ArticlePDF Available

How important are different socially responsible marketing practices? An exploratory study of gender, race, and income differences

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance consumers place on various types of socially responsible marketing practices, and whether the level of importance varies by gender, race, and consumers' income. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was designed that asked subjects their attitudes toward the various social marketing practices that were uncovered through an analysis of recent literature from ABI-Inform, Fordham University's Center for Positive Marketing and focus groups. The survey was administered to 232 subjects and included information regarding race, gender, and income. Survey results were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA). The results of the LCA were used to develop a correspondence analysis map. Findings – The results confirm the importance of key demographic factors (income, gender, and race) in understanding consumers' perceptions of socially responsible marketing. Research limitations/implications – One limitation is that the sample was collected in Baltimore, Maryland and not entirely representative of the population of the USA. Another limitation is that consumers’ perceptions of socially responsible marketing are only captured at one point in time rather than showing the evolution of a belief. Practical implications – Marketers need to target their messages carefully if they are promoting socially responsible marketing as a differentiating factor. Understanding how each demographic group responds to these socially responsible marketing messages can assist managers in their promotional efforts. Originality/value – Limited research has been completed that segments the market with regards to socially responsible marketing options. The research explores these segments by surveying active consumers.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Starting with gender, findings were fairly consistent, in that the socially responsible consumer tended to be female (e.g., Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968;Webster, 1975;Gupta and Singh, 2017). Most CSR studies confirmed these results by showing that women were more likely to perceive CSR actions as positive (e.g., Patino et al., 2014;Kim and Kim, 2016), while only a few studies detected no gender effect on perceived CSR (e.g., Mueller, 2014). ...
... Gender Socially conscious consumers tend to be female Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968;Gupta and Singh, 2017 Gender Women are more likely to perceive CSR activities as positive Patino et al., 2014;Kim and Kim, 2016 Age Socially conscious consumers tend to be young Anderson and Cunningham, 1972;Gupta and Singh, 2017 Age Inconsistent age effects in CSR perception Tian et al., 2011;Mueller, 2014 Education Socially conscious consumers are highly educated Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968;Roberts, 1995 Education Higher education positively influences CSR perception Youn and Kim, 2008;Lee, 2019 Income Socially conscious consumer has high or at least average income Webster, 1975;Gupta and Singh, 2017 Income Moderate and high-income groups more committed to CSR activities Youn and Kim, 2008;Patino et al., 2014 Consumption capital Consumption capital influences the evaluation of organizational activities Du et al., 2010;Wicker et al., 2012 Involvement Involvement influences the CSR perception positively Assael, 1992;McGehee et al., 2003 only a few studies showed that educational level had no effect (e.g., Pérez and Rodríguez del Bosque, 2013a). Concerning income, previous research found that the socially conscious consumer has high (Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968;Webster, 1975) or at least average income (Gupta and Singh, 2017). ...
... Gender Socially conscious consumers tend to be female Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968;Gupta and Singh, 2017 Gender Women are more likely to perceive CSR activities as positive Patino et al., 2014;Kim and Kim, 2016 Age Socially conscious consumers tend to be young Anderson and Cunningham, 1972;Gupta and Singh, 2017 Age Inconsistent age effects in CSR perception Tian et al., 2011;Mueller, 2014 Education Socially conscious consumers are highly educated Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968;Roberts, 1995 Education Higher education positively influences CSR perception Youn and Kim, 2008;Lee, 2019 Income Socially conscious consumer has high or at least average income Webster, 1975;Gupta and Singh, 2017 Income Moderate and high-income groups more committed to CSR activities Youn and Kim, 2008;Patino et al., 2014 Consumption capital Consumption capital influences the evaluation of organizational activities Du et al., 2010;Wicker et al., 2012 Involvement Involvement influences the CSR perception positively Assael, 1992;McGehee et al., 2003 only a few studies showed that educational level had no effect (e.g., Pérez and Rodríguez del Bosque, 2013a). Concerning income, previous research found that the socially conscious consumer has high (Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968;Webster, 1975) or at least average income (Gupta and Singh, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sport governing bodies have played a special role in society during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Following stakeholder theory and consumption capital theory, this study investigated the actions of the German Bundesliga (DFL), Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) during this phase as perceived by the German population and through the lens of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Based on a representative sample of the German resident population ( N = 1,000), the study examined the individual characteristics that influenced the perceived CSR of these organizations and what population clusters emerged from this perception. The survey applied a CSR scale that was previously validated in a professional team sports context. The results confirmed the equally strong applicability of the scale to the sport governing context. Cluster analysis yielded three distinctive clusters, namely, “supporters,” “neutral observers,” and “critics.” Regression analyses and the cluster analysis identified those with frequent consumption and high involvement in sport as rating the actions of the three sport organizations more positively. They are also more strongly represented in the “supporters” cluster. In contrast, those threatened the most by the virus are overrepresented in the “critics” cluster.
... The paper draws on an empirical study by Patino et al. (2014) on the importance of different marketing practices. Patino et al. (2014) examined the importance that consumers in the United States place on different socially responsible marketing practices, and researched whether the level of importance varies by race, gender and income. ...
... The paper draws on an empirical study by Patino et al. (2014) on the importance of different marketing practices. Patino et al. (2014) examined the importance that consumers in the United States place on different socially responsible marketing practices, and researched whether the level of importance varies by race, gender and income. The subject of this research is the importance of socially responsible behaviour in the healthy food market. ...
... Hur et al. (2015) claim that due to the growing interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR), many companies have been investing considerable effort to identify how consumer demographics relate to CSR. Despite that, Patino et al. (2014) notice that relatively less attention has been devoted to how demographic variables may influence the importance of different socially responsible marketing practices for consumers. Therefore, our aim is to analyze further the potential impact of two important socio-demographic variables, namely gender and income among student population. ...
Article
It is widely believed that young people are not overly concerned about their health or that they take excessive care of their eating habits. However, marketing experts see them as an extremely important and potentially large market, and consider all socially responsible business initiatives as long-term investments that will increase the value of the company. In the healthy food market, marketing practices are among the most important activities of socially responsible business. The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of different socially responsible marketing practices on the healthy food market. The questionnaire was administered to 519 students and the results were analysed using latent class analysis (LCA). Research results confirm the importance of understanding the influence of key demographic variables (gender and household income) on customers’ perceptions of socially responsible marketing. An important limitation of the research is the number and selection of socially responsible marketing practices. There are only a few studies that segment the market based on socially responsible marketing practises. A suggestion for future research is to use longitudinal data with more marketing practices tested.
... Furthermore, other studies have found that men are more sceptical about corporate intentions and are more likely to agree that a company is exploiting a cause for profit (Cui et al., 2003). In addition, previous research has shown that the gender effect becomes more salient when causes and brands are gender-specific (e.g., breast cancer; Patino et al., 2014;Ross et al., 1992). Therefore, considering breast cancer as a more female-oriented cause, we predict that women will be more favourably disposed towards the campaign and the NFL than men. ...
... We also propose that there will be differences on campaign-related evaluations based on ethnic background. While there is scant empirical evidence on the race differences in consumers' perceptions of socially responsible marketing activities (Patino et al., 2014), some research (Backhaus et al., 2002;Smith et al., 2004) suggests that African Americans/blacks and whites differ in their views of practices related to employment discrimination and workplace diversity. Further, Russell and Russell (2010) found that people place a high value on activities that are relevant to the social identity group. ...
... In addition, we found that race had significant effects on all dependent variables such that African-American participants showed greater levels of donation intent, higher breast cancer perceptions, positive perceived motives of the NFL and enhanced attitude and behaviour toward the NFL than Caucasian participants and participants from other ethnic backgrounds. Our findings support the notion that different race and ethnic groups within the USA may have different views about the social responsibility of various marketing actions (Patino et al., 2014). In line with Russell and Russell (2010), we speculate that African-American participants might view breast cancer to be closely tied to their ethnic identity. ...
Article
During the month of October, the National Football League (NFL) activates a breast cancer awareness campaign - Crucial Catch - in which players, referees and coaches wear pink apparel and gear to promote its cause. Given that more than 17 million people in the USA watch a regular season game every week, this campaign reaches a broad audience. Using a representative sample of US adults (N = 600), this study examined differences in demographic variables (age, gender and race) and domain-specific personal variables (television viewership, cause involvement) on various campaign-related outcomes including cause-related outcomes (i.e., breast cancer perception and donation intentions to support the campaign) and organisation-related outcomes (i.e., perceived motives of the NFL, attitude toward the NFL and behaviour toward the NFL). Findings show how consumers' demographic, lifestyle and psychographic characteristics influence their responses to the campaign.
... Furthermore, other studies have found that men are more sceptical about corporate intentions and are more likely to agree that a company is exploiting a cause for profit (Cui et al., 2003). In addition, previous research has shown that the gender effect becomes more salient when causes and brands are gender-specific (e.g., breast cancer; Patino et al., 2014;Ross et al., 1992). Therefore, considering breast cancer as a more female-oriented cause, we predict that women will be more favourably disposed towards the campaign and the NFL than men. ...
... We also propose that there will be differences on campaign-related evaluations based on ethnic background. While there is scant empirical evidence on the race differences in consumers' perceptions of socially responsible marketing activities (Patino et al., 2014), some research (Backhaus et al., 2002;Smith et al., 2004) suggests that African Americans/blacks and whites differ in their views of practices related to employment discrimination and workplace diversity. Further, Russell and Russell (2010) found that people place a high value on activities that are relevant to the social identity group. ...
... In addition, we found that race had significant effects on all dependent variables such that African-American participants showed greater levels of donation intent, higher breast cancer perceptions, positive perceived motives of the NFL and enhanced attitude and behaviour toward the NFL than Caucasian participants and participants from other ethnic backgrounds. Our findings support the notion that different race and ethnic groups within the USA may have different views about the social responsibility of various marketing actions (Patino et al., 2014). In line with Russell and Russell (2010), we speculate that African-American participants might view breast cancer to be closely tied to their ethnic identity. ...
... This philosophy depends on the understanding the environmental and social effects of the production and consumption of the goods (Todd, 2004). Examples such as welfare of workers, protection of the environment, enhancing the society, improving the lives of people are some of the activities that companies may use as a socially responsible marketing tactics (Patino et al., 2014). There are many examples of successful applications of socially responsible marketing efforts such as Google Green, Xerox's community involvement program, Target's CSR program; which have not only social benefits, but also corporate benefits such as increased employee commitment and lower costs. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The changes in the information technology have transformed the social life and behavior of the society. New consumption concepts are emerging and surrounding the consumers every day and these concepts complicate the decision-making process of consumers. In this study, we examine the interplay among consumer ethics, firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts and consumers’ brand evaluation. The consumer judgments are affected by many factors, among them marketing and corporate ethics were explored by many researchers. On the other hand, consumer decisions involving individual’s ethical values still require further analysis. Another concept that affects the brand evaluation is social purpose of the corporations. Consumers’ desire to increase their self-interest is a well-known marketing phenomena but on the other hand, it is also evident that social responsibility in marketing is recognized and awarded by many consumers. Consumer reports prove that as long as the price and the quality is equivalent, 62 percent of consumers globally will agree to switch to a brand that supports a social cause. ‘‘How the varying level of consumer ethics affect the perception of firms’ CSR efforts?’’, How the perception of CSR efforts influence the brand evaluation process of the consumers?’’ and ‘‘Does higher level of consumer ethics and positively perceived CSR efforts cause better brand evaluations?’’ are our research questions and are answered in this study. In this study, the effect of consumers’ ethical values and firm’s corporate social responsibility efforts on consumers’ brand evaluation is measured by conducting a survey across different demographic groups. In the first section, consumer ethics survey questions were administered to the participants in order to measure the level of personal ethics. In the second part, survey questions about the firm’s CSR efforts were asked. And in the final section, consumers’ brand evaluations were measured.
... Only a successful marketing transaction is not enough, as the transaction affects the society at large (Sheth & Sisodia, 2005). Thus, marketing has a social responsibility (Laczniak & Murphy, 2006;Lazer, 1969;Patino, Kaltcheva, Pitta, Sriram, & Winsor, 2014;Sirgy & Lee, 1996). For example, Kotler, Kartajaya, & Setiawan (2010) highlighted the evolution of marketing from marketing 1.0 (focusing the mind of the target customers) and marketing 2.0 (focusing on the heart of the target customers) to marketing 3.0 (appealing to the spirit of the customers by caring for them and the environment). ...
Article
In this article, the authors present a new perspective on responsible marketing. We discuss if and how social enterprises can present a new understanding of responsible marketing. Relevant publications (14 on social entrepreneurship, 40 on marketing in non-profit organizations and social enterprises and 41 papers on marketing) are selected and reviewed. The result of the literature analysis and synthesis show that social enterprises can gain from a more formal, systematic approach to marketing. Since social enterprises prioritize social goals over business results, successful adoption of marketing policies and practices can help then create a blueprint for responsible marketing. Marketing of socially relevant products and services by social enterprises thus create a new paradigm of responsible marketing. Such models can also be useful for larger corporations who look at social business and shared value creation as part of their business and marketing strategy.
... A previous study shows that personal background factors have an impact on CSR and customer loyalty (Patino, Kaltcheva, Pitta, Sriram, & Winsor, 2014). In order to avoid the interference of exogenous variables, this study incorporated demographic variables as controls variables. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility on customer loyalty, and examines the role of corporate image and customer satisfaction. The empirical results indicate a positive effect of economic and legal corporate social responsibility on customer loyalty, as well as a partial mediating effect of customer satisfaction between corporate social responsibility and customer loyalty. Moreover, this study identifies the moderating effect of corporate image between corporate social responsibility and customer loyalty. The results of this study are useful to the life insurance sector for enhancing their customer loyalty and service marketing strategy.
Chapter
This chapter organizes two Sects. 2.1 and 2.2 which draw together the literature spread of over five decades, and synthesize that on the grounds of purpose/objectives, design/methods, statistical approach, and findings/conclusion. Second Sect. 2.2 obtains that literature is fragmented and is much cumbersome due to copious terminologies and results. So, this section pulls out research gaps which became evident from literature review in Sect. 2.1. The presentation of work in this chapter performs many important functions to further develop the conceptual framework, constructs, objectives and hypotheses of this study, and in carrying out the empirical part of it.
Article
This article explores the influence of sociodemographic characteristics in determining the perceived importance of attributes of the UK music festival experience to festival-goers. Quantitative data were collected through an online survey using a cluster, snowball sampling technique and 586 respondents completed the survey. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to identify factors of the festival experience, whereas linear regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of festival-goers and the resulting experience constructs against the overall evaluated experience. From eight major factors, seven hypotheses were identified. The results revealed the most important factors to the overall experience to be entertainment, added value, and music, whereas the remaining factors did not have a direct impact. Conversely, the sociodemographic characteristics contributing to the dependent constructs were primarily age and gender, followed by education and marital status. The location where festival-goers grew up and their employment status had minimal impact. The practical implications of this study provide the opportunity for festival organizers to direct their strategic management efforts towards the elements of the festival experience that are most important to their targeted or typical festival-goers. This article also addresses a notable gap in the literature by evaluating the importance of specific experience attributes in the context of popular UK music festivals. Moreover, it examines the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics of festival-goers and the importance of experience attributes to the overall UK music festival experience.
Article
Full-text available
Talking about social responsibility is as as fashionable as a healthy lifestyle or or self-development. Socially responsible marketing (SOM) can be seen as the logical continuation of socially responsible business, where socially responsible marketing is harmoniously integrated into the marketing strategy of an enterprise. The marketing strategy of an enterprise is harmoniously integrated.
Article
Full-text available
The popular "bottom of the pyramid" (BOP) proposition argues that large companies can make a fortune by selling to poor people and simultaneously help eradicate poverty. While a few market opportunities do exist, the market at the BOP is generally too small monetarily to be very profitable for most multinationals. At the same time, the private sector can play a key role in poverty alleviation by viewing the poor as producers, and emphasize buying from them, rather than selling to them.
Article
Marketing theory and practice have focused persistently on exchange between buyers and sellers. Unfortunately, most of the research and too many of the marketing strategies treat buyer-seller exchanges as discrete events, not as ongoing relationships. The authors describe a framework for developing buyer-seller relationships that affords a vantage point for formulating marketing strategy and for stimulating new research directions.
Article
The exchange concept is a key factor in understanding the expanding role of marketing.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the development of the idea of "stakeholder management" as it has come to be applied in strategic management. We begin by developing a brief history of the concept. We then suggest that traditionally the stakeholder approach to strategic management has several related characteristics that serve as distinguishing features. We review recent work on stakeholder theory and suggest how stakeholder management has affected the practice of management. We end by suggesting further research questions.
Article
Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
Chapter
Over the years, marketing has evolved through three stages that we call Marketing 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. Many of today’s marketers still practice Marketing 1.0, some practice Marketing 2.0, and a few are moving into Marketing 3.0. To understand Marketing 3.0 better, let us examine the rise of three major forces that shape the business landscape toward Marketing 3.0: the age of participation, the age of globalization paradox, and the age of creative society. This chapter classifies social media in two broad categories. One is the expressive social media, and collaborative media. Collaborative marketing is the first building block of Marketing 3.0. The era of Marketing 3.0 is the era where marketing practices are very much influenced by changes in consumer behavior and attitude. It is the more sophisticated form of the consumer-centric era where the consumer demands more collaborative, cultural, and spiritual marketing approaches. Collaborative marketing; globalization; Social media; Spiritual marketing