it can be stated that employees being employed in different parts can take
their different opinions at different levels. Among the variable of responsibility and
being appreciated, it is understood that ‘‘success of employers always be appreciated
with education.’’ The more effective quality and practicality of education employees
had, the more contribution they will have to businesses.
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 477
As per Yamamoto (2013) if an employee perceives they will be getting rewards for
good work and their job is a secured one, the performance will automatically be
better. Similarly, Zhang and Wu (2004) indicated that with Job security, an
employee gets conﬁdent with the future career and they put their most efforts to
achieve the objectives of the organization. So we can say job satisfaction is the most
inﬂuential tool of motivation and put the employee very far off from mental tension
and he gives his best to the organization, ultimately it leads to proﬁt maximization.
According to Candi et al. (2013), a growing recognition of the opportunities of
innovation is through experience staging. Mahazril et al. (2012) concluded that
rewards and recognition and communication may motivate them to work.
Recognition enhances the level of productivity and performance at job whether it
is a ﬁrst time performance or a repeated action at the job in a progressive way and
ultimately reinforces the behavior of employee.
In (2013), Harvey indicated that an employee is accepted as part of the social group
or team. Most staff has an acute need that their contribution is worthwhile,
appreciated, and acknowledged. Organizations need to look beyond the traditional
economic incentives of career opportunities and salaries to other social and lifestyle
factors outside the workplace. Similarly, Kingira and Mescib (2010) concluded that,
different opinions between the employees in terms of behavioral statements which
can be ‘‘Social opportunities providing at the highest level with working period
leads the employee to achieve their goals of the organization.’’ Therefore, a social
opportunity for the employee is used to boost their motivation level and ultimately
helps in achieving the goals and objectives of the organization.
Figure 1explains how motivation works in different stages of life, and
motivation dimension plays a vital role in enhancing individual performance in
different stages of life of human being. In the developed and developing nations
around the world people experiencing the phenomenon of population aging i.e.,
participation of worker in their late career stage is low in the labor market.
Levinson’s (1986) life stage model pointed out that adult life is characterized by a
consecution of stages, such as early, middle, and late career stage, divided into
various sub-stages and concerned with career development (comparable to the
career stage model of Super (1984)). Here we have considered early career stage
between 20 and 40; middle career stages between 40 and 54, and late career stage 55
and above. In an effort to set a threshold to deﬁne the older worker category, as
anyone over age 55 (Finkelstein et al. 1995; Koc-Menard 2009).
In the early and middle stage of life, money is important to goal setting because
offering such incentives bring person being more willing to expand effort to meet a
given goal level than not offering the incentives. Given the willingness to expand
478 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
effort, a goal tells the individual during different career stages where to expand
effort, how much effort to exert, and how long to exert the effort. For example,
younger employees early in their careers may have a propensity for higher
immediate compensation and beneﬁts, such as fully paid family medical plans or
maternity/paternity leaves; because employees in later career stages might prefer
stock options or most company contributions to their retirement plans. Wiley (1997)
concluded that good pay is an important motivator regardless of age.
Figure 2explains how motivation dimensions inﬂuence individual and organi-
zation performance. In this competitive environment, organizations works harder to
integrate its workforce and to keep the coordination among employees to enhance
the working as well as employee productivity. The positive impact of motivation
works toward enhancing individual responsiveness toward work. Individual
enhanced responsiveness help organization working that directly links toward
increase in proﬁt and increase in organization responsiveness. Customer will be
more satisﬁed if organization shows fast response toward his/her queries and if
organization takes responsibility to fulﬁll his demand.
If we talk the motivation dimension that enhances organization performance,
training used to enhance the skills, efﬁciency, and knowledge of employees for
doing a particular job during their earlier career stage because it familiarizes them
with the organizations goals, rules, and regulations and the working conditions in
Fig. 1 Flow of motivation
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 479
one hand since updates and amendments take place in technology, purchasing a new
equipment, changes in technique of production, and computer impartment. The
employees are trained for use of new equipments and work methods. Training molds
the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees.
Supervisors believe that older workers are less motivated to learn, less ﬂexible, and
Fig. 2 Theoretical construct of research dimensions
480 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
do not want to take part in training programs. So, companies do not invest in
training or development opportunities for older people. In turn, older workers
become less self-conﬁdent due to the lack of support in terms of training and their
skills rapidly become outdated (Maurer 2001; Van Vianen et al. 2011).
Giving a job security to an employee makes him more responsible toward job.
Job security can be explained as, afﬁrmation that an employee has for the continuity
of gainful employment for his or her job. It is more essential for younger employee
during different career stages of life (job) because it arises from the terms of
contract of employment, labor legislation that results in prevention of arbitrary
termination, layoffs, and lockout. Likewise, Pravin and Kabir (2011) indicated that
with job security in pharmaceutical companies employee is ‘‘neither happy nor
unhappy’’ and hence inﬂuence job satisfaction in pharmaceutical companies. Job
security has been considered from several theoretical perspectives, including as a
motivational precursor to job performance.
Employee recognition is used to fulﬁll the inherent need to appreciate as well as
work to be validated by the employee contribution. During the early and later stage
of life of the employee, the most important tool to motivate the employee by
recognizing positive behavior from employees means that those desired behaviors
that drive business success will be reciprocated. Recognition is essential to an
outstanding workplace because people want to be respected and valued for their
contribution. Recognizing employee for their good work sends an extremely
powerful message to the recipient, their work team, and other employees through
formal and informal communication channels. Employee recognition is a dynamic
communication technique to improve employee performance which leads to
enhance organizational performance.
In an organization, it is important to make the employees valued and appreciated,
because of which they get motivated and they work harder and be more loyal toward
the organization. During the early and middle career stage of the job employee want
more appreciation from his next boss in the organization. Many ways of
appreciating employee are news for companies looking for inexpensive ways to
show appreciation to employees who made an appreciative effort, to thank
employees several times a week, often through notes mailed to their homes and
admits an employee-of-the-month program, the least time-consuming way to make
sure his staff continued to appreciate.
In an organization employees have the opportunity to transfer to another job if
they are moving or have the want to switch occupations. It brings positive energy
among the early career stage employee to work in a new environment, which gives
workers the opportunity to learn multiple skills and outlooks. When employees
continue working at the same tasks for an extended time, they are likely to build
tight relationships with particular individuals and companies, which can yield help
to the employees, and to the organization.
In the early stage of the employee, they used to seek the working environment
and aspects of an employee’s terms and conditions of employment. This includes
the employee payment, organization of work, and work activities; training, skills,
and employability; amenities, physical environment, health, safety, and well-being;
and working time and work–life balance. These used to motivate the employee to do
Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487 481
better and achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Changes in working
conditions and other aspects of the employment relationship can generate serious
industrial relations problems.
Williams et al. (2003) argues that the job satisfaction works toward making good
relationships with staff and colleagues, control of time off, enough resources, and
bring autonomy for employee in the organization. It is essential in the stages of
employment i.e., early, middle, and late career stage of life because it brings any
combination of physiological, psychological, satisfaction that invokes a person
truthfully to say I am satisﬁed with my current job and it leads to employee
motivation to achieve goals of the organization. Job satisfaction refers doing a job
one enjoys, and being rewarded for one’s accomplishment. It is the key ingredient
that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals that
lead to a feeling of fulﬁllment of the desired goals and objectives (Kaliski 2007).
In the middle and late career stages of their employment, employees have an
opportunity to showcase their achievements with pride. Employees work in
organizations not just to make a living, but to make a life. It encourages heightened
ownership at work. Tangible beneﬁts (salary) and intangible beneﬁts (achievements
of the knowledge) and other perks are necessary to engage employees, and motivate
them to do their personal best. Mehta et al. (2000) pointed out that four most highly
ranked rewards for sales managers in the late career stage have mean values that
exceed 6.0, which includes achievement of market goals, retaining respect of
salespeople, opportunities for promotion, and bonus.
A motivated and dedicated employee in the middle career stage of their job in the
organization is an asset for any organization and proves instrumental in building a
high-performance culture that drives organizational advancement. Promotion is
always employee’s ultimate wish for the service rendered by him in the organization
and this is the only way for an employee career development. Promotion is the
ultimate motivating for any employee because it moves employee forward in
hierarchy of concern organization added with other responsibility, higher respect,
honors, with increase in grade pay and allowances. It stimulates self-development
and creates interest in the job in one hand and minimizes discontent and unrest.
In the late career stage of their employment social opportunities for employees to
get involved in leveraging the core competencies of the organization to create
business value and positive social change can increase employee motivation and job
satisfaction and help workers to more effectively manage job stress. This can lead to
positive gains for the organization by enhancing organizational effectiveness and
improving work quality, as well as by helping the organization attract and keep top-
quality employees, which can bring growth and development to the organizations
and can improve the quality of their employees’ work experience and realize the
beneﬁts of developing workers to their full potential.
Motivation works as a catalyzer for individual employees working for an
organization to enhance their working performance or to complete task in much
482 Glob Bus Perspect (2013) 1:471–487
better way than they usually do. In this paper, authors identiﬁed the key motivation
techniques from existing literature and linked it through organization performance.
These motivation techniques has long been acknowledged as an important personnel
work with the potential to improve employee motivation and hence performance,
and to deliver management with the control needed to achieve organizational
objectives. Authors made ﬂow of motivation from early career motivation
techniques to late career motivation techniques and reached on a conclusion: if
employees are provided with right motivation technique at right time, their morale
and conﬁdence goes up and had a direct positive impact in individual performance
and organizational performance. It is indicative of the above discussion, most of the
motivation dimensions viz. training, monetary incentives, promotion, and working
conditions has been met and for reason the efforts made to motivate are bound to
succeed. This conclusion is built on the emphasis made by earlier researchers to
motivate people, organizations need to ﬁrst have the baseline in place; in the
absence of the baseline, motivation is not possible to achieve. The study has shown
success in intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators to improve performance in
The major limitation of this study is that the proposed framework is designed on
basis of extensive literature review and so needs to be conﬁrmed using quantitative
measures. This framework is not been implemented in speciﬁc industry, due to its
generality in nature. Although extensive research is reviewed and every possible
dimensions of motivation are studied, it cannot be stated explicitly that these
dimensions will be able to create the baseline which will motivate the employees
through the motivators. Thus, they create a dilemma as to whether these motivation
dimensions are enough to create a solid baseline which has an impact on the
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