Gupta RK, Hill A, Sawyer AW, Cozzi-Lepri A, von Wyl V, Yerly S, et al. Virological monitoring and resistance to first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with HIV-1 treated under WHO guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

UCL/MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London Medical School, London, UK.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 22.43). 07/2009; 9(7):409-17. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70136-7
Source: PubMed


Antiretroviral-therapy rollout in resource-poor countries is often associated with limited, if any, HIV-RNA monitoring. The effect of variable monitoring on the emergence of resistance after therapy with commonly used drug combinations was assessed by systematic review of studies reporting resistance in patients infected with HIV with a CD4 count of fewer than 200 cells per muL treated with two nucleoside analogues (including a thymidine analogue) and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. 8376 patients from eight cohorts and two prospective studies were analysed. Resistance at virological failure to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors at 48 weeks was 88.3% (95% CI 82.2-92.9) in infrequently monitored patients, compared with 61.0% (48.9-72.2) in frequently monitored patients (p<0.001). Lamivudine resistance was 80.5% (72.9-86.8) and 40.3% (29.1-52.2) in infrequently and frequently monitored patients, respectively (p<0.001); the prevalence of at least one thymidine analogue mutation was 27.8% (21.2-35.2) and 12.1% (5.9-21.4), respectively (p<0.001). Genotypic resistance at 48 weeks to lamivudine, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (thymidine analogue mutations), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears substantially higher in less frequently monitored patients. This Review highlights the need for cheap point-of-care viral-load tests to identify early viral failures and limit the emergence of resistance.

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Available from: Huldrych F Günthard
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    • "Regular virological monitoring has been shown to be useful both in resource rich and resource limited settings [7,8]. However, due to cost implications, this is not currently recommended for routine use in most developing country settings. "
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has led to declines in HIV related morbidity and mortality. However, virologic failure (VF) and acquired drug resistance (ADR) may negatively affect these gains. This study describes the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1 VF and ADR among first-line ART experienced adults at a rural HIV clinic in Coastal Kenya. HIV-infected adults on first-line ART for >=6 months were cross-sectionally recruited between November 2008 and March 2011. The primary outcome was VF, defined as a one-off plasma viral load of >=400 copies/ml. The secondary outcome was ADR, defined as the presence of resistance associated mutations. Logistic regression and Fishers exact test were used to describe correlates of VF and ADR respectively. Of the 232 eligible participants on ART over a median duration of 13.9 months, 57 (24.6% [95% CI: 19.2 - 30.6]) had VF. Fifty-five viraemic samples were successfully amplified and sequenced. Of these, 29 (52.7% [95% CI: 38.8 - 66.3]) had at least one ADR, with 25 samples having dual-class resistance mutations. The most prevalent ADR mutations were the M184V (n = 24), K103N/S (n = 14) and Y181C/Y/I/V (n = 8). Twenty-six of the 55 successfully amplified viraemic samples (47.3%) did not have any detectable resistance mutation. Younger age (15-34 vs. >=35 years: adjusted odd ratios [95% CI], p-value: 0.3 [0.1-0.6], p = 0.002) and unsatisfactory adherence (<95% vs. >=95%: 3.0 [1.5-6.5], p = 0.003) were strong correlates of VF. Younger age, unsatisfactory adherence and high viral load were also strong correlates of ADR. High levels of VF and ADR were observed in younger patients and those with unsatisfactory adherence. Youth-friendly ART initiatives and strengthened adherence support should be prioritized in this Coastal Kenyan setting. To prevent unnecessary/premature switches, targeted HIV drug resistance testing for patients with confirmed VF should be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · AIDS Research and Therapy
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    • "Mathematical modeling using data from Africa has shown that viral load testing did not have an impact on long-term survival [Phillips et al., 2008], and this was recently confirmed in a large clinical trial [Lynen et al., 2010]. Plasma HIV-RNA measurement might however impact drug resistance development; a meta-analysis has shown that patients treated in settings without viral load monitoring had significantly more resistance mutations, compared to patients in settings where plasma HIV-RNA is measured every 3 months [Gupta et al., 2009]. In our study, the M184V mutation and NNRTI resistance mutations were most common. "
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    ABSTRACT: The virological response and development of drug resistance during first-line anti-retroviral treatment (ART) were studied in Indonesia where the majority of patients infected with HIV have a history of injecting drug use, which is often linked with lower treatment adherence and development of drug-resistance. As many as 575 patients starting ART between September 2007 and March 2010 in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung were followed prospectively. Clinical and laboratory monitoring was performed every 6 months. Plasma samples with HIV-RNA ≥400 copies/ml were examined for drug resistance mutations. Most patients were male (72.3%), 59.7% had a history of injecting drug use, and the median CD4+ cells count before start of ART was 35 cells/mm(3) (IQR 10-104). From 438 HIV patients with HIV-RNA measurements, 40 (9.1%) subjects had HIV-RNA ≥400 copies/ml after 24 weeks (median follow-up 16 (IQR 8-25) months). Of these failing patients 16 (47%) subjects had drug resistance mutations, predominantly M184V (35.3%), Y181C (23.5%), K103N (11.7%), and TAMs (11.7%). A history of treatment discontinuation ≥1 month, reported by 5.3% (23) of patients, was strongly associated with virological failure (adjusted OR 12.64, 95% CI 4.51-35.41); and a history of injecting drug use was not (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.38-1.46). This is the largest and most systematic evaluation of virological response to first line ART in Indonesia. Patients in this cohort responded well to first line ART, with low rates of virological failure and drug resistance. A history of injecting drug use should not be a reason to withhold ART in this setting. J. Med. Virol. 9999:XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    • "Immunologic parameters, however, have lower performance to identify virologic failures which could lead to premature change or to continuous use of failed regimens reviewed in [12]. This leads to higher morbidity and mortality rates and more complex resistance in settings where virologic tests are not available [13]. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of treatment failure is necessary in settings where free ART service is accelerating and patient monitoring is exclusively dependent on clinical and CD4+ T cell measurements like in Ethiopia. "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV/TB coinfection remains a major challenge even after the initiation of HAART. Little is known about Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) specific immune restoration in relation to immunologic and virologic outcomes after long-term HAART during co-infections with latent and active TB. A total of 232 adults, including 59 HIV patients with clinical TB (HIV + TB+), 125 HIV patients without clinical TB (HIV + TB-), 13 HIV negative active TB patients (HIV-TB+), and 10 HIV negative Tuberculin Skin TST positive (HIV-TST+), and 25 HIV-TST- individuals were recruited. HAART was initiated in 113 HIV + patients (28 TB + and 85 TB-), and anti-TB treatment for all TB cases. CD4+ T-cell count, HIV RNA load, and IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10 were measured at baseline, 6 months (M6), 18 months (M18) and 24 months (M24) after HAART initiation. The majority of HIV + TB- (70%, 81%, 84%) as well as HIV + TB + patients (60%, 77%, 80%) had virologic success (HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml) by M6, M18 and M24, respectively. HAART also significantly increased CD4+ T-cell counts at 2 years in HIV + TB + (from 110.3 to 289.9 cells/mul), HIV + TB- patients (197.8 to 332.3 cells/mul), HIV + TST- (199 to 347 cells/mul) and HIV + TST + individuals (195 to 319 cells/mul). Overall, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients that achieved virologic success and in total CD4+ counts increased between HIV patients with and without TB or LTBI. The Mtb specific IFN-gamma response at baseline was significantly lower in HIV + TB + (3.6 pg/ml) compared to HIV-TB + patients (34.4 pg/ml) and HIV + TST + (46.3 pg/ml) individuals; and in HIV-TB + patients compared to HIV-TST + individuals (491.2 pg/ml). By M18 on HAART, the IFN-gamma response remained impaired in HIV + TB + patients (18.1 pg/ml) while it normalized in HIV + TST + individuals (from 46.3 to 414.2 pg/ml). Our data show that clinical and latent TB infections do not influence virologic and immunologic outcomes of ART in HIV patients. Despite this, HAART was unable to restore optimal TB responsiveness as measured by Mtb specific IFN-gamma response in HIV/TB patients. Improvement of Mtb-specific immune restoration should be the focus of future therapeutic strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · AIDS Research and Therapy
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