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Abstract Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.
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REVIEW
Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) - A Valuable Medicinal Food:
A Review
Remya Mohanraj and Subha Sivasankar
Department of Biotechnology, Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology,
Vinayaka Missions University, Kancheepuram, India.
ABSTRACT Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that
possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory
activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the
development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to
give a bird’s-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet
potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been
isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet
potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.
KEY WORDS: anti-cancer activity antidiabetic activity antioxidant activity phytochemical composition sweet
potato 4-Ipomeanol
INTRODUCTION
Over the past few decades, the search for plant-based
medicines has occupied many research groups. Al-
though a lot of research is focused on medicinal herbs, it
should not be overlooked that many vegetables and fruits
also possess medicinal properties. Ipomoea batatas (L.)
Lam, commonly known as sweet potato (Fig. 1) belonging to
the family Convolvulaceae, is an important root vegetable
which is large, starchy, and sweet tasting.
1,2
The plant is a
herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped
or palmately-lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous
flowers. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered with a
smooth skin. It is valued for its short growing period of 90 to
120 days, high nutritional content, and its sweetness.
I. batatas has played an important role as an energy and
phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding.
The plant has significant medicinal importance and various
parts of the plant are used in traditional medicine. The leaves
are used to treat type 2 diabetes by Akan tribes of Ghana,
3
and in the treatment of inflammatory and/or infectious oral
diseases in Brazil.
4
In regions of Kagawa, Japan, a variety of
sweet potato has been eaten raw to treat anemia, hyperten-
sion, and diabetes.
5
The stems of I. batatas were used for
treatment of prostatitis.
6
The Monpa ethnic groups of Ar-
unachal Pradesh, India, use the tubers of sweet potato as a
staple food and the leaves as fish feed.
7
Sweet potato, which originated in Central America, is now
widely cultivated and consumed throughout the world.
8,9
European explorers introduced the crop to Africa and India
by the early 1500s, China by 1594, and Taiwan and Miyako
Island in Japan by 1597.
10–12
Sweet potato ranks seventh
among almost all food crops worldwide, with an annual
production of 115 million metric tons.
13
Approximately 92%
of world’s sweet potato supply is produced in Asia and the
Pacific Islands: 89% of which is grown in China.
14
With the above background in mind, this review aims at
providing an insight into the nutritional value, health ben-
efits, phytochemical composition, biological activities and
medicinal properties of sweet potato, and demonstrates the
potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.
Biology and nutritional value of I. batatas
I. batatas is grown as an annual plant by vegetative
propagation using either storage roots or stem cuttings. The
stem is cylindrical and its length depends on the growth habit
of the cultivar and the availability of water in the soil. The
leaves are simple and spirally arranged alternatively on the
stem. Their color can be green, yellowish-green, or can have
purple pigmentation in part or all of the leaf blades. The
storage roots are the commercial part of the sweet potato
plant.
15
The color of the smooth skin of the root tuber ranges
between yellow, orange, red, brown, purple, and beige. Its
Manuscript received 25 February 2013. Revision accepted 16 April 2014.
Address correspondence to: Remya Mohanraj, PhD, Department of Biotechnology,
Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology, Vinayaka Missions University, Rajiv Gandhi
Salai (OMR), Paiyanoor 603 104, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail:
remyam@gmail.com
JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD
J Med Food 17 (7) 2014, 733–741
#Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2013.2818
733
flesh ranges from beige to white, red, pink, violet, yellow,
orange, and purple. Sweet potato varieties with white or pale
yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red,
pink, or orange flesh.
16
Sweet potato is used as a staple food, a root vegetable
(including its fleshy roots, tender leaves, and petioles), a snack
food, animal feed, a source for industrial starch extraction and
fermentation, and for various processed products.
17–20
Sweet
potato is high in nutritional value, with the exception of pro-
tein and niacin. It provides over 90% of nutrients per calorie
required for most people.
21,22
Roots are a valuable source
of carbohydrates, vitamins (providing 100% of the rec-
ommended daily allowance [RDA] for vitamin A and 49% of
the RDA for vitamin C), and minerals (providing 10% of the
RDA for iron and 15% of the RDA for potassium).
21,23
Besides simple starches, sweet potatoes are rich in com-
plex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, iron, and vitamin content
such as beta-carotene (a pro-vitamin A carotenoid), vitamin
B
2
, vitamin C, and vitamin E.
24
Pink, yellow, and green
varieties are also high in beta-carotene. The nutritional value
of sweet potato is presented in Table 1.
25
Orange-fleshed
sweet potatoes may be one of nature’s unsurpassed sources
of beta-carotene. Several recent studies have shown that the
sweet potato has superior ability to raise blood levels of
vitamin A. This benefit may be particularly true for children.
In several studies from Africa, sweet potatoes were found to
contain between 100–1,600 micrograms of retinol activity
equivalents (RAE) of vitamin A in every 3.5 ounces; en-
ough, on an average, to meet 35% of all vitamin A needs. In
many cases, sweet potatoes contain enough RAE to meet
over 90% of vitamin A needs.
For those who are involved in strenuous jobs, sweet po-
tato is a good source of carbohydrates and it is rich in vi-
tamins and minerals. For those suffering from stomach
cancer, a diet based on the sweet potato is beneficial.
26
Research has also shown that phytonutrients in sweet po-
tatoes may be able to help lower the potential health risk
posed by free radicals.
27
Starch is considered to be the main component of the sweet
potato root, followed by simple sugars such as sucrose, glu-
cose, fructose, and maltose.
28
Sweet potato leaves are indeed
more nutritious than the tuber itself. The leaves contain ap-
preciable amount of nutrients (crude protein, crude fat, crude
fiber, ash, carbohydrates, moisture contents, and energy),
vitamins (vitamin A and vitamin C), mineral elements (zinc,
potassium, sodium, manganese, calcium, magnesium, and
iron), low levels of toxicants (phytic acid, cyanide, tannins,
and total oxalate), and may be included in diets to supplement
dietary allowances of essential nutrients.
29
Health benefits of I. batatas
Root tuber. Sweet potato is one of the average calorie
starch foods and provides 90 calories/100 g vs. 70 calories/
100 g of other types of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). The
tuber, however, contains no saturated fats or cholesterol and
is a rich source of dietary fiber, anti-oxidants, vitamins, and
minerals. Its energy content mainly comes from starch, a
complex carbohydrate. Sweet potato has a higher amylose to
the amylopectin ratio when compared to S. turberosum.
Amylose raises the blood sugar levels slowly in comparison to
simple sugars, and is recommended as a healthy food sub-
stance, even for patients with diabetes.
The tuber is an excellent source of flavonoids, phenolic
compounds such as beta-carotene, and vitamin A. A 100 g tuber
provides 14187 IU of vitamin A and 8509 lgofb-carotene.
The value is one of the highest in the root-vegetables cate-
gory. These compounds are powerful natural antioxidants.
Vitamin A is also required by the body to maintain the in-
tegrity of healthy mucus membranes and skin. It is a vital
FIG 1. Sweet potato tuber and leaf.
Table 1. Nutritional Value of Sweet Potato
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 360 kJ (86 kcal)
Carbohydrates 20.1 g
Starch 12.7 g
Sugars 4.2 g
Dietary fiber 3.0 g
Fat 0.1 g
Protein 1.6 g
Vitamin A equivalent 709 lg (89%)
- beta-carotene 8509 lg (79%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 0 lg
Thiamine (vitamin B
1
) 0.1 mg (9%)
Riboflavin (vitamin B
2
) 0.1 mg (8%)
Niacin (vitamin B
3
) 0.61 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B
5
) 0.8 mg (16%)
Vitamin B
6
0.2 mg (15%)
Folate (vitamin B
9
)11lg (3%)
Vitamin C 2.4 mg (3%)
Vitamin E 0.26 mg (2%)
Calcium 30.0 mg (3%)
Iron 0.6 mg (5%)
Magnesium 25.0 mg (7%)
Phosphorus 47.0 mg (7%)
Potassium 337 mg (7%)
Sodium 55 mg (4%)
Zinc 0.3 mg (3%)
734 MOHANRAJ AND SIVASANKAR
nutrient for visual acuity. Consumption of natural vegetables
and fruits rich in flavonoids helps protect from lung and oral
cavity cancers. The tubers are packed with many essential
vitamins such as pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine
(vitamin B6), and thiamin (vitamin B1), as well as niacin and
riboflavin. These vitamins are essential in the sense that the
body requires them from external sources in order to be re-
plenished. These vitamins function as co-factors for various
enzymes during metabolism. Sweet potato is a rich source of
vital minerals such as iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese,
and potassium that are essential for enzyme, protein, and
carbohydrate metabolism.
2
Shoot. Sweet potato leaves are high in lutein
30
which is
said to have a number of benefits for the eye, especially in
the prevention of age-related macular degeneration and
cataracts.
31
Sweet potato leaves are rich in potent antioxi-
dants and also vitamin C, which helps fight free radicals,
thus preventing premature aging and disease. They boost
the immune system and help prevent infections and diseases.
The polyphenolics present in the leaves showed various
kinds of physiological functions, radical scavenging activity,
antimutagenic activity, anticancer, antidiabetes, and anti-
bacterial activity in vitro and in vivo, which may be helpful
for maintaining and promoting human health. Sweet potato
leaves are a physiologically functional food that offers pro-
tection from diseases linked to oxidation such as cancer, al-
lergies, aging, HIV, and cardiovascular problems.
32
Phytochemistry and biological activity
The major phytochemicals present in the leaves of
sweet potato are triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraqui-
nones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic
acids.
4
Sweet potatoes also contain specific phytochemicals
such as quercetin and chlorogenic acid that act to fight cancer
and protect the heart. They are rich in beta-carotene, which is
an interceptor of free radicals. Carotenoids have antioxidant
capabilities and reduce or inhibit mutagenesis in cells, and
terpenoids reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
levels and act as anticarcinogens. Thus, eating certain foods
such as sweet potatoes may contribute to protective levels
against cancers.
33
Anthocyanins. Genes in purple sweet potatoes (IbMYB1
and IbMYB2) are activated to produce the purple antho-
cyanin pigments responsible for the rich purple tones of
the flesh. The purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins—
primarily peonidins and cyanidins—have important anti-
oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, particularly when
passing through our digestive tract. They may be able to
lower the potential health risk posed by heavy metals and
oxygen radicals.
24
They may also be used as part of an anti-
hypertensive diet and may prevent atherosclerosis. As they
contain abundant nutrients, minerals, and functional poly-
phenols, purple sweet potatoes can be used as a functional
food material.
34
Sweet potato leaves are consumed primarily
in the islands of the Pacific Ocean and in Asian and African
countries, whereas limited consumption occurs in the United
States.
35
Phenolics. Alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and glyco-
lipids are the most common biologically-active constituents
of I. batatas. Different polyphenolic compounds 4-O-
caffeoylquinic acid, 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (Fig. 2)
and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, possessing potent anti-
oxidant activities, have been isolated by chromatographic
methods from methanolic and hydromethanolic extracts of
I. batatas tuber flour.
36
These compounds possess a broad
range of pharmacological properties including hepatopro-
tectant, anti-bacterial, antihistamine, and other biological
effects.
37
These compounds are also inhibitors of HIV rep-
lication
38
and exhibit hypoglycemic,
39
radical scavenging,
40
and antimutagenic
41
activities. The stem also contains three
feruloylquinic acids and small amounts of at least four
caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids.
42
Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. From the sweet potato
leaf, the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives such as 3-mono-O-
caffeoylquinic acid (Chlorogenic acid [ChA]), 3,4-di-O-
caffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic
acid (3,5-diCQA), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4,5-diCQA),
3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-triCQA), and Caffeic
acid (CA) have been isolated (Fig. 3). These compounds have
demonstrated antimutagenicity.
43
They were also found to
prevent proliferation of human cancer cells arising from
stomach cancer, colon cancer, and promyelocytic leukemia
cell.
44
Coumarins. The roots of I. batatas contain the couma-
rins aesculetin,
45
scopoletin, and umbelliferon which have
anti-coagulation properties and inhibit HIV replication.
46
Scopoletin also possesses hepatoprotective,
47
antioxidant,
48
spasmolytic,
49
and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activi-
ties,
50
as well as inhibited proliferation by inducing apoptosis
of human adrogen-independent prostate adenocarcinoma
cells (PC3).
51
Scopoletin is one of the phytoalexins of
I. batatas.
52
Vitamin C, caffeic acid, flavonoids such as rutin,
quercetin,
53
tiliroside, astragalin, rhamnocitrin, rhamnetin,
and kaempferol,
54
as well as cyanidins and peonidins
40,55–61
are also found in this species.
Triterpenes. The bioactive triterpenes found in I. bata-
tas are: boehmeryl acetates, which act as ovipositional
stimulants for the sweet potato weevil; Cylas formicarius
elegantulus (Summers);
62
friedelin, which demonstrates
FIG 2. Structures of compounds isolated from sweet potato tubers.
SWEET POTATO AS MEDICINAL FOOD 735
good activity against S. aureus, compared with ampicillin
and amoxicillin, and good antifungal activity against
Pseudallescheria boydii.
63,64
b-amyrin acetate showed
pronounced antinociceptive properties in the writhing test
and formalin test in mice.
64,65
Furanoterpenoids. A group of 9-carbon furanoterpenoids
(1-Ipomeanol, 4-Ipomeanol, 1,4-Ipomeadiol, and Ipomeanine
[Fig. 4]) have been isolated from sweet potato tissue infected
with Fusarium solani.
66,67
4-Ipomeanol is a well-known cy-
totoxic metabolite of F. solani-infected sweet potatoes which
was first isolated in 1972 by Boyd and co-workers.
68
The list of biologically active compounds from sweet
potato, along with their pharmacological actions, is shown
in the flowchart in Figure 5.
Pharmacological properties of I. batatas
Ipomoea species are used in different parts of the world
for the treatment of several diseases, such as diabetes, hy-
pertension, dysentery, constipation, fatigue, arthritis, rheu-
matoid diseases, hydrocephaly, meningitis, kidney ailments,
and inflammations. They also possess antimicrobial, anal-
gesic, spasmolitic, spasmogenic, hypoglycemic, hypoten-
sive, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic,
and anticancer activities.
37
Sweet potato is potent in the fight
against cancer. It is rich in beta-carotene, which is good in
fighting free radicals. Fluid and electrolyte balance is
maintained by sweet potatoes.
I. batatas is good for cardiovascular health.
41
It is also
used for treatment of tumors of the mouth and throat, asthma,
bug bites, burns, catarrh, ciguatera, convalescence, dyslactea,
fever, nausea, renosis, splenosis, stomach distress, and whit-
lows.
69
Leaf decoctions are used as an alterative, aphrodisiac,
astringent, bactericide, demulcent, fungicide, laxative, and
tonic.
5
Tuber flour of sweet potato was found to potentially
prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulceration by suppressing ede-
ma formation and partially protecting gastric mucosa wrinkles
and to heal wounds.
70
Because of its proven anti-ulcerative
activity, it could be considered when treating gastric ulcers.
71
Antioxidant activity. The total antioxidant capacity of
sweet potato has been reported to be 42.94% as compared
to ascorbic acid.
4
The total antioxidant activity of purple-
fleshed sweet potatoes was higher than the white-fleshed.
Their total phenolic content can serve as a useful indicator
FIG 3. Structures of compounds
isolated from sweet potato leaves.
FIG 4. Structures of furanoterpenoids isolated from F. solani in-
fected sweet potatoes.
736 MOHANRAJ AND SIVASANKAR
for the antioxidant activities of sweet potatoes.
72
Total
phenolic content has been found to be highest in the leaves
and in the stem end of the roots of sweet potato.
73
One study
shows the antioxidant activity in purple sweet potatoes as
3.2 times higher than that of a type of blueberry. Surpris-
ingly, sweet potatoes have potent antioxidant capacity in all
of their parts. Recent research has shown different genes to
be at work in the flesh versus skin of the sweet potato pro-
ducing different concentrations of anthocyanin antioxidants.
A recent study established baseline data on the total
phenolic content and antioxidant activities of five sweet
potato varieties grown in the Philippines including Dakol,
Emelda, Haponita, PSBSP, and Violet. Antioxidant activi-
ties were highest for Dakol. However, Haponita had the best
inhibitory action on linoleic acid oxidation. Methanolic
sweet potato extracts had higher radical scavenging activity,
reducing power and oxidation inhibition than a-tocopherol
and higher iron-chelating capacity than ethylenediamine
tetraacetic acid (EDTA).
74
The total antioxidant strength of
raw sweet potato measured in terms of oxygen radical ab-
sorbance capacity is 902 lmol TE/100 g.
Dong et al., studied the total antioxidant activity by
DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) staining, reducing
power method, metal ion-dependent hydroxyl radical, ferric
thiocyanate (FTC) method, and protection of calf thymus
DNA against hydroxyl radical-induced damage on sweet
potato storage root mucilage. He suggested that the muci-
lage might contribute its antioxidant activities against both
hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals.
27
Antidiabetic activity. Sweet potato exhibits potent anti-
diabetic property, and its activity was shown to be higher
than that of diabense, a standard drug for treating diabetes. A
study has revealed that consumption of sweet potato, a high-
polyphenol diet, for 7 days can modulate antioxidative status
and decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage and pro-
inflammatory cytokine secretion.
75
Researchers found that
the protein content of the flesh of the sweet potato was higher
than that of the peel. This suggests that the entire vegetable
could play a role in lowering blood glucose in diabetics: the
peel, as processed into a nutritional supplement like Caiapo;
and the flesh, as a simple addition to the everyday diet.
Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by fat cells.
People with diabetes tend to have lower levels of adiponectin,
and sweet potato extracts have been shown to significantly
increase adiponectin levels in persons with type 2 diabetes.
In a study involving rats to determine sweet potato’s effects
on several markers of diabetes, the vegetable showed signifi-
cant abilities to decrease some of the more harmful markers.
Using white-fleshed sweet potatoes for the study, the rats
showed impressive improvement in pancreatic cell function,
lipid levels, and glucose management. They also showed de-
creased insulin resistance in just eight weeks. Improved insu-
lin sensitivity was also observed in a human study when sweet
potatoes were added to the diet.
76
Other research has con-
firmed that sweet potatoes are a low-glycemic index (GI)
food, which could be good for use by diabetics. With further
research in this area, it may be possible to recommend that
FIG 5. Biologically active compounds from I. batatas and their
pharmacological actions.
SWEET POTATO AS MEDICINAL FOOD 737
people with diabetes or insulin resistance consume sweet
potatoes or use its extracts to help control blood glucose. This
therapy should cost less than conventional drugs, and it may
have fewer side effects.
77
Anticancer activity. Researchers have found that eating
sweet potatoes will decrease the risk of breast, colorectal,
gallbladder and kidney cancer. A recent study evaluating the
risk factors for kidney cancer death included 47,997 males
and 66,520 females aged 40 years and older. Taking into
account medical history, anthropometry, dietary, and life-
style considerations over the 10-year study, the researchers
concluded that eating sweet potatoes and potatoes regularly
was associated with a decreased risk of the disease.
78
4-Ipomeanol from infected sweet potatoes is reported to
possess cytotoxic and anticancer properties.
79
It was the first
agent to be developed by the National Cancer Institute based on
a biochemical-biological rationale as an anticancer agent tar-
geted specifically against lung cancer.
80
Several human tumor
types, including many non-small cell lung lines and the MCF 7
breast cancer line, as well as its doxorubicin-resistant variant
are relatively sensitive to 4-Ipomeanol
81
.Becauseofthe
specific lung toxicity 4-Ipomeanol is being tested as a new
drug for the treatment of lung carcinoma. On the other hand, 4-
Ipomeanol is metabolized by liver cells too. It was recently tested
in phase II studies in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
82,83
and it showed hepatotoxicity. Since, 4-Ipomeanol is reported to
be present only in infected sweet potatoes, its occurrence is
unlikely in normal tubers that are consumed as food. However,
since the compound exhibits significant cytotoxic activity, it
could be used as a lead in drug discovery for lung cancer.
Cardiovascular effects. When an extract of sweet potato
was examined for its relaxant activity on isolated rat vas-
cular aortic preparations, it showed 97% relaxation activity
for endothelium-intact aortic ring preparations but only 35%
in the mesenteric vascular bed. It showed good cardiovas-
cular effect and its vasorelaxation mechanism of action was
similar to that of the pharmacological agent acetylcholine.
84
Immune system effects. Sweet potato fiber may be use-
ful in combination with other therapeutic agents for skin
wound therapy. The healing effect of sweet potato fiber was
evaluated for burns and decubital wounds in rats over 19
days. Outcome measures included reduction in size and
differences in wound severity. Rats treated with the sweet
potato fiber covering had decreased wound areas.
85
In a mouse model, purified sweet potato polysaccharide
(PSPP) isolated from the roots acted as a biological response
modifier. In a dose-dependent manner, mice treated with
PSPP (50, 150, and 250 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) had
increased phagocytic function, hemolytic activity, and se-
rum immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration.
86
Anti-ulcer activity. The anti-ulcer activity of the tubers
of sweet potato was studied in cold stress and aspirin-
induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Methanolic extracts of
I. batatas tubers were evaluated in cold stress and aspirin-
induced gastric ulcer models using cimetidine and ome-
prazole respectively as standards for 7 days in the cold stress
model and for 1 day in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer
model. Gastroprotective potential, status of the antioxidant
enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione per-
oxidase and glutathione reductase), along with glutathione
and lipid peroxidation, were studied in both models. The
results showed that I. batatas tubers possessed gastro-
protective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition
of mean ulcer score and ulcer index, and a marked increase
in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione
peroxidase, and glutathione reductase levels, as well as re-
duction in lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner.
87
Safety evaluation
Sweet potatoes contain oxalic acid, a naturally-occurring
substance found in some vegetables which may crystallize
as oxalate stones in the urinary tract in some people.
88
Therefore, individuals with a known history of oxalate uri-
nary tract stones may be advised to avoid eating them.
89
Adequate intake of water is also advised to maintain normal
urine output in these individuals to minimize stone risk.
CONCLUSION
Sweet potato is an extremely versatile vegetable and is
wonderfully healthy for children and adults alike. It is a
healthy alternative to other potatoes. They are not only
sweet but also good for cardiovascular health, longevity,
prevention of diabetes, and reduce the risk of cancer.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We are grateful to The Department of Biotechnology,
Government of India, New Delhi, for their financial support.
AUTHOR DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
The authors declare that no competing financial interests
exist.
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SWEET POTATO AS MEDICINAL FOOD 741
... Owing to its nutritional potency, sweet potato is one of the crops chosen by the United State National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a primary food source [6]. Sweet potato was thought to be originated from the Central America and introduced to African countries such as Nigeria by European explorers in early 1500s [7]. As of 2019, Nigeria has been listed among the top five global producers of the sweet potato [5]. ...
... The roots are edible, long and tapered and bears smooth skin. The short cultivation period of 3 to 4 months, high nutritional content and sweet taste of sweet potato makes it a highly valuable crop [7]. ...
... The fiber content of sweet potato varies depending on the variety and age of the crop as well as the extraction method used [15]. Vitamin A and β-carotene content of the crop is 14187 IU and 8509 µg respectively; one of the highest values usually found in root-vegetables crops [7]. ...
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Background and Objectives: Food shortages and nutritional imbalances are among the main food security problems in many countries around the world. In this study, the nutrients content of the yellow and red-fleshed sweet potatoes varieties cultivated in Nigeria were assessed. Materials and Methods: The proximate composition, mineral elements analysis, phytochemicals, and vitamins content of the red and yellow-fleshed sweet potatoes were determined using the standard methods of analysis. Results: The proximate analysis has shown that, the moisture (17.927%) and fat (2.703%) content of the yellow sweet potato were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the red potato with a content of 16.68% and 1.693% respectively. The protein and fiber content of the red potato are 14.280% and 14.572% respectively, this is quite higher than in the yellow cultivar having 12.987% and 10.443% of the nutrients respectively. The ash and carbohydrate content were same in both. The red potato Original Research Article Muhammad et al.; EJNFS, 14(5): 20-29, 2022; Article no.EJNFS.87250 21 exhibits high level of sodium (11.420 mg/l), potassium (1.206 mg/l), and magnesium (8.468 mg/l) in contrast to the red potato containing 10.270 mg/l, 1.035 mg/l and 6.127 mg/l of the respective elements. Iron and zinc content were comparable in both cultivars while the calcium content (1.444 mg/l) of the yellow cultivar is significantly higher than in the red variety (1.144 mg/l). The vitamin A, B and E content of the red potato are 8.740 µmol/L, 2.977 mg/dl, and 13.267 mg/dl respectively. These values are significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the yellow potato containing 6.047 µmol/L, 1.680 mg/dl, and 11.110 mg/dl of the respective vitamins. There is no significant difference with respect to the vitamin C content of both yellow (11.850 mg/dl) and red potato (12.520 mg/dl). The phytochemicals: tannins, flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, and anthocyanins content of the red sweet potato are 0.967 mg/g, 1.577 mg/g, 1.867 mg/g, 6.590 mg/g and 2.660 mg/g respectively. Terpenes and anthocyanins were not found in the yellow cultivar. However, saponins (0.823 mg/g) were found in the yellow variety but not in the red potato. Amount of the tannins, flavonoids and phenols observed in the yellow-fleshed potato are 0.667 mg/g, 1.027 mg/g and 1.287 mg/g respectively. These values are lower than in the corresponding red potato. Conclusion: In this study, the nutritional contents of sweet potato varieties have been assessed which will immensely contribute to reducing the menace of malnutrition bedeviling the Northwestern part of Nigeria.
... It is used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, oral infection, anaemia, hypertension, prostatitis, tumours, stomach cancer, cardiovascular disease, allergies, ageing, dysentery, constipation, eye diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, dengue, nausea, and splenosis. (Ludvik Communicated Abel and Busia 2005;Islam 2006;Emmanuel 2010;Pochapski et al. 2011a, b;Mohanraj and Sivasankar 2014;Milind and Monika 2015). In addition, the leaves of the plants have the potential to fight against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (Khachatryan et al. 2003;Abidin et al.2017). ...
... In addition, the leaves of the plants have the potential to fight against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (Khachatryan et al. 2003;Abidin et al.2017). Studies have revealed that the plant also possesses several pharmaceutical properties, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and antiulcer activities (Meira et al. 2012;Hermes et al. 2013;Mohanraj and Sivasankar 2014). Sweet potato is usually consumed as a staple food after rice and wheat in many countries around the world, including South Africa and China (Milind and Monika 2015; Akomeah et al. 2019;Tadda et al. 2022), and it is recognized as a major tuber crop (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016) due to its nutritional components and health-promoting phytochemicals (Cho et al. 2003;Teow et al. 2007;Chauhan et al. 2021), such as starch, protein, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, anthocyanins, caffeoylquinic acid, and polyphenols. ...
Article
Full-text available
Main conclusion This review highlights the economic importance of sweet potato and discusses new varieties, agro-nomic and cultivation practices, pest and disease control efforts, plant tissue culture protocols, and unexplored research areas involving this plant. Abstract Sweet potato is widely consumed in many countries around the world, including India, South Africa and China. Due to its valuable nutritional composition and highly beneficial bioactive compounds, sweet potato is considered a major tuber crop in India. Based on the volume of production, this plant ranks seventh in the world among all food crops. Sweet potato is considered a "Superfood" by the 'Centre for Science in the Public Interest' (CSPI), USA. This plant is mostly propagated through vegetative propagation using vine cuttings or tubers. However, this process is costly, labour-intensive, and comparatively slow. Conventional propagation methods are not able to supply sufficient disease-free planting materials to farmers to sustain steady tuber production. Therefore, there is an urgent need to use various biotechnological approaches, such as cell, tissue, and organ culture, for the large-scale production of healthy and disease-free planting material for commercial purposes throughout the year. In the last five decades, a number of tissue culture protocols have been developed for the production of in vitro plants through meristem culture, direct adventitious organogenesis, callus culture and somatic embryogenesis. Moreover, little research has been done on synthetic seed technology for the in vitro conservation and propagation of sweet potato. The current review comprehensively describes the biology, i.e., plant phenotypic description, vegetative growth, agronomy and cultivation, pests and diseases, varieties, and conventional methods of propagation, as well as biotechnological implementation, of this tuber crop. Furthermore, the explored and unexplored areas of research in sweet potato using biotechnological approaches have been reviewed.
... It is used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, oral infection, anaemia, hypertension, prostatitis, tumours, stomach cancer, cardiovascular disease, allergies, ageing, dysentery, constipation, eye diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, dengue, nausea, and splenosis. (Ludvik Communicated Abel and Busia 2005;Islam 2006;Emmanuel 2010;Pochapski et al. 2011a, b;Mohanraj and Sivasankar 2014;Milind and Monika 2015). In addition, the leaves of the plants have the potential to fight against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (Khachatryan et al. 2003;Abidin et al.2017). ...
... In addition, the leaves of the plants have the potential to fight against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (Khachatryan et al. 2003;Abidin et al.2017). Studies have revealed that the plant also possesses several pharmaceutical properties, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and antiulcer activities (Meira et al. 2012;Hermes et al. 2013;Mohanraj and Sivasankar 2014). Sweet potato is usually consumed as a staple food after rice and wheat in many countries around the world, including South Africa and China (Milind and Monika 2015; Akomeah et al. 2019;Tadda et al. 2022), and it is recognized as a major tuber crop (Ghasemzadeh et al. 2016) due to its nutritional components and health-promoting phytochemicals (Cho et al. 2003;Teow et al. 2007;Chauhan et al. 2021), such as starch, protein, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, anthocyanins, caffeoylquinic acid, and polyphenols. ...
Article
Full-text available
Main conclusion This review highlights the economic importance of sweet potato and discusses new varieties, agronomic and cultivation practices, pest and disease control efforts, plant tissue culture protocols, and unexplored research areas involving this plant. Abstract Sweet potato is widely consumed in many countries around the world, including India, South Africa and China. Due to its valuable nutritional composition and highly beneficial bioactive compounds, sweet potato is considered a major tuber crop in India. Based on the volume of production, this plant ranks seventh in the world among all food crops. Sweet potato is considered a “Superfood” by the ‘Centre for Science in the Public Interest’ (CSPI), USA. This plant is mostly propagated through vegetative propagation using vine cuttings or tubers. However, this process is costly, labour-intensive, and comparatively slow. Conventional propagation methods are not able to supply sufficient disease-free planting materials to farmers to sustain steady tuber production. Therefore, there is an urgent need to use various biotechnological approaches, such as cell, tissue, and organ culture, for the large-scale production of healthy and disease-free planting material for commercial purposes throughout the year. In the last five decades, a number of tissue culture protocols have been developed for the production of in vitro plants through meristem culture, direct adventitious organogenesis, callus culture and somatic embryogenesis. Moreover, little research has been done on synthetic seed technology for the in vitro conservation and propagation of sweet potato. The current review comprehensively describes the biology, i.e., plant phenotypic description, vegetative growth, agronomy and cultivation, pests and diseases, varieties, and conventional methods of propagation, as well as biotechnological implementation, of this tuber crop. Furthermore, the explored and unexplored areas of research in sweet potato using biotechnological approaches have been reviewed.
... Khoai lang tím có nguồn gốc từ Nhật Bản, có tên khoa học là Okinawan. Đây là một nguồn thực phẩm chứa nhiều chất dinh dưỡng cần thiết cho con người bao gồm chủ yếu là tinh bột (12,7 g), protein (1,6 g), và vitamin C, vitamin nhóm B và các khoáng chất khác, kết quả được tính trên 100 g nguyên liệu [5,6]. Do đó, mục tiêu của nghiên cứu này nhằm xác định được ảnh hưởng hưởng điều kiện sấy vi sóng chân không đến nguồn nguyên liệu này, từ đó xác định được khả năng ứng dụng trong thực tế nhằm chế biến sâu nguồn khoai lang tím tại địa phương. ...
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Sấy vi sóng chân không là một trong những kỹ thuật sấy tiên tiến đang được nghiên cứu và ứng dụng nhiều trong thời gian gần đây. Trong quá trình sấy vi sóng chân không, nhiệt năng được cung cấp bằng năng lượng điện từ trường để làm nóng vật liệu, ở điều kiện chân không. Bài báo này trình bày các kết quả nghiên cứu ảnh hưởng của quá trình sấy vi sóng chân không đối với thời gian sấy, hàm lượng đường tổng và hàm lượng protein của khoai lang tím ở những điều kiện khác nhau về áp suất chân không (65, 75, 85 kPa) và công suất vi sóng (80, 240, 400 W); so sánh với quá trình sấy đối lưu bằng không khí nóng khi sản phẩm đạt cùng độ ẩm ≤ 5,0%. Kết quả cho thấy áp suất chân không và công suất vi sóng có ảnh hưởng đến hàm lượng đường tổng và hàm lượng protein của mẫu sau sấy. Hàm lượng đường tổng và protein lớn nhất lần lượt là 13,46 g/100 g nguyên liệu khô và 3,27 g/100 g nguyên liệu khô ở điều kiện công suất vi sóng 80 W, áp suất chân không 85 kPa và thời gian sấy 20 phút. Mẫu khoai lang tím sấy vi sóng chân không có tổng lượng đường và lượng protein thất thoát thấp hơn mẫu trong điều kiện sấy đối lưu cưỡng bức bằng không khí nóng với sự khác biệt có ý nghĩa (p ≤ 0,05). Từ khóa: Sấy vi sóng chân không, sấy đối lưu không khí nóng, hàm lượng đường tổng, protein, khoai lang tím.
... b. Potential Source of nutrients On dry weight basis, sweet potato leaves contain 25-37 % protein, 42-61 % carbohydrate, 2-5 % crude fat, 23-38 % total dietary fibre, 60-200 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, and 60-120 mg/100 g carotene [10]. ...
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Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) originated in South America and was introduced by Christopher Columbus to Spain in 1492.
... Numerous studies reported that, 4-ipomeanol a natural cytotoxin as well as a stress metabolites was isolated from I. batatas [25]. Mohanraj and Subha [26] in another study also reported the presence of this bioactive substances. ...
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Cancer has become one of the most dangerous diseases and is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Many indigenous plants are used in herbal medicine to cure various diseases and heal injuries. The use of medicinal plants has become essential due to the presence of several bioactive substances and their availability. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Anticancer agents from plants currently in clinical use are categorized into four main classes of compounds including; epipodophylltoxins, taxanes camptothecins, and vinca alkaloids. This paper discussed the factors responsible for, different forms of cancer, as well as organs or parts it affect. The paper also explored some Nigerian medicinal plants with anticancer agents. Seventeen medicinal plants were mentioned and confirmed to possess bioactive constituents responsible for cancer therapy.
... PAL, 4CL (4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase) and HCT (hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate), annotated to the upregulated genes, are key enzymes for the synthesis of chlorogenic acid, a class of enzymes that are produced from caffeic acid and quinic acid, which are phenolic compounds [41]. Several studies have shown that chlorogenic acid has powerful radical scavenging ability [42][43][44], and that sweetpotato leaves contain large amounts of chlorogenic acid [5,45]. Therefore chlorogenic acid would most likely be an important active component in the antioxidants of sweetpotato blades. ...
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Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.), which has a complex genome, is one of the most important storage root crops in the world. Sweetpotato blades are considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants owing to their high phenolic content with powerful free radical scavenging ability. The molecular mechanism of phenolic metabolism in sweetpotato blades has been seldom reported thus far. In this work, 23 sweetpotato genotypes were used for the analysis of their antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). ‘Shangshu19’ and ‘Wan1314-6’ were used for RNA-seq. The results showed that antioxidant activity, TPC and TFC of 23 genotypes had significant difference. There was a significant positive correlation between TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity. The RNA-seq analysis results of two genotypes, ‘Shangshu19’ and ‘Wan1314-6’, which had significant differences in antioxidant activity, TPC and TFC, showed that there were 7810 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two genotypes. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was the main differential pathway, and upregulated genes were mainly annotated to chlorogenic acid, flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis pathways. Our results establish a theoretical and practical basis for sweetpotato breeding with antioxidant activity and phenolics in the blades and provide a theoretical basis for the study of phenolic metabolism engineering in sweetpotato blade.
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Introduction: Ipomoea batatas Lam. is grown in the Philippines for food. Its young leaves, reported to exhibit medicinal properties, are eaten fresh in salads with vinegar or shrimp paste. Objectives: However, the effect of varying acetic acid concentration on the extractability of its phenolics, flavonoid, and cytotoxic compounds using a safer and cheaper solvent such as acetic acid is not yet explored. Thus, the cytotoxicity and the total phenolics and flavonoid content of the aqueous acetic acid extracts of I. batatas leaves is evaluated. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of the I. batatas leaves extracted with 5%, 3%, and 1% aqueous acetic acid were determined through Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) while the total phenolics and flavonoid content were analyzed using Folin-ciocalteu and aluminium chloride method, respectively. Results and Discussion: The 5% aqueous acetic acid extract contains significantly higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids as compared to the 3% and 1%. BSLA also showed that the 5% aqueous acetic acid extract (LC 50 = 520.61 mg/L) exhibited cytotoxic activity while the 3% (LC 50 >1000 mg/L) and 1% (LC 50 >1000 mg/L) extracts were non-cytotoxic. Conclusion: The concentration of the acetic acid affects the extractability of the phenolics, flavonoids and cytotoxic compounds in the I. batatas leaves. The 5% aqueous acetic acid is more efficient in the extraction than the 3% and 1%. The use of acetic acid for the extraction of phenolics, flavonoids, and cytotoxic compounds from I. batatas leaves can be a better option than other organic solvents.
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Sweet potato vine, the byproduct of sweet potato, has a high nutritional value. Silage is an effective solution for nutrient preservation. This article explored the effects of sweet potato vine silage (SPVS) supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and immune function in finishing pigs. One hundred and eighty finishing pigs (Berkshire × Licha Black) with a body weight of 74.54 ± 3.32 kg were randomly divided into three groups. The three groups were separately fed basal diet (Ctrl), Ctrl supplemented with 2.5% SPVS (LSPVS) or 5% SPVS (HSPVS) on a dry matter basis. Results showed that the eye muscle area in the LSPVS group was significantly increased. The carcass weight in the HSPVS was significantly reduced compared with Ctrl. For the meat quality, only cooking loss in both HSPVS and LSPVS was reduced while other indexes had no significant differences. For the antioxidant capacity, the hepatic level of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GSH‐PX) was significantly upregulated in LSPVS but downregulated in HSPVS. In the serum, HSPVS decreased GSH level and increased GSH‐PX level. HSPVS significantly reduced hepatic interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) levels and LSPVS significantly reduced IL‐12 levels and increased IL‐8 and IL‐6 levels. Moreover, HSPVS and LSPVS promoted the secretion of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG in the serum. Our data showed that low‐dose SPVS supplementation improved carcass traits and high‐dose SPVS supplementation increased immune function in finishing pigs, which provides a new alternative to improve animal health.
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Aim: Conduct research on the collection of new genotypes of sweet potatoes introduced under growing conditions in the Kharkiv district of Ukraine. Results and discussion: In the conditions in the Kharkiv district of Ukraine, an assessment was made of 13 genotypes of sweet potato a domestic and foreign selection. The genotypes were very different in length of the growing season, biometric parameters of plants, and productivity. The studied genotypes were divided into three ripeness groups. Samples that characterized the three groups - early ripening: V-1, V-6, А-7, В-4; medium ripening: Оr-3, D-2, М-8; late-ripening: B-9, P-11, B-10, J-12, Е-5, Оk-14. A wide range of shapes was obtained along the length of the stem. All genotypes that entered the mid-ripening group formed long, climbing stems. So, plants of the genotype Or-3 formed long stems similar to vines, 214 cm long. The genotypes of the early ripening group were characterized by lengths from 144 cm (V-6) up to 153 cm (А-7). According to the “Quantity of additional shoots” attribute, the variability range was 4–8 cm, and the coefficient of variation was 17%. Significant variation was observed along the length of the internodes (V = 30%). The variability range was 4.39–9.97 cm. According to the “Quantity of leaves” characteristic, the variability range was 40–77 pcs. And the coefficient of variation was 20%. The genotypes of the middle ripening group that had the largest “Quantity of leaves” were 77 pcs./plant (Оr-3) and 71 pcs./plant (D-2). The smallest was 40 pcs./plant (B-10), 42 pcs./plant (B-9), 44 pcs./plant (P-11). The root tubers in genotype V-6 had an oval shape, smooth peel, and pink color. The flesh was a creamy solid color; it was a sample of sweet potato. The shoots were long, climbing, leaves of a dark green color without anthocyanin color, kidney-shaped. The genotype of sweet potato D-2 of Ukrainian selection was a dessert variety. The tubers of the genotype were elliptical, orange with a smooth peel; the flesh was firm and bright orange. The shoots of the plants were very long, very climbing, and light green. The shoots of the leaves were kidney-shaped, light green. The results showed that table genotypes are of greater value for dietary nutrition. Dessert genotypes are conducive to a variety of diets for people with diabetes. A list of genotypes that can be used by people who follow a diet has been provided. Conclusion: In the conditions in the Kharkiv district of Ukraine, 13 introduced genotypes of sweet potato domestic and foreign breeding were evaluated. They already discovered that the genotypes were different in the growing season by biometric parameters of plants and yields. By using clonal selection in vitro culture, two completely new promising genotypes of domestic selection of sweet potatoes V-6 and D-2 were obtained. Tubers of genotype V-6 were oval, skin smooth, and pink. The average weight of one was 351 g. The raw flesh was cream-colored. Long shoots were woven, their length was 144 cm; the leaves were dark green, and kidney-shaped. Another example of a domestic selection of sweet potato D-2 was a dessert type. The root tubers were elliptical and had an orange color with smooth skin. The average weight of the tubers was 410 g. The raw flesh was a solid bright orange color. Shoots were extremely long -198 cm, very creeping, and had a light green color. The leaves were kidney-shaped and light green.
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The caŠeoylquinic acid derivatives, 3-mono-O-caŠeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, ChA), 3,4-di-O-caŠeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), 3,5-di-O-caŠeoylquin-ic acid (3,5-diCQA), 4,5-di-O-caŠeoylquinic acid (4,5-diCQA) and 3,4,5-triO -caŠeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-triCQA), and caŠeic acid (CA) were isolated from the sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf. We examined the antimutagenicity of these caŠeoylquinic acid compounds to promote new uses of the sweetpotato leaf. These caŠeoylquinic acid derivatives eŠectively inhibited the reverse mutation induced by Trp-P-1 on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The antimutagenicity of these derivatives was 3,4,5-triCQAÀ3,4-diCQA= 3,5-diCQA=4,5-diCQAÀChA in this order. There was no diŠerence in the antimutagenicity of all dicaŠeoyl-quinic acid derivatives. A comparison of the activities and structures of these compounds suggested that the number of caŠeoyl groups bound to quinic acid played a role in the antimutagenicity of the caŠeoylquinic acid derivatives. The sweetpotato leaves contained distinctive polyphenolic components with a high content of mono-, di-, and tricaŠeoylquinic acid derivatives and could be a source of physiological functions.
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Background: Peptic ulcers occur in that part of the gastrointestinal tract which is exposed to gastric acid and pepsin, i.e., the stomach and duodenum. Gastric and duodenal ulcers are common pathologies that may be induced by a variety of factors such as stress, smoking and noxious agents including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato) contain ample amounts of antioxidants. It has been proven already by many scientific studies that antioxidants have ulcer healing properties. In reference to this, we tried assessing the ulcer healing effect of Ipomoea batatas tubers. Methods: The anti-ulcer activity of the tubers of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) was studied in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Methanolic extracts of Ipomoea batatas tubers (TE) at two doses, viz., 400 and 800 mg /kg were evaluated in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models using cimetidine and omeprazole respectively as standards. The standard drugs and the test drugs were administered orally for 7 days in the cold stressmodel and for 1 day in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model. Gastroprotective potential, status of the antioxidant enzymes {superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase(GR)} along with GSH, and lipid peroxidation were studied in both models. Results: The results of the present study showed that TE possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition of mean ulcer score and ulcer index and a marked increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner.Conclusion: The present experimental findings suggest that tubers of Ipomoea batatas may be useful for treating peptic ulcers.
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Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves are an excellent source of bioactive anthocyanin and polyphenolic constituents. Fifteen different anthocyanin compounds were identified and quantified by one run HPLC analysis: YGM-0a, YGM-0b, YGM-0c, YGM-0d, YGM-0e, YGM-0f, YGM-0g, YGM-1a, YGM-1b, YGM-2, YGM-3, YGM-4b, YGM-5a, YGM-5b, and YGM-6. The anthocyanins were identified as acylated cyanidins and peonidins. The six different polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified by NMR, FAB-MS spectra and RP-HPLC analysis procedures were: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid), 3,4-di-Ocaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O- caffeoylquinic acid and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Results suggest that total phenolic content was positively correlated with radical scavenging activities of sweetpotato leaves. Thus, sweetpotato leaf contains biologically active compounds which have significant medicinal values for certain human conditions.