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Fenómenos precursores a los sismos

Authors:

Abstract

Los sismos, particularmente aquellos con liberación suficiente de energía para dañar infraestructura habitacional (>M5.0), pasan por cinco etapas (Gray, 1996): deformación Objetivos Presentar a la comunidad científica relacionada con las ciencias ambientales, la serie de fenómenos precursores que preceden a un sismo y de qué forma se manifiestan, así como los efectos que se presentan en el ambiente circundante. Metodología. Para el desarrollo de la investigación se realizo una revisión lo más exhaustiva posible en revistas científicas indexadas y fuentes de divulgación de temas científicos, abordando el tema de los sismos pero dando énfasis a los fenómenos precursores que le preceden y sus efectos ambientales.
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

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$  $  :       
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 $  3          6A@ ,+''B
8!!>7
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     Z   3: $    
6y-7 3  @   #$:   F $
$@ 9$$  
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:3$:#;8 93
$$ =$  $   $
@  3: 62 !!!B  !!,B2
!!+7 ;@$: F
         $   $
4$$$:6%!!*7
 =    $   $ ;   
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:$:# $ $
@[@\= $ 
$ 9 33 
3;
. $3:$49
$:4::3
       $   @ B 
3    @    3: 
3:   $    3   
      :3 $ =  3 
$ @ 6E !!+B2 !!+B @
!,7
# '-.<$
3:$$$B
3: 3  @     $: $ 
6!!,7.3:: 
 =     $ 3 $ $$:  
 4 $ 3 W @@ 6!!&7  3 W @@ 6!!-
!!-!!-7
     "    .  
$   B    G@C 6!!!7 
 $   $ 3    F 
$3@3;3



;$ ;$W5
6!,!76!,,7$
$3 3
 $  $:B  $    TC 6!,!7 
    3    3 $    
$   3    $    $
" 6!,!79GRR
 R $      #     
3$;#$::
       3 $:  ;   
;8$
$ $   3   $:    
@:B     :      : 
$  83  9
 ;B3
=%@3
 4$F
9B @
#$     $      
  3:     A 6"  !!&7 0 
; @        
3: $: $
34$J6!,7
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 3          :3
$ 3   $   @   
:   $  : 4     
$    J  =   9 $ 
   $ $ :     
 $  
  : 9      3    
$3 : 9  3$  :
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,+-,L,+--
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Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth's crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O- in a matrix of O2-. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth's surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L'Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals.
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The authors describe the psychological consequences of the April 2009 earthquake on L'Aquila populat ion through a revision of the published literature. This population suffered from important psychological distress but capacity of resilience has been relevant. Resilient mechanisms intervened in aftermath of the earthquake but the long -lasting alterations of the social networks need to be monitored. After the first physical, medical and emergency response, identification of psychological distress symptoms is useful in guiding public health efforts in the aftermath of disasters.
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Animals living within seismically active regions are subjected episod-ically to intense ground shaking that can kill individuals through burrow collapse, egg destruction, and tsunami action. Although anecdotal and retrospective reports of animal behavior suggest that although many organisms may be able to detect an impending seismic event, no plausible scenario has been presented yet through which accounts for the evolution of such behaviors. The evolutionary mechanism of ex-aptation can do this in a two-step process. The first step is to evolve a vibration-triggered early warning response which would act in the short time interval between the arrival of P and S waves. Anecdotal evidence suggests this response already exists. Then if precursory stimuli also exist, similar evolutionary processes can link an animal's perception of these stimuli to its P-wave triggered response, yielding an earthquake predictive behavior. A population-genetic model indicates that such a seismic-escape response system can be maintained against random mutations as a result of episodic selection that operates with time scales comparable to that of strong seismic events. Hence, additional understanding of possible earthquake precursors that are presently outside the realm of seismology might be gleaned from the study of animal behavior, sensory physiology, and genetics. A brief review of possible seismic precursors suggests that tilt, hygroreception (humidity), electric, and mag-netic sensory systems in animals could be linked into a seismic escape behavioral system. Several testable predictions of this analysis are discussed, and it is recom-mended that additional magnetic, electrical, tilt, and hygro-sensors be incorporated into dense monitoring networks in seismically active regions.
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The widespread belief that animals can anticipate earthquakes (EQs) is poorly supported by evidence, most of which consists of anecdotal post hoc recollections and relates to a very short period immediately before such events. In this study, a population of reproductively active common toads Bufo bufo were monitored over a period of 29 days, before, during and after the EQ (on day 10) at L'Aquila, Italy, in April 2009. Although our study site is 74 km from L'Aquila, toads showed a dramatic change in behaviour 5 days before the EQ, abandoning spawning and not resuming normal behaviour until some days after the event. It is unclear what environmental stimuli the toads were responding to so far in advance of the EQ, but reduced toad activity coincides with pre-seismic perturbations in the ionosphere, detected by very low frequency (VLF) radio sounding. We compare the response of toads to the EQ with the reported responses to seismic activity of several other species.