Article

Vitamin B-12 Is the Active Corrinoid Produced in Cultivated White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

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  • Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources, South Korea
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Abstract

Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

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... The synthesis of vitamin B12 is restricted to some bacteria, which are part of the food chain. Although some blue-green algae can synthetize vitamin B12, it is actually a pseudo-vitamin B12 that is an inactive compound, poorly absorbed in the human intestine (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009). By analyzing B12 vitamin in A. bisporus, it was concluded that it was derived from the bacteria present in the compost (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009). ...
... Although some blue-green algae can synthetize vitamin B12, it is actually a pseudo-vitamin B12 that is an inactive compound, poorly absorbed in the human intestine (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009). By analyzing B12 vitamin in A. bisporus, it was concluded that it was derived from the bacteria present in the compost (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009). Calculated on dry matter, L. edodes contains 1.8 mg/100 g of vitamin B2, and 31 mg/100 g of vitamin B3; P. ostreatus 2.5 mg/100 g of vitamin B2, and 65 mg/100 g of vitamin B3; A. bisporus 5.1 mg/100 g of vitamin B2, and 53 mg/100 g of vitamin B3, while B12 and D2 vitamins are in trace amounts (Mattila et al., 2001). ...
Chapter
Among several thousand macrofungi species on the planet, only several are industrially cultivated worldwide. Medicinal and edible mushrooms represent two most important groups of macrofungi. Mushrooms are used in the human diet for centuries, due to their high nutritional value. They are well known as valuable source of proteins, and are widely used as a meat substitute. Additionally, the differences in amino acids composition of proteins between different mushrooms contributes to the unique flavour of mushrooms and mushroom-derived products. The presence of components such as polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, proteoglucans, vitamins, polyphenols and others, which are responsible for their bioactive properties, classifies a number of mushrooms as medicinal. This chapter gives the overview of mushrooms’ chemical composition, the effect of their application on different processes of beverages production and the impact on sensorial characteristics or bioactivity of mushroom beverages. When applied in fermentation process, mushrooms influence the metabolism of microorganisms involved. Through the enzymatic activity they act on the elimination of antinutritional components or have a contribution to the production of high ethanol concentrations in beverages, as well as influence on unique flavour development. Production of mushroom beverages is an opportunity for mushrooms and beverages producers to create an innovative and sensory pleasant product that will satisfy consumers needs for improving the quality of life trough good nutrition and beneficial effects on human health. The significance of functional beverages consumption lies in their potential to reduce health-care expenses through the strategy of public health protection. To date, mushrooms were applied in various types of beverages on a laboratory scale, influencing their production, quality and bioactivity. The fact that the global production of edible and medicinal mushrooms and their economic value is constantly increasing, can be used to develop industrial scale systems for mushroom beverages that will increase the market value of these products, as well.
... People consume vitamin B12 from food. It is present in negligible amounts, if at all, in some plants, including vegetables, fruits and algae [1,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14], but mostly occurs as a result of the activity of microbes inhabiting the digestive tract of mammals, mainly ruminants. Therefore, meat and animal products are considered the best source of vitamin B12 in the human diet [15,16]. ...
... Mozafar [8] demonstrated that spinach grown with organic fertilizers (addition of cow dung at the rate of 10 g•kg −1 ) increased the B12 content in spinach leaves by close to two-fold (from 6.9 to 17.8 ng•g −1 dry weight). Some studies report that some mushrooms and nori seaweed contain trace amounts of vitamin B12 [9,10]. Vitamin B12 was also found in dried shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) with a content of approximately 56.1 μg•kg −1 of dry matter. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cyanocobalamin is the most widespread form of vitamin B12, which is sufficient for humans. Vitamin B12 is mainly found in animal products. However, supplementation does not have to be necessary because certain amounts of vitamin B12 are present in plant products. Previous studies showed significant contents of cyanocobalamin in sea buckthorn and in sauerkraut. In this study, selected products such as sea-buckthorn jam and fermented plant products (obtained by lactic acid fermentation) were tested in a search for vitamin B12. Bacteria involved in this type of fermentation have the potential to produce cyanocobalamin. Popular fermented plant products on the Polish market were selected, namely sauerkraut and pickled cucumbers, as well as parsley juice, beetroot juice and white borscht. The analysis was carried out using HPLC-UV. Most of the analyzed products did not contain significant levels of vitamin B12. Only sea-buckthorn jam and pickled parsley juice can provide the amount of vitamin B12 needed to prevent deficiency.
... It was once thought that some plant foods, such as spirulina, and fermented soy products, including tempeh and miso, were dietary sources of vitamin B 12 , but this has been proven incorrect. 39 Recent research has found traces of vitamin B 12 in white button mushrooms 40 and Korean purple laver (nori), 41 but the quantity in a typical serving means that they are not a significant dietary source of this vitamin. An average serving of mushrooms contains about 5% of the RDI, making the quantity required to supply adequate amounts of vitamin B 12 to vegetarians impractical. ...
... Further, use of Korean laver is unlikely to be widespread in the Australian diet. With the unique exception of these two plant foods, 40 analogue, which is of no use to the body and can actually interfere with the absorption of the active form. 42 Box 4 shows a sample vegetarian meal plan for a 19-50year-old woman, which includes food sources typical in a Western-style diet and meets the RDI of vitamin B 12 and requirements for other key nutrients (except vitamin D and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). ...
Article
Vitamin B12 is found almost exclusively in animal-based foods and is therefore a nutrient of potential concern for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B12-fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B12 deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B12 status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B12 status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B12 level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels. Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B12 to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin B12, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections. Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B12, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities.
... The median concentrations of cobalt were 0.0056 mg kg −1 dw in the caps and 0.0019 mg kg −1 in the stems of control mushrooms and ranged from 0.0005 to 0.0055 mg kg −1 dw (p < 0.05, M-W U test), and 0.0008 to 0.0047 mg kg −1 dw (p > 0.05, M-W U test), in the lithiated caps and stems, respectively (Table 3). Fortification of the compost with LiNO 3 did not appear to have any effect on the co-accumulation of Co (p > 0.05, Pearson), while concentrations determined in this study as well as those observed in other studies (Koyyalamudi et al. 2009) were generally very low. Cobalt in fresh white A. bisporus occurs as vitamin B12 and is probably derived through bacterial activity (Koyyalamudi et al. 2009). ...
... Fortification of the compost with LiNO 3 did not appear to have any effect on the co-accumulation of Co (p > 0.05, Pearson), while concentrations determined in this study as well as those observed in other studies (Koyyalamudi et al. 2009) were generally very low. Cobalt in fresh white A. bisporus occurs as vitamin B12 and is probably derived through bacterial activity (Koyyalamudi et al. 2009). Other species of wildgrowing edible mushrooms showed Co at greater concentrations regardless of the type of soil or geochemical background as reported by several authors, e.g. in Agaricus arvensis (neutron activation analysis) at 0.60 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.03 mg kg −1 dw and in C. cibarius at 1.7 ± 0.02 mg kg −1 dw (Řanda and Kučera, 2004). ...
Article
Attempts to bio-enrich fungal biomass with an essential trace elements to produce dietary supplements have some tradition and an example is selenium. Lithium salts have medical applications, but safer forms are sought after, and lithiated foods and food supplements may be an alternative. This study evaluated the lithiation of white Agaricus bisporus mushrooms using commercial compost fortified with LiNO3 and investigated the effects on co-accumulation of trace elements. The fortifications at levels of 1.0, 5.0, 10, 50 and 100 mg·kg⁻¹ dw, resulted in corresponding median increases in mushroom Li concentrations of 0.74, 5.0, 7.4, 19 and 21 mg kg⁻¹ dw, respectively, relative to 0.031 mg kg⁻¹ dw in control mushrooms. The bio-concentration potential for Li uptake decreased at higher levels of fortification, with saturation occurring at 100 mg·kg⁻¹, and the level of 500 mg kg⁻¹ mycelium failed to produce mushrooms. The compost fortification resulted in up to several hundred-fold enrichment of mushrooms compared to those grown on control compost, underlining their potential therapeutic use. At higher fortification levels, some effects were seen on the co-accumulation of other elements, such as Ag (stems), As, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg (stems), Mn, Rb, Sr, U (stems) and Zn; 0.05 < p < 0.10), but no effects were seen for Ag (caps), Al, Ba, Co, Hg (caps) Ni, Tl, U (caps), and V (p > 0.05).
... Foods of plant origin are lacking in B12 unless contaminated or processed with B12synthesising microorganisms (Watanabe et al. 2014). For example, tempeh contains approximately 0.18 8 μg/100 g of B12 (Watanabe 2007) and some mushrooms may contain traces of B12 (Koyyalamudi et al. 2009;Watanabe et al. 2012). Some edible algaechlorella and spirulinaare reported to contain B12 levels of 30 200 μg/100 g dry weight (Watanabe 2007). ...
... The commonly used mass spectrometers for the B12 analysis of foods and microbial samples employ electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode with triple quadrupole, time-of-flight or ion-trap detection techniques. Koyyalamudi et al. (2009) applied quadrupole MS for the identification of the corrinoid in cultivated mushrooms through a comparison with the B12 compounds in foods known to contain active B12 such as beef, salmon, eggs and milk. The level of B12 in milk and milk products was measured using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer connected to a UPLC system (Zironi et al. 2014). ...
... 85 B 12 found in shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies has not been attributed to the de novo biosynthesis of B 12 , but appears to be derived from B 12 sources outside the mushrooms, presumably concomitant B 12 -synthesizing bacteria or those existing in bed logs. 85 Similarly cultivated white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fruiting bodies contain approximately 0.2 lg of B 12 per 100 g dry weight, 86 with the highest B 12 content found in the peel portion. B 12 was also detected at similar levels in their composts. ...
Article
Vitamin B 12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B 12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B 12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B 12 , which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs. In aquatic environments, most phytoplankton acquire vitamin B 12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria, and they become food for larval fish and bivalves. Edible plants and mushrooms rarely contain a considerable amount of vitamin B 12 , mainly due to concomitant bacteria in soil and/or their aerial surfaces. Thus, humans acquire vitamin B 12 formed by microbial interaction via mainly ruminants and fish (or shellfish) as food sources. In this review, up-to-date information on vitamin B 12 sources and bioavailability are also discussed. Impact statement To prevent vitamin B 12 (B 12 ) deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify foods that contain high levels of B 12 . B 12 is synthesized by only certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants or animals. The synthesized B 12 is transferred and accumulated in animal tissues, even in certain plant tissues via microbial interaction. Meats and milks of herbivorous ruminant animals are good sources of B 12 for humans. Ruminants acquire the essential B 12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria inside the body. Thus, we also depend on B 12 -producing bacteria located in ruminant stomachs. While edible plants and mushrooms rarely contain a considerable amount of B 12 , mainly due to concomitant bacteria in soil and/or their aerial surfaces. In this mini-review, we described up-to-date information on B 12 sources and bioavailability with reference to the interaction of microbes as B 12 -producers.
... 30 Koyyalamudi et al (2009) evaluated that Vitamin B12 is the active Corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and concluded that intake of this mushroom increases vitamin B12 . 31 Keegan et al (2013) conducted a study on the photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans and concluded that mushrooms are a rich source of vitamin D2 that when consumed can increase and maintain blood levels of 25hydroxyvitamin D in a healthy range. Ingestion of mushrooms may also provide the consumer with a source of vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. 32 Calvo et al (2014) conducted a study on the risk factor modification in pre-diabetic adults consuming white button mushrooms rich in the anti-oxidant, ergothioneine and concluded that WBM are bioavailable food sources for the antioxidant ergothioneine in older pre-diabetic adults & their consumption effectively modifies risk factors for T2D. ...
... It is a unique plant food in that they are very low in carbohydrates making them ideal for diabetic patents. Mushroom is also an excellent source of vitamin B12 (Koyyalamudi, jeong, Cho, & Gerald pang, 2009) which is generally not present in plant foods and ideal choice for the vegetarians. The balanced status of protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and active ingredients makes it an ideal choice for food supplementation. ...
Article
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The research study was conducted to develop a healthy vegetables soup powder supplemented with soy flour, mushroom, moringa leaf and compare its nutritional facts with locally available soup powders. Proximate analysis and sensory evaluation were done by standard method. In this study, moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, and energy content were ranged from 2.83% to 5.46%, 9.39% to 16.48%, 6.92% to 16.05%, 4.22% to 6.39%, 0.22% to 1.61%, 58.81% to 75.41%, and 337.42 to 386.72 kcal/100 g, respectively. Highest content of vitamin D, minerals, protein, and fiber and lowest content of moisture, fat, and carbohydrate were found in the presently developed soy–mushroom–moringa soup powder compare to locally available soup powders. Vitamin C was also found significantly higher than locally available soup powders S1, S2, and S3. Heavy metals were not found in any of the soup powders. On the sensory and microbiological point of view, the presently developed soup powder was found highly acceptable up to 6 months. So, the developed soy–mushroom– moringa soup powder is nutritionally superior to locally available soup powders and sufficient to meet day-to-day nutritional requirements as a supplement. KEYWORDS fiber, minerals, moringa leaf, Oyster mushroom, protein, soy flour, Vegetables soup powder
... Recent studies have indicated that mushrooms when exposed to UV light under certain conditions produces vit. D 2 in amounts greatly higher than that that of daily requirements of vitamin D [14][15][16]. The process of vit D 2 formation takes place through a higher than that of daily requirements photochemical reaction in which fungal sterol, ergosterol, is converted to vitamin D 2 through a series of photochemical and thermal reaction catalyzed by ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from sunlight [17]. ...
... 11) The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) contains high levels of dietary fiber as well as other materials such as mannitol, trehalose, folic acid, vitamins C, B 12 , D, and polyphenol. 12) Although the composition is various depending on the edible mushrooms types, these components reportedly reduce blood glucose and cholesterol levels, and exert anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. [13][14][15][16] It was previously reported that dietary fibers of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) yield increased cecal SCFA concentrations and reduced serum cholesterol levels in rats 17) ; however, the whole body of mushroom (A. ...
Article
The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats.SCFA concentrations of cecal contents in rats fed a diet supplemented with mushroom powders (a) Acetic acid; (b) Butyric acid; (c) Propionic acid; (d) Total SCFA.
... Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus) is one of the most popular edible fungi in the world. It is well known for its delicacy, flavor and nutritional value and as a source of bioactive compounds (Koyyalamudi, Jeong, Cho, & Pang, 2009). However, the shelf-life of mushroom is limited to a few days because of enzymatic browning during postharvest storage or processing (Cheng, Zhang, & Adhikari, 2013). ...
... Vitamin B12 in algae, fermented foods, mushrooms, and various vegetables occurs in small amounts and mainly as pseudovitamin B12 not utilizable for humans. However, this is not the case for some forms of algae (Porphyra yezoensis, Porphyra tenera, Pleurochrysis carterae; [10][11][12]) and wild mushrooms [13][14]. Sufficient serum levels of B12 have been reported in subjects following a vegan "brown rice-proper diet" [15] or a strict uncooked vegan diet [16] with daily intake of Nori or Chlorella algae. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vegan and vegetarian diets could overcome many diseases of civilization. This study examines whether a whole food vegan diet with Nori algae and wild mushrooms can provide a sufficient quantity of critical nutrients. Five blood samples (Baseline to Time 5) were taken over eight months from 75 subjects (10 vegans without B12 supplementation who consumed Nori algae and wild mushrooms, 20 vegans with supplementation, 40 vegetarians, 5 meat-eaters). Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, total vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B6, folic acid, ferritin, TSH, zinc, creatinine, vitamin D2 and D3. In the vegan group without supplementation, all means were within the tolerance (holotranscobalamin, homocystein) or normal, except for elevated methylmalonic acid and diminished vitamin D. This group developed significantly higher vitamin D2 levels. The vegan group with B12 supplementation and the vegetarian group showed normal values for all parameters. Vegans following a whole food diet had a borderline supply of vitamin B12. Folic acid, vitamin B6, TSH, iron metabolism, and the blood count were in the normal range. Vegans taking dietary supplements demonstrated satisfactory overall results. An ingestion of sundried mushrooms can contribute to the supply of vitamin D.
... [45] cHEmIcal constItuEnts A. bisporus comes under the category of a food which is beneficial for humane health with excellent levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamins namely; thiamine, ascorbic acid, vitamin D 2 etc as well as minerals like folates, ergothioneine (ET) and polyphenols which may provide favorable effects on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes suggests that the mushroom might have potential anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic effects. [46][47][48][49] Around half of the fungal cell wall mass is constituted by β-glucans along with ergosterol, tocopherols, linoleic acid, and lectins. Fungus contains 1-6 mg of phenolics/g of dried mushroom and flavonoid concentrations ranged between 0.9 and 3.0 mg/g of dried matter; as myricetin and catechin. ...
... However, plant food materials are devoid of vitamin B12 (Ball, 2006;Herbert, 1988). A low level of vitamin B12 detected in some plant products and mushrooms probably originates from contaminating organisms or from vitamin uptake from soil residues (Koyyalamudi, Jeong, Cho, & Pang, 2009). Processed plant-based products (e.g. ...
... The form of vitamin B-12 in mushrooms was found to be the same form found in beef, liver, and fish, suggesting that it is highly bioavailable (22). However, fresh WB mushrooms contain <2% of the RDA for this nutrient (2.4 mg/d). ...
Article
The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality.
... 138 Recent research has found some bioavailable vitamin B12 (in the same form present in animal products) on the surface and in the flesh of mushrooms. 139 These amounts, however, are small and inadequate to meet dietary needs. A reliable source of biologically active vitamin B12 is recommended on a regular basis, either from fortified foods or supplements. ...
Article
There is now a significant amount of research that demonstrates the health benefits of vegetarian and plant-based diets, which have been associated with a reduced risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and some types of cancer as well as increased longevity. Vegetarian diets are typically lower in fat, particularly saturated fat, and higher in dietary fiber. They are also likely to include more whole grains, legumes, nuts, and soy protein, and together with the absence of red meat, this type of eating plan may provide many benefits for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic health problems, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although a well-planned vegetarian or vegan diet can meet all the nutritional needs of an individual, it may be necessary to pay particular attention to some nutrients to ensure an adequate intake, particularly if the person is on a vegan diet. This article will review the evidence for the health benefits of a vegetarian diet and also discuss strategies for meeting the nutritional needs of those following a vegetarian or plant-based eating pattern.
... Common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), known variously as white mushroom or button mushroom, is one of the most popular edible fungi in the world. It is well known for its delicacy, flavor, nutritional value, and for being a source of bioactive compounds [1,2]. However, the shelf life of A. bisporus is limited to a few days because of enzymatic browning during postharvest storage or processing [3]. ...
Article
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The effect of thermal and thermosonic treatments on the inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was studied in 55-75°C temperature range. In both the processes, the inactivation kinetics of PPO followed a first-order kinetics (R(2)=0.941-0.989). The D values during thermal inactivation varied from 112±8.4min to 1.2±0.07min while they varied from 57.8±6.1min to 0.88±0.05min during thermosonic inactivation at the same temperature range. The activation energy during thermal inactivation was found to be 214±17kJ/mol, while it was 183±32kJ/mol during thermosonic inactivation. The inactivating effect of combined ultrasound and heat was found to synergistically enhance the inactivation kinetics of PPO. The D values of PPO decreased by 1.3-3 times during thermosonic inactivation compared to the D values of PPO during thermal inactivation at the temperature range. Therefore, thermosonication can be further developed as an alternative to "hot break" process of mushroom.
... Ovo-lactovegetarians may get vitamin B 12 from eggs and dairy products. Vegans could get some vitamin B 12 from seaweed, plants, and edible fungi (such as mushrooms) on farms or in the wild, which may be contaminated from bacteria in the soil (24). Evidence suggests that vegetarians, especially vegans, who do not take vitamin B 12 supplements often have abnormally low serum concentrations of vitamin B 12 . ...
Data
This review summarizes the effect of a habitual vegetarian diet on clinical complications in relation to chemistry and biochemistry. Omnivores have a significantly higher cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared with vegetarians, including increased body mass index, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol and LDL-C levels, serum lipoprotein(a) concentration, plasma factor VII activity, ratios of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians, especially vegans, have lower serum vitamin B12 concentration and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in the tissue membrane phospholipids, which are associated with increased collagen and ADP stimulated ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation, plasma 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and homocysteine levels and decreased plasma HDL-C. This may be associated with an increased thrombotic and atherosclerotic risk. It is suggested that vegetarians, especially vegans, should increase their dietary n-3 PUFA and vitamin B12 intakes.
... It is considered as an ideal food for diabetic patients due to its low calorie, fat, and carbohydrate. Mushroom is also an excellent source of vitamin B12 (Koyyalamudi, Jeong, Cho, & Pang, 2009) which is generally not present in plant foods and ideal choice for the vegetarians. Owing to this balanced status of protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and active ingredients, mushroom can be used as a substitute of meat, fish, fruits, and vegetables (Kakon, Choudhury, & Saha, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soy flour on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of mushroom–moringa-supplemented soup which could be used as a protein-supplemented ready-to-eat food. In this study, corn flour was supplemented with soy flour at different levels such as 20% (T4), 15% (T3), 10% (T2), and 5% (T1), and without soy flour was kept as control (T0). Fixed amount of mushroom and moringa leaf powder was added in all soup powders. Soup powders were analyzed for functional, nutritional, and sensory parameters. Bulk density (0.82–0.74 g/ml), dispersibility (82.1%–75.9%), pH (6.17–6.13), swelling capacity (3.98–3.65 ml/g), and viscosity were decreased, while water absorption capacity (70%–94%) was increased with increasing of soy flour percentages. Protein content of all the treatment groups increased from 10.66% to 19.97% along with a significant increased in fat (1.43%–6.97%), fiber (1.10%–2.30%), ash (15.77%–16.40%), and energy value (328.38–353.21 kcal/100 g) while decreased in moisture and carbohydrate content. On sensory evaluation, soup powders with 10% (T2) level of soy flour incorporation had highest scores for all the sensory attributes evaluated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that soy flour has effect on functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of soup powders and 10% supplementation of soy flour is suitable for ready-to-eat soup formulation. Besides these, use of mushroom and moringa leaf may also increase its nutritional value. Soup developed in this way may be sufficient to meet day-to-day nutritional requirements as a supplement.
... Mushrooms also exhibit ergosterol which can be converted to vitamin D2 when exposed to UV light. In animal experiments using ergocalciferol-enriched mushroom powder, an increase in hydroxyvitamin D and bone mineralization was observed [9,10]. Selenium content in mushrooms varies according to the form of cultivation, soil selenium content, and latitude. ...
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Mushrooms have been used for centuries as a source of nourishment and sensory properties. Mushrooms are considered functional foods due to their bioactive compounds and a source of drug and nutraceutical development. More than 50 species present immunological potential that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models, and some of them have been investigated in human cancers. Cancer is a major cause of death all over the world, promoting long lasting effects throughout the lifetime of the patient. Mushrooms are a source of ergothioneine, selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. They have bioactive compounds used in cancer treatment due to their antitumor and anticarcinogenic effects. They contain β-glucans, β-proteoglycans, lectins, triterpenes, ergosterol, glutamine, and arginine. In the present study, we perform a literature review of studies that analyze positive impacts of mushroom compounds on cancer treatment due to their antitumor and anticarcinogenic effects and possible compatibility with chemotherapy management. The review indicates that a healthy diet with frequent consumption of mushrooms apparently reduces the risk of developing cancer. However, a clearer understanding of how mushrooms’ bioactive principles may affect adjuvant treatments requires further research with long-term double-blind and placebo-controlled studies that evaluate a larger population in clinical trials by each type of cancer. Therefore, more robust statistical results are necessary to verify their efficacy and safety on cancer treatments.
... [45] cHEmIcal constItuEnts A. bisporus comes under the category of a food which is beneficial for humane health with excellent levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamins namely; thiamine, ascorbic acid, vitamin D 2 etc as well as minerals like folates, ergothioneine (ET) and polyphenols which may provide favorable effects on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes suggests that the mushroom might have potential anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic effects. [46][47][48][49] Around half of the fungal cell wall mass is constituted by β-glucans along with ergosterol, tocopherols, linoleic acid, and lectins. Fungus contains 1-6 mg of phenolics/g of dried mushroom and flavonoid concentrations ranged between 0.9 and 3.0 mg/g of dried matter; as myricetin and catechin. ...
Article
Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources, based on their use in traditional medicine. Since ancient time's plants as well as fungus sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a dominant role in maintenance of human health. Over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural product origin and play an important role in drug development programs in the pharmaceutical industry. Mushrooms are an important natural source of food and medicine. Traditional aboriginals knew the importance of edible and wild mushrooms, and these are now being screened for their bioactivity in various ailments. We are aiming for this review is to compact a compressive scientific description of pharmacognosy, chemistry, and pharmacology of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), depending on published data and other available resources.
... It grows in meadow, pasture and in open field area. It has high nutritional and medicinal values and also are highly proteinaceous and contain vitamin D1, D2, ergo sterol, Na, K, P, lineolic acid and all kind of essential amino acids (Koyyalamudi et al. 2009). The nutrients contain in Agaricus bisporus are 89 mg of moisture, 32 mg of protein, 7.0 mg of fibre and ash, 5.0 mg of carbohydrates, 12.0 mg of amino acids and 2.5 mg of fats found on 100 mg of dry mass (Mishra and Mishra 2013). ...
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Agaricus bisporus, an edible mushroom and cultivated in lignocellulolytic materials. Water hyacinth is worst weed lignocellulolytic material which is rich in cellulose and lignin. The objective of this study was to cultivate button mushroom from degradation of water hyacinth compost with lignocellulolytic fungi. The experiment was performed in triplicate of five different samples i.e. control, before fungal treated compost, three fungal treated compost and straw compost. during button mushroom cultivation. The data were analyzed on various aspects like completion of mycelium in different media, cereals grain, and during cultivation spawn run, appearance of pinheads, fruit bodies and number of fruit bodies. Ganoderma sp. (1.29 ± 0 cm/day) and Pleurotus sp. (1.29 ± 0 cm/day) was fastest grown in water hyacinth than PDA media. Lentinus sp. was slowest grown in PDA and water hyacinth media. The growth rate of mycelium in wheat seed (2.69 ± 0.12 mm/day) was faster than corn seed (2.22 ± 0.14 mm per day) during spawn preparation. During composting preparation, the lignocellulolytic fungi was treated for 45 days after 30 days of composting of substrate. The nutrient analysis was done between fungal strain treated compost, straw and control sample compost. The percentage of carbon was present high in paddy straw (2.17 ± 0.65%), and low in control sample compost (0.9 ± 0%). In nitrogen content, high percent was found in Lentinus sp. treated compost (2.08 ± 0.01%), low in paddy straw compost (0.4 ± 0.6%). In phosphorus content, high percentage found in before fungal treated compost (0.43 ± 0.03%), low in paddy straw (0.09 ± 0.6%). In potassium content, high in Lentinus sp. treated compost (1.88 ± 0.08%), low in straw compost (0.5 ± 0.6%). During the cultivation, paddy straw compost took short duration for fruiting which gave high production (11.35%) and Lentinus sp. treated compost took long duration and gave low production (5.73). Significant production was obtained in control compost as compared to paddy straw compost and fungal treated compost. Water hyacinth is the alternative substrate for mushroom production instead of paddy straw. This study has successfully demonstrated the possibility of water hyacinth as substrate in mushroom production and management of water hyacinth.
... By using the fluorescent Cbl derivatives (fluorophores attached to the ribose position), Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found to be able to acquire both cobyric acid and Cbl analogues, whereas a worm Caenorhabditis elegans takes up only the complete corrinoid, as well as seedlings of a higher plant Lepidium sativum is also able to transport vitamin B12, possibly, by some nonspecific mechanisms [22]. Similarly, the higher fungi, like Agaricus bisporus, may transport and accumulate a large amount of B12, which is good alternative diet for vegetarians [21]. ...
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Many microbial producers of coenzyme B12 family cofactors together with their metabolically interdependent pathways are comprehensively studied and successfully used both in natural ecosystems dominated by auxotrophs, including bacteria and mammals, and in the safe industrial production of vitamin B12. Metabolic reconstruction for genomic and metagenomic data and functional genomics continue to mine the microbial and genetic resources for biosynthesis of the vital vitamin B12. Availability of metabolic engineering techniques and usage of affordable and renewable sources allowed improving bioprocess of vitamins, providing a positive impact on both economics and environment. The commercial production of vitamin B12 is mainly achieved through the use of the two major industrial strains, Propionobacterium shermanii and Pseudomonas denitrificans, that involves about 30 enzymatic steps in the biosynthesis of cobalamin and completely replaces chemical synthesis. However, there are still unresolved issues in cobalamin biosynthesis that need to be elucidated for future bioprocess improvements. In the present work, we review the current state of development and challenges for cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthesis, describing the major and novel prospective strains, and the studies of environmental factors and genetic tools effecting on the fermentation process are reported.
... These include riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, copper, phosphorus, selenium, fibre-associated monosaccharides and polysaccharides, and the sulphur-containing amino acid ergothioneine [1,2]. Mushrooms are one of the only natural vegetarian sources of both vitamin B 12 , which is bacteria-derived [3], and vitamin D, which is produced by the conversion of ergosterol to ergocalciferol after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light [4]. ...
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There is evidence from both in vitro and animal models that the consumption of edible mushrooms has beneficial effects on health. It is unclear whether similar effects exist in humans and which bioactive compounds are present. This review synthesises the evidence on the world's most commonly consumed mushroom, Agaricus bisporus to (i) examine its effect on human health outcomes; and (ii) determine the nutrient density of its bioactive compounds, which may explain their health effects. A systematic literature search was conducted on the consumption of A. bisporus, without date and study design limits. Bioactive compounds included ergosterol, ergothioneine, flavonoids, glucans and chitin. Two authors independently identified studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality. Beneficial effects of A. bisporus on metabolic syndrome, immune function, gastrointestinal health and cancer, with the strongest evidence for the improvement in Vitamin D status in humans, were found. Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposed mushrooms may increase and maintain serum 25(OH)D levels to a similar degree as vitamin D supplements. A. bisporus contain beta-glucans, ergosterol, ergothioneine, vitamin D and an antioxidant compound usually reported as flavonoids; with varying concentrations depending on the type of mushroom, cooking method and duration, and UVB exposure. Further research is required to fully elucidate the bioactive compounds in mushrooms using vigorous analytical methods and expand the immunological markers being tested. To enable findings to be adopted into clinical practice and public health initiatives, replication of existing studies in different population groups is required to confirm the impact of A. bisporus on human health.
... [45] cHEmIcal constItuEnts A. bisporus comes under the category of a food which is beneficial for humane health with excellent levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamins namely; thiamine, ascorbic acid, vitamin D 2 etc as well as minerals like folates, ergothioneine (ET) and polyphenols which may provide favorable effects on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes suggests that the mushroom might have potential anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic effects. [46][47][48][49] Around half of the fungal cell wall mass is constituted by β-glucans along with ergosterol, tocopherols, linoleic acid, and lectins. Fungus contains 1-6 mg of phenolics/g of dried mushroom and flavonoid concentrations ranged between 0.9 and 3.0 mg/g of dried matter; as myricetin and catechin. ...
... The chitin concentration increased with mushroom maturity (Dikeman et al., 2005). Vetter et al., (2005) reported Selenium level of A. bisporus was 2.3-2.7 mg kg-1, d.m. Koyyalamudi et al., 2009 detected higher concentrations of vitamin B 12 in the mushroom. ...
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Button mushroom (Agaricus spp.) is the most popular mushroom variety and is widely consumed worldwide. Before in India, its production was limited to the winter season, but with technology development, these are produced almost throughout the year in small, medium and large farms, by adapting different methodology. As, mushrooms are considered as the source of protein, the present study is intended to develop the snacks from mushroom with therapeutic value addition and examine the proximate composition. It was observed that the products have high nutrimental values like protein was high (4.5g) in sweet flavoured and carbohydrate was(60.34g) in sweet flavoured, FFA was low in salt+ fruit and pepper flavour and calcium and magnesium were high in (56mg and 48.7mg) fruit +salt flavour respectively. Vitamin A (1.7mg) was high in fruit + salt flavoured mushroom.
... Analysis of vitamin B12 in harvested mushrooms varied from variant to variant, with higher concentrations of B12 detected in the outer peel than in the cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that vitamin B12 is probably bacteria-derived [64]. Higher concentrations of vitamin B12 were also detected in the mushrooms harvested from mixed substrate with protein addition (C3 A2, C3 A3). ...
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The vitamin content of cultivated mushrooms differs from one species to another, depending on their stage of development, the nutrient substrate used to produce them, and the microclimate in the culture space. Agaricus blazei Murrill is one of the most popular cultivated medicinal mushrooms, with scientifically proven therapeutic properties. Considering that the Agaricus spp. mushrooms culture substrate can be produced using various raw materials, in this paper we have studied the influence of the culture substrate using four types of substrate with different protein additions on the vitamin content of mushrooms. The food qualities of the Agaricus blazei Murrill mushrooms, evaluated by the chemical composition, generally revealed the product obtained on the classic compost, improved with the addition of proteinaceous of corn flour. Mushrooms harvested on this substrate have the highest levels of B1 (1151 μg 100g−1 dm), B9 (671 μg 100g−1 dm), B12 (906 μg 100g−1 dm), PP (55.33 μg 100g−1 dm), and C vitamins (21.67 μg 100g−1 dm). The content of ergosterol, as a precursor of D2 vitamin, has higher values in the product obtained on the classic compost, with the addition of wheat bran (90.17 mg 100g−1 dm) and the addition of corn flour (94 mg 100g−1 dm).
... It is a unique plant food in that they are very low in dietary sugar making them ideal for diabetic patients. Mushroom is also an excellent source of vitamin B 12 (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009), which is generally not present in plant foods and ideal choice for the vegetarians. The balanced status of protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and active ingredients makes it an ideal choice for food supplementation. ...
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Fungal Diversity, 56 (1), 1-29 (2012). Diabetes mellitus is a life-threatening chronic metabolic disease caused by lack of insulin and/or insulin dysfunction, characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia). Millions worldwide suffer from diabetes and its complications. Significantly, it has been recognized that type 2 diabetes is an important preventable disease and can be avoided or delayed by lifestyle intervention. Presently, there are many chemical and biochemical hypoglycemic agents (synthetic drugs), that are used in treating diabetes and are effective in controlling hyperglycemia. However, as they may have harmful side-effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications, natural anti-diabetic drugs from medicinal plants have attracted a great deal of attention. Medicinal mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds over many centuries and have been targeted as potential hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic agents. Bioactive metabolites including polysaccharides, proteins, dietary fibres, and many other biomolecules isolated from medicinal mushrooms and their cultured mycelia have been shown to be successful in diabetes treatment as biological antihyperglycemic agents. In this review we discuss the biological nature of diabetes and, in particular, explore some promising mushrooms that have experimental anti-diabetic properties, preventing or reducing the development of diabetes mellitus. The importance of medicinal mushrooms as agents of medical nutrition therapy and how their metabolites can be used as supportive candidates for prevention and control of diabetes is explored. Future prospects for this field of study and the difficulties and constraints that might affect the development of rational drug products from medicinal mushrooms are discussed.
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Contact: Kevin Hyde <kdhyde3@gmail.com> Diabetes mellitus is a life-threatening chronic metabolic disease caused by lack of insulin and/or insulin dysfunction, characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia). Millions worldwide suffer from diabetes and its complications. Significantly, it has been recognized that type 2 diabetes is an important preventable disease and can be avoided or delayed by lifestyle intervention. Presently, there are many chemical and biochemical hypoglycemic agents (synthetic drugs), that are used in treating diabetes and are effective in controlling hyperglycemia. However, as they may have harmful side-effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications, natural anti-diabetic drugs from medicinal plants have attracted a great deal of attention. Medicinal mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds over many centuries and have been targeted as potential hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic agents. Bioactive metabolites including polysaccharides, proteins, dietary fibres, and many other biomolecules isolated from medicinal mushrooms and their cultured mycelia have been shown to be successful in diabetes treatment as biological antihyperglycemic agents. In this review we discuss the biological nature of diabetes and, in particular, explore some promising mushrooms that have experimental anti-diabetic properties, preventing or reducing the development of diabetes mellitus. The importance of medicinal mushrooms as agents of medical nutrition therapy and how their metabolites can be used as supportive candidates for prevention and control of diabetes is explored. Future prospects for this field of study and the difficulties and constraints that might affect the development of rational drug products from medicinal mushrooms are discussed. Keywords: Medicinal mushrooms . Diabetes mellitus . Anti-diabetic agents . Anti-hyperglycemic agents . Bioactive metabolites . Mushroom supplementation . Diabetes prevention
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We report the first studies on the reaction between an HNO donor compound and vitamin B12 complexes. Kinetic and mechanistic studies have been carried out on the reaction between the vitamin B12 derivative aquacobalamin (H2OCbl(+)/HOCbl; pKa = 7.8) and the HNO donor Angeli's salt. Studies were carried out with aquacobalamin in excess, since nitrite also reacts with aquacobalamin to form nitrocobalamin (NO2Cbl). At pH <9.90 aquacobalamin reacts directly with the monoprotonated form of Angeli's salt, HN2O3(-), to form nitroxylcobalamin (NO(-)-Cbl(III); NOCbl) and nitrite. At pH >10.80 the reaction instead switches predominantly to a mechanism in which spontaneous decomposition of Angeli's salt to give HNO and nitrite becomes the rate-determining step, followed by the rapid reaction between aquacobalamin and HNO/NO(-) to again give NOCbl. Both reactions proceed with a 1:1 stoichiometry and formation of nitrite is confirmed using the Griess assay.
Article
Objective (i) to examine demographic and health characteristics of women of reproductive age on a vegan diet in Australia and compare these to the general population, (ii) to identify sources and intake of vitamin B 12 , and compare intake to current recommendations (iii) examine associations between participant characteristics and adequacy of vitamin B 12 intake. Design In this cross-sectional study data was collected via an online survey. Demographic and health characteristics of women on a vegan diet were compared to women in the general population (using Australian Bureau of Statistics data). Intake of vitamin B 12 was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and estimation of supplemental intake. Setting Australia. Participants Participants (n1530) were women 18-44 years who had been on a vegan diet for at least six months. Results While Body Mass Index, smoking habits and intakes of fruit and vegetables compared favourably to the general population, 26% of respondents had estimated intakes of vitamin B 12 below recommendations. Analyses of relationships between vitamin B 12 intake and participant characteristics revealed that the strongest predictor of intake was supplementation (p<0.001), however, 25% had not supplemented with vitamin B 12 in the past three months. Conclusions The vitamin B 12 intakes of a substantial proportion of Australian women of reproductive age consuming a vegan diet do not meet the recommended intake, which could adversely affect their health, and, if they are pregnant or lactating, that of their infants too. There is a need for further research in this area to identify effective strategies to address this situation.
Chapter
Water-soluble vitamins constitute a diverse group of compounds that exhibit vitamin activity in vivo and have some degree of solubility in water. They must be obtained from exogenous sources and are essential forthe normal metabolic and physiological functions of humans; their absence from the diet usually results in anovert deficiency disease that can be reversed by administration of the vitamin (1). Additional health benefitshave recently been attributed to vitamin intakes in excess of those needed to prevent classical nutritional deficiencies. Due to the diverse nature of the vitamins, their structures and physicochemical properties vary widely. A single vitamin generally consists of several chemical species or vitamers. Each of these vitamers exhibits similar biological activity in vivo although their individual structures and physicochemical properties may differ.
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In the current work, cyanocobalamin was coupled to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) by CDI method to produce artificial antigens. Then a monoclonal antibody (MAB) against cyanocobalamin was acquired. In comparison with other reported antibodies, the MAB showed good specificity toward cyanocobalamin. Cross reactivity was found to be less than 0.01% with other compounds of vitamin B, except for three analogs of cobalamins which indicated from 0.27% to 2.31%. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) for the detection of cyanocobalamin was developed based on the MAB. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection was 0.2 ng mL-1 with a linear working range of 2–100 ng mL-1 (R2=0.993). The spiked samples were detected with recovery ranging from 86.02–110.54%, and the coefficients of variation were from 2.62% to 13.7% (n=6). Six commercially available vitamin supplements were tested by ELISA method, after purification with immunoaffinity column, the samples were validated by HPLC with UV detection at 361 nm. The results obtained also showed good correlation between ELISA and HPLC (R2=0.998). Thus, the method proposed had been proved to be a trustworthy tool to quantify cyanocobalamin in vB12 tablets supplements.
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Mushrooms are a class of " macrofungi" which in recent years have gained popularity among general consumers and the scientific community. Edible mushrooms have been shown to possess high nutritive value, and are being considered as " nutraceuticals" due to their potential health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that bioactive compounds in mushrooms have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, lipid lowering and anti-tumor effects. Some research findings suggest that edible mushroom consumption is associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Many of these health benefits can be attributed to the nutrient profile of the mushrooms, which include protein, B-vitamins, minerals, along with low fat content. In addition, bioactive compounds like polyphenols and flavonoids present in mushrooms may contribute to health benefits. Weight management is a growing concern for all segments of the U.S. population. Moreover, recent statistics provide compelling evidence that overweight and obesity are on the rise not only among adults, but also in children younger than twelve years of age. This growing trend in overweight and obesity imposes major health, economic and social burdens worldwide. While genetic, biologic and social factors are responsible to a great extent, many individuals engage in dietary behaviors that put them at risk of weight gain. On the intake side of the energy balance equation, high intake of energy-dense foods is largely responsible for the problem of positive energy balance, and the resulting epidemic of overweight and obesity in the U.S. Energy regulation is complex, but there is evidence that humans have limited ability to regulate food intake in response to changes in energy density. One obvious method of preventing passive overconsumption when consuming energy dense foods is substitution of low energy dense foods. However, palatability differences, access, cost, and habit may prevent people from choosing such foods. Edible mushrooms are very low in calories and energy density. They have a nutrient profile similar to that of many foods recommended in weight loss/maintenance diets. However many " diet" foods have low palatability, which may result in non-adherence to these foods by those seeking to lose weight and keep it off. In contrast, edible mushrooms are generally regarded by adults as highly palatable, making them potentially a good substitute for high energy density foods in the prevention and treatment of obesity. In support of this hypothesis, one study we conducted in humans on the effect of mushroom on satiety and palatability showed promising results, suggesting a potential role in improving weight regulation. In addition, mushrooms may have the added benefit of reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, conditions that are associated with obesity and a number of chronic diseases. Future research is needed on the effect of mushroom intake on body weight regulation, and associated health benefits.
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Background: Commonly consumed mushrooms, portobello (PBM) and shiitake (SHM), are abundant in nutrients, soluble dietary fibers, and bioactive compounds that have been implicated as beneficial in reducing inflammation, improving lipid profiles, and ameliorating heart disease and atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the arteries. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine effects of PBM and SHM in preventing atherosclerosis and associated inflammation in an animal model. Methods: Four-week-old Ldlr-/- male mice were divided into 5 dietary groups for 16 wk: a low-fat control (LF-C, 11 kcal% fat), high-fat control (HF-C, 18.9 kcal% fat), HF + 10% (wt:wt) PBM (HF-PBM, 19.5 kcal% fat) or SHM (HF-SHM, 19.7 kcal% fat) powder, and HF + mushroom control mix (MIX-C, 19.6 kcal% fat), a diet best matched to the average macronutrient content of both mushrooms. Body composition was measured using MRI. Aortic tricuspid valves and aortas were collected and stained to quantify plaque formation. Adhesion molecule expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Plasma lipid and cytokine concentrations were measured. Results: We found that mice fed a HF-SHM diet had ∼86% smaller aortic lesion area than mice in both HF-C (P < 0.01) and MIX-C (P < 0.01) groups and also expressed 31-48% lower vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels (P < 0.05) than all other groups. Similarly, HF-PBM-fed mice displayed a 70% reduction in aortic lesion area in the tricuspid valve only (P < 0.05). Both mushroom-fed groups had lower weight gain and fat mass (P < 0.05) than the control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that consumption of PBMs and particularly SHMs is effective in preventing development of high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice. Future studies will determine active components in mushrooms responsible for this beneficial effect.
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A wide range of nutrients and health-promoting non-nutrient components in mushrooms are a subject of international research, but specific reference materials to facilitate comparison of results among laboratories are lacking. Commercially available food matrix reference materials do not contain components unique to mushrooms (e.g., ergosterol, vitamin D2, chitin, beta-glucans, agaritine, ergothioneine). A Mixed Mushroom Control Material (CM) (homogeneous mixture of 15 types of mushrooms) was prepared and characterized for selected components, including proximates (moisture, protein, ash), total folate, folate vitamers, ergosterol, ergosterol metabolites, vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), amino acids, total dietary fiber, agaritine, elements (sodium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc), riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid. Subsamples of the CM are available to qualified laboratories from the Food Analysis Laboratory Control Center at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA, USA), to be assayed concurrently with mushroom samples for which food composition data will be published along with results for the CM. Implementation of this CM should facilitate comparison of published data on mushroom composition and health benefit among species, and biodiversity within species by serving as common control sample that allows the separation of analytical variability from true differences in sample composition determined at different laboratories.
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Maternal diet and lifestyle choices may affect placental transfer of cobalamin (Cbl) to the fetus. Fetal liver concentration of Cbl reflects nutritional status with regards to vitamin B12, but at these low concentration current Cbl measurement methods lack robustness. An analytical method based on enzymatic extraction with subsequent RP-HPLC separation and parallel ICP-MS and ESI-Orbitrap-MS to determine specifically Cbl species in liver samples of only 10-50 mg was developed using 14 pig livers. Subsequently 55 human fetal livers were analyzed. HPLC-ICP-MS analysis for cobalt (Co) and Cbl gave detection limits of 0.18 ng/g and 0.88 ng/g d.m. in liver samples respectively with a recovery of >95%. Total Co (Cot) concentration did not reflect the amount of Cbl or vitamin B12 in the liver. Cbl bound Co contributes only 45 +/- 15 % to Cot. XRF mapping and XANES analysis confirmed the occurrence of non-Cbl cobalt in pig liver hot spots indicating particular Co. No correlations of total cobalt nor Cbl with fetal weight or weeks of gestation were found for the human fetal livers. Although no gender difference could be identified for total Co concentration, female livers were significantly higher in Cbl concentration (24.1 +/- 7.8 ng/g) than those from male fetuses (19.8 +/- 7.1 ng/g) (p=0.04). This HPLC-ICP-MS method was able to quantify total Cot and Cbl in fetus liver and it was sensitive and precise enough to identify this gender difference.
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Background and aim of the work. The main Food Choice Motives (FCMs) of vegetarianism and ve-ganism are supported by ethical, health, ecological and pleasure motivations, but also family and cultural traditions play a definite role. A better health achievement is usually the first goal of turning vegetarians, on the reports that ischemic heart, circulatory and cerebrovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and some cancer were significantly lower in vegetarians and vegans than in omnivores. In this review, we investigate the main reasons that lead to the choice of an increasingly common lifestyle, such as vegetarianism and veganism and the pros & cons of this choice. Methods. We reviewed studies focused on vegetarian and vegan diets, and included articles published between 1975 and 2015. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the terms "vegetarianism", "veganism", "benefits" and "diseases", alone or combined. This review aims at describing vegetarian and vegan diets, discussing current knowledge about motivations for pursuing this diet, clinical benefits and limitations. Results. Vegetarian and vegan diets are low in n-3 PUFA, proteins, calcium, zinc, iron, vitamins B12 and D. Conclusions. Different guidelines for vegetarian and especially vegan diets have been settled based on the need to fortify foods with molecules that are reduced or missing in these diets.
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Interest in plant-based diets and vegetarianism is increasing worldwide, however, a concern for total vegetarians is vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We conducted a systematic review to investigate non-animal food sources of B12. Databases were PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane, Embase and Google Scholar, up to September 9, 2020. Quality of the eligible studies were assessed. We identified 25 studies which assessed B12 content in seaweeds, mushrooms, plants and fermented foods. Initial studies were microbiological bioassay, ELISA and HPLC. In the last decade, more sensitive method for real B12 determination was used, the liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry chromatograms. Real B12 content varied from mean (SD) mcg/portion size of seaweed hijiki 3 × 10-3/7 g to nori 1.03 - 2.68/sheet; mushroom white button cap 2 × 10-3(7 × 10-4)/20 g dry weight (dw) to shiitake 0.79(0.67)-1.12 (0.78)/20 g dw; and fermented foods from soy yogurt 20/cup. It is possible that daily recommendations for B12 can be met by a varied diet containing non-animal B12 food sources. Future research should consider different methods of storage, preparation, fermented foods and standardization of the production of certain foods.
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The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in an aqueous extract from mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach was studied, using pyrocatechol as a substrate. Optimal conditions for enzymatic studies were determined to be pH 7.0 and 35-40 °C. The kinetics of PPO-catalyzed oxidation of pyrocatechol followed the Haldane model with an optimum substrate concentration of 20 mM. Thermal inactivation of PPO was examined in more detail between 50 and 73 °C and in relation to exposure time. Obtained monophasic kinetics were adequately described by a first-order model, with significant inactivation occurring with increasing temperature (less than 10% preserved activity after 6 min at 65 °C). Arrhenius plot determination and calculated thermodynamic parameters suggest that the PPO in aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus mushroom is a structurally robust yet temperature-sensitive biocatalyst whose inactivation process is mainly entropy-driven.
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One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined.
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We found that Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sourdough, is able to produce cobalamin. The sugar-glycerol cofermentation in vitamin B12-free medium showed that this strain was able to reduce glycerol through a well-known cobalamin-dependent reaction with the formation of 1,3-propanediol as a final product. The cell extract of L. reuteri corrected the coenzyme B12 requirement of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 7830 and allowed the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (metE cbiB) and Escherichia coli (metE) in minimal medium. Preliminary genetic studies of cobalamin biosynthesis genes from L. reuteri allowed the identification of cob genes which encode the CobA, CbiJ, and CbiK enzymes involved in the cobalamin pathway. The cobamide produced by L. reuteri, isolated in its cyanide form by using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, showed a UV-visible spectrum identical to that of standard cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12).
Chapter
A type of anaemia attributed to a digestive disorder was reported by Combe in 1822 and later recognized as pernicious anaemia by Addison in 1849. It was not until 1926 that Minot and Murphy started to cure patients suffering from pernicious anaemia by feeding them with large amounts of raw liver. In 1929, Castle showed that the intestinal absorption of the ‘antipernicious anaemia principal’ required prior binding to a specific protein (intrinsic factor) secreted by the stomach. Research into isolating the active principal from liver was hampered by the difficulty of the only known bioassay, which was the haemopoietic response of patients with pernicious anaemia. Eventually, in 1948, a red crystalline substance having the clinical activity of liver and designated as vitamin B12 was isolated almost simultaneously by two independent groups led by Folkers (Merck Company, USA) and E.L. Smith (Glaxo Company, UK). The success of Folkers’ group was largely attributable to a microbiological assay developed by Shorb in 1947; Smith used the human bioassay procedure. The complicated structure of vitamin B12 was established by Hodgkin using X-ray crystallography in 1955. Its complete chemical synthesis was achieved in 1973, but because of the large number of stages required (over 70) the procedure is of no commercial interest.
Article
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and rate of development of a low (below normal) serum B12 level in clinically well persons on a total vegetarian diet (TVD) with and without supplementation/fortification with B12. Serum B12 and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were measured in participants on a TVD for 12–340 months. Ability to absorb B12 orally was tested. In addition, urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio (UMMMCr) was measured in a subgroup of 27. In 47 of 78 adults the B12 level was below 200 pg ml-1, and the MCV was 94.2 ± 4.0. The other 31 adults had a B12 level of 200 or above, averaged 293 ± 85 pg ml-1 and an MCV of 92.6 ± 4.6. Eight children and 12 adults were on the same TVD, but were using B12-fortified soy milk instead of cow's milk. Their B12 level ranged from 255 to 690 (average 417 pg ml-1) with a mean MCV of 88.8 ± 3.5 fl. The serum B12 level of seven of 16 adults with a low serum B12 who chewed a 100 μg tablet of B12 once a week for 6 weeks increased by 150%, whereas the serum B12 level increased by only 12% in the nine who gulped down the tablets (with water). In 10 who changed from a lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) diet to a TVD, the mean serum B12 level dropped 35% from 415 ± 187 to 268 ± 75 pg ml-1 (p < 0.005) 2 months after starting the TVD. Seven of 11 participants with a B12 below 200 pg ml-1 had an elevated UMMA/Cr ratio, whereas all 16 with serum B12 levels above 200 pg m1-1 were normal. Serum B12 levels decreased noticeably within 2 months on a TVD. Sixty-one per cent of those on the TVD for 1 year or more had serum B12 levels below normal, but those on the TVD had a slightly greater average MCV and MCH than those using cow's milk or soy milk fortified with B12. Two-thirds of those with low serum B12 had increased urinary methyl-malonic acid levels. The serum B12 increased with oral supplementation only if the tablet could be readily dissolved.
Article
The binding of several corrinoids to the binding site of human intrinsic factor, transcobalamin or haptocorrin was investigated. p-Cresolyl cobamide and 2-amino-vitamin B12 are complete corrinoids, whose nucleotide at the lower face of the corrin ring is not coordinated to the cobalt. These corrinoids were ≥ 103 times less efficiently recognized by intrinsic factor or transcobalamin than vitamin B12, which contains a Co-coordinated nucleotide. Pseudovitamin B12, with a weak Co-N coordination bond, revealed only moderate affinity to intrinsic factor. From these findings it is concluded that the cobamide binding to intrinsic factor and transcobalamin is strongly affected by the Co-N coordination bonds of their lower cobalt nucleotide ligands. We suggest that the Co-N coordination bond positions the nucleotide at a critical distance to the corrin ring, which is recognized by the binding proteins.Human haptocorrin, however, disclosed to distinctive selectivity regarding the different corrinoid structures. The protein bound all corrinoids with similar efficiency, independent of the strength of their Co-N coordinations, or the structures of their lower Coα ligands. Hence, the corrin ring, rather than a structural feature induced by the Co-N coordination, has to be considered responsible for the corrinoid binding to haptocorrin.
Article
A review of the literature showed that plants grown with organic fertilizers often contain higher concentrations of vitamins B1 (thiamin) and B12 (cyanocobalamin) as compared with plants grown with inorganic fertilizers. Since plant roots were recently shown to be able to absorb B1 and B12, it was thus suspected that organic fertilizers (such as manure of diverse sources or sewage sludges which often contain relatively high concentrations of several vitamins) introduce additional vitamins into the soil which in turn leads to increased vitamins in the plants. This possibility was studied by measuring the B12 content in the seeds of soybean and barley and in the leaves of spinach plants grown in soils amended with pure B12 or cow dung (which is naturally rich in B12). The addition of pure B12 or cow dung did not alter the B12 content in the soybean seeds but significantly increased that in the barley kernels and in the spinach leaves. For example, the addition of cow dung at the rate of 10 g kg–1 increased the B12 content in barley kernels by more than threefold (from 2.6 to 9.1 ng g–1 DW) and in spinach leaves by close to twofold (from 6.9 to 17.8 ng g–1 DW). Long-term addition of organic fertilizers to the soil also significantly increased the soil content of this vitamin. Since plants cannot synthesize B12 and thus plant foods are normally fully devoid of (or have very low concentrations of) this vitamin, the finding that plants grown with organic fertilizers may contain relatively higher concentrations of this vitamin may have nutritional consequences in that the consumption of these plants by humans would inadvertently increase their intake of this vitamin. This may be of special benefit to people living by choice or by necessity on strict vegetarian diets who are known to be in danger of B12 deficiency.
Article
Methods for the determination of Vitamin B12 remain limited due to their low sensitivity and poor selectivity. In the present work, a simple and sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS method for determining Vitamin B12 in food products and in multivitamin-multimineral tablets was developed. Vitamin B12 was extracted from food products with 50 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.0) in the presence of sodium cyanide. Total Vitamin B12 content in food product can be obtained by efficient enzymatic hydrolysis to release the bound Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 was quantified with ginsenoside Re as internal standard (I.S.) after their separations on a C18 column with a gradient of mobile phase made of water and acetonitrile. MS with SIR mode at m/z 930.8 was used for Vitamin B12 quantification. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of Vitamin B12 was linear with a regression coefficient r2 = 0.9994. The intra-assay R.S.D. and the inter-assay R.S.D. were 2.6% (n = 5) and 3.5% (n = 6), respectively. The recoveries evaluated at spiking three different concentrations on fortified products were above 93%. The method has been applied successfully in the determination of Vitamin B12 in fortified food products and multivitamin-multimineral tablets.
Article
We present a 9-month-old exclusively breast-fed baby of a strict vegetarian mother who had excluded all animal proteins from her diet. The patient's symptoms included dystrophy, weakness, muscular atrophy, loss of tendon reflexes, psychomotor regression and haematological abnormalities. Biochemical investigations revealed severe methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria in the patient, slight methylmalonic aciduria in the mother and low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 in both patient and mother.
Article
The binding of several corrinoids to the binding site of human intrinsic factor, transcobalamin or haptocorrin was investigated, p-Cresolyl cobamide and 2-amino-vitamin B12 are complete corrinoids, whose nucleotide at the lower face of the corrin ring is not coordinated to the cobalt. These corrinoids were greater than or equal to 10(3) times less efficiently recognized by intrinsic factor or transcobalamin than vitamin B12, which contains a Co-coordinated nucleotide. Pseudovitamin B12, with a weak Co-N coordination bond, revealed only moderate affinity to intrinsic factor. From these findings it is concluded that the cobamide binding to intrinsic factor and transcobalamin is strongly affected by the Co-N coordination bonds of their lower cobalt nucleotide ligands. We suggest that the Co-N coordination bond positions the nucleotide at a critical distance to the corrin ring, which is recognized by the binding proteins. Human haptocorrin, however, disclosed to distinctive selectivity regarding the different corrinoid structures. The protein bound all corrinoids with similar efficiency, independent of the strength of their Co-N coordinations, or the structures of their lower Co alpha ligands. Hence, the corrin ring, rather than a structural feature induced by the Co-N coordination, has to be considered responsible for the corrinoid binding to haptocorrin.
Article
Observations on the deleterious effects of a totally vegetarian diet in infancy are reported and the difficulties encountered in the prevention of nutritional deficiencies in a vegan religious community are discussed. Twenty-five infants of this community who were seen at the hospital showed evidence of protein-calorie malnutrition, iron- and vitamin B12-deficient anemia, rickets, zinc deficiency, and multiple recurrent infections. Evidence of growth retardation was also found in 47 infants seen at the local mother-child health (well-baby) clinic. Samples of breast milk showed low levels of carbohydrate (1.6 to 3.5 gm/100 ml), protein (0.8 to 1.4 gm/100 ml), and fat (2.4 to 4.1 gm/100 ml). The main constituent of the infants' diet after the age of 3 months (a "soya milk" prepared at the community's central kitchen) was extremely dilute with a very low calorific value (13.7 kcal/100 ml). Persistent attempts to find dietary modifications that would satisfy both the vegan philosophy and also the recommended dietary allowances failed. This problem represents a scientific and medicosocial challenge to pediatricians and nutritionists.
Article
Hearing impairment is 1 of the 4 most prevalent chronic conditions in the elderly. However, the biological basis of age-related hearing loss is unknown. The objective was to test the hypothesis that age-related hearing loss may be associated with poor vitamin B-12 and folate status. A thorough audiometric assessment was conducted in 55 healthy women aged 60-71 y. Hearing function was determined by the average of pure-tone air conduction thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz and was categorized into 2 groups for logistic regression analyses: normal hearing (<20 dB hearing level; n = 44) and impaired hearing (> or = 20 dB hearing level; n = 11). Mean age was the same (65 y) for the normal hearing and impaired hearing groups. Pure-tone averages were inversely correlated with serum vitamin B-12 (r = -0.58, P = 0.0001) and red cell folate (r = -0.37, P = 0.01). Women with impaired hearing had 38% lower serum vitamin B-12 (236 compared with 380 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.008) and 31% lower red cell folate (425 compared with 619 nmol/L, respectively, P = 0.02) than women with normal hearing. Among participants who did not take supplements containing vitamin B-12 or folate, women with impaired hearing had 48% lower serum vitamin B-12 (156 compared with 302 pmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0007) and 43% lower red cell folate (288 compared with 502 nmol/L, respectively, P = 0.001) than women with normal hearing. Poor vitamin B-12 and folate status may be associated with age-related auditory dysfunction.
Article
Vitamin B12 deficiency is estimated to affect 10%-15% of people over the age of 60, and the laboratory diagnosis is usually based on low serum vitamin B12 levels or elevated serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels. Although elderly people with low vitamin B12 status frequently lack the classical signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, e.g. megaloblastic anemia, precise evaluation and treatment in this population is important. Absorption of crystalline vitamin B12 does not decline with advancing age. However, compared with the younger population, absorption of protein-bound vitamin B12 is decreased in the elderly, owing to a high prevalence of atrophic gastritis in this age group. Atrophic gastritis results in a low acid-pepsin secretion by the gastric mucosa, which in turn results in a reduced release of free vitamin B12 from food proteins. Furthermore, hypochlorhydria in atrophic gastritis results in bacterial overgrowth of the stomach and small intestine, and these bacteria may bind vitamin B12 for their own use. The ability to absorb crystalline vitamin B12 remains intact in older people with atrophic gastritis. The 1998 recommended daily allowance for vitamin B12 is 2.4 micrograms, but elderly people should try to obtain their vitamin B12 from either supplements or fortified foods (e.g. fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals) to ensure adequate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Because the American food supply is now being fortified with folic acid, concern is increasing about neurologic exacerbation in individuals with marginal vitamin B12 status and high-dose folate intake.
Article
The vitamin B(12) concentration of an algal health food, spirulina (Spirulina sp.) tablets, was determined by both Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 microbiological and intrinsic factor chemiluminescence methods. The values determined with the microbiological method were approximately 6-9-fold greater in the spirulina tablets than the values determined with the chemiluminescence method. Although most of the vitamin B(12) determined with the microbiological method was derived from various vitamin B(12) substitutive compounds and/or inactive vitamin B(12) analogues, the spirulina contained a small amount of vitamin B(12) active in the binding of the intrinsic factor. Two intrinsic factor active vitamin B(12) analogues (major and minor) were purified from the spirulina tablets and partially characterized. The major (83%) and minor (17%) analogues were identified as pseudovitamin B(12) and vitamin B(12), respectively, as judged from data of TLC, reversed-phase HPLC, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and biological activity using L. leichmannii as a test organism and the binding of vitamin B(12) to the intrinsic factor.
Article
The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.
Article
Vitamin B12 content of various edible shellfish was determined by both Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 microbiological and intrinsic factor-chemiluminescence methods. The values determined by the microbiological method were 1.2-19.8 (M/C ratio) fold greater in the shellfish than the values determined by the chemiluminescence method. Vitamin B12 compounds were purified from most eaten shellfish, oyster (M/C, 1.5), mussel (M/C, 1.2), and short-necked clam (M/C, 2.7), and partially characterized. TLC and HPLC patterns of each red-colored vitamin B12 compound (M/C, 1.0-1.2) purified from these shellfish were identical to those of authentic vitamin B12. Although the higher values in the determination of vitamin B12 by the microbiological method may be due to the occurrence of vitamin B12-substitutive compounds, the edible shellfish would be excellent vitamin B12 sources judging from the values (> or = 6 micrograms/100 g) determined by the chemiluminescence method.
Article
The vitamin B12 concentration of the dried cells of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was determined by both microbiological method with Lactobacillus delbrueckeii ATCC7830 and chemiluminescence method with intrinsic factor. The Aphanizomenon cells contained 616.3 +/- 30.3 micro g (n = 4) of vitamin B12 per 100 g of the dried cells by the microbiological method. The values determined with the chemiluminescence method, however, were only about 5.3% of the values determined by the microbiological method. A corrinoid-compound was purified from the dried cells and characterized. The purified corrinoid-compound was identified as pseudovitamin B12 (an inactive corrinoid-compound for humans) by silica gel 60 TLC, C18 reversed-phase HPLC, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the Aphanizomenon cells are not suitable for use as a vitamin B12 source, especially in vegans.
Article
The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised.
The effect of cobalt and nickel micro-elements upon the content increase of vitamin B 12 in Spirulina platensis biomass
  • G Vladeanu
  • N Mitrea
Vladeanu, G.; Mitrea, N. The effect of cobalt and nickel micro-elements upon the content increase of vitamin B 12 in Spirulina platensis biomass. Stud. Cercet. Biol., Ser. Biol. Veg. 1992, 44, 607–610.
Vitamin B 12 fortification of Agaricus bisporus mush-rooms
  • C D Walker
Walker, C. D. Vitamin B 12 fortification of Agaricus bisporus mush-rooms. Cultiv. Mushroom Res. (CMR) Newsl. 1996, 3, 31–38.
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Association of Official Analytical Chemists
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