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Politeness. Some Universals in Language Usage

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... It is for this reason that direct method of addressing has a main role. Alkhatib (2012, p. 489 Brown and Levinson (1987) have outlined four types of politeness strategies that summarize the behavior of people in their interaction. An outline of these strategies is here to draw some connections with Quran verses that are compatible with these strategies. ...
... Politeness strategies are: bald on record, positive politeness, negative politeness, and off record indirect strategy. Brown and Levinson (1987) explain that there are three sociological impulses that contribute substantially in choosing strategies of performing a face-threatening act (FTA): ...
... The Glorious Quran shows that there is clearly a violation of the points A, B, and C above as elaborated further on that. Brown and Levinson (1987) add that some obligations are greater than others. They believe that highly imposing acts such as requests demand more redress to alleviate their increased threat level. ...
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The current study shows that politeness principles strategies are used in the God-man negotiation in the Glorious Quran. The paper proves that imperative form is not as impolite in the context of Quran as it is in other types of interaction among the interlocutors. We can say that instructions and requests can be divided in a God-man interaction as politeness strategies because they imply that God undertakes only a small distance between Him and the addressees. This paper will contribute to demystifying and justifying how democratic speech of peace, and transparency that permeated the verses of the Glorious Quran should be implemented by people. Regardless of the hierarchical level of authority between God "Allah" and his selected prophets, Glorious Quran verses were used to show the abundance of politeness strategies in randomly selected verses by the speech of God in his negotiations. Understanding principles of politeness that are coded by Brown and Levinson (1978) will shed light on understanding of the types of God-Man interaction in the Glorious Quran. As morality is a common aspect to all religions, further examination is required to accurately comprehend the miraculous pragmatic signs that are common in Glorious Quran and how politeness functions in other divine religions. KEYWORDS
... Brown and Levinson's model lacks an account of interactional organization. Brown and Levinson (1987) have developed a theory of how the notion of face has an impact upon the interaction among people. According to them, every individual has two opposing types of wants: the first concerns the negative face and the second deals with the positive face. ...
... The interaction resulted from requesting money definitely results in different meanings according to the result of the action itself. Persons universally have face and the desires to maintain or even gain face (Brown & Levinson, 1987;Goffman, 1967). In the following, the researcher will present what is meant by the notion of face and the related literature specific to face threat because the analysis is confined to the act of requesting money which is surely a face threatening act. ...
... Research on face and facework is shifted to an epistemology which has social constructionism as its basis where social reality is seen as the product of processes by which social actors negotiate the meanings for actions and situations (Bargiela -Chiappini & Haugh, 2009). Brown and Levinson's (1987) theory presents significant problems in that its lacks interactional and relational aspects. Reiter (2000, p. 16-25) (Reiter, 2000, p.13) (For more details about the criticism of Brown and Levinson's theory see Arundale, 1999). ...
... Positive politeness approaches are directed toward normal expressions of consensus, mutual respect, and universal ends and are an attribute analogous mainly with affectionate associations. Brown and Levinson (1999) opined that, beyond the application of positive politeness, the approaches and semantic structures that characterize this perspective are discernible within the level of dramatization they carry. Standard illustrations of ostensible embellishment are analogous utterances of appreciation or concern (e.g., "How utterly amazing! ...
... Standard illustrations of ostensible embellishment are analogous utterances of appreciation or concern (e.g., "How utterly amazing! I just can't believe, how you are able to grow your roses so exquisitely, Mrs B!") (Brown and Levinson 1999). The most common approaches for positive politeness are a) "assert 'customary ...
... position'"; b) "project that S [speaker] and H [hearer] are collaborative"; and c) "achieve H's need (for some X)" (Brown and Levinson 1999;(Abdolrezapour, Dabaghi, and Kassaian 2012). ...
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Abstract: This study focuses on the spoken conversations between Millennial undergraduates and their lecturers regarding the manner in which the students plead with their lecturers for additional time to complete their assignments. The research aimed to investigate the approaches used by these students through analyses-based politeness strategies and also whether approaches divergent from those strategies have been introduced by the Millennial undergraduates. Ten undergraduates were selected for participation in simulated situations in which their assignments were delayed for submission to their lecturers. The duration of each simulation was 3 minutes, and they were recorded and transcribed with annotations based on transcription notation symbols and coding based on the politeness strategy. The lecturers involved in the study were interviewed to determine their perspectives on the student’s ability to converse courteously and their perceptions of the potential for success in obtaining assignment submission deadline extensions. Apart from findings related to politeness strategies, the research revealed that Millennials also employ approaches such as negative courteousness, positive courteousness, and off-record indirect strategies to achieve their goal of extending the deadline for assignment submission. These Millennials’ use of politeness strategies can therefore be incorporated within (Brown and Levinson 1978) politeness theory as a separate kind of hierarchy of needs. Keywords: Millennial Talk, Undergraduate, Politeness Strategy, Specific Group
... application to find the sentence pattern variations with the Bugis word tabék. Interpretation of the data uses the theories of Brown & Levinson (1987), Leech (2014), Watts (2003), and Darwis (1995. The analysis revealed (1) the tabék politeness formula as a polite sign at the beginning of their speech in all situational contexts and to clarify their intentions. ...
... Politeness is essential in social interaction to achieve the speech objectives and maintain harmony between the speech interlocutors. In order to accomplish these purposes, speakers should utilize politeness strategies (Brown & Levinson, 1987;Leech, 1983;Watts, 2003). Furthermore, Lakoff (2004) argues that politeness strategies can minimalize friction in the interaction. ...
... Leech (1983) argues that several points affect the strategies: the interlocutors, the context of the utterance, the purpose of the utterance, and speech as the form of action and as a product of verbal acts. Furthermore, to address the research problems, the present articles use approaches from the sociopragmatic perspective (Leech, 2014) and the politeness theory by Brown & Levinson (1987). ...
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With a more globalized society, the use of politeness language, especially among youths, has been considered in jeopardy. However, the understanding of whether or not the youths are still acknowledging and exercising politeness in their language use is still tiny. This matter is due to a lack of study investigating the politeness language among youths. This study aims to find the politeness formula and speech patterns for three different situational contexts: asking for help, asking for information, and rebuking in the Bugis language. This study uses a mixed quantitative-qualitative method and random sampling to gather 20 youths aged 11 to 21 as participants. The instrument used for the experiment is the Discourse Completion Test to collect the utterances. Data utterances were coded and then analyzed using a concordance and cluster-N-Gram features in the AntConc 3.5.8 application to find the sentence pattern variations with the Bugis word tabék. Interpretation of the data uses the theories of Brown & Levinson (1987), Leech (2014), Watts (2003), and Darwis (1995). The analysis revealed (1) the tabék politeness formula as a polite sign at the beginning of their speech in all situational contexts and to clarify their intentions. (2) There are several sentence patterns used by the Bugis youths for each situational context; six patterns in asking for help, five patterns in asking for information, and eight patterns in rebuking. This finding shows that Bugis youths still understand the philosophy of politeness in their socio-cultural interactions, namely sipakatau (mutual humanizing), sipakaraja (mutual respect), and sipakalebbi (mutual glorification) through various politeness strategies.
... One is that the speech act of apology is considered one of the main functions that play an important role in polite communication. The speech act of apology softens the threat to face and aims to maintain social harmony (Brown & Levinson, 1987). Thus, it is necessary for successful communication. ...
... For this reason, Watts (2003) argues that "the very fact that (im)politeness is a term that is struggled over at present, has been struggled over in the past and will, in all probability, continue to be struggled over in the future" (p.9). Among the famous linguists who sifted through linguistic politeness, we have Grice (1975), Lakoff (1973), Leech (1983), and basically Brown and Levinson (1987). These scholars proposed different theories. ...
... These scholars proposed different theories. Brown and Levinson (1987) present a detailed theory in which the speaker and hearer are Model Persons (MPs). An MP is "willful fluent speaker of a natural language" (Brown & Levinson, 1987, p. 58). ...
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This qualitative/quantitative study investigates Moroccan high school EFL learners’ apologizing strategies based upon a theoretical framework of politeness strategies and the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP) model. It investigates whether they approach native speakers’ apology norms or their own cultural way of apologizing. To achieve this goal, four first-year baccalaureate classes (Science Experimental Physics major) were observed and then a sample of 64 subjects was randomly selected to fill in a written discourse completion test which had 6 apology situations. All the responses are classified according to both politeness strategies and CCSARP model used by Blum-kulka et al. (1989). The observed classes during the training showed that Moroccan first-year baccalaureate students used an off-record super strategy while apologizing (the use of hints) to the teacher, whereas the teacher used positive politeness while addressing his pupils. The results of the discourse completion test (DCT) revealed that Illocutionary indicating devices (IFIDs) plus an explanation of account (IFIDs + Account) is the most frequently used apology strategy by the subjects. More than 60% employed this semantic formula in all six situations. The use of IFIDs and explanation of account were significantly linked to the effect of subjects’ L1 and due to the impact of their own collective-agency culture. Hence, choosing to use that strategy by the subjects was pragmatically unsuccessful and would be inappropriate by the apologizer since it does not meet the apology norms of native speakers of English, and it indicates and follows the Moroccan culture norms and rules. The paper concludes with some practical suggestions for improving the teaching of apologies.
... The traditional approach of examining politeness (Brown and Levinson, 1987;Leech, 1983) has been criticized as a speaker's oriented investigation neglecting the hearers and other observers. ...
... Such research has largely considered the way in which people produce polite speech acts (apologies, refusal, thanking, and compliment) and politeness has been examined as a sociolinguistic phenomenon in association with the people's behaviour through linguistic utternaces (Brown andLevinson, 1987 [1978]; Leech, 1983;Spencer-Oatey, 2000;Mills, 2003;Watts, 2003 among others). Further, the earlier research on politeness has been viewed as being a speaker-oriented approach, i.e. the hearer and other participants were neglected. ...
... Thus, this research trend has been criticized as it neither focused on impoliteness nor took into account the participants' evaluation of im/politeness. Some changes and developments of Brown and Levinson's (1987) approach is the research interest movements from specific concepts such as face, face threatening act to larger concepts such as "relational work, face constituting act, rapport management and face-work". ...
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واقع توزيع الخدمات في ناحية حمام العليل
... The prominent studies of human politeness had been studied from a traditional point of view in sociolinguistics or pragmatic literatures. The seminal [3,[22][23][24] and the following works highlights politeness in a conceptual way. These studies use analytical tools implemented in observational examples. ...
... These studies use analytical tools implemented in observational examples. Most previous research on politeness in HRI has adopted Brown and Levinson's [23] theory of politeness, which centers on the concept of "face." The gist of the theory is the protection of 'face' or image by the social actors in a public domain. ...
... The gist of the theory is the protection of 'face' or image by the social actors in a public domain. According to this theory [23], there are four strategies that a person could take to mitigate the "facethreatening" acts. The person can mitigate the situation by using an on or off-record strategy (on-record includes bald, positive and negative strategies; off-record strategy is to be indirect, using irony or metaphor). ...
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We studied politeness in human–robot interaction based on Lakoff’s politeness theory. In a series of eight studies, we manipulated three different levels of politeness of non-humanoid robots and evaluated their effects. A table-setting task was developed for two different types of robots (a robotic manipulator and a mobile robot). The studies included two different populations (old and young adults) and were conducted in two conditions (video and live). Results revealed that polite robot behavior positively affected users' perceptions of the interaction with the robots and that participants were able to differentiate between the designed politeness levels. Participants reported higher levels of enjoyment, satisfaction, and trust when they interacted with the politest behavior of the robot. A smaller number of young adults trusted the politest behavior of the robot compared to old adults. Enjoyment and trust of the interaction with the robot were higher when study participants were subjected to the live condition compared to video and participants were more satisfied when they interacted with a mobile robot compared to a manipulator.
... 'Face' here refers to one's social self-esteem. The theory discusses certain kinds of acts threatening face, namely those acts considered contrary to the "face want" of the addressee and/or the speaker (Brown & Levinson, 1978, 1987. In this case, "act" can be both verbal and non-verbal communication. ...
... 'Face' here refers to one's social self-esteem. The theory discusses certain kinds of acts threatening face, namely those acts considered contrary to the "face want" of the addressee and/or the speaker (Brown & Levinson, 1978, 1987. In this case, "act" can be both verbal and non-verbal communication. ...
... In this case, "act" can be both verbal and non-verbal communication. In their notion, one would rationally look for a way to avoid doing any FTA or use certain strategies to minimize the threat (in verbal communication), as schematized in Figure 1 (Brown & Levinson, 1978, 1987: The next theory used in this study is the linguistic hedges. In a spoken interaction, speakers use certain expressions to indicate that the utterance might not be fully accurate; these cautious notes are called 'hedges' (Yule, 1996). ...
Conference Paper
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Gender and power related speech patterns have been a focus of communication studies. Women and power used to be in opposite side of each other. On this ground, we were intrigued to investigate whether being a female leader has something to do with defying certain assumed ideals of women speech. This case study was conducted to women leaders engaged in a social community called Pelangi Nusantara. Concerning this study, we focused on the women leaders’ speech to examine the stereotyped-speech-pattern related to the use of hedges and politeness strategies in female speakers albeit holding a high position. A descriptive qualitative approach was employed along with the purposive technique to select the interviewees. Based on the analysis, it is revealed that despite holding a high position in the community, the female leaders mostly showed the stereotyped-speech-pattern through the use of hedges, convergence, and politeness strategies as influenced by their cultural background.
... In committing themselves to a joint action, participants renounce opportunities to engage in other activities and their commitments need to be continuously re-affirmed. If joint actions are interrupted, participants coordinate on suspending them by justifying the necessity to suspend, to avoid perceptions of breaking the commitment (thus threatening their partners' face and their own reputation, [86,92]), before breaking mutual attention and attending to the source of the interruption. Later, they coordinate on reinstating the joint action, by checking their partners' availability and re-establishing mutual attention, and resuming the previous action. ...
... The processes described in figure 1 reflect participants' relationship. This is evidenced in the use of politeness to manage face [92]. Threats to face increase with social distance and power difference between partners, and are compensated with politeness. ...
Article
Joint commitment, the feeling of mutual obligation binding participants in a joint action, is typically conceptualized as arising by the expression and acceptance of a promise. This account limits the possibilities of investigating fledgling forms of joint commitment in actors linguistically less well-endowed than adult humans. The feeling of mutual obligation is one aspect of joint commitment (the product ), which emerges from a process of signal exchange. It is gradual rather than binary; feelings of mutual obligation can vary in strength according to how explicit commitments are perceived to be. Joint commitment processes are more complex than simple promising, in at least three ways. They are affected by prior joint actions, which create precedents and conventions that can be embodied in material arrangements of institutions. Joint commitment processes also arise as solutions to generic coordination problems related to opening up, maintaining and closing down joint actions. Finally, during joint actions, additional, specific commitments are made piecemeal. These stack up over time and persist, making it difficult for participants to disengage from joint actions. These complexifications open up new perspectives for assessing joint commitment across species. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Revisiting the human ‘interaction engine’: comparative approaches to social action coordination’.
... Exit phases occurred in 92% of bonobo interactions, compared with 86% of chimpanzee interactions and lasted on average around 14-17 s. Moreover, bonobos with closer relationships were less likely to produce entry and exit signals than those with more distant relationships, in line with what has been claimed for adult humans [13]. ...
... The most noticeable finding here is the fact that only twothirds of social interactions have entry and exit signals (66-69%), similar to what was reported for chimpanzees but noticeably less than what was reported for bonobos (more than 90%). The fact that social relationship does not appear to modulate the occurrence of entry or exit signals in young children is also analogous to what observed in chimpanzees and yet different from what was claimed both for bonobos [12] and for human adults [13], although precise quantitative studies in naturalistic settings are lacking for adult humans. All of the above suggests that at least in young children, social relationships and the specific motivation to engage in social interactions, be it cooperative like in play or competitive like in conflict, might not be particularly important for the process through which social interactions are accomplished. ...
Article
The Interaction Engine Hypothesis postulates that humans have a unique ability and motivation for social interaction. A crucial juncture in the ontogeny of the interaction engine could be around 2–4 years of age, but observational studies of children in natural contexts are limited. These data appear critical also for comparison with non-human primates. Here, we report on focal observations on 31 children aged 2- and 4-years old in four preschools (10 h per child). Children interact with a wide range of partners, many infrequently, but with one or two close friends. Four-year olds engage in cooperative social interactions more often than 2-year olds and fight less than 2-year olds. Conversations and playing with objects are the most frequent social interaction types in both age groups. Children engage in social interactions with peers frequently (on average 13 distinct social interactions per hour) and briefly (28 s on average) and shorter than those of great apes in comparable studies. Their social interactions feature entry and exit phases about two-thirds of the time, less frequently than great apes. The results support the Interaction Engine Hypothesis, as young children manifest a remarkable motivation and ability for fast-paced interactions with multiple partners. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Revisiting the human ‘interaction engine’: comparative approaches to social action coordination’.
... O interesse de uma abordagem para o estudo das relações de discurso e de suas marcas que se guie por essas premissas está em permitir levantar questões que tocam três dimensões centrais das interações que ocorrem no campo da formação profissional (Filliettaz, Saint-Georges & Duc, 2008;Filliettaz et al., 2021): a epistêmica, ligada à mobilização de conhecimentos (Heritage, 2012), a deôntica, ligada à relação de poderes (lugares) (Kerbrat-Orecchioni, 1990, Stevanovic, 2018, e a dramatúrgica, ligada à negociação de identidades (Goffman, 1967(Goffman, , 1973Brown & Levinson, 1983). Assim, i) do ponto de vista epistêmico, como as relações de discurso auxiliam os interlocutores (aprendizes e formadores) a mobilizar e fazer circular saberes profissionais?; ii) do ponto de vista deôntico, como as relações de discurso contribuem com o estabelecimento das relações de poderes (lugares) entre esses interlocutores?; iii) do ponto de vista dramatúrgico, como as relações de discurso os auxiliam a endossar os papéis profissionais de formador (expert) e aprendiz (novato)? ...
... A reprovação do formador também contribui para acentuar o desequilíbrio dessa relação, já que ele se coloca na posição de alguém que, nessa interação, pode endereçar críticas ao interlocutor. E ao revelar desconhecer uma informação de que, conforme as reações do formador, já deveria dispor, o aprendiz torna vulnerável seu território ou sua face negativa (Goffman, 1973, Brown & Levinson, 1983, o que contribui para uma gestão tensa ou agressiva das faces em jogo e toca a dimensão dramatúrgica da interação. ...
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Neste trabalho, buscamos compreender, a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Equipe Interaction & Formation, o papel das relações de discurso, mas, em particular, da reformulação, no domínio da formação profissional inicial. Para isso, apresentamos inicialmente uma abordagem para o estudo das relações de discurso que seja compatível com a proposta interacionista da equipe, bem como a maneira como a reformulação pode ser compreendida no âmbito dessa abordagem. Em seguida, apresentamos considerações sobre o corpus analisado neste estudo, que se constitui de duas sequências de interações ocorridas em 2005, no cantão de Genebra, Suíça, nas quais a mesma expressão conectiva reformulativa do francês (“en fait”) é empregada pelos aprendizes que participam de cada sequência. Por fim, procedemos à análise comparativa das sequências, para mostrar como um mesmo recurso linguístico, a relação de reformulação sinalizada pela expressão conectiva “en fait”, auxilia os participantes da interação a construir contextos distintos, mais ou menos favoráveis à formação profissional.
... Le niveau de langage d'un individu donne également un indice sur son attitude sociale vis-à-vis de son interlocuteur. Un manque de politesse peut par exemple être interprété comme un niveau de statut élevé alors qu'une politesse excessive pourra être confondu avec de la soumission [Brown and Levinson, 1987]. ...
... L'un des premiers travaux à s'être intéressé aux liens entre l'attitude sociale d'un agent et sa prise de décision est l'oeuvre de Walker et al. [Walker et al., 1997]. Ces travaux se basent sur les dimensions de pouvoir et de distance sociale décrites dans [Brown and Levinson, 1987] pour modéliser le style linguistique d'un agent. Lorsqu'il s'apprête à s'adresser à son interlocuteur B, un agent A calcule en premier 3 ...
Thesis
Afin d’être considérés comme des partenaires crédibles lors d’une interaction, les agents virtuels doivent transmettre une attitude sociale adéquate. Cette attitude sociale exprimée par l’agent doit refléter la situation dans laquelle il se trouve. L’agent doit donc prendre en compte son rôle et sa relation sociale vis à vis de son interlocuteur lorsqu’il choisit comment réagir au cours de l’interaction. Afin de construire un tel agent capable de raisonner en fonction de son rôle et de sa relation, et capable d’adapter son attitude sociale, nous avons construit un modèle de prise de décision sociale. Dans un premier temps, nous formalisons la dynamique de la relation sociale à travers une combinaison de buts et de croyances. Puis, nous définissons un modèle de prise de décision basé sur les buts sociaux et situationnels de l’agent. Pour finir, nous avons réalisé une étude perceptive dans un contexte d’interaction tuteur/enfant virtuels au cours de laquelle les participants évaluaient l’attitude sociale du tuteur envers l’enfant. La relation sociale et le rôle social du tuteur étaient manipulés par notre modèle. Les résultats montrent qu’à la fois le rôle et la relation du tuteur ont une influence sur son attitude sociale perçue.
... Aunque las teorías principales que se anuncian directamente como teorías de cortesía Fraser, 1975;Leech, 1983;Brown y Levinson, 1987;Spencer-Oatey, 2000;Locher y Watts, 2005, Ting-Toomey, 2005 iniciaron en los setenta, sus raíces se encuentran en los cincuenta y sesenta. Dos teorías importantes dieron cauce a las publicaciones posteriores en este campo del conocimiento, el concepto del face desarrollado por Goffman (1955) y el principio de la cooperación de Grice (1975). ...
... El tercer hilo de desarrollo en el trabajo actual en el campo de la cortesía es aquél que se enfoca en la descortesía, así como en el híbrido '(des)cortesía' que sugiere la dificultad de separar los dos fenómenos. En las posturas clásicas se asumía que la meta siempre era ser cortés, que la descortesía era simplemente la ausencia de la cortesía y que resultaba de una falla en la comunicación Fraser, 1990;Brown y Levinson, 1987) y que la descortesía era una actividad marginal en la comunicación en circunstancias normales (Leech, 1983), pero a partir de las críticas de Eelen (2001) se empieza a considerar la descortesía como un campo de estudio por mérito propio. Los usos descorteses de la lengua van más allá de la ausencia de la cortesía. ...
Book
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El presente volumen es un libro explicativo de temas sociolingüísticos dirigido principalmente a quienes se dedican a la docencia de lenguas (extranjeras o lenguas nacionales originarias), ya sea que estén formándose para este fin o que ya se encuentren en la labor de manera profesional. En particular, el libro tiene la finalidad general de crear conciencia sociolingüística (científica y actual) para el fortalecimiento de la profesionalización del quehacer docente. La colección de capítulos que componen esta edición está formada por contribuciones escritas por especialistas en temas sociolingüísticos y/o de enseñanza de lenguas y refleja sus intereses en diversas temáticas relacionadas con el uso de la lengua y en cómo estas se relacionan con la enseñanza de idiomas. Antes de hacer una descripción de las once entradas que componen el volumen, y a manera de introducción, en los siguientes párrafos hago una breve descripción del campo de la sociolingüística como disciplina y presento cuál es su relevancia para la enseñanza de lenguas.
... Söz edimlerinin evrensel boyutunu, "Bir şey söylemek, bir şey yapmaktır." (Austin, 2017) Kişiler arası etkileşimde yüz kavramını dikkate alarak iletişime girme ihtiyacı evrenselken hangi eylemlerin yüz tehdit eden eylem olarak kabul edilip edilmeyeceği kültürden kültüre değişmektedir (Brown ve Levinson, 1987). Örneğin, "İngiltere'de bir kişinin maaşı, medeni durumu ve çocuğunun olup olmadığının sorulması kabalık olarak karşılanırken Türkiye'de öyle algılanmayabilir." ...
... n söz edimleri teorisi ile Brown ve Levinson'ın (1987) kibarlık kuramının birbirinden ayrı düşünülmemesi gerektiğini, bu iki teorinin birbirini tamamladığını ifade etmektedir. Kansu-Yetkiner'e (2009, s. 20) göre kibarlık kuramı kişiler arası ilişkilerin geliştirilmesi veya korunması amacıyla stratejik olarak dilin nasıl kullandığını ele almaktadır.Brown ve Levinson (1987), bir sosyolog olan Goffman'ın (2016) yüz kavramından ve İngilizce bir halk deyişi olan "losing face"(utanmak, aşağılanmak) ...
Thesis
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, yurt dışında yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen öğrencilerin hedef dile ve kültüre maruz kalmamalarından kaynaklanan sorunların azaltılması ve dil öğrenme ortamının öğrencilerin edimsel gelişimleri üzerindeki olumsuz etkilerinin giderilmesidir. Bu amaçla alanyazın, öğretici ve uzman görüşlerinden yararlanılarak selamlaşma, rica ve özür söz edimlerini içeren bağlam temelli ve dört temel dil becerisine dayandırılarak hazırlanan altı ünite, yurt dışında Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen A1 ve A2 düzeyindeki 19 öğrenciye 9 ila 11 hafta süreyle uygulanmıştır. Öğrenci görüşleri, araştırmacı günlüğü ve uzman görüşlerinden yola çıkılarak üniteler tekrar düzenlenmiştir. Eylem araştırması olarak yürütülen bu araştırmada, Konuşma Tamamlama Testi ve Söz Edimleri Öz Yeterlik Ölçeği ön test ve son test olarak uygulanmıştır. Nitel verilerin çözümlenmesinde içerik analizi ve betimsel analiz; nicel verilerinin çözümlenmesinde ise bağımlı t testi ve eta kare kullanılmıştır. Nitel ve nicel çözümlemelerin sonucunda, bağlam temelli söz edimleri öğretiminin öğrencilerin söz edim kullanımlarını geliştirmelerine katkı sağladığı görülmüştür. Bağlam temelli söz edimleri öğretimi; A1 düzeyinde, Türkçe öğrenme süresi 1 yıldan az olan, 3 ve üzeri yabancı dil bilen, Türkiye’de hiç bulunmamış veya 1 ila 3 ay arasında Türkiye’de bulunmuş öğrencilerin söz edim kullanımlarını daha olumlu yönde etkilemiştir. Bu bulgular, yabancı dil sınıflarında söz edimi öğretimine özel olarak yer verilmesinin “dil yeterlik düzeyi” ve “hedef dilin konuşulduğu ülkede kalma süresine” kıyasla edimsel gelişim üzerinde daha etkili olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Araştırma sonuçları, edimsel gelişim için dil bilgisel yetkinliğin zorunlu olmadığını ama belli oranda gerekli olduğunu ve söz edimlerinin A1-A2 düzeylerindeki öğrencilere öğretiminde dil yapılarının kalıp biçiminde sunulmasının daha faydalı olduğunu göstermektedir. Öğrencilerin söz edimlerine yönelik öz yeterlik algılarının hem ön hem son testte yüksek olduğu görülmekle birlikte, bağlam temelli söz edimleri öğretiminin öğrencilerin söz edimlerine yönelik öz yeterlik algıları üzerinde anlamlı bir farklılaşmaya neden olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Öğreticilerle yapılan görüşmelerle yurt dışında Türkçe öğrenen öğrencilerin başta dil öğrenme ortamlarından kaynaklı olarak söz edimlerini; bağlama, konuşma ortamına, iletişimin muhataplarına uygun şekilde kullanmakta sorunlar yaşadıkları saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretiminde iletişimin temelini oluşturan ve dilin işlevsel kullanımının en temel aracı olan söz edimlerinin yurt dışında Türkçe öğrenen öğrencilere, öğreticilerin görüşlerinden ve alanyazından yola çıkılarak oluşturulacak ders izlenceleriyle planlı ve sistemli bir şekilde sunulmasının öğrencilerin söz edim kullanımlarını geliştirebileceği söylenebilir. The aim of this research is to eliminate the negative effects of the language learning environment on the pragmatic development of students who learn Turkish as a foreign language and to reduce the problems caused by students’ not being exposed to the target language and culture. For this purpose, six context-based units which include four basic language skills aiming to teach the speech acts of greeting, request and apology were prepared. The units, which were prepared based on the existing literature, instructor and expert opinions, were taught to 19 students at A1 and A2 levels who had been learning Turkish as a foreign language for 9 to 11 weeks. The units were rearranged based on student opinions, researcher’s observation notes and expert opinions. Instruments utilized as the pre and post tests in this study, which was carried out as an action research, were Speech Completion Test and Speech Acts Self-Efficacy Scale. Content analysis and descriptive analysis methods were used to analyse the qualitative data while dependent t test and eta square were used in the analysis of the quantitative data. As a result of the qualitative and quantitative analyses, it has been found that the teaching of the context-based speech acts contributed to the development of students’ speech act usage. Teaching of context-based speech acts had a more positive effect on the students’ speech-act usage who are at A1 level, had been learning Turkish for less than 1 year, could speak 3 or more foreign languages, had never been to Turkey or had been in Turkey for 1 to 3 months. These findings indicate that on-purpose inclusion of speech act instruction in foreign language classes is more effective on pragmatic development than “language proficiency level” and “the length of stay in the country where the target language is spoken”. The results of the research show that grammatical competence is not compulsory for pragmatic development, but it is necessary to a certain extent, and it is more beneficial to present language structures in the form of patterns in teaching speech acts to students at A1-A2 levels. Students’ self-efficacy perceptions towards speech acts were high in both the pre-test and post-test, and it was found that context-based speech acts teaching did not cause a significant difference on students’ self-efficacy perceptions towards speech acts. Interviews with teachers revealed that students learning Turkish as a foreign language have problems in using speech acts in accordance with the context, the speaking environment and the interlocutors of the communication, primarily due to the language learning environment. As a result, the planned and systematic presentation of the speech acts, which form the basis of communication and are the most basic tool of functional use of language, with course syllabuses to be designed based on the opinions of the teachers and the existing literature can be expected to improve the students’ use of speech acts.
... In these interactions, the senior demonstrates his influence upon the account as a whole and invites the agreement of the younger interviewee in question form. In order to avoid making her senior lose face (Brown & Levinson, 1987;Goffman, 1955;Scollon et al., 2012), the junior avoids further disagreement or conflicts and replies with a short 'yeah', demonstrating that she has stopped resisting her senior any further. Throughout Extracts 1 and 2, discursive psychology reveals that the kaleidoscope of common sense (Billig, 1988) of university online teaching is turned forward by the younger and backward by the elder generation, with reference to the repertoires of the 'happy-sad', 'capable-incapable', and 'teaching-learning' spectrums, in accordance with the positions held by the speakers in the university teaching environment during the pandemic period. ...
... The interaction between the senior male professor and the young female associate professor at University J reflects the hierarchical, cultural nature of the interactional setting. A seniorjunior relationship is strictly observed in Japan, and interactions are sustained by mitigating face-threatening acts for seniors (Brown & Levinson, 1987) or demonstrating socially appropriate discernment (wakimae) by juniors (Ide et al., 1992). In terms of research methodology, this interaction might be an instance of "power asymmetry in qualitative research interviews" (Kvale et al., 2009, p. 33), possibly with gender-related power asymmetry. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted higher education (hereinafter “HE”) teaching and learning approaches globally since 2020. It has compelled a major shift from face-to-face to online delivery, affecting the ways HE teachers teach and communicate with students. In this paper, we explore an under-researched area, teachers’ ideological dilemmas surrounding online teaching and issues related to remote or technologically mediated communication adopted in three countries, China, Japan and the UK. Drawing on the theoretical and methodological framework of discursive psychology, we focus on the concepts called ideological dilemmas and the kaleidoscope of common sense in order to examine common sense views of HE teachers regarding online and onsite teaching as well as blended learning where these constitute ideological dilemmas. Taking an exploratory, small case study approach, we present a discourse analysis of interviews with HE teachers and reveal their ideological dilemmas over online teaching. We identify the patterns of shifting justifications in the interviews. Our discussion highlights the dynamic and dilemmatic nature of the HE teachers’ views, some of which are shaped by the local university context, as well as the different ways in which the spread of COVID-19 is taking place and the various measures taken by each country’s government against the damaging effects of the pandemic.
... In commercial contexts, language plays an important role in forming a perceived relationship, due to language's ability to express distance and manage relationship. This language effect can trace back to Brown and Levinson's (1987) theory of politeness, in which it was suggested that language politeness is used to imply or create social distance between communicators and receivers. For example, a communicator may address a receiver in a very polite way to not only signify the relatively larger interpersonal distance as well as to increase the social distance between them. ...
... First, the literature on politeness suggested that polite, formal language signifies interpersonal distance (Brown and Levinson, 1987;Stephan, Liberman and Trope, 2010), and when one partner feels some distance from the other, especially in a first encounter, their more formal behaviours are considered more appropriate and comfortable (Kaitz et al., 2004). The use of informal language can in turn reduce the perceived psychological distance between a communicator and a receiver, increasing their familiarity. ...
Thesis
This thesis explores the use and effects of maximisers when included within Health and Nutrition (H&N) claims on food product packaging, with direct relevance for industry practice. Four separate studies were carried out in support of this thesis, one field study and three online experimental studies. The effects of the maximiser language device were investigated through an online field experiment, conducted through the Facebook Ads Manager platform, with the results demonstrating that the use of maximisers has a positive effect on product likeability among Facebook users. The first online experimental study then demonstrated the informality features of maximisers, and highlighted the importance of consumer perceived congruence bet ween the language used in advertising a product and the retail environment in which the product is encountered. Results from this study showed that the used of maximisers in H&N claims has a positive direct effect on product likeability. The second online experimental study extended on the concept of perceived congruence from the first online study, investigating the congruence between the use of language and customer comments and reviews, and its effect on perceptions of and purchase intentions towards a product. The study demonstrated the sincerity and affirmation features of maximisers, and showed the interaction of these features with online reviews, with the presence of maximisers having a moderating influence of product perceptions when bad reviews are present. The third and final online experimental study tested the effect of maximisers in a realistic setting, investigating the effects of cognitive load on evaluations of and purchase intentions towards a product. The findings showed maximisers work effectively when consumers are cognitively available, with a reversed effect apparent when consumers are subjected to a high cognitive load. The findings from the experimental studies have potential for impact in industry practice in the marketing and advertising of food products, and for the design of food packaging, as well as for policy-makers aiming to protect consumers and consumer interests related to food advertising.
... Since the nature of the study follows the social-cognitive approach, the researcher adopted two models of analysis to achieve the study's objectives: First, the theoretical framework of MST (developed by Fauconnier (1994), Fauconnier andSweetser (1996) to examine meaning construction resulting from building different levels of negative mental spaces by two different genders the selected speeches. Second, pragmatic model to examine the role of gender from the functional perspective of negation, five pragmatic strategies here are adopted, namely, Speech Act, off-record, on-record, presupposition (based on the politeness model of Brown and Levinson, 1987), and violation of Grice's maxims (1975). The study follows a qualitative method in the analytical interpretation of data to understand the negative impact of a contextual model and subjective model (personal ideology and knowledge) and quantitative analysis to find out the frequencies and the types of negatives. ...
... 4. On-record : is one of the politeness strategies developed by Brown and Levinson (1987). They (1987, p.74) defined bald on record strategy that "a direct way of saying things, without any minimization to the imposition, in a direct, clear, unambiguous and concise way". ...
Article
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The present study cognitive aims to investigate the negation phenomenon in American political discourse under Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) principles. The research sample includes two speeches given by Clinton and Trump in their election campaigns in 2016. Since the nature of the study follows the social-cognitive approach, the researcher adopted two models of analysis to achieve the study’s objectives: First, the theoretical framework of MST (developed by Fauconnier (1994), Fauconnier and Sweetser (1996) to examine meaning construction resulting from building different levels of negative mental spaces by two different genders the selected speeches. Second, pragmatic model to examine the role of gender from the functional perspective of negation, five pragmatic strategies here are adopted, namely, Speech Act, off-record, on-record, presupposition (based on the politeness model of Brown and Levinson, 1987), and violation of Grice’s maxims (1975). The study follows a qualitative method in the analytical interpretation of data to understand the negative impact of a contextual model and subjective model (personal ideology and knowledge) and quantitative analysis to find out the frequencies and the types of negatives. The findings show that both genders are biased to use negatives in their election campaigns to damage f each other’s face, and both similarly succeed in using pragmatic strategies within the scope of negative spaces, with some differences to mention.
... Pragmatics typically refers to the rules of language use, as opposed to language structure (Sperber & Wilson, 2005). In this sense, pragmatics lies at the point where language and the social world meet: on the one hand, it deals with how we communicate via linguistic means to express different speech acts (i.e., basic units of human communication, expressing speaker intentions, for example, a request, a greeting, an apology, etc., Levinson, 1983); on the other hand, pragmatics is concerned with the social dimension, as language adapts to the situational context (which includes aspects such as social conventions, rules of politeness, knowledge and believes of the interlocutors, see Brown & Levinson, 1987). The consequence of this two-fold nature of pragmatics is that it can be regarded as belonging both to language competence, along with more structural language skills such as syntax, vocabulary, etc., and to a domain closely related to social cognition abilities, understood as those abilities that allow us to interact effectively with others (C. ...
... Similarly, results might change depending on the specific aspects of social cognition under consideration. Pragmatic behavior is deeply connected with the social dimension; it is shaped by the social context (Brown & Levinson, 1987) and impacts social relationships (Agostoni et al., 2021;e.g., Del Sette et al., 2021). Mentalizing is a fundamental aspect of social cognition, but there are several other socio-cognitive skills that allow us to interact socially, such as affiliation, agent recognition, biological motion perception, empathy, social attention, and social learning, among others (see Happé et al., 2017, for a review). ...
Article
Pragmatics lies at the point where language meets the social world and encompasses both the linguistic and the social dimensions of communication. However, the relationship between pragmatic abilities, other language skills, and socio-cognitive aspects such as mentalizing is still a matter of wide debate. This study sets out to investigate the status of pragmatic abilities by testing from a developmental angle their relationship with other linguistic skills and mentalizing. We examined the role of structural language and mentalizing on both expressive pragmatic and prosodic skills in typically developing preschool children. A total of 105 3-to 4-year-old children were assessed on pragmatics and prosody with the Audiovisual Pragmatic Test, as well as on structural language skills (vocabulary and syntax) and a series of mentalizing measures (false belief, emotion understanding, and metacogni-tive vocabulary). A combined approach including correlations, regressions, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used. Structural language was a strong positive predictor of both pragmatic and prosodic scores, while mentalizing predicted neither pragmatic nor prosodic performance. We suggest that in preschool years, expressive pragmatics and prosodic skills are more closely related to structural language skills than to mentalizing.
... One of the basic tests for politeness in discourse situations is that it determines the reception or rejection of a message and determines possible outcomes or responses by participants in the interaction process (Yusti, 2013). Brown and Levinson (1987) posit that politeness is interactants' linguistic or pragmatic tool for reducing the effects of face threats. This is a follow up of Brown's (1970) submission, that speakers formulate (politeness) strategies to save hearers' face, especially when face threatening acts (henceforth, FTA) are desired or expected. ...
... An example of this can be negative criticism (Watts, 2003). Four features of politeness are advanced by Brown and Levinson (1987), which are positive politeness, otherwise facesaving acts (FSAs); bald on record politeness, which is used to emphasise an act that is clearly, concisely, or directly stated; negative politeness, otherwise face-threatening acts (FTAs); and off record politeness, which employs indirect language and removes the speaker from imposing on the hearer's corresponding acts. Sadly, African politics, which has been characteristic of several individual, corporate, and party conflicts is a high harvester of both FSAs and FTAs, which manifest during campaign speeches and debate sessions, to mention only a few. ...
Article
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Political debate is an emerging culture in Nigerian politics, aimed at fostering popular democracy, and presenting candidates to electorates to make their choice. But it is likewise a platform for exchanging cynic comments and banters, especially between the contestants, most of the two dominant political parties in Nigeria, the All-Progressive Congress (APC) and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). This has not been sufficiently researched in studies on political discourse. Extant studies have focused on campaign speeches, acceptance, and concession speeches, among others, using speech acts, socio-stylistics, and critical discourse analysis. This study investigates the comments and rebuttals of Pastor Osagie Ize-Iyamu of the APC, and Governor Godwin Obaseki of the PDP, in the 2020 Edo Governorship Debate. It adopts implicature, explicature and pragmatic acts as theories to, qualitatively, analyse the downloaded and transcribed excerpts from Channels Television’s website, where they were televised to reach millions of people, both in local and international spaces. The results show that both conventional and conversational implicature, and explicature were employed by both aspirants to achieve party and self legitimisation, supremacism, cynicism, and criticism. These are used as campaign strategies. The study concludes that the contestants in the Edo 2020 political debate made it about themselves and their parties. Aggression is initiated and managed as a debate-campaign strategy to canvas for the electorates’ votes.
... The principal logic behind documenting six scenarios was based on Brown and Levinson's (1987) threefold formula, which are power, distance, and imposition in politness studies. However, the present survey considered two of them: power (i.e. ...
... English native speakers participated in the study. As the instrument, the participants received a 6-item DCT based on Brown and Levinson's (1987) power and distance formula. Then to meet the objective of looking for a likely correlation between the obtained data on the condolence speech act and other valid criteria, Chen and Starosta's (2000) intercultural sensitivity scale was also distributed among the learners. ...
Conference Paper
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This study aimed to achieve a four-fold purpose: First, identifying English native speakers' and EFL learners' condolence speech patterns based on Samavarchi and Allami's (2012) framework; second, determining EFL learners' intercultural sensitivity competence based on Chen and Starosta's (2000) scale; third, identifying the extent to which EFL learners' speech acts would match those of their English-speaking counterparts; and finally, establishing a statistical account of the extent of association between intercultural sensitivity and the focused speech act. Thus, a modified version of condolence DCT designed by Samavarchi and Allami (2012) was applied to 30 advanced Iranian EFL learners. It addressed Brown and Levinson's (1987) variables of power (i.e., high, low & equal) and social distance (i.e., strange & intimate). To come up with an accurate condolence pattern, the researchers asked 10 American native speakers to participate in this study and answer the same DCT via email. To fulfill the purposes of the study, Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS; Chen & Starosta, 2000) was also conducted. It explores interaction enjoyment, attentiveness and engagement among the participants. On the basis of descriptive as well as statistical analyses, the results suggested differences and similarities in the natives and non-natives' frequency of speech patterns. Besides, the results indicated a direct positive correlation between ISS and the application of DCT. The implication is that the mere identification of speech acts is not enough and EFL learners should comprehend the discursive practice going on in the situation.
... While American participants did not make their country's help conditional on the nonviolent strategy in Study 1, in Study 2, we found evidence that they were more in favor of American support for a nonviolent movement. Thus, these findings are broadly consistent with past research on support for nonviolent over violent protest movements, which may suggest that third-party groups, by not being directly involved in the conflict, may be more willing to apply a general social convention of nonviolence, much like other social conventions of politeness (Brown & Levinson, 1987), and absence of malice (Ekman, 2001; see also Sutton et al., 2006). For those directly involved in the conflict, however, their motivations in favor of their own group may overcome general conventions about being against violence and in favor of nonviolence. ...
Article
Around the world, movements for justice or social change struggle with the question of whether to use nonviolent or violent protest strategies. While research suggests that nonviolent strategies may be more successful than violent ones, people's preferences and support for different strategies may depend on their specific role in the conflict. We tested this in Study 1 in the context of the Kurdish question in Turkey (N = 320), and we found that Turks and Americans supported nonviolent movements more than violent movements, while Kurds were equally supportive of both. Study 2 (N = 192) replicated Study 1 and investigated whether the preference for nonviolent strategies among the third‐party group was dependent on the perceivers' specific preferred outcomes in the conflict. We found that, in the context of the Kurdish question in Syria, third‐party Americans still supported nonviolent movements more than violent movements regardless of their preferred outcomes, although the more that they preferred that Kurds would win the conflict, the more supportive they were of both nonviolent and violent protest movements. These studies suggest that the preference for nonviolent strategies may depend on people's role in the conflict, with important implications for addressing conflict needs and conflict resolution.
... As early as 1955, Goffman stated that "face is a form of social respect and identity, a positive social value that is strongly asserted by an individual in a particular social interaction" [35]. Subsequently, Brown and Levinson (1987) defined it as the public self-image that individuals hoped others to recognize [36]. According to politeness theory, face should be a universal concept, only that its definition varied in different cultural contexts. ...
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Clarifying the factors influencing the safe use of pesticide is essential for scientific decision making to effectively manage pesticide use and promote sustainable agroecological development. The study aims to explore the factors influencing farmers’ safe use of pesticides from the perspectives of external supervision and face consciousness. Using survey data covering 534 farm households in Sichuan province, this study empirically analyzes the influence mechanisms of external supervision, face consciousness, and their interaction terms on farmers’ safe use of pesticides by employing the binary logit and IV-2SLS model, and further reveals their intergenerational differences on this basis. The results show that external supervision and positive face consciousness have significantly positive effects on pesticide safety use by farmers; market supervision and ability-type face, respectively, play the biggest role among them. Furthermore, there is an interaction effect between external supervision and face consciousness with respect to pesticide safety use. Farmers with different generation farms are influenced differently by external supervision and face consciousness. The behaviors of the new generation farmers to safely use pesticide are principally influenced by government supervision, market supervision, and ability-type face; in contrast, the ones of the older generation farmers are mainly influenced by market supervision, organization supervision, and relationship-type face.
... The most widely examined feature in pragmatics is requesting that displays the speaker's favour for the hearer to perform an action or attempt to obtain specific information. Requesting has been regarded as one of the most threatening speech acts, because it threatens the hearer's face (Brown & Levinson, 1987). Therefore, in this study the effect of individual/group focused and unfocused feedback was evaluated on learners' pragmatic performance specifically on their request speech act (formal/informal) in terms of accuracy and fluency. ...
Article
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This research investigated the feasible effects of individual/group focused versus unfocused feedback on EFL learners' pragmatics achievements in terms of accuracy and fluency. To do this, 60 female intermediate level English students were divided into four experimental groups and asked to write request letter based on the instruction they had received. In order to check the homogeneity of the participants in terms of their level of proficiency, an Oxford Placement Test was administered. Afterwards, to estimate the participants' speech act performance before the experiment in each group, a pre-test was used. During treatment sessions, the writings were corrected, individual/group focused and unfocused feedbacks were provided, and then they were handed back to the students to notice the errors. To assess the pragmatic knowledge of the participants regarding the speech act of request in each group after the treatment, a post-test was administered. To reach more reliable data, two raters corrected the participants' responses on pretest and posttest. Two repeated-measures two-way ANOVA and MANOVA were used to analyse the data. The results indicated individual/group focused and unfocused group significantly benefited from the provision of feedback. Besides, implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are both addressed at the end of the thesis.
... The present work adopts aspects of Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness, and those of contextual beliefs (CBs) Model. Brown and Levinson's (1987) theory of politeness distinguishes between negative and positive politeness strategies. Negative politeness strategies are strategies that are performed to avoid offence through deference, respect, etc., while positive politeness strategies are those that are performed to avoid offence by emphasizing friendliness. ...
... The eyebrow furrow could be considered an implicit or off-record type of otherinitiation of repair. While an eyebrow furrow seems slightly more accountable than a 'freeze look' [29], it still does not explicitly encode the intention to initiate repair-potentially in an effort to minimize any possible "face-threatening" consequences [62]-"just as "It's cold in here" does not explicitly encode the intention to get somebody to shut the window" [63, p. 11]. ...
Preprint
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Repair is a core building block of human communication, allowing us to address problems of understanding in conversation. Past research has uncovered the basic mechanisms by which interactants signal and solve such problems. However, the focus has been on verbal interaction, neglecting the fact that human communication is inherently multimodal. Here, we focus on a visual signal particularly prevalent in signaling problems of understanding: eyebrow frowns and raises. We present a corpus study showing that verbal repair initiations with eyebrow furrows are more likely to be responded to with clarifications as repair solutions, repair initiations that were preceded by eyebrow actions as preliminaries get repaired faster (around 230 ms), and eyebrow furrows alone can be sufficient to occasion clarification. We also present an experiment based on virtual reality technology, revealing that addressees’ eyebrow frowns have a striking effect on speakers’ speech, leading them to produce answers to questions several seconds longer than when not perceiving addressee eyebrow furrows. Together, the findings demonstrate that eyebrow movements play a communicative role in initiating repair in spoken language rather than being merely epiphenomenal. Thus, they should be considered as core coordination devices in human conversational interaction.
... People thus seem to create an external attribution for the disrupted flow: "it is not me, it is the experiment". This can be considered a face-saving strategy (Brown & Levinson, 1987). In general, studies 2 and 3 suggest that deviations from well-learned behaviors in communication contexts are experienced as unnatural and unpleasant. ...
Article
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Online discussions about controversial topics seem more prone to misunderstanding and even polarization than similar discussions held face-to-face. Recent research uncovered an important reason why: certain behaviors that are used to communicate diplomacy and tact in face-to-face discussions – specifically, responsiveness and ambiguity – are more difficult to enact online. To improve online interaction experiences and understand the underlying mechanisms better, we ran three exploratory studies in which we tried to manipulate these diplomatic behaviors in online and face-to-face conversations. Study 1 and 2 aimed to increase ambiguity and responsiveness in online environments to test whether it would result in increased experiences of solidarity. To this end, Study 1 (N = 68, repeated measures) compared a regular chat function with a chat function in which interaction partners saw each other's typing in real time. In Study 2 (N = 74, repeated measures), we introduced a keyboard that allowed participants to make interjecting sounds alongside text-based communication. In contrast, Study 3 (N = 105, repeated measures) aimed to reduce responsiveness and ambiguity in face-to-face discussion to test whether this would hamper participants' ability to navigate disagreements while maintaining solidarity. We asked participants about their conversational experiences both quantitatively and qualitatively in all studies. We did not find the expected effects in any of the studies. The qualitative analyses of participants' behavior and commentary gave some insights into the reasons. Participants compensated for and/or distanced themselves from the manipulations. These behavioral adaptations all seemed to be socially motivated. We conclude by offering recommendations for research into online polarization.
... Since all cultures seem to share the concept of politeness (Brown & Levinson, 1978;Leech, 1983) and to express it in a certain linguistic and very often non-verbal way and since politeness derives from different norms and values that are culturally bound (2009, internet 3: 2), linguistic routines manifest themselves differently in different cultures. Thus, it is our aim in this research to investigate the effect of the cultural norms and values of Iraqi community on condolences. ...
Article
تشکل تعابیر التعازی جزءاً من التواصل (التفاعل) الیومی على الرغم من أنها قلیلة الاستخدام فی الحیاة الیومیة قیاساً بکثیر من أفعال الکلام الأخرى کتعابیر الاعتذار والطلب أو الرفض مثلاً. ولهذا السبب فإننا نرى ضرورة دراسة هذه التعابیر وتحلیلها فی اللغة العربیة. وعلى هذا الأساس فقد حاولنا أن نتحقق عن کیفیة استخدامها من قبل العراقیین. تفترض الدراسة بان العراقیین یستخدمون أنماطا متنوعة فی التعبیر عن التعزیة وان هذه التعابیر تتأثر بحضارة البلد وثقافته. تم إثبات هذه الفرضیات بشکل واضح حیث أن العراقیین یمیلون إلى استخدام تعابیر متنوعة من التعازی وفقاً للسیاق ولمتغیرات أخرى مثل العمر والجنس والتعلیم. کذلک ظهر جلیاً من خلال التحلیل التأثیر الکبیر للدین الإسلامی فی هذه التعابیر.
... Para verlo de un modo más claro, este proceso se puede concretar a través de la cortesía, por ejemplo. Hay numerosos estudios que formulaban universales de la cortesía y que actualmente son bastante cuestionados (Brown y Levinson, 1987) del tipo: "las lenguas usan la característica lingüística X para mostrar cortesía". Sin embargo, muchos autores, ya a partir de los años 80 a través de comparaciones entre dos o tres lenguas, como, por ejemplo, la comparación entre el japonés y el inglés en Hill et al. (1986) o el polaco y el inglés en Wierzbicka (1985), han señalado el alto nivel de influencia occidental en tales afirmaciones y han puesto de manifiesto su anglocentrismo y poca universalidad. ...
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... Compliance}. Compliance to requests is a form of social influence which comes under the headlines of negative politeness (Brown & Levinson, 1987). It can also be conceived as a script structure; that is, a normative sequence of interactions between defined actors, taking place in specific situations, within a temporal frame marked by the onset and the endpoint (Schank & Abelson, 1995;Wierzbicka, 1994). ...
... While this study focuses on politeness as a locus of semiotic differentiation and identity work, politeness itself has been a central research theme in pragmatics since the late 1970s. In this first wave of politeness research (e.g., Brown & Levinson, 1987;Lakoff, 1973;Leech, 1983), politeness was primarily conceptualized as speakers' strategies to avoid or mitigate face threats. The second wave of research began around the 2000s with a renewed emphasis on the evaluative and reflexive nature of politeness (e.g., Eelen, 2001;Watts, 2003). ...
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... The present work adopts aspects of Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness, and those of contextual beliefs (CBs) Model. Brown and Levinson's (1987) theory of politeness distinguishes between negative and positive politeness strategies. Negative politeness strategies are strategies that are performed to avoid offence through deference, respect, etc., while positive politeness strategies are those that are performed to avoid offence by emphasizing friendliness. ...
... Next, Brown & Levinson (1987) elaborates the social variables above into six combinations to determine a particular social condition: ...
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This research attempts to identify the types of commands, sub-types of the commands, and the influence of situational context, power, and social distance in producing commands between characters in the TV series Game of Thrones. The data used are the commands given by the characters, namely Jon Snow, Sansa Stark, Daenerys Targaryen, Tyrion and Cersei Lannister. Holmes’ theory (2013) and some other sources on the categories of commands, Cutting’s theory (2002) on situational context, and Brown & Levinson ‘s theory (1987) on social variables are employed to analyze how the commands were produced. The results show that there are two types of commands: direct and indirect commands. There are 33 direct commands and 57 indirect commands. Some factors such as situational context, power, and social distance have influenced the dominant use of indirect commands.
... The present work adopts aspects of Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness, and those of contextual beliefs (CBs) Model. Brown and Levinson's (1987) theory of politeness distinguishes between negative and positive politeness strategies. Negative politeness strategies are strategies that are performed to avoid offence through deference, respect, etc., while positive politeness strategies are those that are performed to avoid offence by emphasizing friendliness. ...
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... Kajian dan penyelidikan tentang kesopanan (politeness) semakin banyak dijalankan (seperti kajian oleh Leech, 2014;Brown 1980;Brown & Levinson 1987;Watts, 2003). Kesopanan merupakan asas penting dalam komunikasi manusia yang mengerakkan interaksi sosial, melancarkan dan memudahkan komunikasi, mengelakkan masalah interpersonal dan membina hubungan yg baik dan akrab. ...
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... (ANDRADE, 2011;FERNANDES;GARCIA, 2010) Nas linhas finais da interação, a cuidadora anuncia que esta é uma tarefa que "não é fácil" (linha 46), que "é pesada" (linha 47) e para a qual precisa "fazer muito esforço" (linha 49). É possível observar, a partir da polidez comunicacional (BROWN; LEVINSON, 1987), que as colocações adicionais da cuidadora são uma tentativa de preservação da própria face positiva ("não sou uma megera"; "não estou te maltratando"), justificando reiteradamente que seu comportamento linguístico ríspido não é consequência de falha de caráter, mas sim das próprias exigências de suas tarefas. Pode-se supor ainda que o reforço do comportamento ("muito boazinha e obediente") são tentativas de preservação da face negativa da idosa ("quando você me obedece, eu não preciso mandar" ou "desculpe por invadir seu espaço corporal, mas eu também fico com dor nas costas"), recompondo a relação e retirando a ameaça inicial. ...
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... Participants indicated not wanting the support recipient to feel singled out; judged; personally attacked; or as though their autonomy, efficacy, or independent evaluation of a stressor had been challenged by the offer of support. In other words, participants showed concern for partners' positive (i.e., desire to be respected and valued) and negative (i.e., desire to be autonomous) face needs (Brown & Levinson, 1987). ...
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The concept of invisible support (Bolger et al., 2000) has sparked interest among social support researchers. Theoretically, invisible support avoids negative support outcomes related to face threats and, therefore, should lead to better outcomes than traditional support. Unfortunately, empirical tests of invisible support have yielded inconsistent results, potentially due to a lack of conceptual and operational clarity in defining invisible support. The present study addresses this issue, advocating for the inclusion of provider intention to reduce support visibility in the definition of invisible support and establishing the foundation for a typology of invisible support by eliciting participants' experiences with its provision.
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The last many years have given us clear and startling insights into human cognition and the process of human speech production. Yet much of current deception research eschews such revelations. Specifically, many deception scholars continue to presume a top-down, sequential/stepwise, selection-based production model that begins with a discrete, antecedent “intention” and ends with cognitive selection between binary discourse options – “truth versus lie” – that then are instantiated within communicative behavior. Unfortunately, such models lack goodness-of-fit with current work in cognitive psychology and neurolinguistics. Also, discourse presumptions of binary “truth/lie” that dominate deception experiments and discussions fail to match empirical observations of actual discourse patterns when people are allowed to freely produce messages in response to truth-problematic contexts. In this paper, we do three things. First, we review current work in speech production. Second, we revisit the intentional states propositions of Information Manipulation Theory 2, along with illustrative discourse examples. Finally, we suggest important future directions for deception researchers.
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Neste capítulo, apresentam-se reflexões sobre as estratégias argumentativas no processamento do texto oral-dialogado e na manutenção do tópico discursivo. O objetivo é verificar a possibilidade de conjugar os estudos sobre referenciação, modalização e operadores argumentativos com pesquisas sobre tópico discursivo, a fim de investigar como essas estratégias argumentativas atuam na reformulação do texto oral-dialogado e na manutenção do tópico discursivo. Para isso, recorreu-se a uma parcela de dados dos inquéritos gerados no Projeto interinstitucional Crenças e atitudes linguísticas: um estudo da relação do português com línguas de contato (Projeto CAL), coordenado por Vanderci de Andrade Aguilera (Universidade Estadual de Londrina), com a colaboração de Aparecida Feola Sella (Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná), coletados em 2009. Selecionaram-se, para esta investigação, recortes de inquéritos coletados em Capanema, cidade localizada no Sudoeste do Paraná, na fronteira com a Argentina. Realizou-se uma discussão teórica que integra estudos relativos à referenciação, modalização e operadores argumentativos e, por se tratar de um estudo do texto falado, em parte a desdobramentos do Projeto Norma Urbana Culta (NURC) e dos postulados de pesquisadores que discutem a noção de tópico discursivo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, com base em estudos da Linguística Textual, de perspectiva sociocognitiva e interacional, da Linguística Funcional, da Semântica Argumentativa e da Análise da Conversação.
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This case study investigated Dutch and Turkish pre-service teachers' pedagogical insights on cultural diversity and critical cultural awareness in a telecollaboration project integrated into practicum. The intercultural communicative competence framework and the positioning theory were the theoretical frameworks. Participants engaged in asynchronous video communication on cultural and critical issues. The data were collected via expectation papers, a reflective project evaluation journal, videotaped interactions, and semi-structured interviews. They were analyzed via content analysis. The findings revealed the favorable impact of participants' project engagement on their perceptions, cultural, diversity and critical cultural awareness. Despite the pre-service teachers' enhanced cultural diversity and critical cultural awareness, the limited duration of the study and the lack of synchronous interaction did not allow for an in-depth exploration of their diverse critical cultural perspectives. The study has implications for teacher educators conducting telecollaboration projects.
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Ancient commentators have always paid considerable attention to the rhetorical aspects of the speeches composed by Virgil in the Aeneid . They are fictitious dialogues but modelled, at least partially, on the public debates of the late Republic and Virgil’s own times. The Council of the Gods ( Aen . 10.1-117) is perhaps the passage in which the use of rhetoric is most evident. The trialogue between Jupiter, Venus and Juno can also be examined in the context of the doctrine of (im)politeness. Each protagonist uses specific strategies to interact with the others. Late antiquity exegesis also analyses in some notes the attitude of the speakers, highlighting polite or impolite behaviours. The aim of the article is twofold: on the one hand, it follows the development of the trialogue according to modern doctrines of (im)politeness to have an ‘ethic’ analysis of the debate. On the other hand, it will examine the commentators’ notes, both those explaining the rhetorical strategies and those highlighting the attitude of the speakers, in order to assess ‘emic’ perceptions of (im)politeness.
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Generic second person may be partially or totally generic. In Hebrew, a highly gendered language, the scope of masculine and feminine generic 2SG may be either total or limited to the given gender. The borders between personal, limited generic and total generic use are often fuzzy. I discuss these complex interrelations between scope, gender and interchangeability of generic and personal 2SG in a corpus of journalistic interviews, focusing on issues such as simulated interlocutor, inner dialogue, shifted viewpoint, and dramatic simulation. Opaque switch points from personal to generic are found to characterize typical environments, including after directives or questions. Gender switch reflects viewpoint shifts. Scope ambiguity and interchangeability, even within a single utterance, enhance the pragmatic effect of generic 2SG.
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This research studies a group of Chinese university students of English as a Foreign Language ( EFL ) to analyse the macro- and microstructure of their emails and their pragmatic competence. In order to study the features and context adequacy of their email communication, a corpus of 200 emails written by 100 second-year students (sophomores) and 100 fourth-year students (seniors) was analysed to identify the uses and preferences concerning subject lines and opening and closing moves and to investigate the uses and functions of strategies related to disagreement in their communication to a faculty member. Findings show that both Chinese groups lacked standardisation in relation to the use of subject line and opening and closing moves. Data also proved that Chinese EFL emails were inappropriate due to insufficient mitigation, lack of acknowledgment of the imposition involved and lack of status-congruent language.
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The book includes work presented at the 24th National Linguistics Conference held at Middle East Technical University, Ankara, on May 17-18, 2010.
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