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Patterns of listening through social media: Online fan engagement with the live music experience

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Abstract

In recent years, the expansion and use of mobile Internet and social media have changed live music engagement and fandom quite considerably. It has not only allowed fans to find and connect with each other at shows, but also to tweet and text concert set-lists and other information as they happen, thereby allowing non-attendees around the world to feel part of the event. This study examines the responses of fans engaged in this activity, identifying the key themes and patterns apparent within this behaviour, arguing that fans are using social media and mobile technology in an effort to contest and reshape the boundaries of live music concerts. It demonstrates how these online tools are involving fans that are not physically present at the show, seemingly incorporating them into the real-time “live” experience. This article explores how fans of prolific touring artists U2 and Tori Amos undertake this, with assigned concert attendees tweeting the set-list to online fans, where they gather to enjoy the show together, from the comfort of their computers.

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... Individual consumers can simultaneously play all roles and find the channels through which they most prefer to play these roles, challenging the traditional views of not only media creation and consumption [17,46], but also those of services and product marketing [52]. Smartphones and ubiquitous computing increase the impact of these changes as of social media users now enjoy virtually unlimited access, including at times and in places where that usage may not be prominently expected [43], for example during live events [3]. Observing these trends, marketers employ social media channels intensively to advertise their products, services and events to current and future consumers. ...
... However, individuals' use of social media, either organically or under the influence of event marketers, is an interesting phenomenon when the individuals are present at a live event. The intersection of live events and social media has been studied in the contexts of concerts [3], political events [35,53,61], sports events [22,24,30] and even cultural experiences [59]. The power of social media on politics have also been investigated both in live event and online contexts [14,20,35,47]. ...
... However, these results indicate that a large number of event attendees used social media during the event, and also that a variety of different media services are used. This is something that event organizers are already taking into account in their marketing [46] efforts, but also something that could be further developed to increase attendee engagement with the event itself [3]. Spectating esports can be a highly social activity, and spectators show themselves to be active users and followers of social media, adding to the broader picture in which gameplay and spectatorship are a reflection of the social self. ...
Conference Paper
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There is no doubt that various social media services shape the ways in which we approach our daily lives. The ubiquitous nature of these services, afforded by mobile devices, means that we can take them with us wherever we go --- including when we attend live events. Uncovering why individuals use social media during live events can help improve event organization, marketing, and the experiences of attendees. Our understanding of the motivations for using social media during live events is, however, still lacking in depth, especially in regard to emerging live events such as esports. This study aims to answer the question: what motivates the use of social media during live esports events? Data was gathered via a survey (N=255) at the 'Assembly 2016' LAN-event, a major live esports event. We examine the relationships between using various social media services and the motivations for esports spectating, through the Motivation Scale for Sports Consumption. While the results indicate that using social media services while attending Assembly 2016 was quite popular, it seemed that in many cases social media usage was a distraction from esports spectating, a core activity of the event. The results provide implications as to how marketers of live esports events should encourage or control usage of social media by attendees.
... This has been confirmed in further studies such those by Y. H. Kim, Duncan, and Chung (2015), Kumar et al. (2010), Ralston, Ellis, Compton, and Lee (2007), and I. A. Wong and Tang (2016). Although the human sigma concept has not been applied to a festival or event context, empirical research suggests that engagement and participation at festivals positively influences the value and meaning of the festival-goer experience (Bennett, 2012;Berridge, 2007;Hudson, Roth, Madden, & Hudson, 2015;Mannell, 1999;Shamir & Ruskin, 1984;Sundbo & Darmer, 2008), the perceived quality of a festival, satisfaction, and consumer behavior (Y. H. Kim et al., 2015;Lei & Zhao, 2012;Packer & Ballantyne, 2011;Pitts & Spencer, 2008;J. ...
... However, their importance to the festival-goer has received only limited academic attention. Furthermore, the engagement with an organization along with image and branding are also found to have a significant impact on the overall experience (Bennett, 2012;Huang et al., 2010;Hudson et al., 2015;Sundbo & Darmer, 2008;J. Wong et al., 2015), yet similarly, these factors have not been studied in relation to importance and value to the festival-goer. ...
Article
This article explores the influence of sociodemographic characteristics in determining the perceived importance of attributes of the UK music festival experience to festival-goers. Quantitative data were collected through an online survey using a cluster, snowball sampling technique and 586 respondents completed the survey. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to identify factors of the festival experience, whereas linear regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of festival-goers and the resulting experience constructs against the overall evaluated experience. From eight major factors, seven hypotheses were identified. The results revealed the most important factors to the overall experience to be entertainment, added value, and music, whereas the remaining factors did not have a direct impact. Conversely, the sociodemographic characteristics contributing to the dependent constructs were primarily age and gender, followed by education and marital status. The location where festival-goers grew up and their employment status had minimal impact. The practical implications of this study provide the opportunity for festival organizers to direct their strategic management efforts towards the elements of the festival experience that are most important to their targeted or typical festival-goers. This article also addresses a notable gap in the literature by evaluating the importance of specific experience attributes in the context of popular UK music festivals. Moreover, it examines the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics of festival-goers and the importance of experience attributes to the overall UK music festival experience.
... Musicians use the set-list in an attempt to establish a relationship with the audience members. The subsequent reactions from each particular audience could range from joy and solace to anger and despair (Bennett, 2012). Even amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the set-list remains a powerful (pedagogical) tool for engagement. ...
... Even amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the set-list remains a powerful (pedagogical) tool for engagement. Through social media such as Twitter and Tik-Tok, fans can create their set-lists of songs in anticipation of virtual performances (Bennett, 2012). This creative exercise leverages technology of the present to anticipate the future, based on past experiences with the artist. ...
Article
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Artists have long addressed social injustices within popular music. As teachers consider how to deconstruct and teach the events of 2020 (and beyond) with an eye toward the future, we offer a novel pedagogical approach to incorporating music into the social studies classroom: the set-list. The set-list can be understood as containing temporal conditions insofar that all traditional demarcations of time (e.g., past, present, and future) are implicated in its construction. Extending the concept of the set-list into education holds excellent potential for teachers and students seeking to develop a more complex perspective about criticality and social in/justice. Our set-list example originates from years-long conversations around our experiences as former secondary social studies teachers, current teacher educators, fathers, spouses, and individuals living in the United States. Music encourages students to recognize how the past, present, and future are intertwined in learning history. While the official social studies curriculum does not include music as an approach to learning history in the social studies classroom, using a student-generated set-list starts transforming the world within the context of social justice.
... In advanced and new industrial economies, social media have grown to play an important role in a variety of public domains: entertainment [2][3][4][5][6][7][8], business enterprise [9][10][11][12][13][14][15], social and political activism [16][17][18][19][20][21][22], and public services [23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. In Turkey, 64 % of the population (54 million) were estimated to be active social media users in 2020 [30]. ...
... Gezi Park protests took place in May-June 2013 when citizens began to oppose the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park, which then quickly escalated into the expression of overall discontent with the economic and social policies of the state, such as increased encroachment upon secular institutions, human rights, and public spaces[298,[302][303][304].2 While most of these cases could be placed in several categories, our categorization was based on the official narratives as well as analytical reports.M. ...
Article
Few research studies have examined the impact of government policies toward social media on individuals’ attitudes to social media use, particularly when these policies aim to denounce and control social media platforms, as was the case in Turkey in 2013–2016. A conceptual model, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 2005) [1], was proposed to investigate the mediating role of awareness of government policies, degree of political involvement, online trust, and the moderating role of party identification in predicting the attitudes to social media use. Data were collected through a survey of 653 social media users in Istanbul, Turkey (mean age = 31.76, SD = 10.96; 40 % women, 83 % Turkish ethnicity) in September 2015. Using PLS-SEM modelling, the awareness of government policies, the degree of political involvement, and the online trust were found to partially mediate the relationship between the frequency of social media use and the attitudes to social media use for the users of Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram, while the moderating role of party identification was not significant in this model. The results provide additional support for the role of social context and past behaviors in predicting the attitudes and future intentions in the use of digital communication technologies.
... Booth and Kelly (2013) discovered that fans make use of the latest digital technologies as one of mediums in addition to off-line gatherings to communicate with other fans and express their traditional fan identities in their ethnographic studies about British science-fiction television program fandom. In a similar vein, Bennett (2012) reported that music fans use social media and mobile technology to experience the 'live-ness' of music concerts. The technological development did not undermine the experience of the live music concert. ...
Article
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Gatherings organized by Japanese popular culture fans have been held since the early 2000s in Malaysia. Fan activities such as costume play (cosplay) of characters in popular culture and production of secondary products such as artwork and fanzines have captured the attention of Malaysian youth. The gatherings and conventions organized by fans are categorized as anime, comics, and games (ACG) events among the people involved. Since little attention has been given to this growing fan culture in Malaysia, a qualitative study was designed to explore ACG event participation. This article discusses aspects of autonomy, relatedness, and competence, which are considered basic psychological needs to enhance motivation for development in life. Each need is integrated and fosters the development of individuals. These three aspects were found while analyzing data from in-depth interviews of nine Malaysians who have been involved in ACG events for more than five years. The ACG events have the potential to become grounds for development when a person participates in an activity of one's own will, feels comfortable identifying with the imagined fan community which was implicit in descriptions of peers through use of the Japanese word ‘otaku’, and socializes and receives constant positive feedback through the activity.
... We can notice that the public of these events ceased to be just passive spectators and started to play an increasingly significant role (Edelman and Singer, 2015), mainly from the dissemination of technologies pro vided by smartphones. It is common to watch people use their smart phones to send text messages, interact on social networks, take pictures, film, and use flashlights (Bennett, 2012) while interacting during entertainment events. These devices pro vide a robust and little explored computational tool. ...
... In the latter group, the articles mostly focused on musical events. Those included both classical concerts (for instance, Dobson, 2010;Pitts et al., 2013), jazz festivals (Burland and Pitts 2010) or popular music (Bennett, 2012;Lamont, 2011), and in all these cases the articles suggested reception as a finite event of audience interacting with a text within a particular timeframe. The experience, according to authors, is contextual and relates to listeners' social and economic localities, but at the same time emerges as linear: the analytical steps taken go back to the Birmingham School and Stuart Hall's model of encoding/decoding (1973/1980). ...
Article
The question of reception is closely linked to the history and the roots of audience studies. But what is ‘reception’ and what exactly does it mean? As audience studies have developed from a contested novelty to a now established academic field, what do we do with a concept that defined our interests in the past and may now be too wide or even obsolete? This article deals with this issue by mapping how the concept of reception was conceptualized and researched in audience studies of the past ten years, with a focus on studies of music and studies of television. We find that in music, strong focus remains on music reception in the context of performances and events, and this lies in contrast to a small number of studies which instead focus on a framework of music in ordinary life and the audiences’ contextual localities. Concerning reception of television, much of the scholarship starts from the cultural studies tradition and looks at television viewing as a means to construct identities. Discussing these findings, we inquire whether the hybridization of media also implies a hybridization of research traditions and methodologies, and what consequences it has for the balance between textual, production and audience approaches.
... Social media can be a powerful adjunct to discrete physical events, directly contributing to their level of perceived success (Osborne, 2011;Palmer, 2017). Social media can extend the reach of live events to those not able to be physically present (Bennett, 2012), ...
Article
Purpose: Sustainable construction is widely considered to be the best practice in construction, helping to create a healthy built environment. Social media is identified as a valuable data source for research on sustainable construction, and Twitter is a popular social media platform in relation to the construction. Green Building construction is identified as one of the methods that promotes sustainable construction. The purpose of this study is to characterise “Green Building” as a topic in Twitter. Design/methodology/approach: Social network analysis methods were applied to a large set of Twitter data related to “green building”. Time sequence analysis and network visualisation were used to characterise Twitter activity and to identify influential users. Text analytics and visualisation methods were applied to the same data set to visualise the text content of Twitter posts relating to green building. Findings: Peaks in Twitter activity were associated with physical “green building” events. The network visualisation of the Twitter data revealed a complex structure and a range of types of interactions. The most “influential” users depended on the ranking method used; however, a number of users had high influence in all measures used. The tweet text visualisation showed evidence of a global and interactive audience on Twitter engaged in conversations about green building. Also, it was found that external links, emoji and popular terms related to a particular topic can be used to increase the engagement of Twitter users on that topic. Originality/value: Certain Green Building events were observed to be associated with high levels of Twitter activity. The virtual was found to be closely linked to the physical, and for the promotion of green building construction, their respective impact is potentially the most powerful when used in conjunction. The most influential Twitter accounts did not belong to one class of user, including both individuals and organisations. Twitter offers a platform for a range of stakeholders in the area of green building construction to reach a substantial audience and to be influential in the public sphere. The findings of this research provide a valuable reference for industry practitioners and researchers to deepen their understanding of the application of Twitter to green building construction, and the methods of using Twitter to promote important information related to sustainable construction. Keywords: Green building, Social media, Construction industry, Social network analysis, Text analytics, Twitter
... The time-distribution profiles for Twitter use, as mentioned above, indicate that Twitter is a 'here-and-now' medium, in accordance with previous research into Twitter use in political campaigns (Larsson and Moe, 2012). There is little research into Twitter use during concerts, but our findings resonate with previous studies by Bennett (2012Bennett ( , 2014 and Jamison-Powell and colleagues (2014), as well as unpublished studies of tweeting at Øya 2011 (Maasø, 2012) and the by:Larm festival in 2011 (Sandnes et al., 2011). Both found that 'here-and-now' tweets were predominant, and, moreover, that tweets were typically instant reactions to the live concert event or its atmosphere. ...
Article
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Live music events are increasingly saturated with and mediated via the online and mobile devices of the audience. This article explores patterns in this media use surrounding the Øya festival in Norway and focuses, in particular, on music streaming and social media activity. It presents statistical analysis of listening sessions via the streaming service Wimp and social interactions via the micro-blogging platform Twitter. The juxtaposition of these unique access points allows the analysis to explore the impact of physical live concerts on the digital music experience. It also enables a nuanced examination of how the festival audience responds to different artist segments, from international headliners to local acts. One key finding is that local artists that are positively evaluated via Twitter have the greatest boost in subsequent music streaming. The article argues that in-depth studies of the intersection of live and mediated music are essential to understanding the encounter between artists and audiences that is facilitated by contemporary live music events.
... New genres in pop culture makes a more diverse channel in forming fandom (Lee, 2011) studied the nature and implications of fan-translation and distribution of cultural commodities through a case study of English fansubbing of anime or in this case subtitling of Japanese animation in English. (Bennet, 2012) Arguing that fans are using social media and mobile technology in an effort to contest and reshape the boundaries of live music concerts. The study demonstrates how these online tools are involving fans that are not physically present at the show, seemingly incorporating them into the real-time "live" experience . ...
Article
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In the past few years, South Korean pop culture has become a global phenomenon. The sudden popularity of the culture commonly known as as Korean Wave or Hallyu. This trend includes Korean drama, dance, music, films, animation, games, and fans club for Korean pop celebrity. In the past, those who become fans is only from a spesific age, but now it is more varied. One of most popular of the Korean singer groups is BangTan Boys. Abbreviated as BTS, the fans of BangTan Boys is proudly call themselves, “ARMY”. Using the Henry Jenkins’s Participatory culture theory along with qualitative method, this research tries to analyze that there are audiens who do not only consuming pop culture, but also producing new cultural artefacts from that. The data were collected by focus group discussion, in-depth interview and data analysis. It shows that some of the fans are making “fanfiction” as the reproductions of new artefacts, despite actively participating in BTS fandom by doing activities as include in the four types of Jenkin’s participatory cultures.
... Live albums are an economical way of generating revenue where a willingness for fans to use peer production to create live albums via reciprocal relationships with artists could lead to a new generation of even more economical live albums and films. Facilitated by mobile phones, it is not unreasonable that fans will be able to stream their concert experience live from handheld devices in the future, further changing what Bennett (2012) calls notions of liveness. ...
Article
The live album is an important artefact in bringing together recorded music and live music. As the popularity of live music grows in tandem with the decline of recorded music, the role of the live album is explored in the context of a digital era. By exploring the recent phenomenon of peer production (or crowdsourcing), and with reference to various examples, the future of the live album is explored as one which blurs the boundaries of creation and ownership. Posing that this new era of voluntary participation may benefit musicians commercially, the article concludes that future research into peer production may inspire new ways for the music industry to appease changing consumer preferences in a time of rapid technological change.
... The Novelty theme also revealed that participants desired the unknown aspects of live concert attendance. In L. Bennett's (2012) words: "Anticipation is mainly focused on what songs will be performed, with specific excitement surrounding the possibility of new or rare tracks being included in the set" (p. 7) [AQ: 7]. ...
Article
Recent technological innovations have facilitated widespread illegal downloading of recorded music. While this points towards a decreased willingness to pay for music, the increase in the popularity of live music suggests otherwise. This is especially so when taking into account the rising cost of concert tickets, likely the result of reduced recorded music revenues. In the present study, a consideration of the unique motivations of why music fans decide on whether or not to attend live concerts is of interest. Drawing from a sample of 249 participants (55.02% female) with a mean age of 26.49, an open-ended questionnaire was analysed thematically with four key themes defined: Experience, Engagement, Novelty and Practical. The results highlight that participants want to “be there”, to be a part of something unique and special, sharing the experience with likeminded others. Other social dimensions such as the use of live music events as a means to demonstrate fan worship were also found. The unknown, novel aspects of live music were key motivators, such as hearing new material and watching support bands. Notably, price was not a contributing factor when choosing to attend a concert, suggesting that live music offers fans something special that they are more than willing to pay for.
... et al., 2014) and when it follows a streamed event (Bennett, 2012). Therefore, we simply aim to replicate those findings in our study without proposing specific related hypotheses. ...
Article
Social media communities are commonly used as marketing tools to reach millions of users. Through two studies, we investigate how owned social media content is associated with commercial performance and moderated by community size. We find that commercial performance is positively associated with posts showcasing the superior value of a product or brand and with posts that have an intention to sell. In addition, in large online communities, posts intended to create social interactions among marketers and users are not associated with commercial performance. However, in mid-sized communities, posts with the same intentions increase commercial performance. We theorise that the presence of internet trolls and a lower sense of group loyalty may explain the absence of these associations in large online communities. Finally, we identify four dimensions of content that were fairly consistent across studies. We customise these content dimensions according to each of the industries studied for marketers' use.
... A produção de listas de fãs: memória, influência e debate no "evento" do fandom 86 V.9 -Nº 2 jul./dez. 2015 São Paulo -Brasil PAUL BOOTH p. 85-108 S E EXISTE UMA atividade na qual a maioria dos fãs se engaja, independente de quão afirmativa ou transformativa (obsession_inc, 2009;Hills, 2014b) seja a prática de seu fandom, de quão envolvidos eles estão em suas atividades como fã (ver Bennett, 2012;Bielby;Harrington;Bielby, 1999;Jenkins;Ford;Green, 2013), de quão interessados ou não eles estão em tomar parte em uma comunidade de fã (Booth;Kelly, 2013), ou até de qual objeto de adoração eles veem, interagem ou escutam, é quase certo que essa atividade é a criação de listas. Muitos fãs adoram criar e compartilhar listas: quer sejam listas dos melhores (por exemplo, os mais celebrados discos), listas de favoritos (por exemplo, momentos favoritos no futebol), ou lista de piores (por exemplo, os piores enredos já criados!), a feitura de listas parece ser uma atividade comum a uma série de fãs e dentro de várias de suas comunidades. ...
Article
To date, there have been very few studies on fandom and fan audiences that have focused on practice of fans’ list-making. This article, which introduces this topic for analysis, first argues that fans’ list-making presents fans with an opportunity to simultaneously memorialize, influence, and argue. Second, this article offers list-making as a tool for observing commonalities between the different practices of media, music, and sports fans. Finally,this article cautions against the universality of these list-making practices, illustrating how list-making shows the artificiality of the event in fan activities. Using a combinationof Žižekian and Couldryian analyses, this article argues that fans’ list-making becomes a new way of reading fandom reductively, and highlights the media ritual of fandom.
... Nesses eventos, pode-se observar comportamentos comuns da audiência, tais como: uso de objetos, gestos e organizações sociais ou atitudes como pular, dançar e bater palmas [11], principalmente em momentos de clímax durante jogos esportivos ou concertos musicais. Ainda nesse contexto, com frequência dispositivos móveis como os smartphones são utilizados como objeto para simbolizar o engajamento, com intenção de enviar mensagens de texto, filmar ou usar a lanterna [2]. Conhecer sobre os diferentes tipos de eventos e estratégias adotadas pela audiência é essencial para proporcionar novas formas de engajamento, usufruindo de tecnologias adaptadas a tais características. ...
Conference Paper
The use of technologies to promote public interaction at different types of events is increasingly popular. Actions range from lighting smartphone flashes at concerts and festivals to interactive polls at lectures and scientific events. All of this represents attempts to appropriate the technology that is already part of people's daily lives to facilitate a more active public participation. Based on the techniques of audience engagement and collaborative interaction, this research aims to classify and systematize the characteristics of the most varied events involving the participation of people, aiming at their technology-mediated active participation. Thus, this paper discusses the characteristics and technological insertion proposed in some real events, sources of experimental studies, and, consequently, heuristics for technological insertion for interaction in these and other events.
... They have shown how online video experiences on computer screens frequently have the function of generating audience interest 13 and transforming conventional ideas of compensation and liveness, 14 providing viewers with multiple camera angles and instant participation for audiences not physically present at the event. 15 The literature on popular music festivals has not only concentrated on participation in the physical sphere, but also on the kinds of festivals associated with countercultural narratives. 16 It is symptomatic, for instance, that McKay mentions the growing bifurcation into grassroots and industry music festivals in the United Kingdom in the 1980s (when the legendary countercultural rock music festival called Glastonbury evolved into a more commercial event) without further considering insiders' perspectives of the new consumer culture festivals. ...
Chapter
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This chapter examines the transition of electronic music festivals into televisual social media in the 2010s as a complex, industry-driven mediatization with broad implications for festival cultures and industries. The chapter case study illustrates the dynamics of this transition specifically from a pioneer in the global industry of EDM pop festivals, which mushroomed in the 2000s when a mix of electronic dance music and Top 40 gained came to dominate pop culture images of the millennium generation. The case study is the Tomorrowland festival near Antwerp, Belgium, which was a key site when this global pop culture peaked in popularity in the early 2010s. The core argument of the analysis is that the transformation of televisuality in the transition to social media and digital culture more generally has happened primarily through a new genre of online video, which is produced for marketing purposes but also have implications for the festival experience and the festival design. The company ID&T, which produces the Tomorrowland festival and many other EDM pop
... The conflict due to the blogger's post also reminds one of Han's (2016Han's ( /2018 counsel to listen in online communication. Bennett (2012) has described effective "listening through social media" in her article about concert attendees who connect virtually with non-attendees (p. 545). ...
Article
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In recent years, organizers of mass protests have used social and digital media to form large physical gatherings. These media allow protesters to exchange texts and visuals quickly across vast distances, providing means to organize protests widely and efficiently. Although social media and digital communication have played a constructive and positive role in citizen protests (Gerbaudo, 2012), lately these media have witnessed polarized political discourses. This article examines the 2017 Women’s March, the largest protest in the U.S. history (Fisher, 2019), as a case study of an effective but a polarized protest. I analyze the discourse related to the march based on its mission statement, media reports posted on the march website, and two authoritative books about the march, including a volume published by the march organizers. In my analysis, I use insights of South Korean Philosopher Byung-Chul Han in ways that may help illuminate the problem of polarized online political discourses. My analysis shows that the march succeeded in unifying diverse allies, but it did not engage the other side of the political spectrum. Polarized political discourses weaken governance and encourage a climate in which intolerance and hate find sustenance. A protest is not just an exercise in declamation but also an appeal to a disagreeable other. To support this point, I discuss practices by a master protester, Mahatma Gandhi, who unfailingly reached out to a disagreeable 'other'. I briefly describe his philosophy of nonviolent protests, his three exemplary protests, and discuss Gandhi’s relevance for present-day protesters.
... Increasingly, these conventional methods are supplemented with more advanced techniques and data sources following methodological and technological innovations. This includes the use of Social Network Analysis to understand the connections between various actors in "music worlds" (Crossley and Emms, 2016;Berry, 2011), analysis of streaming and social media data to gain insight into online audience activity (Bennett, 2012;Danielsen and Kjus, 2019), and reflective diaries adding understanding of how music professionals go about their work and how audiences experience live music (Behr et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose This paper sets out to compare different methodologies for measuring the value(s) of live popular music and to explore the different motivations amongst a range of organisations engaged in that work. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyse how the values of live music are measured, who does it and why. Based on this analysis the authors present a model that visualises the myriad of organisations, methods, aims and objectives involved. Findings The authors identify three approaches to measuring the impact of live music (economic impact studies, mapping and censuses and social sciences and humanities) and three types of actors (industry, policy and academia). The analysis of these demonstrates that measuring live music is not a neutral activity, but itself constructs a vision on how live music ecologies function Practical implications For cultural organisations, demonstrating the outcomes of their work is important in acquiring various forms of support. The model presented in this paper helps them to select adequate methodologies and to reflect on the consequences of particular approaches to measuring live music activities. Originality/value While the number of studies measuring live music's impact is growing, theoretical and methodological reflection on these activities is missing. The authors compare the different methodologies by discussing strengths and weaknesses. This results in a model that identifies gaps in existing studies and explores new directions for future live music research. It enhances understanding of how different ways of measuring live music affect policymaking and conceptions of what live music is and should be.
... We extend these existing understandings of the hand by developing the idea of the knowing hand in relation to two theoretical stances relating to mobile and locative media: 1) understandings of how mobile media use generates emotional and sensory feelings through forms of co-presence (Licoppe 2002; Richardson and Wilken 2012; Horst 2011) and social media socialities (Bennett 2012; Gruzd and Haythornthwaite 2013; Markham 2014); and 2) notions of mobile play and playfulness (Hjorth and Richardson 2013). Such approaches, we argue, invite a consideration of how the hand knows and tells and how it generates feeling, beyond its relationship to the materiality of the world and its capacity to write and draw. ...
Article
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In this article we focus on the relationship between vision and the hand to develop an understanding of the experience of mobile media use which in turn informs a methodology for researching it; a tactile digital ethnography. Theories of knowing through the hand, and uses of the hand in documentary practice already highlight its significance. We bring these together with our video ethnographies of mobile media use, to show how a focus on the hand offers both new insights into other people’s digital worlds, and an approach to learning about these.
... The motivation in pop concerts (Brown & Knox, 2017), audience behaviour in opera (Lin & Williams, 2014), classical music visitors' profile (Saayman & Saayman, 2016), as well as audience development in orchestral (Sigurjonsson, 2010) and chamber music (Barlow & Shibli, 2007) testify to this emerging trend. Technological innovations have been affecting the ways audiences consume music (Bennett, 2012), and the use of digital technologies in complexity of networks and factors that influence a jazz concert or festival (e.g. organisational perspectives, attendees' socio-psychological factors, festivals' impact, community engagement). ...
Article
Diverse organisations and initiatives testify to audience development as an emerging field in the cultural sector. Both professionals and academics endeavour to find ways in which jazz event organisers can nurture their audience. Since audience development has not been frequently discussed regarding jazz festivals, and to analyse to what extent international jazz festivals' audiences have been in the focus of academic attention, a systematic literature review was conducted within databases of high scientific relevance, Web of Science and Scopus. The findings revealed topics that have been most and least drawing researchers' attention in academic circles. This paper offers an overall insight into the main theme coverage summarised into six thematic groups, encompassing the relationships and links between audiences, artists, event organisers and its collaborators. Finally, its conclusions highlight some limitations, the encountered gaps and recommendations for further research which could hopefully serve both academics and professionals.
... These recordings often capture both the live event ('high fidelity recording') but may also be highly edited with personal apps to create 'studio audio art' . Bennett (2012) reminds us that the expansion in the use of mobile internet and social media has changed live music engagement in recent years and further blurred the lines between artistic experience, participation, communication and documentation. ...
Article
The Irish World Music Café was created in 2015 in Limerick, Ireland, in the context of the Irish Refugee Protection Programme. The Café is grounded in the four ‘PERC’ principles of participatory, ethical, reflexive and creative engagement. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Café moved online on World Refugee Day 2020 with two additional online Cafés thereafter. In January 2021, a review of participation in the Café commenced to guide the decision-making processes regarding content, format and mode of engagement for the immediate and long-term future. The review was qualitative, comprising ten ethnographic interviews and author fieldnotes. Data generated were interpreted using thematic analysis. Three themes were identified through this process: enablers, activities and experiences. It concludes with the proposal that the expanded temporal, spatial and relational opportunities created through the online environment correlate with reduced opportunities for kinaesthetic-tactile embodied experiences. Understanding the dynamic relationship between planes of lived experience is important in the future development of the Café.
... We can notice that the public of these events ceased to be just passive spectators and started to play an increasingly significant role (Edelman and Singer, 2015), mainly from the dissemination of technologies provided by smartphones. It is common to watch people use their smart phones to send text messages, interact on social networks, take pictures, film, and use flashlights (Bennett, 2012) while interacting during entertainment events. These devices pro vide a robust and littleexplored computational tool. ...
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The use of mobile devices, especially smartphones, is widespread across all social strata and age groups, helping to ensure faster access from anywhere, data collection, and more regular and frequent control to aid urban, environmental, and social management. In this scenario, the entertainment industry has benefited from this powerful individual technological resource in cultural and sporting events. In this way, this work presents a proposal for interaction and engagement in entertainment events in a more prosperous and more technological way, through the development of a collaborative and competitive mobile-­web crowd game, intended for enhancing interaction between the crowd and as a unified group, whether physically co-­located or online. The application, called Bumbometer, uses motion sensors during an interactive dynamic with the crowd applying concepts from Mobile Crowd Sensing and User eXperience. We conducted two experimental studies to evaluate the proposed technology, the first in a real scenario of a folk cultural festival and the second in a controlled environment, simulating an event considering a scenario in which users were geographically distant. The results indicate that people feel immersed and engaged during the interaction through the proposed game, which reinforces the statement that the game meets an increasingly growing need to use technologies to ensure more significant interaction and audience immersion at crowd entertainment events, a creative and far­-reaching form.
... This view of SF fandom is pretty much accepted in the literature (Ferreday, 2015;Leonard, 2005;Shefrin, 2004). Music fandom is more problematic, as some see popular music as a place of instrumental rationality (Bennett, 2012;Brett, 2015;Hill, 2016;Hoad, 2017;Rossolatos, 2015). Music fandom and sports fandom have been critically compared by Schimmel et al. (2007). ...
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This critical reflection tries to understand sports fandom and sports fan culture by framing it in wider forms of fandom: music fandom and SF fandom. The reflection involves a review of key literature on sports fandom and wider fan cultures, but the main methodological focus is a critical reflection on the author's own fandoms. Specifically, the reflection returns to a PhD on rugby league and rugby union in the north of England, the first major ethnographic study undertaken by the author, before re-engaging with other forms of fandom in his personal life and his published research. New research is undertaken for this project in the form of personal reflections on fandom in the author’s own autobiography. The author argues that fandoms are important leisure spaces shaped by commodification, but which are still spaces where identity and community can be constructed by individual agency.
Article
This chapter considers the expanding role of music in digital gaming and its transportation outside of the confines of the gaming environment into a "live" space. Using the game Skyrim as a particular focus to explore this dynamic, I examine the transformation of music in computer games from a background "soundtrack" to a fully immersive and participatory user experience. This transformation draws the user more deeply into an exchange where they become both consumer and producer of gaming content, who share and experience their gaming music in live environments like concerts and emulations across social media sites. © 2015 Angela Cresswell Jones and Rebecca Jane Bennett. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The shift from analog to digital cultures has impacted on our understandings of "liveness" in sound. The chapter seeks to address this challenge to past understandings not merely through changing constructions of performance, but also in the broader context of sound as active information moving freely online. Considerations of artists and consumers are drawn upon; however, it is proposed that such terms are no longer mutually exclusive as we all become "users" of sound: engaging, reshaping, and sharing digital information. Drawing on the thoughts and responses of musicians, sound recordists, and producers, Live or Memorex? addresses the changing meaning of "live." How audio is captured, manipulated, and presented in a digital context has impacted on music's exchange value, its functionality, and its use value. It has transformed our relationship with music products, increased our fascination with past music cultures, and created conflicts around authenticity, dynamics, and sound textures. The chapter looks to artists as early adopters and key users to build on wider readings of "live" in the shift to a predominantly digital ecology. © 2015 Angela Cresswell Jones and Rebecca Jane Bennett. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Among the digital hype that dominates the discussions of contemporary popular culture, thriving entertainment forms that predate the digital revolution are easily overlooked. This chapter stands as a reminder that live music-in the old-school sense of the term as a face-to-face meeting between artist and fan-still has a significant role to play in digital culture. Stepping outside of the screen for a moment finds that the increasing ubiquity of digital technology enhances the value of face-to-face, flesh-and-blood encounters. Considering intersections between identity, popular music, and the live concert experience, this chapter searches for reasons why audiences still actively seek out and pay for (at least partially) unmediated musical experiences. Exploring how offline live music concerts function in terms of shaping identity in the age of the Internet finds that the desire to share in a reciprocal musical exchange where artist and fan share not only the same time but also the same physical space is ever-present. Thus, the live concert takes on a potentially greater significance in a musical culture where full and immersive participation is often interrupted by the invisible, yet tangible, barrier of a digital screen. © 2015 Angela Cresswell Jones and Rebecca Jane Bennett. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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This arts-based and ethnographic research comprises two video submissions; ‘Elikya’ and ‘Irish World Music Café’ as well as an accompanying paper exploring the potential contribution of live musical performance and video recording to sustainable social integration for new migrant communities. The research is anchored in an exploration of an initiative called The Irish World Music Café in Limerick city, Ireland. The café is a community-based event promoting social singing for new migrants and Limerick residents in the heart of the city. The paper discusses the growing body of evidence concerning the role played by music (particularly singing) in supporting sustainable social integration. It also presents two video-based projects: the first captures the live performances of the café with the second focusing on Elikya, a Congolese music group associated with the café. The paper also discusses the growing importance of video documentation in supporting and disseminating live performance events such as the café. Using Turino’s categories of cultural formations and cultural cohorts (2008), it argues for the role of the café, both as a live event and a recorded phenomenon, in contributing to the development of alternative values and social change.
Article
This paper analyzes how the rock band U2 uses screens as central components of the experiences of their concerts. Examining moments from throughout their career, and emphasizing their recent ‘Innocence and Experience’ and ‘Experience and Innocence’ tours, this article argues that U2’s constant employment of technology is less about spectacle, and more about the constitution of ‘mediated environments’ that reflect and embody how people live in and through all manner of media, including screens. Drawing on conceptions of U2 as a band interested in problem-solving and innovation, I position their on-going engagements with technology as a processual search for ways to live productively alongside technology. I use media studies frameworks to argue U2 expresses a politics of ambivalence through their use of screens, one that cannot resolve the tensions between the communicative power of technology and its potential to erode social relationships. However, this politics of ambivalence – as expressed through their tours – is productive, in that it produces for attendees ways of thinking and interacting with screen technologies.Keywords: screens, mediation, technology, ambivalence, U2
Article
This chapter looks at how the accessibility of music through digital applications has challenged the identity of one-day music festivals. Moving beyond the vinyl versus digital debate, this exploration considers how the use of digital applications to access music has lead to the iTunification of consumptive practices. The use of applications like iTunes, Soundcloud, and RDio promotes a culture of consumption that is single-track orientated, rather than album focused. However, this style of music consumption becomes problematic when put into a live music festival setting, without ample time and space to consume. This development is witnessed with the rise and fall of the one-day multiscene live music festival, the Big Day Out. This chapter traces the history of the Big Day Out from its heyday to its demise, when it was representative of iPod, MP3, or Spotify playlists, and contends that a change in listeners' consumer practices through digital applications does not equate to a desire to change how they consume music in a live setting. Live music events are one of the last bastions for music fans to perform their fandom in real time in a real venue. By exploring the rise and fall of the Big Day Out, the need for music festivals to retain identity is recognized as a way to offer fans an authentic, communal live music experience. © 2015 Angela Cresswell Jones and Rebecca Jane Bennett. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present an approach to understand the response of an audience to a live dance performance by the processing of mobile sensor data. We argue that exploiting sensing capabilities already available in smart phones enables a potentially large scale measurement of an audience's implicit response to a performance. In this work, we leverage both tri-axial accelerometers, worn by ordinary members of the public during a dance performance, to predict responses to a number of survey answers, comprising enjoyment, immersion, willingness to recommend the event to others, and change in mood. We also analyse how behaviour as a result of seeing a dance performance might be reflected in a people's subsequent social behaviour using proximity and acceleration sensing. To our knowledge, this is the first work where pervasive mobile sensing has been used to investigate spontaneous responses to predict the affective evaluation of a live performance. Using a single body worn accelerometer to monitor a set of audience members, we were able to predict whether they enjoyed the event with a balanced classification accuracy of 90\%. The collective coordination of the audience's bodily movements also highlighted memorable moments that were reported later by the audience. The effective use of body movements to measure affective responses in such a setting is particularly surprising given that traditionally, physiological signals such as skin conductance or brain-based signals are the more commonly accepted methods to measure implicit affective response. Our experiments open interesting new directions for research on both automated techniques and applications for the implicit tagging of real world events via spontaneous and implicit audience responses during as well as after a performance.
Article
We present an approach to interpret the response of audiences to live performances by processing mobile sensor data. We apply our method on three different datasets obtained from three live performances, where each audience member wore a single tri-axial accelerometer and proximity sensor embedded inside a smart sensor pack. Using these sensor data, we developed a novel approach to predict audience members' self-reported experience of the performances in terms of enjoyment, immersion, willingness to recommend the event to others and change in mood. The proposed method uses an unsupervised method to identify informative intervals of the event, using the linkage of the audience members' bodily movements, and uses data from these intervals only to estimate the audience members' experience. We also analyze how the relative location of members of the audience can affect their experience and present an automatic way of recovering neighborhood information based on proximity sensors. We further show that the linkage of the audience members' bodily movements is informative of memorable moments which were later reported by the audience.
Article
In many countries the lockdown measures in response to the Covid-19 pandemic forbade social gatherings, including for performing arts. Numerous artists developed projects, often attempting to reach audiences in cyberspace. We offer an ethnographic study of such a project: a jazz concert played live for a particular audience, who attended it from home. We seek to understand how musicians, audience, and the material setting made it possible to engage with music in a way that gave these moments a particular density. What made this experience meaningful, we argue, was the eventness of the performance: the ‘game was on’, happening in the moment, in the unpredictable, risky interactions between musicians, and with the ‘push of the audience’ listening to the gig in real time. The eventness of this online concert was created in such a way it made possible a collective engagement with and through live music, notwithstanding the physical distance.
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Social media systems are important for professional associations (PAs), providing new ways for them to interact with their members and stakeholders. Evaluation of the impact of social media is not straightforward. Here text analytics, specifically multidimensional scaling visualisation, is proposed as an approach for the characterisation of the large scale ‘conversations' occurring between an information and communication technology PA and its stakeholders via the Twitter social media system. In the case presented, there was found to be a significant level of congruence between the corresponding visualisations of tweets from the PA, and tweets to/about the PA, although differences were also observed. The new method proposed and piloted here offers a way for organisations to conceptualise, identify, capture and visualise the large-scale, ephemeral, text conversations about themselves on Twitter, and to assist them with key strategic uses of social media.
Article
The 2020 Covid-19 global pandemic has greatly impacted societies around the world, where governmental strategies to curb and control the outbreak have resulted in citizens being unable to attend public businesses and spaces. For musicians who rely on touring as a dominant part of their income, the pandemic has had a hugely negative effect on their finances since they can no longer play face-to-face shows. However, a number of artists have turned to digital media to remedy this, performing online to audiences via Web 2.0 platforms. To better understand this cultural phenomenon, the article introduces the concept of portal shows that employ a converge between traditional live gigs, screen media and new media technologies. Analysing the textual, affective, performative and economic dynamics of portal shows, the article examines three differing case studies: Code Orange’s album release show on Twitch.TV, Beach Slang’s acoustic performance on StageIt and Delta Sleep’s in-store show on Instagram. In doing so, the article argues portal shows offer novel and nuanced ways artists and audiences can engage with one another through spatial convergence afforded by video streaming technologies and digital interfaces. Such live events also offer just-in-time fan engagement but does so within a digital transcultural remit, aiding the support of virtual scenes. As a result, the article expands on what is considered pandemic media and subsequent audience affective registers and enriches the study of the music industry’s engagement with digital media and wider convergence cultures more generally.
Article
Background: With the evolution of digital technologies, concerts have become a form of mediated content whose value is still poorly understood. This article proposes to consider the case of concert videos on YouTube featuring popular music. Analysis: For this purpose, we analyze a sample of concert videos filmed in Montreal, given the strong interconnection in this city between local musical scenes and the live performance industry alongside the image of creativity conveyed by large metropolitan centres. Conclusion and implications: The results reveal a great diversity of participants, types of content and modes of reception that together allude to an ambivalent system of values, at the intersection on the one hand of a logic of flux, promotion and performance typical of the new platform economy and on the other of a documentary and archivistic logic, not to say a heritage-based one. These results are discussed in reference to that area of study that focuses on the legacy of different types of popular music.
Thesis
Sofar Sounds est une organisation qui produit « des concerts secrets dans des lieux insolites » dans plus de 400 villes autour du monde. Face à la montée en puissance des plateformes de streaming, le gigantisme de l’industrie du live et ce qu’ils identifient comme une dévaluation de la musique, Sofar Sounds s’est donné pour mission de créer des espaces pour faire compter la musique. Cette thèse vise à saisir cette entreprise, en rendant compte de la façon dont Sofar Sounds met en forme la musique, son public, leurs relations et le monde qu’ils nécessitent. Pour ce faire, cette thèse s’appuie sur une enquête ethnographique menée de 2017 à 2020 entre Paris, Genève et Londres. Au croisement des études sur les musiques populaires, de la sociologie économique et des études sur les sciences et les techniques, cette thèse décrit ce qui se passe lors d’une soirée Sofar Sounds. L’enquête s’applique à suivre les ramifications qui se dessinent à partir de ces soirées. Les différents chapitres décrivent successivement la manière dont les musiciens jouent de la musique, la création d’un public, l’organisation des soirées, la transformation des lieux en salle de concert, la production des vidéos des concerts, la rémunération des artistes et le développement de l’entreprise en start-up soutenue par des fonds de capital-risque. Je montre ainsi que l’organisation des soirées réinterroge non seulement ce qu’est le concert et ses formes, mais également les modes de présence de la musique et les façons d’économiser le live, au sens de construire son économie. La thèse contribue ainsi à une approche ethnographique et pragmatiste des industries culturelles qui s’intéresse à la production de la culture tout en prenant au sérieux l’épaisseur des expériences qu’elles produisent. Elle envisage une discussion des futurs numériques de la culture autour de notions comme celles de plateforme, d’économie de l’expérience ou de branding. Elle participe également à interroger la rencontre sous le label de Music Tech de la production culturelle avec de nouvelles manières de faire économie (start-ups, capital-risque).
Article
This article contributes to histories of live music since digitalization and provides a corrective to the neglect of liveness in scholarship on streaming and platformization. The study argues that digital corporations and social media platforms are shaping the changing value and experience of live music, introducing new patterns of commodification, as digital technologies are incorporated into a live “experience economy,” and live music integrated into a digital “attention economy.” The article illustrates how platforms are exerting greater influence within the music industries as streaming extends live music from an activity associated with real place to an experience in real time.
Article
This article is a reflection of a collaboration between musicians Anton Hunter and José Dias who, in April 2020, organised a free, biweekly improvisation streaming festival, which ran for three weeks, entitled The Noise Indoors (TNI). Devised as a way of encouraging musicians and fans to stay home by providing the chance to continue experiencing and celebrating improvised music during confinement, TNI gathered twenty-eight artists based in seventeen cities across Europe who filmed solo or duet performances in their homes. As TNI progressed, this festival became a platform for sharing each artist’s intimate music-making, as well as an opportunity for networking and community building. In this article, using an eclectic mix of critical and dialogic writing styles (including field notes and text messages), they reflect on their experiences as researchers, musicians, and curators who organised and participated in TNI, and the potential wider implications of this.
Article
In an age of streaming, popular music fans have shifted their expenditures on recordings to concert tickets. That shift raises the question of how fans discuss the value of concerts. As an answer to that question, this article argues that three key considerations – financial, emotional, and experiential – shape the discussion because of their influence on ticket purchases. Informed by John Fiske’s notion of capital accumulation, the article demonstrates that argument through a textual analysis of online conversations among fans of U2, Guns N’ Roses, and Coldplay. It concludes that those considerations have implications for fair pricing and profit sharing in the context of a consolidated concert industry that favors the few at the expense of the many.
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This dissertation aims to explore whether modern diasporas of ethnic migrant origins settled in host countries can maintain or develop a deep sentimental and cultural bond with countries of ancestral origin. Particularly, this will be explored through diasporic responses to Afrobeat's-a broad term to describe music that derives from the African continent. In the main study, the investigation sought to answer three questions. Firstly, exploring whether diaspora audiences of Afrobeat's develop a sense of hybrid identity between host and home country. Secondly, whether music originating from the global south has a positive psychological effect on diaspora audiences. Lastly, to what extent niche genres existing in popular media culture have an effect on redefining British culture. To produce an Afrobeat's media ethnography, this research included a combination of semi-structured interviews, textual analysis and online observation, all analysed with a thematic analysis. One of the key findings is that Afrobeat's reinforces a sense of social Pan-Africanism, aiding to an establishment of dual identity amongst diasporas. In addition to this, the concept of what is Black British culture has shifted with the popularisation of Afrobeat's and impact on the British music scene. Furthermore, Afrobeat's produces a collective sense of pride in one's native culture, making it easier for diaspora to express their culture and thus making it more accessible to others within host country.
Article
This paper examines the concept of community in the context of U2’s ‘360°’ tour (2009–2011). It contributes to leisure studies by offering a detailed insight into the production of, sense of belonging and resistance to a community in relation to a rock music event. Despite a growing body of academic research focusing on U2, understanding of their live concerts is lacking. The originality of this research lies in the notion that although the communal experience of attending U2’s concerts is episodic, due to the periodic and temporary nature of their tours, the sense of belonging to U2’s community simmers continually online. Furthermore, it argues that U2 intentionally exploit the notion of community in order to inspire their audience and gain their support for the various socio-political campaigns they promote. The paper draws on online research of selected U2-related websites, in-depth semi-structured interviews with fans, an email interview with U2’s show director, and content analysis of documentary material as part of a wider project examining rock music events as contemporary spectacle.
Chapter
The Cambridge Companion to Music in Digital Culture - edited by Nicholas Cook September 2019
Chapter
This chapter considers definitional and conceptual aspects of translation and music as the two notions relate to each other. It stresses how diversely different cultures understand music and discusses what ‘musical texts’ are in the twenty-first century. Putting the concept of authenticity at the core of what translation means in the context of music, it argues that music translation leads to a more fluid understanding of what translation is that goes beyond the notion of intra/interlingual transfer. This chapter also considers music makers’ view on translation, as well as the importance of audience reception in shaping how music translation evolves. The chapter closes on a discussion on the relevance of notions of (un)translatability and cultural translation in the context of music.
Chapter
This chapter elucidates the various ways in which we might imagine new distinctions (or lack thereof) between liveness and mediatization in the post-millennium digital context by applying theoretical perspectives of somatechnics to certain live music listening practices. The chapter argues that there are certain technics which bring forth and produce listening pleasure, functioning with and within the somatic. Namely, there is a focus on: The technics of time and its significance in the production of liveness and authenticity; the somatechnics of dance as it functions to embody music listening; and the somatechnics of vocality as it functions in the live music space as a vibratory technology. Finally, through the use of Derrida’s work on ‘teletechnology,’ the author examines the emergence of camera phone technology in reshaping, recrafting and reimagining new understandings of liveness, presence and actuality in the realm of live concerts and how those new understandings might be wrought with the language of the body and somatechnics.
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Using Tori Amos's Original Bootlegs as a case study, this paper considers the impact of the introduction of an extensive collection of “official” bootlegs in relation to debates around fan communities, music sharing, and genre. Amos's strategic adoption of the term “bootleg” and the strategies employed to market her official bootlegs to the Toriphile fan community work to blur the boundary between the value of the “authentic” and mass-produced music releases. Additionally, the Original Bootlegs contribute to the music industry's discursive and material cooptation of the term “bootleg.” By choosing to call these releases “bootlegs” Amos ultimately undermines—and in the process destabilizes—the bootleg as a genre.
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Introduction In 1996 a small independent record company, Oh Boy Records, set up a ‘chat page’ on its web site where fans of its major artist, John Prine, could exchange typed messages in close to real time. The page became a place where fans could ‘virtually’ meet to get information or exchange experiences and opinions relating to Prine. Through the chat page a fan community was established, in that the chat page became a meeting place that could not exist within real-world boundaries. John Prine has had some recent commercial and critical success, but Prine fans are still a minority in most geographic communities, and are, to some extent, isolated by the lifestyle of their 35-plus age group. It could be said that the one and only place where Prine fans could regularly gather was online through the chat page provided by the record company. The Oh Boy Record's homepage became a symbolic anchor – a recognition of shared experience and a sign of community. While music communities are usually associated with ‘local’ places, ‘the notion of “communities” or localities as bounded geographic entities increasingly has been seen as problematic to the study of music in urban settings’ (Gay 1995, p. 123). Communities exist through dialogue; through an exchange of past social history and current social interaction. Developments in communication technology have contributed to a ‘deterritorialization of space within a global cultural economy’ (Fenster 1995, p. 85), to a point where ‘local’ is no longer disconnected from ‘global’ and the identity of a specific place is located both in ‘demarcated physical space’ and in ‘clusters of interaction’ (Gupta and Ferguson 1992, p. 8). In the absence of a communal physical space, the Oh Boy home page became the site of a ‘local’ Prine community.
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The cultural economy is defined in terms of a set of sectors ranging from certain traditional artisanal industries like clothing or jewelry on the one side, to newer media industries like sound recording or television program production on the other. This article provides an overview of the industrial dynamic of French society since the second world war and assesses its (inimical) effects on segments of the cultural economy. An empirical description of the cultural-products industries of Paris is offered, with special reference to their locational structure and their competitive advantages and disadvantages. The entire institutional and policy environment within which these industries operate is then subject to analysis, and I seek to show how many of them have become locked in to dysfunctional competitive strategies. I conclude by suggesting that despite their current difficulties, the cultural-products industries of Paris remain a potential focus of significant new growth and development. Copyright Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishers Ltd 2000.
Article
Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture addresses what may be the single most important question facing all kinds of performance today. What is the status of live performance in a culture dominated by mass media? Since its first appearance, Philip Auslander's ground-breaking book has helped to reconfigure a new area of study. Looking at specific instances of live performance such as theatre, rock music, sport, and courtroom testimony, Liveness offers penetrating insights into media culture, suggesting that media technology has encroached on live events to the point where many are hardly live at all. In this new edition, the author thoroughly updates his provocative argument to take into account new digital and media technologies, and cultural, social and legal developments. In tackling some of the last great shibboleths surrounding the high cultural status of the live event, this book will continue to shape discussion and to provoke lively debate on a crucial artistic dilemma: what is live performance and what can it mean to us now?
Article
Economists and sociologists of music have long argued that the live music sector must lose out in the competition for leisure expenditure with the ever increasing variety of mediated musical goods and experiences. In the last decade, though, there is evidence that live music in the UK is one of the most buoyant parts of the music economy. The author explains in what way live music remains an essential part of the commercial strategies in the music industry. He then speculates about the social functions of performance by examining three examples of performance as entertainment: karaoke, tribute bands and the Pop Idol phenomenon. These are, he suggests, examples of secondary performance, which illuminate the social role of the musical performer in contemporary society. Economists and sociologists of music have long argued that the live music sector must lose out in the competition for leisure expenditure with the ever increasing variety of mediated musical goods and experiences. In the last decade, though, there is evidence that live music in the UK is one of the most buoyant parts of the music economy. The author explains in what way live music remains an essential part of the commercial strategies in the music industry. He then speculates about the social functions of performance by examining three examples of performance as entertainment: karaoke, tribute bands and the Pop Idol phenomenon. These are, he suggests, examples of secondary performance, which illuminate the social role of the musical performer in contemporary society.
Article
The digital broadcasting of performances to cinemas, or 'livecasting', burst onto the world scene in 2006. This book explores the reasons for its rise, examines the aesthetics of filming theatre and opera performances, and explores who the audiences are and what they want.
Book
Henry Jenkins"s pioneering work in the early 1990s promoted the idea that fans are among the most active, creative, critically engaged, and socially connected consumers of popular culture and that they represent the vanguard of a new relationship with mass media. Though marginal and largely invisible to the general public at the time, today, media producers and advertisers, not to mention researchers and fans, take for granted the idea that the success of a media franchise depends on fan investments and participation. Bringing together the highlights of a decade and a half of groundbreaking research into the cultural life of media consumers, Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers takes readers from Jenkins's progressive early work defending fan culture against those who would marginalize or stigmatize it, through to his more recent work, combating moral panic and defending Goths and gamers in the wake of the Columbine shootings. Starting with an interview on the current state of fan studies, this volume maps the core theoretical and methodological issues in Fan Studies. It goes on to chart the growth of participatory culture on the web, take up blogging as perhaps the most powerful illustration of how consumer participation impacts mainstream media, and debate the public policy implications surrounding participation and intellectual property.
Book
"Exploring the myriad connections and connotations of a wide array of paratextual materials ranging from movie trailers to action figures, Gray deftly challenges established conceptions of textuality, and opens up intriguing and important new dimensions in media and cultural studies. This is an invaluable contribution, and will change how we think about, and make, media."
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Most discussions of popular music on the Internet focus on the utopian potential of new file-sharing technologies, yet applications that reproduce existing inequalities also deserve attention. Webcasting is the streaming (transmission) of digital video to multiple recipients in cyberspace. Paul McCartney's Webcast from the Cavern was a landmark case. It was a digital package staged for reproduction, and yet it felt live; in this article I explore why and offer a two-part explanation. The first part is that "live'-ness is based on an increasingly false opposition to recording, but, because that opposition still remains, Little Big Gig could seem live by adopting some trappings associated with it. The second part is that Internet use is mediated by daily life and computer users brought their own desire to the Webcast, in particular desires to see a Beatle play in the Cavern. Webcasting is an unanticipated use of the Internet that is being used to support corporate interests. With its widespread publicity, Little Big Gig helped naturalize that process.
Article
PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art 24.1 (2002) 16-21 The entry for the word "live" in the Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition) reads: "Of a performance, heard or watched at the time of its occurrence, as distinguished from one recorded on film, tape, etc." This is a definition that reflects the necessity of defining the concept in terms of its opposite. The earliest examples of the use of the word "live" in reference to performance cited in the OED come from the mid-1930s (1934, to be exact). The need to define the term "live" in relation to an opposing concept partly explains the surprisingly late date of this initial usage: performances could be perceived as "live" only when there was a way of recording them. But, since methods of recording sound had existed since the 1890s, 1934 is substantially after the advent of recording technologies. If this word history is complete (and I assume that if the word "live" had been applied to performances in, say, the Middle Ages, the editors of the OED would have found the references!), it would seem that the advent of recording technologies was not enough in itself to bring about the formulation of the concept of liveness. Here, I will address the question of why that took so long to happen, then go on to examine the implications for liveness of the much more recent emergence of a particular digital technology. The answer to the question of why the appearance of recording technologies was not enough to bring the concept of liveness into being has to do, I think, with the fact that with the first recording technology, sound recording, the distinction between live performances and recordings remained experientially unproblematic. If you put a record on your gramophone and listened to it, you knew exactly what you were doing and there was no possibility of mistaking the activity of listening to a record for that of attending a live performance. As Jacques Attali points out in Noise: The Political Economy of Music, the earliest forms of sound recording, such as Edison's cylinder, were intended to serve as secondary adjuncts to live performance by preserving it. As recording technology brought the live into being, it also respected and reinforced the primacy of existing modes of performance. Live and recorded performances thus coexisted clearly as discrete, complementary experiences, necessitating no particular effort to distinguish them. It is significant that the earliest use of the word "live" in relation to performance listed in the OED has to do with the distinction between live and recorded sound, but not with the gramophone. The technology necessitating this usage was radio. This first citation of the word "live" comes from the BBC Yearbook for 1934 and iterates the complaint "that recorded material was too liberally used" on the radio. Here, we can glimpse the beginnings of the historical process by which recorded performances came to replace live ones, a process I discuss extensively in my book Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture. But radio represented a challenge to the complementary relationship of live and recorded performances that went beyond its role in enabling recordings to replace live performances. Unlike the gramophone, radio does not allow you to see the sources of the sounds you're hearing; therefore, you can never be sure if they're live or recorded. Radio's characteristic form of sensory deprivation crucially undermined the clear-cut distinction between recorded and live sound. It would seem, then, that the concept of the live was brought into being not just when it became possible to think in those terms—that is, when recording technologies such as the gramophone were in place to serve as a ground against which the figure of the live could be perceived—but only when it became urgent to do so. The possibility of identifying certain performances as live came into being with the advent of recording technologies; the need to make that identification arose as an affective response specifically to radio, a communications technology that put the clear opposition of the live and the recorded into a state of crisis. The response to this crisis was a terminological...
Article
Television's liveness has long been seen as one of its key features. This paper argues that “liveness” is not a textual feature, but a more fundamental category (in Durkheim's sense) that contributes to underlying conceptions of how media are involved in social organization through their provision of privileged access to central social “realities.” This ideological view of liveness (cf. Jane Feuer's early work) is then extended in two ways: first, to consider two new forms of “liveness” that do not involve television (online liveness via the Internet and “group liveness” via the mobile phone); and second, by connecting liveness with Bourdieu's concept of habitus, and thereby linking “liveness” (including in its extended senses) with other parts of the materialized system of classification through which we make sense of the everyday world.
Article
The Grateful Dead were an American band that was born out of the San Francisco, California psychedelic movement of the 1960s. The band played music together from 1965 to 1995 and is well known for concert performances containing extended improvisations and long and unique set lists. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 last.fm Grateful Dead listening events from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they are listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their fans 10 years after the band's dissolution.
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