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KIWIFRUIT CULTIVATION AND LATEST APPLICATIONS

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Abstract

Total kiwifruit production is 1350207 ton and total area is 90 888 hectares and the production is increasing with each passing year. Applications are available in different growing technique in the world. Especially for varieties with yellow and green fruit flesh is seen different applications. Corresponds to an increase in the production of kiwifruit in the world is seen declines in prices. In particular, in order to prevent price decline it must be increase the number of species and varieties and production quality. For high quality kiwifruit cultivation should be selected suitable region and climatic conditions also support and training systems. T-bar systems are used in relatively cool regions although primarily considering pergola and a covering with net especially in hot regions. A world market in recent years is seen different cultivars which obtained breeding studies. These varieties have been developed by breeders for different purposes such as fruit flesh colour, flavours, high yield and disease resistance. Different varieties of yellow flesh kiwi fruit grown in New Zealand and Italy find buyers at high prices. However, a large part of these species belongs to the type of A.chinensis briefly called PSA are highly susceptible to bacterial disease in different races. For this reason, it should grow varieties with yellow fruit flesh in suitable ecology and need to take action against the disease. Yellow varieties are susceptible to sunburn; the net should be used in hot areas. Against the danger of the cold in northern Italy, especially with overhead sprinkler irrigation is being implemented. Although in New Zealand, most of the time there has been no watering, fertilizing and irrigation systems is remarkable given with separate irrigation pipes in Italy. Due to the problem of root rots and ground water ridge planting is widely used in heavy soils. Fresh kiwi fruit consumption must be met in addition to strong industry. New Zealand is also important in order to compensate for falling prices, such as the formation of industry in our country.
KIWIFRUIT CULTIVATION AND LATEST APPLICATIONS
Arif ATAK
Atatürk Horticulture Central Research Institute 77102 / YALOVA
ÖZET
Dünyada 90.888 ha alanda 1.350.207 Ton kivi üretimi yapılmakta ve her geçen yıl bu
üretim artmaktadır. Dünyada yetiştirme tekniği ile ilgili farklı uygulamalar mevcuttur.
Özellikle sarı meyve eti ile yeşil meyve etine sahip olan çeşitler için farklı uygulamalar
görülmektedir. Dünyada artan kivi üretimine paralel olarak kivi fiyatlarında düşüşler
görülmektedir. Özellikle bu düşüşlerin önlenebilmesi için üretimde kalite ile üretilen tür ve
çeşitlerin sayısını arttırmak gerekmektedir. Kaliteli bir yetiştiricilik için bölgeye ve iklim
koşullarına uygun destek ve terbiye sistemlerinin seçilmesi gerekir. Özellikle sıcak yörelerde
öncelikli olarak pergola ve üzerine örtü sistemleri düşünülürken nispeten serin yörelerde T bar
sistemleri kullanılmaktadır.
Dünya pazarlarında son yıllarda ıslah çalışmaları ile elde edilen farklı kivi tür ve
çeşitleri görülmektedir. Bu çeşitler ıslahçılar tarafından farklı meyve eti rengi, farklı aroma,
yüksek verim ve hastalıklara dayanıklılık gibi değişik amaçlar için geliştirilmektedir.
Özellikle Yeni Zelanda ve İtalya’da yetiştirilen sarı meyve etli farklı kivi çeşitleri yüksek
fiyatlardan alıcı bulmaktadır. Ancak A.chinensis türüne mensup bu türlerin büyük bir bölümü
kısaca PSA denilen bakteriyel hastalığın farklı ırklarına karşı çok hassastırlar. Bu nedenle sarı
meyve etine sahip çeşitleri uygun ekolojide ve hastalığa karşı tedbir alarak yetiştirmek
yapmak gerekir. Sarı çeşitler güneş yanıklığına hassas olup sıcak bölgelerde net
kullanılmalıdır. Soğuk tehlikesine karşı ise özellikle kuzey İtalya’da üstten sprink ile sulama
uygulaması yapılmaktadır. Yeni Zelanda da çoğu zaman sulama yapılmazken İtalya’da
gübreleme ve sulamanın ayrı sulama boruları ile verildiği sistemler dikkat çekmektedir. Kök
çürüklükleri ve taban suyu problemi olan ağır topraklarda sırta dikim yaygın olarak kullanılır.
Mutlaka kivi meyvesinin taze tüketim yanında sanayisinin de oluşması gereklidir. Yeni
Zelanda da olduğu gibi ülkemizde de sanayisinin oluşması düşen fiyatları dengelemek adına
önemlidir.
SUMMARY
Total kiwifruit production is 1350207 ton and total area is 90 888 hectares and the
production is increasing with each passing year. Applications are available in different
growing technique in the world. Especially for varieties with yellow and green fruit flesh is
seen different applications. Corresponds to an increase in the production of kiwifruit in the
world is seen declines in prices. In particular, in order to prevent price decline it must be
increase the number of species and varieties and production quality. For high quality
kiwifruit cultivation should be selected suitable region and climatic conditions also support
and training systems. T-bar systems are used in relatively cool regions although primarily
considering pergola and a covering with net especially in hot regions.
A world market in recent years is seen different cultivars which obtained breeding
studies. These varieties have been developed by breeders for different purposes such as fruit
flesh colour, flavours, high yield and disease resistance. Different varieties of yellow flesh
kiwi fruit grown in New Zealand and Italy find buyers at high prices. However, a large part of
these species belongs to the type of A.chinensis briefly called PSA are highly susceptible to
bacterial disease in different races. For this reason, it should grow varieties with yellow fruit
flesh in suitable ecology and need to take action against the disease. Yellow varieties are
susceptible to sunburn; the net should be used in hot areas. Against the danger of the cold in
northern Italy, especially with overhead sprinkler irrigation is being implemented. Although in
New Zealand, most of the time there has been no watering, fertilizing and irrigation systems is
remarkable given with separate irrigation pipes in Italy. Due to the problem of root rots and
ground water ridge planting is widely used in heavy soils. Fresh kiwi fruit consumption must
be met in addition to strong industry. New Zealand is also important in order to compensate
for falling prices, such as the formation of industry in our country.
Different Growing Techniques;
The two most common support system (pergola and T bar) is applied all over the world.
Pergola system it is very common especially in New Zealand and central Italy. T bar system:
It is common in Northern Italy and in North East of Turkey. In addition, ridge planting, double
irrigation, frost protection in the form of high fogging is used especially in Italy. Fertilization
and irrigation are used in two separate pipe systems. Girdling applications which are widely
used in New Zealand is not common in Italy and Turkey. Also in recent years, decreased to
use in New Zealand due to PSA disease.
In recent years, grafting applications to produce new varieties began to be used widely.
Is it really profitable investment kiwifruit cultivation?
The right ecology including soil
The right method
The right technical information
In the hands of the manufacturer at the beginning of 2000s, this figure was around 1.1 euro
per kilo price but today, this figure declined to 0.7 Euro Why?
Increased production,
Single cultivar(Hayward)
Limited food processing
Solutions
Increase Quality,
Keep away from the plants all stress factors
Grow different cultivars (Early Green-Yellow, Red Kiwi, Baby Kiwi)
Improvements of packaging and cold storing
Comparing A. chinensis with A. deliciosa
Advantages
More flower and bud numbers
Fruit skin has small hair also some types almost hairless
Good taste and special flavour
Yield is higher
Sold at a higher price than Hayward
Disadvantages
More subtropical plant less adaptation ability for cold climate
More sensitive for frost damage and diseases especially PSA
Sensitive for sunburn
Needing artificial pollination for larger fruit size
Limited cold storage
Green kiwifruit cultivars in the World market;
Hayward
Summer kiwi
Green Light
Mega Kiwi
Sweet Green
Baby kiwis (Mostly green)
Yellow kiwifruit cultivars in the World market Gold Kiwi;
Gold3
Soreli
JinGold
Enza Red
Skelton varieties (W45 and others)
We should grow yellow kiwi or not?
Yes, we should grow yellow cultivars but,
With true techniques (protect frost damage, net, drainage, wind break, mechanical
pollination…)
Suitable ecology (min-max. temperature, good soil, enough water supply, little warm
for PSA)
Why the researchers are trying to find new cultivars?
People want to eat different taste
Diseases may limit production
Need to find resistant varieties
Some of the new varieties which have more yields can bring more income.
Early or late ripening have some advantages
Cold storage, frost resistance and other traits can supply some advantages.
Also some new cultivars can have some healthy components. For example Vitamin C,
phenolics, antosiyanin, antioxidant
Kiwifruit Products;
New Zealand used kiwifruit over 200 varieties of products. However, kiwi mostly used as a
table in Turkey. This situation may be prevented in the future kiwi severe low prices. New
Zealand kiwi products are the mainly; Tea, Dry fruit, Chocolate, Cream, Soap, Body Lotion,
Fruit Juice, Liquor, Vitamin pill, Cake, Candy, Oil, Others
Conclusions
Increase kiwi growing area and production each following year
We should increase number of the cultivars otherwise price will go down dramatically
Early ripening cultivars and yellow cultivars are good alternatives
We need new cold storage units around kiwi growing areas
We should grow suitable ecology all cultivars
All kiwifruit growers should join same union to have big bargain potential
Kiwifruit processing industry should be developed
Literatures
Matías Kulczewski, 2012. Nuevas Varıedades De Kıwı:vısıón Actual. B.Ingeniero Agrónomo,
Asesorías K&R Ltda
Ferguson A.R. And G.Costa 2011. Kiwifruit: Evolution of a crop. Proc. VIIth IS on Kiwifruit,
Acta Hort. 913, ISHS 2011 p:31-42.
I.J. Warrington and G.C. Weston, 1990. Kiwifruit Science and Management, New Zealand
Society for horticultural Science, 576 p.
Testolin R. and A. R. Ferguson 2009: Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) production and marketing in
Italy, New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 37:1, 1-32
Giuseppe Zuccherelli, 1994 L’actinidia. Frutticoltura Moderna, Bologna Italy 421 P.
www.faostat.com
www.zespri.com
Personal photos and visits
... For this reason, young plants belonging to high-quality clones propagated by tissue culture are preferred in the best kiwifruit orchards. Especially with a strong root system, these plants adapt in a short time; their main branches are formed within a year, and the next year or the year after gives the first fruits (Zimmerman, 1988;Atak, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kiwifruit has been one of the most profitable fruit species in the orchard business in Turkey for more than 25 years. In Turkey, the volume of kiwifruit production is relatively lower than that in China, Italy, New Zealand, and Chile. However, Turkey is one of the top countries in the world in terms of production area. Most kiwifruit orchards are quite new. Furthermore, production is increasing every year. Clearly, quality will be much more important in the near future; therefore, kiwifruit growers will have to use modern techniques that will improve the quality of the fruits to ensure better taste. In the first few years, because of lack of technical knowledge, many kiwifruit orchards were run with incorrect systems. Nowadays, with improved knowledge, modern kiwifruit orchards have been started in different regions throughout Turkey. At the start, the yield was only 20-30 t ha‑1; however, in recent years, it has risen to 40-50 t ha‑1. Intensive use of fertigation and plant-growth regulators has contributed to increased yield. Ridge planting in groundwater and employing water sprinklers are methods used in modern orchards. An extensive mini-sprinkler system has been introduced to protect new orchards from frost. Also, the method of using a net system to cover the plants is gaining widespread adoption in Turkey. Growers are building artificial windbreaks using polythene fabric. A proper sanitary management plan would involve controlling the presence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in kiwifruit orchards. In this ever-changing world, kiwifruit farming needs to use new cultivars, training systems, disease-, pest- and weed-control techniques, fertilization strategies and irrigation systems, which should be adapted to changes. Otherwise, it will fall to competition and lose its profitability. While cultivars are the obvious and visible innovations, improved production and postharvest systems are also important for the success of the orchard business. Therefore, when considering the increasingly competitive conditions in the orchard industry, all techniques must be applied as a holistic approach to ensure quality production.
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