The Role of Calcium, Magnesium, and Zinc in Pre-Eclampsia
Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Its exact etiology is not known, although several evidences indicate that various elements might play an important role in pre-eclampsia. This study was carried out to analyze and to compare the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia and in normal pregnant women. Fifty clinically diagnosed patients with pre-eclampsia (25 with mild and 25 with severe pre-eclampsia) and 50 normal pregnant controls were enrolled in this study. The serum calcium, magnesium, and zinc levels were estimated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc in normal pregnant group were 2.45 +/- 0.18 mmol/L, 0.79 +/- 0.13 mmol/L, and 15.64 +/- 2.4 micromol/L, respectively, while in mild pre-eclamptic group, these were 2.12 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, 0.67 +/- 0.14 mmol/L, and 12.72 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, respectively. Serum levels in severe pre-eclamptic group were 1.94 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, 0.62 +/- 0.11 mmol/L, and 12.04 +/- 1.4 micromol/L, respectively. These results indicate that reduction in serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in etiology of pre-eclampsia, and supplementation of these elements to diet may be of value to prevent pre-eclampsia.
Available from: Revathi P Shenoy
- "Thus they also have possible role in maternal fetal complications . A study conducted in India in 2010 concluded that there is a significant depletion in serum calcium, magnesium and zinc levels that would have a probable role in the genesis of preeclampsia but the exact mechanism is yet to be explored . "
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is the stage of development of foetus and also a transition in the anatomy and physiology of the mother. During this time various metabolic changes occur in the mother. These changes are necessary to support the growing embryo. Micronutrients, which include vitamins and minerals, are important during all stages of life particularly in pregnancy. Thus inadequate availability of micronutrients can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Antioxidant vitamins and certain minerals like zinc, copper and iron are of immense importance during this stage. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy specific disorder and the disease has been found associated with altered micronutrient levels. Zinc is an essential micronutrient and is necessary for the proper functioning of various enzymes and transcription factors. Studies reveal that altered maternal zinc levels are found associated with preeclampsia. Can zinc contribute to the aetiology of preeclampsia? The relation remains unexplored. This review gives an overview of the difference in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia and the probable association of zinc with preeclampsia.
Available from: Hiten D Mistry
- "[94, 115]; the authors suggested that this may be useful for early diagnosis as lower plasma zinc concentrations have been associated with increased lipid peroxidation in rat studies . Moreover, in a recent retrospective study in India, reduced serum zinc concentrations in mild and severe preeclamptic mothers compared to controls were reported; the authors suggest that the reduction could not only effect the antioxidant protection but could also contribute to the rise in blood pressure . The lower serum zinc concentrations in mothers who develop preeclampsia have been suggested to at least be partly due to reduced oestrogen and zinc binding-protein levels . "
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies.
Available from: Tajeldin M Abdallah
- "The susceptibility of women with severe anaemia to preeclampsia could be explained by a deficiency of micronutrients and antioxidants. Recent results indicate that reduction in serum levels of calcium, magnesium and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors to the development of preeclampsia . We have recently observed a high prevalence of both anaemia (including severe anaemia) and micronutrient deficiency in the same hospital . "
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ABSTRACT: Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes.
This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) < 7 g/dl, n = 303) who delivered from January 2008 to December 2010 were reviewed. Socio-demographic and obstetric data were analysed and compared with a similar number of women with mild/moderate anaemia (Hb = 7-10.9 g/dl, n = 303) and with no anaemia (Hb > 11 g/dl, n = 303). Logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each of the outcome measures: preeclampsia, eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) and stillbirth.
There were 9578 deliveries at Kassala hospital, 4012 (41.8%) women had anaemia and 303 (3.2%) had severe anaemia. The corrected risk for preeclampsia increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-9.1, P = 0.007). Compared with women with no anaemia, the risk of LBW was 2.5 times higher in women with mild/moderate anaemia (95% CI: 1.1-5.7), and 8.0 times higher in women with severe anaemia (95% CI: 3.8-16.0). The risk of preterm delivery increased significantly with the severity of anaemia (OR = 3.2 for women with mild/moderate anaemia and OR = 6.6 for women with severe anaemia, compared with women with no anaemia). The corrected risk for stillbirth increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.1, P < 0.001).
The greater the severity of the anaemia during pregnancy, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, LBW and stillbirth. Preventive measures should be undertaken to decrease the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy.
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