Article

Nedd4 and Nedd4–2: Closely related ubiquitin-protein ligases with distinct physiological functions

Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Cell death and differentiation (Impact Factor: 8.18). 07/2009; 17(1):68-77. DOI: 10.1038/cdd.2009.84
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Nedd4 (neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4) family of ubiquitin ligases (E3s) is characterized by a distinct modular domain architecture, with each member consisting of a C2 domain, 2-4 WW domains, and a HECT-type ligase domain. Of the nine mammalian members of this family, Nedd4 and its close relative, Nedd4-2, represent the ancestral ligases with strong similarity to the yeast, Rsp5. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rsp5 has a key role in regulating the trafficking, sorting, and degradation of a large number of proteins in multiple cellular compartments. However, in mammals the Nedd4 family members, including Nedd4 and Nedd4-2, appear to have distinct functions, thereby suggesting that these E3s target specific proteins for ubiquitylation. In this article we focus on the biology and emerging functions of Nedd4 and Nedd4-2, and review recent in vivo studies on these E3s.

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    • "Ubiquitination controls endocytosis and turnover of transport proteins [27] . An ubiquitin ligase particularly important for the regulation of channels and transporters is Nedd4-2 (neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 4–2), which down-regulates a wide variety of transport processes [26,2829303132333435. At least in theory, those transporters could be targeted by de-ubiquitination enzymes. "
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    ABSTRACT: USP18 (Ubiquitin-like specific protease 18) is an enzyme cleaving ubiquitin from target proteins. USP18 plays a pivotal role in antiviral and antibacterial immune responses. On the other hand, ubiquitination participates in the regulation of several ion channels and transporters. USP18 sensitivity of transporters has, however, never been reported. The present study thus explored, whether USP18 modifies the activity of the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2, and whether the peptide transporters are sensitive to the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. To this end, cRNA encoding PEPT1 or PEPT2 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding USP18. Electrogenic peptide (glycine-glycine) transport was determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with cRNA encoding PEPT1 or PEPT2, but not in oocytes injected with water or with USP18 alone, application of the dipeptide gly-gly (2 mM) was followed by the appearance of an inward current (Igly-gly). Coexpression of USP18 significantly increased Igly-gly in both PEPT1 and PEPT2 expressing oocytes. Kinetic analysis revealed that coexpression of USP18 increased maximal Igly-gly. Conversely, overexpression of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 decreased Igly-gly. Coexpression of USP30 similarly increased Igly-gly in PEPT1 expressing oocytes. In conclusion, USP18 sensitive cellular functions include activity of the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    • "dissecting the mechanism underlying the control of Dvl production is of central importance in understanding CE movements. NEDD4L (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like), a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to be essential for the stability control of multiple cellular proteins including ENαC, activated Smad2/3 and Dvl (Yang and Kumar, 2009; Boase et al., 2011; Kimura et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2009; Rotin and Kumar, 2009; Gao et al., 2009; Ding et al., 2013). In this report we tested the function of NEDD4L in the context of mesodermal convergent extension using Xenopus model organism. "
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    ABSTRACT: During the early vertebrate body plan formation, convergent extension (CE) of dorsal mesoderm and neurectoderm is coordinated by the evolutionarily conserved non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling. Dishevelled (Dvl), a key mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling, is essential for the medial-lateral polarity formation in the cells undergoing convergent extension movements. NEDD4L, a highly conserved HECT type E3 ligase, has been reported to regulate the stability of multiple substrates including Dvl2. Here we demonstrate that NEDD4L is required for the cellular polarity formation and convergent extension in the early Xenopus embryos. Depletion of NEDD4L in early Xenopus embryos results in the loss of mediolateral polarity of the convergent-extending mesoderm cells and the shortened body axis, resembling those defects caused by the disruption of non-canonical Wnt signaling. Depletion of xNEDD4L also blocks the elongation of the animal explants in response to endogenous mesoderm inducing signals and partially compromises the expression of Brachyury. Importantly, reducing Dvl2 expression can largely rescue the cellular polarity and convergent extension defects in NEDD4L-depleted embryos and explants. Together with the data that NEDD4L reduces Dvl2 protein expression in the frog embryos, our findings suggest that regulation of Dvl protein levels by NEDD4L is essential for convergent extension during early Xenopus embryogenesis.
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    • "Nedd4-2 regulates other voltage-gated ion channels, such as potassium (K v s and KCNQs) and choride (ClCs) channels, which modulate electrical excitability in neurons (Bongiorno et al. 2011). Nedd4-2 regulation is not restricted to voltage-gated ion channels, but includes interactions with amino acids, dopamine transporters, glutamate transporters, adaptor proteins, and kinases (Yang and Kumar 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ion channel proteins are regulated by different types of posttranslational modifications. The focus of this review is the regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) upon their ubiquitylation. The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) was the first ion channel shown to be regulated upon ubiquitylation. This modification results from the binding of ubiquitin ligase from the Nedd4 family to a protein-protein interaction domain, known as the PY motif, in the ENaC subunits. Many of the Navs have similar PY motifs, which have been demonstrated to be targets of Nedd4-dependent ubiquitylation, tagging them for internalization from the cell surface. The role of Nedd4-dependent regulation of the Nav membrane density in physiology and disease remains poorly understood. Two recent studies have provided evidence that Nedd4-2 is downregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in both rat and mouse models of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Using two different mouse models, one with a specific knockout of Nedd4-2 in sensory neurons and another where Nedd4-2 was overexpressed with the use of viral vectors, it was demonstrated that the neuropathy-linked neuronal hyperexcitability was the result of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 overexpression due to Nedd4-2 downregulation. These studies provided the first in vivo evidence of the role of Nedd4-2-dependent regulation of Nav channels in a disease state. This ubiquitylation pathway may be involved in the development of symptoms and diseases linked to Nav-dependent hyperexcitability, such as pain, cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, migraine, and myotonias.
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