Inhomogeneous sodium accumulation in the ischemic core in rat focal cerebral ischemia by 23 Na MRI

Department of Anesthesiology, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212-4772, USA.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Impact Factor: 3.21). 07/2009; 30(1):18-24. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.21816
Source: PubMed


To test the hypotheses that (i) the regional heterogeneity of brain sodium concentration ([Na(+)](br)) provides a parameter for ischemic progression not available from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data, and (ii) [Na(+)](br) increases more in ischemic cortex than in the caudate putamen (CP) with its lesser collateral circulation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.
(23)Na twisted projection MRI was performed at 3 Tesla. [Na(+)](br) was independently determined by flame photometry. The ischemic core was localized by ADC, by microtubule-associated protein-2 immunohistochemistry, and by changes in surface reflectivity.
Within the ischemic core, the ADC ratio relative to the contralateral tissue was homogeneous (0.63 +/- 0.07), whereas the rate of [Na(+)](br) increase (slope) was heterogeneous (P < 0.005): 22 +/- 4%/h in the sites of maximum slope versus 14 +/- 1%/h elsewhere (here 100% is [Na(+)](br) in the contralateral brain). Maximum slopes in the cortex were higher than in CP (P < 0.05). In the ischemic regions, there was no slope/ADC correlation between animals and within the same brain (P > 0.1). Maximum slope was located at the periphery of ischemic core in 8/10 animals.
Unlike ADC, (23)Na MRI detected within-core ischemic lesion heterogeneity.

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    • "Imaging of the rat brain poses an additional challenge, due to the small voxel sizes typically required (in the ll range) to achieve the spatial resolution necessary to identify common brain structures such as the cortex and the subcortex in rodent stroke models. As a result, deriving a meaningful conclusion from such low resolution data in recently published studies has proved difficult [1] [18] [19]. Attempts have been made to improve the achievable SNR in 23 Na-MRI by developing optimal radiofrequency resonators [20], although it is clear that higher spatial–temporal resolution is required if "
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    ABSTRACT: The design and construction of a two-port surface transceiver resonator for both (1)H-and (23)Na-MRI in the rodent brain at 7 T is described. Double-tuned resonators are required for accurately co-registering multi-nuclei data sets, especially when the time courses of (1)H and (23)Na signals are of interest as, for instance, when investigating the pathological progression of ischaemic stroke tissue in vivo. In the current study, a single-element two-port surface resonator was developed wherein both frequency components were measured with the same detector element but with each frequency signal routed along different output channels. This was achieved by using the null spot technique, allowing for optimal variable tuning and matching of each channel in situ within the MRI scanner. The (23)Na signal to noise ratio, measured in the ventricles of the rat brain, was increased by a factor of four compared to recent state-of-the-art rat brain studies reported in the literature. The resonator's performance was demonstrated in an in vivo rodent stroke model, where regional variations in (1)H apparent diffusion coefficient maps and the (23)Na signal were recorded in an interleaved fashion as a function of time in the acute phase of the stroke without having to exchange, re-adjust, or re-connect resonators between scans. Using the practical construction steps described in this paper, this coil design can be easily adapted for MRI of other X-nuclei, such as (17)O, (13)C, (39)K, and (43)Ca at various field strengths.
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